Abstract

Image formation in optical coherence elastography (OCE) results from a combination of two processes: the mechanical deformation imparted to the sample and the detection of the resulting displacement using optical coherence tomography (OCT). We present a multiphysics model of these processes, validated by simulating strain elastograms acquired using phase-sensitive compression OCE, and demonstrating close correspondence with experimental results. Using the model, we present evidence that the approximation commonly used to infer sample displacement in phase-sensitive OCE is invalidated for smaller deformations than has been previously considered, significantly affecting the measurement precision, as quantified by the displacement sensitivity and the elastogram signal-to-noise ratio. We show how the precision of OCE is affected not only by OCT shot-noise, as is usually considered, but additionally by phase decorrelation due to the sample deformation. This multiphysics model provides a general framework that could be used to compare and contrast different OCE techniques.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2014

B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “A review of optical coherence elastography: fundamentals, techniques and prospects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.20(2), 1–17 (2014).
[CrossRef]

V. Y. Zaitsev, L. A. Matveev, A. L. Matveyev, G. V. Gelikonov, and V. M. Gelikonov, “Elastographic mapping in optical coherence tomography using an unconventional approach based on correlation stability,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(2), 021107 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Makita, F. Jaillon, I. Jahan, and Y. Yasuno, “Noise statistics of phase-resolved optical coherence tomography imaging: single-and dual-beam-scan Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express22(4), 4830–4848 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, A. Curatolo, A. Tien, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Optical coherence micro-elastography: mechanical-contrast imaging of tissue microstructure,” Biomed. Opt. Express5(7), 2113–2124 (2014).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Kennedy, S. Es’haghian, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Optical palpation: optical coherence tomography-based tactile imaging using a compliant sensor,” Opt. Lett.39(10), 3014–3017 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Gong, R. A. McLaughlin, Y. M. Liew, P. R. T. Munro, F. M. Wood, and D. D. Sampson, “Assessment of human burn scars with optical coherence tomography by imaging the attenuation coefficient of tissue after vascular masking,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(2), 021111 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

K. M. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, B. F. Kennedy, A. Tien, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for the measurement of microscale mechanical contrast deep within human breast tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121510 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Y. Zaitsev, L. A. Matveev, G. V. Gelikonov, A. L. Matveyev, and V. M. Gelikonov, “A correlation-stability approach to elasticity mapping in optical coherence tomography,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(6), 065601 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Song, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Tracking mechanical wave propagation within tissue using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography: motion artifact and its compensation,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121505 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, C. Ford, B. F. Kennedy, M. B. Bush, and D. D. Sampson, “Analysis of mechanical contrast in optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121508 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Nahas, M. Bauer, S. Roux, and A. C. Boccara, “3D static elastography at the micrometer scale using full field OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(10), 2138–2149 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Song, Z. Huang, T.-M. Nguyen, E. Y. Wong, B. Arnal, M. O’Donnell, and R. K. Wang, “Shear modulus imaging by direct visualization of propagating shear waves with phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121509 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, S. Wang, R. K. Manapuram, M. Singh, F. M. Menodiado, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Dynamic optical coherence tomography measurements of elastic wave propagation in tissue-mimicking phantoms and mouse cornea in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121503 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Qi, R. Li, T. Ma, J. Li, K. Kirk Shung, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, “Resonant acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(10), 103704 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Crecea, A. Ahmad, and S. A. Boppart, “Magnetomotive optical coherence elastography for microrheology of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121504 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Sun, B. Standish, B. Vuong, X.-Y. Wen, and V. Yang, “Digital image correlation-based optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121515 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fu, F. Pierron, and P. D. Ruiz, “Elastic stiffness characterization using three-dimensional full-field deformation obtained with optical coherence tomography and digital volume correlation,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121512 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

B. F. Kennedy, S. H. Koh, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, P. R. T. Munro, and D. D. Sampson, “Strain estimation in phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(8), 1865–1879 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, G. Guan, X. Cheng, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Quantitative elastography provided by surface acoustic waves measured by phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 722–724 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Razani, A. Mariampillai, C. Sun, T. W. H. Luk, V. X. D. Yang, and M. C. Kolios, “Feasibility of optical coherence elastography measurements of shear wave propagation in homogeneous tissue equivalent phantoms,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(5), 972–980 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Lamouche, B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, C.-E. Bisaillon, A. Curatolo, G. Campbell, V. Pazos, and D. D. Sampson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms with controllable optical, mechanical and structural properties for use in optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(6), 1381–1398 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, M. Wojtkowski, M. Szkulmowski, K. M. Kennedy, K. Karnowski, and D. D. Sampson, “Improved measurement of vibration amplitude in dynamic optical coherence elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(12), 3138–3152 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for tissue boundary detection,” Opt. Lett.37(12), 2310–2312 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Scolaro, R. A. McLaughlin, B. R. Klyen, B. A. Wood, P. D. Robbins, C. M. Saunders, S. L. Jacques, and D. D. Sampson, “Parametric imaging of the local attenuation coefficient in human axillary lymph nodes assessed using optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(2), 366–379 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

A. Curatolo, B. F. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “Structured three-dimensional optical phantom for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express19(20), 19480–19485 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. D. Ruiz, J. M. Huntley, and J. M. Coupland, “Depth-resolved imaging and displacement measurement techniques viewed as linear filtering operations,” Exp. Mech.51(4), 453–465 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

2008

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, “Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-E. Bisaillon, G. Lamouche, R. Maciejko, M. Dufour, and J.-P. Monchalin, “Deformable and durable phantoms with controlled density of scatterers,” Phys. Med. Biol.53(13), N237–N247 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

R. K. Wang, S. Kirkpatrick, and M. Hinds, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography for mapping tissue microstrains in real time,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(16), 164105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(14), 144103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Khalil, B. E. Bouma, and M. R. Mofrad, “A combined FEM/genetic algorithm for vascular soft tissue elasticity estimation,” Cardiovasc. Eng.6(3), 93–102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

A. S. Khalil, R. C. Chan, A. H. Chau, B. E. Bouma, and M. R. Mofrad, “Tissue elasticity estimation with optical coherence elastography: toward mechanical characterization of in vivo soft tissue,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.33(11), 1631–1639 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, D. M. Baraznji Sassoon, M. C. Aalders, G. Pasterkamp, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Localized measurement of optical attenuation coefficients of atherosclerotic plaque constituents by quantitative optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging24(10), 1369–1376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2001

D. D. Duncan and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Processing algorithms for tracking speckle shifts in optical elastography of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.6(4), 418–426 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

M. M. Doyley, P. M. Meaney, and J. C. Bamber, “Evaluation of an iterative reconstruction method for quantitative elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(6), 1521–1540 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

T. A. Krouskop, T. M. Wheeler, F. Kallel, B. S. Garra, and T. Hall, “Elastic moduli of breast and prostate tissues under compression,” Ultrason. Imaging20(4), 260–274 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, “OCT elastography: imaging microscopic deformation and strain of tissue,” Opt. Express3(6), 199–211 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

1993

1971

Aalders, M. C.

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, D. M. Baraznji Sassoon, M. C. Aalders, G. Pasterkamp, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Localized measurement of optical attenuation coefficients of atherosclerotic plaque constituents by quantitative optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging24(10), 1369–1376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adie, S. G.

S. G. Adie, X. Liang, B. F. Kennedy, R. John, D. D. Sampson, and S. A. Boppart, “Spectroscopic optical coherence elastography,” Opt. Express18(25), 25519–25534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Adie, B. F. Kennedy, J. J. Armstrong, S. A. Alexandrov, and D. D. Sampson, “Audio frequency in vivo optical coherence elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(10), 3129–3139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aglyamov, S.

J. Li, S. Wang, R. K. Manapuram, M. Singh, F. M. Menodiado, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Dynamic optical coherence tomography measurements of elastic wave propagation in tissue-mimicking phantoms and mouse cornea in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121503 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahmad, A.

V. Crecea, A. Ahmad, and S. A. Boppart, “Magnetomotive optical coherence elastography for microrheology of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121504 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alexandrov, S. A.

S. G. Adie, B. F. Kennedy, J. J. Armstrong, S. A. Alexandrov, and D. D. Sampson, “Audio frequency in vivo optical coherence elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(10), 3129–3139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armstrong, J. J.

S. G. Adie, B. F. Kennedy, J. J. Armstrong, S. A. Alexandrov, and D. D. Sampson, “Audio frequency in vivo optical coherence elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(10), 3129–3139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnal, B.

S. Song, Z. Huang, T.-M. Nguyen, E. Y. Wong, B. Arnal, M. O’Donnell, and R. K. Wang, “Shear modulus imaging by direct visualization of propagating shear waves with phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121509 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bamber, J. C.

M. M. Doyley, P. M. Meaney, and J. C. Bamber, “Evaluation of an iterative reconstruction method for quantitative elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(6), 1521–1540 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baraznji Sassoon, D. M.

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, D. M. Baraznji Sassoon, M. C. Aalders, G. Pasterkamp, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Localized measurement of optical attenuation coefficients of atherosclerotic plaque constituents by quantitative optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging24(10), 1369–1376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bauer, M.

Bisaillon, C.-E.

Boccara, A. C.

Bonner, R. F.

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B. E.

A. S. Khalil, B. E. Bouma, and M. R. Mofrad, “A combined FEM/genetic algorithm for vascular soft tissue elasticity estimation,” Cardiovasc. Eng.6(3), 93–102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Khalil, R. C. Chan, A. H. Chau, B. E. Bouma, and M. R. Mofrad, “Tissue elasticity estimation with optical coherence elastography: toward mechanical characterization of in vivo soft tissue,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.33(11), 1631–1639 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Chan, A. H. Chau, W. C. Karl, S. Nadkarni, A. S. Khalil, N. Iftimia, M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, M. R. Kaazempur-Mofrad, and B. E. Bouma, “OCT-based arterial elastography: robust estimation exploiting tissue biomechanics,” Opt. Express12(19), 4558–4572 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bush, M. B.

K. M. Kennedy, C. Ford, B. F. Kennedy, M. B. Bush, and D. D. Sampson, “Analysis of mechanical contrast in optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121508 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, G.

Carlier, S. G.

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, “Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, R. C.

A. S. Khalil, R. C. Chan, A. H. Chau, B. E. Bouma, and M. R. Mofrad, “Tissue elasticity estimation with optical coherence elastography: toward mechanical characterization of in vivo soft tissue,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.33(11), 1631–1639 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Chan, A. H. Chau, W. C. Karl, S. Nadkarni, A. S. Khalil, N. Iftimia, M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, M. R. Kaazempur-Mofrad, and B. E. Bouma, “OCT-based arterial elastography: robust estimation exploiting tissue biomechanics,” Opt. Express12(19), 4558–4572 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chau, A. H.

A. S. Khalil, R. C. Chan, A. H. Chau, B. E. Bouma, and M. R. Mofrad, “Tissue elasticity estimation with optical coherence elastography: toward mechanical characterization of in vivo soft tissue,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.33(11), 1631–1639 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Chan, A. H. Chau, W. C. Karl, S. Nadkarni, A. S. Khalil, N. Iftimia, M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, M. R. Kaazempur-Mofrad, and B. E. Bouma, “OCT-based arterial elastography: robust estimation exploiting tissue biomechanics,” Opt. Express12(19), 4558–4572 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

W. Qi, R. Li, T. Ma, J. Li, K. Kirk Shung, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, “Resonant acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(10), 103704 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, X.

Chin, L.

Coupland, J. M.

P. D. Ruiz, J. M. Huntley, and J. M. Coupland, “Depth-resolved imaging and displacement measurement techniques viewed as linear filtering operations,” Exp. Mech.51(4), 453–465 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Crecea, V.

V. Crecea, A. Ahmad, and S. A. Boppart, “Magnetomotive optical coherence elastography for microrheology of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121504 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Crecea, A. L. Oldenburg, X. Liang, T. S. Ralston, and S. A. Boppart, “Magnetomotive nanoparticle transducers for optical rheology of viscoelastic materials,” Opt. Express17(25), 23114–23122 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curatolo, A.

Doyley, M. M.

M. M. Doyley, P. M. Meaney, and J. C. Bamber, “Evaluation of an iterative reconstruction method for quantitative elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(6), 1521–1540 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dufour, M.

C.-E. Bisaillon, G. Lamouche, R. Maciejko, M. Dufour, and J.-P. Monchalin, “Deformable and durable phantoms with controlled density of scatterers,” Phys. Med. Biol.53(13), N237–N247 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duncan, D. D.

D. D. Duncan and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Processing algorithms for tracking speckle shifts in optical elastography of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.6(4), 418–426 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emelianov, S.

J. Li, S. Wang, R. K. Manapuram, M. Singh, F. M. Menodiado, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Dynamic optical coherence tomography measurements of elastic wave propagation in tissue-mimicking phantoms and mouse cornea in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121503 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Es’haghian, S.

Faber, D. J.

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, D. M. Baraznji Sassoon, M. C. Aalders, G. Pasterkamp, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Localized measurement of optical attenuation coefficients of atherosclerotic plaque constituents by quantitative optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging24(10), 1369–1376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ford, C.

K. M. Kennedy, C. Ford, B. F. Kennedy, M. B. Bush, and D. D. Sampson, “Analysis of mechanical contrast in optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121508 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, J.

J. Fu, F. Pierron, and P. D. Ruiz, “Elastic stiffness characterization using three-dimensional full-field deformation obtained with optical coherence tomography and digital volume correlation,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121512 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garra, B. S.

T. A. Krouskop, T. M. Wheeler, F. Kallel, B. S. Garra, and T. Hall, “Elastic moduli of breast and prostate tissues under compression,” Ultrason. Imaging20(4), 260–274 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelikonov, G. V.

V. Y. Zaitsev, L. A. Matveev, A. L. Matveyev, G. V. Gelikonov, and V. M. Gelikonov, “Elastographic mapping in optical coherence tomography using an unconventional approach based on correlation stability,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(2), 021107 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Y. Zaitsev, L. A. Matveev, G. V. Gelikonov, A. L. Matveyev, and V. M. Gelikonov, “A correlation-stability approach to elasticity mapping in optical coherence tomography,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(6), 065601 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gelikonov, V. M.

V. Y. Zaitsev, L. A. Matveev, A. L. Matveyev, G. V. Gelikonov, and V. M. Gelikonov, “Elastographic mapping in optical coherence tomography using an unconventional approach based on correlation stability,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(2), 021107 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Y. Zaitsev, L. A. Matveev, G. V. Gelikonov, A. L. Matveyev, and V. M. Gelikonov, “A correlation-stability approach to elasticity mapping in optical coherence tomography,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(6), 065601 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gong, P.

P. Gong, R. A. McLaughlin, Y. M. Liew, P. R. T. Munro, F. M. Wood, and D. D. Sampson, “Assessment of human burn scars with optical coherence tomography by imaging the attenuation coefficient of tissue after vascular masking,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(2), 021111 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guan, G.

Hall, T.

T. A. Krouskop, T. M. Wheeler, F. Kallel, B. S. Garra, and T. Hall, “Elastic moduli of breast and prostate tissues under compression,” Ultrason. Imaging20(4), 260–274 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillman, T. R.

Hinds, M.

R. K. Wang, S. Kirkpatrick, and M. Hinds, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography for mapping tissue microstrains in real time,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(16), 164105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Horrigan, F. A.

Huang, Z.

S. Song, Z. Huang, T.-M. Nguyen, E. Y. Wong, B. Arnal, M. O’Donnell, and R. K. Wang, “Shear modulus imaging by direct visualization of propagating shear waves with phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121509 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Song, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Tracking mechanical wave propagation within tissue using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography: motion artifact and its compensation,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121505 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, G. Guan, X. Cheng, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Quantitative elastography provided by surface acoustic waves measured by phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 722–724 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huntley, J. M.

P. D. Ruiz, J. M. Huntley, and J. M. Coupland, “Depth-resolved imaging and displacement measurement techniques viewed as linear filtering operations,” Exp. Mech.51(4), 453–465 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Iftimia, N.

Jacques, S. L.

Jahan, I.

Jaillon, F.

John, R.

Kaazempur-Mofrad, M. R.

Kallel, F.

T. A. Krouskop, T. M. Wheeler, F. Kallel, B. S. Garra, and T. Hall, “Elastic moduli of breast and prostate tissues under compression,” Ultrason. Imaging20(4), 260–274 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karl, W. C.

Karnowski, K.

Kennedy, B. F.

B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “A review of optical coherence elastography: fundamentals, techniques and prospects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.20(2), 1–17 (2014).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, A. Curatolo, A. Tien, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Optical coherence micro-elastography: mechanical-contrast imaging of tissue microstructure,” Biomed. Opt. Express5(7), 2113–2124 (2014).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Kennedy, S. Es’haghian, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Optical palpation: optical coherence tomography-based tactile imaging using a compliant sensor,” Opt. Lett.39(10), 3014–3017 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, B. F. Kennedy, A. Tien, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for the measurement of microscale mechanical contrast deep within human breast tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121510 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, C. Ford, B. F. Kennedy, M. B. Bush, and D. D. Sampson, “Analysis of mechanical contrast in optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121508 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, M. Wojtkowski, M. Szkulmowski, K. M. Kennedy, K. Karnowski, and D. D. Sampson, “Improved measurement of vibration amplitude in dynamic optical coherence elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(12), 3138–3152 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Lamouche, B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, C.-E. Bisaillon, A. Curatolo, G. Campbell, V. Pazos, and D. D. Sampson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms with controllable optical, mechanical and structural properties for use in optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(6), 1381–1398 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, S. H. Koh, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, P. R. T. Munro, and D. D. Sampson, “Strain estimation in phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(8), 1865–1879 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for tissue boundary detection,” Opt. Lett.37(12), 2310–2312 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Curatolo, B. F. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “Structured three-dimensional optical phantom for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express19(20), 19480–19485 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Adie, X. Liang, B. F. Kennedy, R. John, D. D. Sampson, and S. A. Boppart, “Spectroscopic optical coherence elastography,” Opt. Express18(25), 25519–25534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Adie, B. F. Kennedy, J. J. Armstrong, S. A. Alexandrov, and D. D. Sampson, “Audio frequency in vivo optical coherence elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(10), 3129–3139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, T. R. Hillman, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo dynamic optical coherence elastography using a ring actuator,” Opt. Express17(24), 21762–21772 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kennedy, K. M.

B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “A review of optical coherence elastography: fundamentals, techniques and prospects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.20(2), 1–17 (2014).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Kennedy, S. Es’haghian, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Optical palpation: optical coherence tomography-based tactile imaging using a compliant sensor,” Opt. Lett.39(10), 3014–3017 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, A. Curatolo, A. Tien, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Optical coherence micro-elastography: mechanical-contrast imaging of tissue microstructure,” Biomed. Opt. Express5(7), 2113–2124 (2014).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, B. F. Kennedy, A. Tien, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for the measurement of microscale mechanical contrast deep within human breast tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121510 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, C. Ford, B. F. Kennedy, M. B. Bush, and D. D. Sampson, “Analysis of mechanical contrast in optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121508 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, M. Wojtkowski, M. Szkulmowski, K. M. Kennedy, K. Karnowski, and D. D. Sampson, “Improved measurement of vibration amplitude in dynamic optical coherence elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(12), 3138–3152 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Lamouche, B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, C.-E. Bisaillon, A. Curatolo, G. Campbell, V. Pazos, and D. D. Sampson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms with controllable optical, mechanical and structural properties for use in optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(6), 1381–1398 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, S. H. Koh, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, P. R. T. Munro, and D. D. Sampson, “Strain estimation in phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(8), 1865–1879 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for tissue boundary detection,” Opt. Lett.37(12), 2310–2312 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khalil, A. S.

A. S. Khalil, B. E. Bouma, and M. R. Mofrad, “A combined FEM/genetic algorithm for vascular soft tissue elasticity estimation,” Cardiovasc. Eng.6(3), 93–102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Khalil, R. C. Chan, A. H. Chau, B. E. Bouma, and M. R. Mofrad, “Tissue elasticity estimation with optical coherence elastography: toward mechanical characterization of in vivo soft tissue,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.33(11), 1631–1639 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Chan, A. H. Chau, W. C. Karl, S. Nadkarni, A. S. Khalil, N. Iftimia, M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, M. R. Kaazempur-Mofrad, and B. E. Bouma, “OCT-based arterial elastography: robust estimation exploiting tissue biomechanics,” Opt. Express12(19), 4558–4572 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirk Shung, K.

W. Qi, R. Li, T. Ma, J. Li, K. Kirk Shung, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, “Resonant acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(10), 103704 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirkpatrick, S.

R. K. Wang, S. Kirkpatrick, and M. Hinds, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography for mapping tissue microstrains in real time,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(16), 164105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kirkpatrick, S. J.

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(14), 144103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Duncan and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Processing algorithms for tracking speckle shifts in optical elastography of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.6(4), 418–426 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klyen, B. R.

Knüttel, A.

Koh, S. H.

Kolios, M. C.

Krouskop, T. A.

T. A. Krouskop, T. M. Wheeler, F. Kallel, B. S. Garra, and T. Hall, “Elastic moduli of breast and prostate tissues under compression,” Ultrason. Imaging20(4), 260–274 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamouche, G.

Larin, K. V.

J. Li, S. Wang, R. K. Manapuram, M. Singh, F. M. Menodiado, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Dynamic optical coherence tomography measurements of elastic wave propagation in tissue-mimicking phantoms and mouse cornea in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121503 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Latham, B.

B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, A. Curatolo, A. Tien, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Optical coherence micro-elastography: mechanical-contrast imaging of tissue microstructure,” Biomed. Opt. Express5(7), 2113–2124 (2014).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, B. F. Kennedy, A. Tien, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for the measurement of microscale mechanical contrast deep within human breast tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121510 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, C.

Li, J.

J. Li, S. Wang, R. K. Manapuram, M. Singh, F. M. Menodiado, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Dynamic optical coherence tomography measurements of elastic wave propagation in tissue-mimicking phantoms and mouse cornea in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121503 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Qi, R. Li, T. Ma, J. Li, K. Kirk Shung, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, “Resonant acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(10), 103704 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, R.

W. Qi, R. Li, T. Ma, J. Li, K. Kirk Shung, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, “Resonant acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(10), 103704 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, X.

Liew, Y. M.

P. Gong, R. A. McLaughlin, Y. M. Liew, P. R. T. Munro, F. M. Wood, and D. D. Sampson, “Assessment of human burn scars with optical coherence tomography by imaging the attenuation coefficient of tissue after vascular masking,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(2), 021111 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luk, T. W. H.

Ma, T.

W. Qi, R. Li, T. Ma, J. Li, K. Kirk Shung, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, “Resonant acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(10), 103704 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, Z.

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(14), 144103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maciejko, R.

C.-E. Bisaillon, G. Lamouche, R. Maciejko, M. Dufour, and J.-P. Monchalin, “Deformable and durable phantoms with controlled density of scatterers,” Phys. Med. Biol.53(13), N237–N247 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Makita, S.

Manapuram, R. K.

J. Li, S. Wang, R. K. Manapuram, M. Singh, F. M. Menodiado, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Dynamic optical coherence tomography measurements of elastic wave propagation in tissue-mimicking phantoms and mouse cornea in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121503 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mariampillai, A.

Matveev, L. A.

V. Y. Zaitsev, L. A. Matveev, A. L. Matveyev, G. V. Gelikonov, and V. M. Gelikonov, “Elastographic mapping in optical coherence tomography using an unconventional approach based on correlation stability,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(2), 021107 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Y. Zaitsev, L. A. Matveev, G. V. Gelikonov, A. L. Matveyev, and V. M. Gelikonov, “A correlation-stability approach to elasticity mapping in optical coherence tomography,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(6), 065601 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Matveyev, A. L.

V. Y. Zaitsev, L. A. Matveev, A. L. Matveyev, G. V. Gelikonov, and V. M. Gelikonov, “Elastographic mapping in optical coherence tomography using an unconventional approach based on correlation stability,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(2), 021107 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Y. Zaitsev, L. A. Matveev, G. V. Gelikonov, A. L. Matveyev, and V. M. Gelikonov, “A correlation-stability approach to elasticity mapping in optical coherence tomography,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(6), 065601 (2013).
[CrossRef]

McLaughlin, R. A.

B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, A. Curatolo, A. Tien, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Optical coherence micro-elastography: mechanical-contrast imaging of tissue microstructure,” Biomed. Opt. Express5(7), 2113–2124 (2014).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Kennedy, S. Es’haghian, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Optical palpation: optical coherence tomography-based tactile imaging using a compliant sensor,” Opt. Lett.39(10), 3014–3017 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Gong, R. A. McLaughlin, Y. M. Liew, P. R. T. Munro, F. M. Wood, and D. D. Sampson, “Assessment of human burn scars with optical coherence tomography by imaging the attenuation coefficient of tissue after vascular masking,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(2), 021111 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, B. F. Kennedy, A. Tien, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for the measurement of microscale mechanical contrast deep within human breast tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121510 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for tissue boundary detection,” Opt. Lett.37(12), 2310–2312 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Scolaro, R. A. McLaughlin, B. R. Klyen, B. A. Wood, P. D. Robbins, C. M. Saunders, S. L. Jacques, and D. D. Sampson, “Parametric imaging of the local attenuation coefficient in human axillary lymph nodes assessed using optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(2), 366–379 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, S. H. Koh, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, P. R. T. Munro, and D. D. Sampson, “Strain estimation in phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(8), 1865–1879 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, T. R. Hillman, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo dynamic optical coherence elastography using a ring actuator,” Opt. Express17(24), 21762–21772 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meaney, P. M.

M. M. Doyley, P. M. Meaney, and J. C. Bamber, “Evaluation of an iterative reconstruction method for quantitative elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(6), 1521–1540 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menodiado, F. M.

J. Li, S. Wang, R. K. Manapuram, M. Singh, F. M. Menodiado, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Dynamic optical coherence tomography measurements of elastic wave propagation in tissue-mimicking phantoms and mouse cornea in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121503 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mofrad, M. R.

A. S. Khalil, B. E. Bouma, and M. R. Mofrad, “A combined FEM/genetic algorithm for vascular soft tissue elasticity estimation,” Cardiovasc. Eng.6(3), 93–102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Khalil, R. C. Chan, A. H. Chau, B. E. Bouma, and M. R. Mofrad, “Tissue elasticity estimation with optical coherence elastography: toward mechanical characterization of in vivo soft tissue,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.33(11), 1631–1639 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monchalin, J.-P.

C.-E. Bisaillon, G. Lamouche, R. Maciejko, M. Dufour, and J.-P. Monchalin, “Deformable and durable phantoms with controlled density of scatterers,” Phys. Med. Biol.53(13), N237–N247 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munro, P. R. T.

P. Gong, R. A. McLaughlin, Y. M. Liew, P. R. T. Munro, F. M. Wood, and D. D. Sampson, “Assessment of human burn scars with optical coherence tomography by imaging the attenuation coefficient of tissue after vascular masking,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(2), 021111 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, S. H. Koh, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, P. R. T. Munro, and D. D. Sampson, “Strain estimation in phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(8), 1865–1879 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nadkarni, S.

Nahas, A.

Nguyen, T.-M.

S. Song, Z. Huang, T.-M. Nguyen, E. Y. Wong, B. Arnal, M. O’Donnell, and R. K. Wang, “Shear modulus imaging by direct visualization of propagating shear waves with phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121509 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Donnell, M.

S. Song, Z. Huang, T.-M. Nguyen, E. Y. Wong, B. Arnal, M. O’Donnell, and R. K. Wang, “Shear modulus imaging by direct visualization of propagating shear waves with phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121509 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oldenburg, A. L.

Pasterkamp, G.

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, D. M. Baraznji Sassoon, M. C. Aalders, G. Pasterkamp, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Localized measurement of optical attenuation coefficients of atherosclerotic plaque constituents by quantitative optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging24(10), 1369–1376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pazos, V.

Pierron, F.

J. Fu, F. Pierron, and P. D. Ruiz, “Elastic stiffness characterization using three-dimensional full-field deformation obtained with optical coherence tomography and digital volume correlation,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121512 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, W.

W. Qi, R. Li, T. Ma, J. Li, K. Kirk Shung, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, “Resonant acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(10), 103704 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quirk, B. C.

Ralston, T. S.

Razani, M.

Robbins, P. D.

Roux, S.

Ruiz, P. D.

J. Fu, F. Pierron, and P. D. Ruiz, “Elastic stiffness characterization using three-dimensional full-field deformation obtained with optical coherence tomography and digital volume correlation,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121512 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. D. Ruiz, J. M. Huntley, and J. M. Coupland, “Depth-resolved imaging and displacement measurement techniques viewed as linear filtering operations,” Exp. Mech.51(4), 453–465 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sampson, D. D.

B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “A review of optical coherence elastography: fundamentals, techniques and prospects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.20(2), 1–17 (2014).
[CrossRef]

P. Gong, R. A. McLaughlin, Y. M. Liew, P. R. T. Munro, F. M. Wood, and D. D. Sampson, “Assessment of human burn scars with optical coherence tomography by imaging the attenuation coefficient of tissue after vascular masking,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(2), 021111 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, S. Es’haghian, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Optical palpation: optical coherence tomography-based tactile imaging using a compliant sensor,” Opt. Lett.39(10), 3014–3017 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, A. Curatolo, A. Tien, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Optical coherence micro-elastography: mechanical-contrast imaging of tissue microstructure,” Biomed. Opt. Express5(7), 2113–2124 (2014).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, B. F. Kennedy, A. Tien, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for the measurement of microscale mechanical contrast deep within human breast tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121510 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, C. Ford, B. F. Kennedy, M. B. Bush, and D. D. Sampson, “Analysis of mechanical contrast in optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121508 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Lamouche, B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, C.-E. Bisaillon, A. Curatolo, G. Campbell, V. Pazos, and D. D. Sampson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms with controllable optical, mechanical and structural properties for use in optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(6), 1381–1398 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, M. Wojtkowski, M. Szkulmowski, K. M. Kennedy, K. Karnowski, and D. D. Sampson, “Improved measurement of vibration amplitude in dynamic optical coherence elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(12), 3138–3152 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, S. H. Koh, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, P. R. T. Munro, and D. D. Sampson, “Strain estimation in phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(8), 1865–1879 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for tissue boundary detection,” Opt. Lett.37(12), 2310–2312 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Scolaro, R. A. McLaughlin, B. R. Klyen, B. A. Wood, P. D. Robbins, C. M. Saunders, S. L. Jacques, and D. D. Sampson, “Parametric imaging of the local attenuation coefficient in human axillary lymph nodes assessed using optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(2), 366–379 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Curatolo, B. F. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “Structured three-dimensional optical phantom for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express19(20), 19480–19485 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Adie, X. Liang, B. F. Kennedy, R. John, D. D. Sampson, and S. A. Boppart, “Spectroscopic optical coherence elastography,” Opt. Express18(25), 25519–25534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, T. R. Hillman, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo dynamic optical coherence elastography using a ring actuator,” Opt. Express17(24), 21762–21772 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Adie, B. F. Kennedy, J. J. Armstrong, S. A. Alexandrov, and D. D. Sampson, “Audio frequency in vivo optical coherence elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(10), 3129–3139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saunders, C. M.

Schmitt, J. M.

Scolaro, L.

Shishkov, M.

Singh, M.

J. Li, S. Wang, R. K. Manapuram, M. Singh, F. M. Menodiado, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Dynamic optical coherence tomography measurements of elastic wave propagation in tissue-mimicking phantoms and mouse cornea in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121503 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, S.

S. Song, Z. Huang, T.-M. Nguyen, E. Y. Wong, B. Arnal, M. O’Donnell, and R. K. Wang, “Shear modulus imaging by direct visualization of propagating shear waves with phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121509 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Song, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Tracking mechanical wave propagation within tissue using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography: motion artifact and its compensation,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121505 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sonnenschein, C. M.

Standish, B.

C. Sun, B. Standish, B. Vuong, X.-Y. Wen, and V. Yang, “Digital image correlation-based optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121515 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

Szkulmowski, M.

Tearney, G. J.

Tien, A.

B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, A. Curatolo, A. Tien, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Optical coherence micro-elastography: mechanical-contrast imaging of tissue microstructure,” Biomed. Opt. Express5(7), 2113–2124 (2014).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, B. F. Kennedy, A. Tien, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for the measurement of microscale mechanical contrast deep within human breast tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121510 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Twa, M. D.

J. Li, S. Wang, R. K. Manapuram, M. Singh, F. M. Menodiado, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Dynamic optical coherence tomography measurements of elastic wave propagation in tissue-mimicking phantoms and mouse cornea in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121503 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Meer, F. J.

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, D. M. Baraznji Sassoon, M. C. Aalders, G. Pasterkamp, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Localized measurement of optical attenuation coefficients of atherosclerotic plaque constituents by quantitative optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging24(10), 1369–1376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Leeuwen, T. G.

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, D. M. Baraznji Sassoon, M. C. Aalders, G. Pasterkamp, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Localized measurement of optical attenuation coefficients of atherosclerotic plaque constituents by quantitative optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging24(10), 1369–1376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Virmani, R.

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, “Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vuong, B.

C. Sun, B. Standish, B. Vuong, X.-Y. Wen, and V. Yang, “Digital image correlation-based optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121515 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

S. Song, Z. Huang, T.-M. Nguyen, E. Y. Wong, B. Arnal, M. O’Donnell, and R. K. Wang, “Shear modulus imaging by direct visualization of propagating shear waves with phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121509 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Song, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Tracking mechanical wave propagation within tissue using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography: motion artifact and its compensation,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121505 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, G. Guan, X. Cheng, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Quantitative elastography provided by surface acoustic waves measured by phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 722–724 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, S. Kirkpatrick, and M. Hinds, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography for mapping tissue microstrains in real time,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(16), 164105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(14), 144103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

J. Li, S. Wang, R. K. Manapuram, M. Singh, F. M. Menodiado, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Dynamic optical coherence tomography measurements of elastic wave propagation in tissue-mimicking phantoms and mouse cornea in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121503 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wen, X.-Y.

C. Sun, B. Standish, B. Vuong, X.-Y. Wen, and V. Yang, “Digital image correlation-based optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121515 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wheeler, T. M.

T. A. Krouskop, T. M. Wheeler, F. Kallel, B. S. Garra, and T. Hall, “Elastic moduli of breast and prostate tissues under compression,” Ultrason. Imaging20(4), 260–274 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

Wong, E. Y.

S. Song, Z. Huang, T.-M. Nguyen, E. Y. Wong, B. Arnal, M. O’Donnell, and R. K. Wang, “Shear modulus imaging by direct visualization of propagating shear waves with phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121509 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wood, B. A.

Wood, F. M.

P. Gong, R. A. McLaughlin, Y. M. Liew, P. R. T. Munro, F. M. Wood, and D. D. Sampson, “Assessment of human burn scars with optical coherence tomography by imaging the attenuation coefficient of tissue after vascular masking,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(2), 021111 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, C.

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, “Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, V.

C. Sun, B. Standish, B. Vuong, X.-Y. Wen, and V. Yang, “Digital image correlation-based optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121515 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, V. X. D.

Yasuno, Y.

Zaitsev, V. Y.

V. Y. Zaitsev, L. A. Matveev, A. L. Matveyev, G. V. Gelikonov, and V. M. Gelikonov, “Elastographic mapping in optical coherence tomography using an unconventional approach based on correlation stability,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(2), 021107 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Y. Zaitsev, L. A. Matveev, G. V. Gelikonov, A. L. Matveyev, and V. M. Gelikonov, “A correlation-stability approach to elasticity mapping in optical coherence tomography,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(6), 065601 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Q.

W. Qi, R. Li, T. Ma, J. Li, K. Kirk Shung, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, “Resonant acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(10), 103704 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Biomed. Eng.

A. S. Khalil, R. C. Chan, A. H. Chau, B. E. Bouma, and M. R. Mofrad, “Tissue elasticity estimation with optical coherence elastography: toward mechanical characterization of in vivo soft tissue,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.33(11), 1631–1639 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(14), 144103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Wang, S. Kirkpatrick, and M. Hinds, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography for mapping tissue microstrains in real time,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(16), 164105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Qi, R. Li, T. Ma, J. Li, K. Kirk Shung, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, “Resonant acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(10), 103704 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express

B. F. Kennedy, M. Wojtkowski, M. Szkulmowski, K. M. Kennedy, K. Karnowski, and D. D. Sampson, “Improved measurement of vibration amplitude in dynamic optical coherence elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(12), 3138–3152 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, S. H. Koh, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, P. R. T. Munro, and D. D. Sampson, “Strain estimation in phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(8), 1865–1879 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Nahas, M. Bauer, S. Roux, and A. C. Boccara, “3D static elastography at the micrometer scale using full field OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(10), 2138–2149 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Razani, A. Mariampillai, C. Sun, T. W. H. Luk, V. X. D. Yang, and M. C. Kolios, “Feasibility of optical coherence elastography measurements of shear wave propagation in homogeneous tissue equivalent phantoms,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(5), 972–980 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Lamouche, B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, C.-E. Bisaillon, A. Curatolo, G. Campbell, V. Pazos, and D. D. Sampson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms with controllable optical, mechanical and structural properties for use in optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(6), 1381–1398 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, A. Curatolo, A. Tien, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Optical coherence micro-elastography: mechanical-contrast imaging of tissue microstructure,” Biomed. Opt. Express5(7), 2113–2124 (2014).
[CrossRef]

L. Scolaro, R. A. McLaughlin, B. R. Klyen, B. A. Wood, P. D. Robbins, C. M. Saunders, S. L. Jacques, and D. D. Sampson, “Parametric imaging of the local attenuation coefficient in human axillary lymph nodes assessed using optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(2), 366–379 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cardiovasc. Eng.

A. S. Khalil, B. E. Bouma, and M. R. Mofrad, “A combined FEM/genetic algorithm for vascular soft tissue elasticity estimation,” Cardiovasc. Eng.6(3), 93–102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Exp. Mech.

P. D. Ruiz, J. M. Huntley, and J. M. Coupland, “Depth-resolved imaging and displacement measurement techniques viewed as linear filtering operations,” Exp. Mech.51(4), 453–465 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “A review of optical coherence elastography: fundamentals, techniques and prospects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.20(2), 1–17 (2014).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, D. M. Baraznji Sassoon, M. C. Aalders, G. Pasterkamp, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Localized measurement of optical attenuation coefficients of atherosclerotic plaque constituents by quantitative optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging24(10), 1369–1376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, “Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Gong, R. A. McLaughlin, Y. M. Liew, P. R. T. Munro, F. M. Wood, and D. D. Sampson, “Assessment of human burn scars with optical coherence tomography by imaging the attenuation coefficient of tissue after vascular masking,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(2), 021111 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. D. Duncan and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Processing algorithms for tracking speckle shifts in optical elastography of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.6(4), 418–426 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, B. F. Kennedy, A. Tien, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for the measurement of microscale mechanical contrast deep within human breast tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121510 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, S. Wang, R. K. Manapuram, M. Singh, F. M. Menodiado, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Dynamic optical coherence tomography measurements of elastic wave propagation in tissue-mimicking phantoms and mouse cornea in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121503 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Song, Z. Huang, T.-M. Nguyen, E. Y. Wong, B. Arnal, M. O’Donnell, and R. K. Wang, “Shear modulus imaging by direct visualization of propagating shear waves with phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121509 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Song, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Tracking mechanical wave propagation within tissue using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography: motion artifact and its compensation,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121505 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Crecea, A. Ahmad, and S. A. Boppart, “Magnetomotive optical coherence elastography for microrheology of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121504 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Sun, B. Standish, B. Vuong, X.-Y. Wen, and V. Yang, “Digital image correlation-based optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121515 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fu, F. Pierron, and P. D. Ruiz, “Elastic stiffness characterization using three-dimensional full-field deformation obtained with optical coherence tomography and digital volume correlation,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121512 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, C. Ford, B. F. Kennedy, M. B. Bush, and D. D. Sampson, “Analysis of mechanical contrast in optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121508 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Y. Zaitsev, L. A. Matveev, A. L. Matveyev, G. V. Gelikonov, and V. M. Gelikonov, “Elastographic mapping in optical coherence tomography using an unconventional approach based on correlation stability,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(2), 021107 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Laser Phys. Lett.

V. Y. Zaitsev, L. A. Matveev, G. V. Gelikonov, A. L. Matveyev, and V. M. Gelikonov, “A correlation-stability approach to elasticity mapping in optical coherence tomography,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(6), 065601 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

S. Makita, F. Jaillon, I. Jahan, and Y. Yasuno, “Noise statistics of phase-resolved optical coherence tomography imaging: single-and dual-beam-scan Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express22(4), 4830–4848 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, T. R. Hillman, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo dynamic optical coherence elastography using a ring actuator,” Opt. Express17(24), 21762–21772 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Chan, A. H. Chau, W. C. Karl, S. Nadkarni, A. S. Khalil, N. Iftimia, M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, M. R. Kaazempur-Mofrad, and B. E. Bouma, “OCT-based arterial elastography: robust estimation exploiting tissue biomechanics,” Opt. Express12(19), 4558–4572 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Crecea, A. L. Oldenburg, X. Liang, T. S. Ralston, and S. A. Boppart, “Magnetomotive nanoparticle transducers for optical rheology of viscoelastic materials,” Opt. Express17(25), 23114–23122 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Adie, X. Liang, B. F. Kennedy, R. John, D. D. Sampson, and S. A. Boppart, “Spectroscopic optical coherence elastography,” Opt. Express18(25), 25519–25534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, “OCT elastography: imaging microscopic deformation and strain of tissue,” Opt. Express3(6), 199–211 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Curatolo, B. F. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “Structured three-dimensional optical phantom for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express19(20), 19480–19485 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Med. Biol.

C.-E. Bisaillon, G. Lamouche, R. Maciejko, M. Dufour, and J.-P. Monchalin, “Deformable and durable phantoms with controlled density of scatterers,” Phys. Med. Biol.53(13), N237–N247 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Doyley, P. M. Meaney, and J. C. Bamber, “Evaluation of an iterative reconstruction method for quantitative elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol.45(6), 1521–1540 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Adie, B. F. Kennedy, J. J. Armstrong, S. A. Alexandrov, and D. D. Sampson, “Audio frequency in vivo optical coherence elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(10), 3129–3139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultrason. Imaging

T. A. Krouskop, T. M. Wheeler, F. Kallel, B. S. Garra, and T. Hall, “Elastic moduli of breast and prostate tissues under compression,” Ultrason. Imaging20(4), 260–274 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A. Curatolo, B. F. Kennedy, D. D. Sampson, and T. R. Hillman, “Speckle in Optical Coherence Tomography,” in Advanced Biophotonics: Tissue Optical Sectioning, V. V. Tuchin, and R. K. Wang, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 2013), pp. 211–277.

R. A. Leitgeb and M. Wojtkowski, “Complex and Coherence Noise Free Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” in Optical Coherence Tomography: Technology and Applications, W. Drexler, and J. G. Fujimoto, eds. (Springer, 2008), pp. 177–207.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, 1985).

O. C. Zienkiewicz, R. L. Taylor, and J. Z. Zhu, The Finite Element Method: Its Basis and Fundamentals (Elsevier, 2005).

M. de Berg, O. Cheong, M. van Kreveld, and M. Overmars, Computational Geometry: Algorithms and Applications (Springer-Verlag, 2008).

A. A. Ungar, Barycentric Calculus in Euclidean and Hyperbolic Geometry: A Comparative Introduction (World Scientific, 2010).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of the model of image formation in OCT, and comparison with experimental results. (a) Map of the locations of scattering potentials for the simulated OCT B-scan. (b) RM(x,z), the attenuation-scaled map of the reflected field amplitude. (c) Zoomed region of the highlighted area in (a). (d) and (e) Magnitude and phase, respectively, of the complex PSF. (f) and (g) Log-scale irradiance and phase, respectively, of the simulated OCT scan formed by convolving (c) with (d)–(e). (h) Irradiance of the added shot-noise. (i) Simulated OCT B-scan obtained by multiplying (a) with (b), convolving the result with (d)–(e), and adding (h). (j) and (k) Bright-field microscopy and experimental OCT B-scan, respectively, of the physical phantom; (j) was taken before adding scatterers to the bulk space surrounding the letters, (k) was taken after. (a)–(d) are in arbitrary units. (f), (h), (i) and (k) are scaled to the SNR of the OCT irradiance.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

FEM simulation of a sample containing a stiff inclusion under quasi-static compression. Black lines indicate the FEM mesh (x,z), arrows indicate the magnitude and direction of the computed local displacements under uniform compressive loading from above.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Computing the new location of the scattering potentials under an applied load. (a) FEM provides a mesh of the sample geometry, and the local displacements evaluated at the vertices of the mesh. (b) Delaunay triangulation re-meshes the FEM vertices using triangular elements. (c) Barycentric interpolation uses the relative locations of the scattering potentials with respect to the triangulation to obtain the locations of the scattering potentials in the loaded sample.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Flowchart of the multiphysics simulation of OCE. Blue boxes denote inputs to the simulation, green boxes denote particular processes, detailed in Section 3, and red boxes denote simulation outputs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Schematic of the sample arm of our phase-sensitive compression OCE system. Schematic of representative (b) relative displacement between the reference reflector and the sample, and (c) strain A-scans, in a homogeneous region of a phantom (blue), and through a stiff inclusion embedded in a softer surrounds (red).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental scans of a silicone inclusion phantom compared to results of the multiphysics simulation of phase-sensitive compression OCE. (a) Experimental and (b) simulated OCT SNR images. (c) Experimental and (d) simulated relative axial displacement within the loaded phantom. (e) Experimental and (f) simulated strain elastograms in units of milli-strain (mε). (g), (h), and (i) A-scan plots of irradiance, relative displacement and strain, respectively, of the experimental scans (blue) compared to the simulation (red). A-scans are averaged over a 30 µm lateral region indicated by the blue and red dotted boxes in (a)–(f).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Regions used for comparing experiment to simulation, shown on (a) the simulated OCT image, and (b) the simulated strain elastogram. (c)–(g) Zoomed views of the 325 µm × 50 µm (x × z) regions 1–5, respectively, from the experimental and simulated OCT B-scans, and the experimental and simulated OCE strain elastograms.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Displacement sensitivity (sd) (a) vs. local strain at various depths in the sample, and (b) vs. depth at selected values of strain in the sample. Blue lines are simulation results without optical noise. Red lines are simulation results with optical noise and attenuation. Black lines are displacement sensitivity values calculated at zero strain, assuming only optical noise.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Strain SNR (SNRε) (a) vs. local strain at various depths in the sample, and (b) vs. depth at selected values of strain in the sample. Blue lines are simulation results without optical noise. Red lines are simulation results including optical noise and attenuation.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 OCE simulation inputs and parameters

Tables Icon

Table 2 Numerical comparison of experimentally acquired vs. simulated elastograms for the regions marked in Fig. 7

Equations (11)

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d(x,y,z)= Δϕ(x,y,z) λ 0 / ( 4πn ) ,
ε z (x,y,z)= Δd(x,y,z) / Δz ,
s dO = ( s Δϕ λ 0 ) / (4πn) .
s d = f d ( s dO , ϕ dε , ϕ dt ).
SNR ε =20 log 10 ( μ ε / s ε ).
R p = R( z 2 ) / R( z 1 ) =exp( μ t δz).
RM(x,y,z)={ 1, z=0, RM(x,y,zδ z i )exp[ μ t (x,y,z)δ z i ], otherwise.
Ψ(r,z)=Α(r,z)exp[ iΦ(r,z) ],
Α(r,z)=exp( z 2 / l c 2 )exp( r 2 / a s 2 ), Φ(r,z)=2kz+ ( 2k r 2 ϕ ) /L +2 tan 1 [ ( 2 z 0 z ) / ( fL ) ].
S( x j , y j , z j )= i Ψ( r j r i , z j z i )H( x i , y i , z i ) ,
[ λ 1 λ 2 ]= [ r 1 r 3 r 2 r 3 ] 1 [ r s r 3 ] λ 3 =1 λ 1 λ 2 .

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