Abstract

The early detection and biological investigation of esophageal cancer would benefit from the development of advanced imaging techniques to screen for the molecular changes that precede and accompany the onset of cancer. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles (NPs) have the potential to improve cancer detection and the investigation of cancer progression through the sensitive and multiplexed phenotyping of cell-surface biomarkers. Here, a miniature endoscope featuring rotational scanning and axial pull back has been developed for 2D spectral imaging of SERS NPs topically applied on the lumenal surface of the rat esophagus. Raman signals from low-pM concentrations of SERS NP mixtures are demultiplexed in real time to accurately calculate the concentration and ratio of the NPs. Ex vivo and in vivo experiments demonstrate the feasibility of topical application and imaging of multiplexed SERS NPs along the entire length of the rat esophagus.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

Y. W. Wang, A. Khan, M. Som, D. Wang, Y. Chen, S. Y. Leigh, D. Meza, P. Z. McVeigh, B. C. Wilson, and J. T. C. Liu, “Rapid ratiometric biomarker detection with topically applied SERS nanoparticles,” Technology (Singap) 2(2), 118–132 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (9)

P. Z. McVeigh, R. J. Mallia, I. Veilleux, and B. C. Wilson, “Widefield quantitative multiplex surface enhanced Raman scattering imaging in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(4), 046011 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Garai, S. Sensarn, C. L. Zavaleta, D. V. d. Sompel, N. O. Loewke, M. J. Mandella, S. S. Gambhir, and C. H. Contag, “High-sensitivity, real-time, ratiometric imaging of surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles with a clinically translatable Raman endoscope device,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 096008 (2013).

J. A. Evans, D. S. Early, V. Chandraskhara, K. V. Chathadi, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, K. Q. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, S. F. Pasha, R. Sharaf, A. K. Shergill, J. A. Dominitz, B. D. Cash, and ASGE Standards of Practice CommitteeAmerican Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, “The role of endoscopy in the assessment and treatment of esophageal cancer,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 77(3), 328–334 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. B. Sturm, B. P. Joshi, S. Lu, C. Piraka, S. Khondee, B. J. Elmunzer, R. S. Kwon, D. G. Beer, H. D. Appelman, D. K. Turgeon, and T. D. Wang, “Targeted imaging of esophageal neoplasia with a fluorescently labeled peptide: first-in-human results,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(184), 184ra61 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. T. Nguyen and R. Y. Tsien, “Fluorescence-guided surgery with live molecular navigation--a new cutting edge,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 13(9), 653–662 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Q. Wang, B. Yan, and L. X. Chen, “SERS Tags: Novel Optical Nanoprobes for Bioanalysis,” Chem. Rev. 113(3), 1391–1428 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Zavaleta, E. Garai, J. T. C. Liu, S. Sensarn, M. J. Mandella, D. Van de Sompel, S. Friedland, J. Van Dam, C. H. Contag, and S. S. Gambhir, “A Raman-based endoscopic strategy for multiplexed molecular imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(25), E2288–E2297 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. E. Bohndiek, A. Wagadarikar, C. L. Zavaleta, D. Van de Sompel, E. Garai, J. V. Jokerst, S. Yazdanfar, and S. S. Gambhir, “A small animal Raman instrument for rapid, wide-area, spectroscopic imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(30), 12408–12413 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Leigh, M. Som, and J. T. C. Liu, “Method for Assessing the Reliability of Molecular Diagnostics Based on Multiplexed SERS-Coded Nanoparticles,” PLoS ONE 8(4), e62084 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (8)

E. L. Bird-Lieberman, A. A. Neves, P. Lao-Sirieix, M. O’Donovan, M. Novelli, L. B. Lovat, W. S. Eng, L. K. Mahal, K. M. Brindle, and R. C. Fitzgerald, “Molecular imaging using fluorescent lectins permits rapid endoscopic identification of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Nat. Med. 18(2), 315–321 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Hellebust and R. Richards-Kortum, “Advances in molecular imaging: targeted optical contrast agents for cancer diagnostics,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 7(3), 429–445 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. L. Bird-Lieberman, A. A. Neves, P. Lao-Sirieix, M. O’Donovan, M. Novelli, L. B. Lovat, W. S. Eng, L. K. Mahal, K. M. Brindle, and R. C. Fitzgerald, “Molecular imaging using fluorescent lectins permits rapid endoscopic identification of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Nat. Med. 18(2), 315–321 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Mallia, P. Z. McVeigh, I. Veilleux, and B. C. Wilson, “Filter-based method for background removal in high-sensitivity wide-field-surface-enhanced Raman scattering imaging in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 076017 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Tichauer, K. S. Samkoe, K. J. Sexton, J. R. Gunn, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “Improved tumor contrast achieved by single time point dual-reporter fluorescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Tichauer, K. S. Samkoe, K. J. Sexton, S. K. Hextrum, H. H. Yang, W. S. Klubben, J. R. Gunn, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “In vivo quantification of tumor receptor binding potential with dual-reporter molecular imaging,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 14(5), 584–592 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Kircher, A. de la Zerda, J. V. Jokerst, C. L. Zavaleta, P. J. Kempen, E. Mittra, K. Pitter, R. Huang, C. Campos, F. Habte, R. Sinclair, C. W. Brennan, I. K. Mellinghoff, E. C. Holland, and S. S. Gambhir, “A brain tumor molecular imaging strategy using a new triple-modality MRI-photoacoustic-Raman nanoparticle,” Nat. Med. 18(5), 829–834 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. D. Stoner and L. S. Wang, “Chemoprevention of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with berries,” Top. Curr. Chem. 329, 1–20 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

A. S. Thakor, R. Luong, R. Paulmurugan, F. I. Lin, P. Kempen, C. Zavaleta, P. Chu, T. F. Massoud, R. Sinclair, and S. S. Gambhir, “The fate and toxicity of Raman-active silica-gold nanoparticles in mice,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(79), 79ra33 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Zavaleta, K. B. Hartman, Z. Miao, M. L. James, P. Kempen, A. S. Thakor, C. H. Nielsen, R. Sinclair, Z. Cheng, and S. S. Gambhir, “Preclinical evaluation of Raman nanoparticle biodistribution for their potential use in clinical endoscopy imaging,” Small 7(15), 2232–2240 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. V. Jokerst, Z. Miao, C. Zavaleta, Z. Cheng, and S. S. Gambhir, “Affibody-Functionalized Gold-Silica Nanoparticles for Raman Molecular Imaging of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor,” Small 7(5), 625–633 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, X. Qian, J. J. Beitler, Z. G. Chen, F. R. Khuri, M. M. Lewis, H. J. C. Shin, S. Nie, and D. M. Shin, “Detection of circulating tumor cells in human peripheral blood using surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 71(5), 1526–1532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lee, H. Chon, S.-Y. Yoon, E. K. Lee, S.-I. Chang, D. W. Lim, and J. Choo, “Fabrication of SERS-fluorescence dual modal nanoprobes and application to multiplex cancer cell imaging,” Nanoscale 4(1), 124–129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

A. M. Mohs, M. C. Mancini, S. Singhal, J. M. Provenzale, B. Leyland-Jones, M. D. Wang, and S. Nie, “Hand-held spectroscopic device for in vivo and intraoperative tumor detection: contrast enhancement, detection sensitivity, and tissue penetration,” Anal. Chem. 82(21), 9058–9065 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

J. T. C. Liu, M. W. Helms, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, G. S. Kino, and C. H. Contag, “Quantifying Cell-Surface Biomarker Expression in Thick Tissues with Ratiometric Three-Dimensional Microscopy,” Biophys. J. 96(6), 2405–2414 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Zavaleta, B. R. Smith, I. Walton, W. Doering, G. Davis, B. Shojaei, M. J. Natan, and S. S. Gambhir, “Multiplexed imaging of surface enhanced Raman scattering nanotags in living mice using noninvasive Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(32), 13511–13516 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

B. R. Lutz, C. E. Dentinger, L. N. Nguyen, L. Sun, J. Zhang, A. N. Allen, S. Chan, and B. S. Knudsen, “Spectral analysis of multiplex Raman probe signatures,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2306–2314 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Y. Sha, H. Xu, M. J. Natan, and R. Cromer, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering tags for rapid and homogeneous detection of circulating tumor cells in the presence of human whole blood,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(51), 17214–17215 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P.-L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 454–458 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

R. Kiesslich, M. Goetz, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Technology insight: confocal laser endoscopy for in vivo diagnosis of colorectal cancer,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Oncol. 4(8), 480–490 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. Wang, S. Friedland, P. Sahbaie, R. Soetikno, P. L. Hsiung, J. T. C. Liu, J. M. Crawford, and C. H. Contag, “Functional Imaging of Colonic Mucosa With a Fibered Confocal Microscope for Real-Time In Vivo Pathology,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(11), 1300–1305 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Sun, K.-B. Sung, C. Dentinger, B. Lutz, L. Nguyen, J. Zhang, H. Qin, M. Yamakawa, M. Cao, Y. Lu, A. J. Chmura, J. Zhu, X. Su, A. A. Berlin, S. Chan, and B. Knudsen, “Composite organic-inorganic nanoparticles as Raman labels for tissue analysis,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 351–356 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. E. Doering, M. E. Piotti, M. J. Natan, and R. G. Freeman, “SERS as a Foundation for Nanoscale, Optically Detected Biological Labels,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3100–3108 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

B. D. Chithrani, A. A. Ghazani, and W. C. W. Chan, “Determining the Size and Shape Dependence of Gold Nanoparticle Uptake into Mammalian Cells,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 662–668 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Layke and P. P. Lopez, “Esophageal cancer: a review and update,” Am. Fam. Physician 73(12), 2187–2194 (2006).
[PubMed]

T. I. Samoylova, N. E. Morrison, L. P. Globa, and N. R. Cox, “Peptide phage display: opportunities for development of personalized anti-cancer strategies,” Anticancer. Agents Med. Chem. 6(1), 9–17 (2006).
[PubMed]

2005 (1)

X. Su, J. Zhang, L. Sun, T. W. Koo, S. Chan, N. Sundararajan, M. Yamakawa, and A. A. Berlin, “Composite organic-inorganic nanoparticles (COINs) with chemically encoded optical signatures,” Nano Lett. 5(1), 49–54 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

S. P. Mulvaney, M. D. Musick, C. D. Keating, and M. J. Natan, “Glass-Coated, Analyte-Tagged Nanoparticles: A New Tagging System Based on Detection with Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” Langmuir 19(11), 4784–4790 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. P. Polednak, “Trends in survival for both histologic types of esophageal cancer in US surveillance, epidemiology and end results areas,” Int. J. Cancer 105(1), 98–100 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

M. Younes, D. E. Henson, A. Ertan, and C. C. Miller, “Incidence and survival trends of esophageal carcinoma in the United States: racial and gender differences by histological type,” Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 37(12), 1359–1365 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Souza, “Molecular and biologic basis of upper gastrointestinal malignancy--esophageal carcinoma,” Surg. Oncol. Clin. N. Am. 11(2), 257–272 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

D. M. Parkin, F. I. Bray, and S. S. Devesa, “Cancer burden in the year 2000. The global picture,” Eur. J. Cancer 37(Suppl 8), 4–66 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. D. Stoner and A. Gupta, “Etiology and chemoprevention of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” Carcinogenesis 22(11), 1737–1746 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hori, Y. Yamashita, M. Ohira, Y. Matsumura, K. Muguruma, and K. Hirakawa, “A novel orthotopic implantation model of human esophageal carcinoma in nude rats: CD44H mediates cancer cell invasion in vitro and in vivo,” Int. J. Cancer 92(4), 489–496 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, A. N.

B. R. Lutz, C. E. Dentinger, L. N. Nguyen, L. Sun, J. Zhang, A. N. Allen, S. Chan, and B. S. Knudsen, “Spectral analysis of multiplex Raman probe signatures,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2306–2314 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appelman, H. D.

M. B. Sturm, B. P. Joshi, S. Lu, C. Piraka, S. Khondee, B. J. Elmunzer, R. S. Kwon, D. G. Beer, H. D. Appelman, D. K. Turgeon, and T. D. Wang, “Targeted imaging of esophageal neoplasia with a fluorescently labeled peptide: first-in-human results,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(184), 184ra61 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beer, D. G.

M. B. Sturm, B. P. Joshi, S. Lu, C. Piraka, S. Khondee, B. J. Elmunzer, R. S. Kwon, D. G. Beer, H. D. Appelman, D. K. Turgeon, and T. D. Wang, “Targeted imaging of esophageal neoplasia with a fluorescently labeled peptide: first-in-human results,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(184), 184ra61 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beitler, J. J.

X. Wang, X. Qian, J. J. Beitler, Z. G. Chen, F. R. Khuri, M. M. Lewis, H. J. C. Shin, S. Nie, and D. M. Shin, “Detection of circulating tumor cells in human peripheral blood using surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 71(5), 1526–1532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berlin, A. A.

L. Sun, K.-B. Sung, C. Dentinger, B. Lutz, L. Nguyen, J. Zhang, H. Qin, M. Yamakawa, M. Cao, Y. Lu, A. J. Chmura, J. Zhu, X. Su, A. A. Berlin, S. Chan, and B. Knudsen, “Composite organic-inorganic nanoparticles as Raman labels for tissue analysis,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 351–356 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Su, J. Zhang, L. Sun, T. W. Koo, S. Chan, N. Sundararajan, M. Yamakawa, and A. A. Berlin, “Composite organic-inorganic nanoparticles (COINs) with chemically encoded optical signatures,” Nano Lett. 5(1), 49–54 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bird-Lieberman, E. L.

E. L. Bird-Lieberman, A. A. Neves, P. Lao-Sirieix, M. O’Donovan, M. Novelli, L. B. Lovat, W. S. Eng, L. K. Mahal, K. M. Brindle, and R. C. Fitzgerald, “Molecular imaging using fluorescent lectins permits rapid endoscopic identification of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Nat. Med. 18(2), 315–321 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. L. Bird-Lieberman, A. A. Neves, P. Lao-Sirieix, M. O’Donovan, M. Novelli, L. B. Lovat, W. S. Eng, L. K. Mahal, K. M. Brindle, and R. C. Fitzgerald, “Molecular imaging using fluorescent lectins permits rapid endoscopic identification of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Nat. Med. 18(2), 315–321 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bohndiek, S. E.

S. E. Bohndiek, A. Wagadarikar, C. L. Zavaleta, D. Van de Sompel, E. Garai, J. V. Jokerst, S. Yazdanfar, and S. S. Gambhir, “A small animal Raman instrument for rapid, wide-area, spectroscopic imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(30), 12408–12413 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bray, F. I.

D. M. Parkin, F. I. Bray, and S. S. Devesa, “Cancer burden in the year 2000. The global picture,” Eur. J. Cancer 37(Suppl 8), 4–66 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brennan, C. W.

M. F. Kircher, A. de la Zerda, J. V. Jokerst, C. L. Zavaleta, P. J. Kempen, E. Mittra, K. Pitter, R. Huang, C. Campos, F. Habte, R. Sinclair, C. W. Brennan, I. K. Mellinghoff, E. C. Holland, and S. S. Gambhir, “A brain tumor molecular imaging strategy using a new triple-modality MRI-photoacoustic-Raman nanoparticle,” Nat. Med. 18(5), 829–834 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brindle, K. M.

E. L. Bird-Lieberman, A. A. Neves, P. Lao-Sirieix, M. O’Donovan, M. Novelli, L. B. Lovat, W. S. Eng, L. K. Mahal, K. M. Brindle, and R. C. Fitzgerald, “Molecular imaging using fluorescent lectins permits rapid endoscopic identification of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Nat. Med. 18(2), 315–321 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. L. Bird-Lieberman, A. A. Neves, P. Lao-Sirieix, M. O’Donovan, M. Novelli, L. B. Lovat, W. S. Eng, L. K. Mahal, K. M. Brindle, and R. C. Fitzgerald, “Molecular imaging using fluorescent lectins permits rapid endoscopic identification of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Nat. Med. 18(2), 315–321 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campos, C.

M. F. Kircher, A. de la Zerda, J. V. Jokerst, C. L. Zavaleta, P. J. Kempen, E. Mittra, K. Pitter, R. Huang, C. Campos, F. Habte, R. Sinclair, C. W. Brennan, I. K. Mellinghoff, E. C. Holland, and S. S. Gambhir, “A brain tumor molecular imaging strategy using a new triple-modality MRI-photoacoustic-Raman nanoparticle,” Nat. Med. 18(5), 829–834 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, M.

L. Sun, K.-B. Sung, C. Dentinger, B. Lutz, L. Nguyen, J. Zhang, H. Qin, M. Yamakawa, M. Cao, Y. Lu, A. J. Chmura, J. Zhu, X. Su, A. A. Berlin, S. Chan, and B. Knudsen, “Composite organic-inorganic nanoparticles as Raman labels for tissue analysis,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 351–356 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cash, B. D.

J. A. Evans, D. S. Early, V. Chandraskhara, K. V. Chathadi, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, K. Q. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, S. F. Pasha, R. Sharaf, A. K. Shergill, J. A. Dominitz, B. D. Cash, and ASGE Standards of Practice CommitteeAmerican Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, “The role of endoscopy in the assessment and treatment of esophageal cancer,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 77(3), 328–334 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, S.

B. R. Lutz, C. E. Dentinger, L. N. Nguyen, L. Sun, J. Zhang, A. N. Allen, S. Chan, and B. S. Knudsen, “Spectral analysis of multiplex Raman probe signatures,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2306–2314 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Sun, K.-B. Sung, C. Dentinger, B. Lutz, L. Nguyen, J. Zhang, H. Qin, M. Yamakawa, M. Cao, Y. Lu, A. J. Chmura, J. Zhu, X. Su, A. A. Berlin, S. Chan, and B. Knudsen, “Composite organic-inorganic nanoparticles as Raman labels for tissue analysis,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 351–356 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Su, J. Zhang, L. Sun, T. W. Koo, S. Chan, N. Sundararajan, M. Yamakawa, and A. A. Berlin, “Composite organic-inorganic nanoparticles (COINs) with chemically encoded optical signatures,” Nano Lett. 5(1), 49–54 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, W. C. W.

B. D. Chithrani, A. A. Ghazani, and W. C. W. Chan, “Determining the Size and Shape Dependence of Gold Nanoparticle Uptake into Mammalian Cells,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 662–668 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chandraskhara, V.

J. A. Evans, D. S. Early, V. Chandraskhara, K. V. Chathadi, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, K. Q. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, S. F. Pasha, R. Sharaf, A. K. Shergill, J. A. Dominitz, B. D. Cash, and ASGE Standards of Practice CommitteeAmerican Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, “The role of endoscopy in the assessment and treatment of esophageal cancer,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 77(3), 328–334 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, S.-I.

S. Lee, H. Chon, S.-Y. Yoon, E. K. Lee, S.-I. Chang, D. W. Lim, and J. Choo, “Fabrication of SERS-fluorescence dual modal nanoprobes and application to multiplex cancer cell imaging,” Nanoscale 4(1), 124–129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chathadi, K. V.

J. A. Evans, D. S. Early, V. Chandraskhara, K. V. Chathadi, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, K. Q. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, S. F. Pasha, R. Sharaf, A. K. Shergill, J. A. Dominitz, B. D. Cash, and ASGE Standards of Practice CommitteeAmerican Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, “The role of endoscopy in the assessment and treatment of esophageal cancer,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 77(3), 328–334 (2013).
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Chen, L. X.

Y. Q. Wang, B. Yan, and L. X. Chen, “SERS Tags: Novel Optical Nanoprobes for Bioanalysis,” Chem. Rev. 113(3), 1391–1428 (2013).
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Chen, Y.

Y. W. Wang, A. Khan, M. Som, D. Wang, Y. Chen, S. Y. Leigh, D. Meza, P. Z. McVeigh, B. C. Wilson, and J. T. C. Liu, “Rapid ratiometric biomarker detection with topically applied SERS nanoparticles,” Technology (Singap) 2(2), 118–132 (2014).
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Chen, Z. G.

X. Wang, X. Qian, J. J. Beitler, Z. G. Chen, F. R. Khuri, M. M. Lewis, H. J. C. Shin, S. Nie, and D. M. Shin, “Detection of circulating tumor cells in human peripheral blood using surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 71(5), 1526–1532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, Z.

J. V. Jokerst, Z. Miao, C. Zavaleta, Z. Cheng, and S. S. Gambhir, “Affibody-Functionalized Gold-Silica Nanoparticles for Raman Molecular Imaging of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor,” Small 7(5), 625–633 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Zavaleta, K. B. Hartman, Z. Miao, M. L. James, P. Kempen, A. S. Thakor, C. H. Nielsen, R. Sinclair, Z. Cheng, and S. S. Gambhir, “Preclinical evaluation of Raman nanoparticle biodistribution for their potential use in clinical endoscopy imaging,” Small 7(15), 2232–2240 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chithrani, B. D.

B. D. Chithrani, A. A. Ghazani, and W. C. W. Chan, “Determining the Size and Shape Dependence of Gold Nanoparticle Uptake into Mammalian Cells,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 662–668 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chmura, A. J.

L. Sun, K.-B. Sung, C. Dentinger, B. Lutz, L. Nguyen, J. Zhang, H. Qin, M. Yamakawa, M. Cao, Y. Lu, A. J. Chmura, J. Zhu, X. Su, A. A. Berlin, S. Chan, and B. Knudsen, “Composite organic-inorganic nanoparticles as Raman labels for tissue analysis,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 351–356 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chon, H.

S. Lee, H. Chon, S.-Y. Yoon, E. K. Lee, S.-I. Chang, D. W. Lim, and J. Choo, “Fabrication of SERS-fluorescence dual modal nanoprobes and application to multiplex cancer cell imaging,” Nanoscale 4(1), 124–129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choo, J.

S. Lee, H. Chon, S.-Y. Yoon, E. K. Lee, S.-I. Chang, D. W. Lim, and J. Choo, “Fabrication of SERS-fluorescence dual modal nanoprobes and application to multiplex cancer cell imaging,” Nanoscale 4(1), 124–129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, P.

A. S. Thakor, R. Luong, R. Paulmurugan, F. I. Lin, P. Kempen, C. Zavaleta, P. Chu, T. F. Massoud, R. Sinclair, and S. S. Gambhir, “The fate and toxicity of Raman-active silica-gold nanoparticles in mice,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(79), 79ra33 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Contag, C. H.

E. Garai, S. Sensarn, C. L. Zavaleta, D. V. d. Sompel, N. O. Loewke, M. J. Mandella, S. S. Gambhir, and C. H. Contag, “High-sensitivity, real-time, ratiometric imaging of surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles with a clinically translatable Raman endoscope device,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 096008 (2013).

C. L. Zavaleta, E. Garai, J. T. C. Liu, S. Sensarn, M. J. Mandella, D. Van de Sompel, S. Friedland, J. Van Dam, C. H. Contag, and S. S. Gambhir, “A Raman-based endoscopic strategy for multiplexed molecular imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(25), E2288–E2297 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. W. Helms, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, G. S. Kino, and C. H. Contag, “Quantifying Cell-Surface Biomarker Expression in Thick Tissues with Ratiometric Three-Dimensional Microscopy,” Biophys. J. 96(6), 2405–2414 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P.-L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 454–458 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. Wang, S. Friedland, P. Sahbaie, R. Soetikno, P. L. Hsiung, J. T. C. Liu, J. M. Crawford, and C. H. Contag, “Functional Imaging of Colonic Mucosa With a Fibered Confocal Microscope for Real-Time In Vivo Pathology,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(11), 1300–1305 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cox, N. R.

T. I. Samoylova, N. E. Morrison, L. P. Globa, and N. R. Cox, “Peptide phage display: opportunities for development of personalized anti-cancer strategies,” Anticancer. Agents Med. Chem. 6(1), 9–17 (2006).
[PubMed]

Crawford, J. M.

J. T. C. Liu, M. W. Helms, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, G. S. Kino, and C. H. Contag, “Quantifying Cell-Surface Biomarker Expression in Thick Tissues with Ratiometric Three-Dimensional Microscopy,” Biophys. J. 96(6), 2405–2414 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P.-L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 454–458 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. Wang, S. Friedland, P. Sahbaie, R. Soetikno, P. L. Hsiung, J. T. C. Liu, J. M. Crawford, and C. H. Contag, “Functional Imaging of Colonic Mucosa With a Fibered Confocal Microscope for Real-Time In Vivo Pathology,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(11), 1300–1305 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cromer, R.

M. Y. Sha, H. Xu, M. J. Natan, and R. Cromer, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering tags for rapid and homogeneous detection of circulating tumor cells in the presence of human whole blood,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(51), 17214–17215 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davis, G.

C. L. Zavaleta, B. R. Smith, I. Walton, W. Doering, G. Davis, B. Shojaei, M. J. Natan, and S. S. Gambhir, “Multiplexed imaging of surface enhanced Raman scattering nanotags in living mice using noninvasive Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(32), 13511–13516 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de la Zerda, A.

M. F. Kircher, A. de la Zerda, J. V. Jokerst, C. L. Zavaleta, P. J. Kempen, E. Mittra, K. Pitter, R. Huang, C. Campos, F. Habte, R. Sinclair, C. W. Brennan, I. K. Mellinghoff, E. C. Holland, and S. S. Gambhir, “A brain tumor molecular imaging strategy using a new triple-modality MRI-photoacoustic-Raman nanoparticle,” Nat. Med. 18(5), 829–834 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dentinger, C.

L. Sun, K.-B. Sung, C. Dentinger, B. Lutz, L. Nguyen, J. Zhang, H. Qin, M. Yamakawa, M. Cao, Y. Lu, A. J. Chmura, J. Zhu, X. Su, A. A. Berlin, S. Chan, and B. Knudsen, “Composite organic-inorganic nanoparticles as Raman labels for tissue analysis,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 351–356 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dentinger, C. E.

B. R. Lutz, C. E. Dentinger, L. N. Nguyen, L. Sun, J. Zhang, A. N. Allen, S. Chan, and B. S. Knudsen, “Spectral analysis of multiplex Raman probe signatures,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2306–2314 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Devesa, S. S.

D. M. Parkin, F. I. Bray, and S. S. Devesa, “Cancer burden in the year 2000. The global picture,” Eur. J. Cancer 37(Suppl 8), 4–66 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Doering, W.

C. L. Zavaleta, B. R. Smith, I. Walton, W. Doering, G. Davis, B. Shojaei, M. J. Natan, and S. S. Gambhir, “Multiplexed imaging of surface enhanced Raman scattering nanotags in living mice using noninvasive Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(32), 13511–13516 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Doering, W. E.

W. E. Doering, M. E. Piotti, M. J. Natan, and R. G. Freeman, “SERS as a Foundation for Nanoscale, Optically Detected Biological Labels,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3100–3108 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dominitz, J. A.

J. A. Evans, D. S. Early, V. Chandraskhara, K. V. Chathadi, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, K. Q. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, S. F. Pasha, R. Sharaf, A. K. Shergill, J. A. Dominitz, B. D. Cash, and ASGE Standards of Practice CommitteeAmerican Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, “The role of endoscopy in the assessment and treatment of esophageal cancer,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 77(3), 328–334 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Du, C. B.

P.-L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 454–458 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Early, D. S.

J. A. Evans, D. S. Early, V. Chandraskhara, K. V. Chathadi, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, K. Q. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, S. F. Pasha, R. Sharaf, A. K. Shergill, J. A. Dominitz, B. D. Cash, and ASGE Standards of Practice CommitteeAmerican Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, “The role of endoscopy in the assessment and treatment of esophageal cancer,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 77(3), 328–334 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elmunzer, B. J.

M. B. Sturm, B. P. Joshi, S. Lu, C. Piraka, S. Khondee, B. J. Elmunzer, R. S. Kwon, D. G. Beer, H. D. Appelman, D. K. Turgeon, and T. D. Wang, “Targeted imaging of esophageal neoplasia with a fluorescently labeled peptide: first-in-human results,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(184), 184ra61 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eng, W. S.

E. L. Bird-Lieberman, A. A. Neves, P. Lao-Sirieix, M. O’Donovan, M. Novelli, L. B. Lovat, W. S. Eng, L. K. Mahal, K. M. Brindle, and R. C. Fitzgerald, “Molecular imaging using fluorescent lectins permits rapid endoscopic identification of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Nat. Med. 18(2), 315–321 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. L. Bird-Lieberman, A. A. Neves, P. Lao-Sirieix, M. O’Donovan, M. Novelli, L. B. Lovat, W. S. Eng, L. K. Mahal, K. M. Brindle, and R. C. Fitzgerald, “Molecular imaging using fluorescent lectins permits rapid endoscopic identification of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Nat. Med. 18(2), 315–321 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ertan, A.

M. Younes, D. E. Henson, A. Ertan, and C. C. Miller, “Incidence and survival trends of esophageal carcinoma in the United States: racial and gender differences by histological type,” Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 37(12), 1359–1365 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Evans, J. A.

J. A. Evans, D. S. Early, V. Chandraskhara, K. V. Chathadi, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, K. Q. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, S. F. Pasha, R. Sharaf, A. K. Shergill, J. A. Dominitz, B. D. Cash, and ASGE Standards of Practice CommitteeAmerican Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, “The role of endoscopy in the assessment and treatment of esophageal cancer,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 77(3), 328–334 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fanelli, R. D.

J. A. Evans, D. S. Early, V. Chandraskhara, K. V. Chathadi, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, K. Q. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, S. F. Pasha, R. Sharaf, A. K. Shergill, J. A. Dominitz, B. D. Cash, and ASGE Standards of Practice CommitteeAmerican Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, “The role of endoscopy in the assessment and treatment of esophageal cancer,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 77(3), 328–334 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fisher, D. A.

J. A. Evans, D. S. Early, V. Chandraskhara, K. V. Chathadi, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, K. Q. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, S. F. Pasha, R. Sharaf, A. K. Shergill, J. A. Dominitz, B. D. Cash, and ASGE Standards of Practice CommitteeAmerican Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, “The role of endoscopy in the assessment and treatment of esophageal cancer,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 77(3), 328–334 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fitzgerald, R. C.

E. L. Bird-Lieberman, A. A. Neves, P. Lao-Sirieix, M. O’Donovan, M. Novelli, L. B. Lovat, W. S. Eng, L. K. Mahal, K. M. Brindle, and R. C. Fitzgerald, “Molecular imaging using fluorescent lectins permits rapid endoscopic identification of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Nat. Med. 18(2), 315–321 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. L. Bird-Lieberman, A. A. Neves, P. Lao-Sirieix, M. O’Donovan, M. Novelli, L. B. Lovat, W. S. Eng, L. K. Mahal, K. M. Brindle, and R. C. Fitzgerald, “Molecular imaging using fluorescent lectins permits rapid endoscopic identification of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Nat. Med. 18(2), 315–321 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Foley, K. Q.

J. A. Evans, D. S. Early, V. Chandraskhara, K. V. Chathadi, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, K. Q. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, S. F. Pasha, R. Sharaf, A. K. Shergill, J. A. Dominitz, B. D. Cash, and ASGE Standards of Practice CommitteeAmerican Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, “The role of endoscopy in the assessment and treatment of esophageal cancer,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 77(3), 328–334 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freeman, R. G.

W. E. Doering, M. E. Piotti, M. J. Natan, and R. G. Freeman, “SERS as a Foundation for Nanoscale, Optically Detected Biological Labels,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3100–3108 (2007).
[Crossref]

Friedland, S.

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C. L. Zavaleta, E. Garai, J. T. C. Liu, S. Sensarn, M. J. Mandella, D. Van de Sompel, S. Friedland, J. Van Dam, C. H. Contag, and S. S. Gambhir, “A Raman-based endoscopic strategy for multiplexed molecular imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(25), E2288–E2297 (2013).
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S. E. Bohndiek, A. Wagadarikar, C. L. Zavaleta, D. Van de Sompel, E. Garai, J. V. Jokerst, S. Yazdanfar, and S. S. Gambhir, “A small animal Raman instrument for rapid, wide-area, spectroscopic imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(30), 12408–12413 (2013).
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J. T. C. Liu, M. W. Helms, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, G. S. Kino, and C. H. Contag, “Quantifying Cell-Surface Biomarker Expression in Thick Tissues with Ratiometric Three-Dimensional Microscopy,” Biophys. J. 96(6), 2405–2414 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. Wang, S. Friedland, P. Sahbaie, R. Soetikno, P. L. Hsiung, J. T. C. Liu, J. M. Crawford, and C. H. Contag, “Functional Imaging of Colonic Mucosa With a Fibered Confocal Microscope for Real-Time In Vivo Pathology,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(11), 1300–1305 (2007).
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E. Garai, S. Sensarn, C. L. Zavaleta, D. V. d. Sompel, N. O. Loewke, M. J. Mandella, S. S. Gambhir, and C. H. Contag, “High-sensitivity, real-time, ratiometric imaging of surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles with a clinically translatable Raman endoscope device,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 096008 (2013).

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J. C. Layke and P. P. Lopez, “Esophageal cancer: a review and update,” Am. Fam. Physician 73(12), 2187–2194 (2006).
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E. L. Bird-Lieberman, A. A. Neves, P. Lao-Sirieix, M. O’Donovan, M. Novelli, L. B. Lovat, W. S. Eng, L. K. Mahal, K. M. Brindle, and R. C. Fitzgerald, “Molecular imaging using fluorescent lectins permits rapid endoscopic identification of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Nat. Med. 18(2), 315–321 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. L. Bird-Lieberman, A. A. Neves, P. Lao-Sirieix, M. O’Donovan, M. Novelli, L. B. Lovat, W. S. Eng, L. K. Mahal, K. M. Brindle, and R. C. Fitzgerald, “Molecular imaging using fluorescent lectins permits rapid endoscopic identification of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Nat. Med. 18(2), 315–321 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lowe, A. W.

P.-L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 454–458 (2008).
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M. B. Sturm, B. P. Joshi, S. Lu, C. Piraka, S. Khondee, B. J. Elmunzer, R. S. Kwon, D. G. Beer, H. D. Appelman, D. K. Turgeon, and T. D. Wang, “Targeted imaging of esophageal neoplasia with a fluorescently labeled peptide: first-in-human results,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(184), 184ra61 (2013).
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Lu, Y.

L. Sun, K.-B. Sung, C. Dentinger, B. Lutz, L. Nguyen, J. Zhang, H. Qin, M. Yamakawa, M. Cao, Y. Lu, A. J. Chmura, J. Zhu, X. Su, A. A. Berlin, S. Chan, and B. Knudsen, “Composite organic-inorganic nanoparticles as Raman labels for tissue analysis,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 351–356 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luong, R.

A. S. Thakor, R. Luong, R. Paulmurugan, F. I. Lin, P. Kempen, C. Zavaleta, P. Chu, T. F. Massoud, R. Sinclair, and S. S. Gambhir, “The fate and toxicity of Raman-active silica-gold nanoparticles in mice,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(79), 79ra33 (2011).
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Lutz, B.

L. Sun, K.-B. Sung, C. Dentinger, B. Lutz, L. Nguyen, J. Zhang, H. Qin, M. Yamakawa, M. Cao, Y. Lu, A. J. Chmura, J. Zhu, X. Su, A. A. Berlin, S. Chan, and B. Knudsen, “Composite organic-inorganic nanoparticles as Raman labels for tissue analysis,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 351–356 (2007).
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B. R. Lutz, C. E. Dentinger, L. N. Nguyen, L. Sun, J. Zhang, A. N. Allen, S. Chan, and B. S. Knudsen, “Spectral analysis of multiplex Raman probe signatures,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2306–2314 (2008).
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Mahal, L. K.

E. L. Bird-Lieberman, A. A. Neves, P. Lao-Sirieix, M. O’Donovan, M. Novelli, L. B. Lovat, W. S. Eng, L. K. Mahal, K. M. Brindle, and R. C. Fitzgerald, “Molecular imaging using fluorescent lectins permits rapid endoscopic identification of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Nat. Med. 18(2), 315–321 (2012).
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E. L. Bird-Lieberman, A. A. Neves, P. Lao-Sirieix, M. O’Donovan, M. Novelli, L. B. Lovat, W. S. Eng, L. K. Mahal, K. M. Brindle, and R. C. Fitzgerald, “Molecular imaging using fluorescent lectins permits rapid endoscopic identification of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Nat. Med. 18(2), 315–321 (2012).
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Mallia, R. J.

P. Z. McVeigh, R. J. Mallia, I. Veilleux, and B. C. Wilson, “Widefield quantitative multiplex surface enhanced Raman scattering imaging in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(4), 046011 (2013).
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R. J. Mallia, P. Z. McVeigh, I. Veilleux, and B. C. Wilson, “Filter-based method for background removal in high-sensitivity wide-field-surface-enhanced Raman scattering imaging in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 076017 (2012).
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A. M. Mohs, M. C. Mancini, S. Singhal, J. M. Provenzale, B. Leyland-Jones, M. D. Wang, and S. Nie, “Hand-held spectroscopic device for in vivo and intraoperative tumor detection: contrast enhancement, detection sensitivity, and tissue penetration,” Anal. Chem. 82(21), 9058–9065 (2010).
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Mandella, M. J.

C. L. Zavaleta, E. Garai, J. T. C. Liu, S. Sensarn, M. J. Mandella, D. Van de Sompel, S. Friedland, J. Van Dam, C. H. Contag, and S. S. Gambhir, “A Raman-based endoscopic strategy for multiplexed molecular imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(25), E2288–E2297 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Garai, S. Sensarn, C. L. Zavaleta, D. V. d. Sompel, N. O. Loewke, M. J. Mandella, S. S. Gambhir, and C. H. Contag, “High-sensitivity, real-time, ratiometric imaging of surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles with a clinically translatable Raman endoscope device,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 096008 (2013).

J. T. C. Liu, M. W. Helms, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, G. S. Kino, and C. H. Contag, “Quantifying Cell-Surface Biomarker Expression in Thick Tissues with Ratiometric Three-Dimensional Microscopy,” Biophys. J. 96(6), 2405–2414 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Massoud, T. F.

A. S. Thakor, R. Luong, R. Paulmurugan, F. I. Lin, P. Kempen, C. Zavaleta, P. Chu, T. F. Massoud, R. Sinclair, and S. S. Gambhir, “The fate and toxicity of Raman-active silica-gold nanoparticles in mice,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(79), 79ra33 (2011).
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T. Hori, Y. Yamashita, M. Ohira, Y. Matsumura, K. Muguruma, and K. Hirakawa, “A novel orthotopic implantation model of human esophageal carcinoma in nude rats: CD44H mediates cancer cell invasion in vitro and in vivo,” Int. J. Cancer 92(4), 489–496 (2001).
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Y. W. Wang, A. Khan, M. Som, D. Wang, Y. Chen, S. Y. Leigh, D. Meza, P. Z. McVeigh, B. C. Wilson, and J. T. C. Liu, “Rapid ratiometric biomarker detection with topically applied SERS nanoparticles,” Technology (Singap) 2(2), 118–132 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Z. McVeigh, R. J. Mallia, I. Veilleux, and B. C. Wilson, “Widefield quantitative multiplex surface enhanced Raman scattering imaging in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(4), 046011 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Mallia, P. Z. McVeigh, I. Veilleux, and B. C. Wilson, “Filter-based method for background removal in high-sensitivity wide-field-surface-enhanced Raman scattering imaging in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 076017 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mellinghoff, I. K.

M. F. Kircher, A. de la Zerda, J. V. Jokerst, C. L. Zavaleta, P. J. Kempen, E. Mittra, K. Pitter, R. Huang, C. Campos, F. Habte, R. Sinclair, C. W. Brennan, I. K. Mellinghoff, E. C. Holland, and S. S. Gambhir, “A brain tumor molecular imaging strategy using a new triple-modality MRI-photoacoustic-Raman nanoparticle,” Nat. Med. 18(5), 829–834 (2012).
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Y. W. Wang, A. Khan, M. Som, D. Wang, Y. Chen, S. Y. Leigh, D. Meza, P. Z. McVeigh, B. C. Wilson, and J. T. C. Liu, “Rapid ratiometric biomarker detection with topically applied SERS nanoparticles,” Technology (Singap) 2(2), 118–132 (2014).
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C. L. Zavaleta, K. B. Hartman, Z. Miao, M. L. James, P. Kempen, A. S. Thakor, C. H. Nielsen, R. Sinclair, Z. Cheng, and S. S. Gambhir, “Preclinical evaluation of Raman nanoparticle biodistribution for their potential use in clinical endoscopy imaging,” Small 7(15), 2232–2240 (2011).
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J. V. Jokerst, Z. Miao, C. Zavaleta, Z. Cheng, and S. S. Gambhir, “Affibody-Functionalized Gold-Silica Nanoparticles for Raman Molecular Imaging of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor,” Small 7(5), 625–633 (2011).
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M. Younes, D. E. Henson, A. Ertan, and C. C. Miller, “Incidence and survival trends of esophageal carcinoma in the United States: racial and gender differences by histological type,” Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 37(12), 1359–1365 (2002).
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M. F. Kircher, A. de la Zerda, J. V. Jokerst, C. L. Zavaleta, P. J. Kempen, E. Mittra, K. Pitter, R. Huang, C. Campos, F. Habte, R. Sinclair, C. W. Brennan, I. K. Mellinghoff, E. C. Holland, and S. S. Gambhir, “A brain tumor molecular imaging strategy using a new triple-modality MRI-photoacoustic-Raman nanoparticle,” Nat. Med. 18(5), 829–834 (2012).
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Mohs, A. M.

A. M. Mohs, M. C. Mancini, S. Singhal, J. M. Provenzale, B. Leyland-Jones, M. D. Wang, and S. Nie, “Hand-held spectroscopic device for in vivo and intraoperative tumor detection: contrast enhancement, detection sensitivity, and tissue penetration,” Anal. Chem. 82(21), 9058–9065 (2010).
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Morrison, N. E.

T. I. Samoylova, N. E. Morrison, L. P. Globa, and N. R. Cox, “Peptide phage display: opportunities for development of personalized anti-cancer strategies,” Anticancer. Agents Med. Chem. 6(1), 9–17 (2006).
[PubMed]

Muguruma, K.

T. Hori, Y. Yamashita, M. Ohira, Y. Matsumura, K. Muguruma, and K. Hirakawa, “A novel orthotopic implantation model of human esophageal carcinoma in nude rats: CD44H mediates cancer cell invasion in vitro and in vivo,” Int. J. Cancer 92(4), 489–496 (2001).
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S. P. Mulvaney, M. D. Musick, C. D. Keating, and M. J. Natan, “Glass-Coated, Analyte-Tagged Nanoparticles: A New Tagging System Based on Detection with Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” Langmuir 19(11), 4784–4790 (2003).
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S. P. Mulvaney, M. D. Musick, C. D. Keating, and M. J. Natan, “Glass-Coated, Analyte-Tagged Nanoparticles: A New Tagging System Based on Detection with Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” Langmuir 19(11), 4784–4790 (2003).
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Natan, M. J.

C. L. Zavaleta, B. R. Smith, I. Walton, W. Doering, G. Davis, B. Shojaei, M. J. Natan, and S. S. Gambhir, “Multiplexed imaging of surface enhanced Raman scattering nanotags in living mice using noninvasive Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(32), 13511–13516 (2009).
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M. Y. Sha, H. Xu, M. J. Natan, and R. Cromer, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering tags for rapid and homogeneous detection of circulating tumor cells in the presence of human whole blood,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(51), 17214–17215 (2008).
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W. E. Doering, M. E. Piotti, M. J. Natan, and R. G. Freeman, “SERS as a Foundation for Nanoscale, Optically Detected Biological Labels,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3100–3108 (2007).
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S. P. Mulvaney, M. D. Musick, C. D. Keating, and M. J. Natan, “Glass-Coated, Analyte-Tagged Nanoparticles: A New Tagging System Based on Detection with Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” Langmuir 19(11), 4784–4790 (2003).
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Neurath, M. F.

R. Kiesslich, M. Goetz, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Technology insight: confocal laser endoscopy for in vivo diagnosis of colorectal cancer,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Oncol. 4(8), 480–490 (2007).
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E. L. Bird-Lieberman, A. A. Neves, P. Lao-Sirieix, M. O’Donovan, M. Novelli, L. B. Lovat, W. S. Eng, L. K. Mahal, K. M. Brindle, and R. C. Fitzgerald, “Molecular imaging using fluorescent lectins permits rapid endoscopic identification of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Nat. Med. 18(2), 315–321 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. L. Bird-Lieberman, A. A. Neves, P. Lao-Sirieix, M. O’Donovan, M. Novelli, L. B. Lovat, W. S. Eng, L. K. Mahal, K. M. Brindle, and R. C. Fitzgerald, “Molecular imaging using fluorescent lectins permits rapid endoscopic identification of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Nat. Med. 18(2), 315–321 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nguyen, L.

L. Sun, K.-B. Sung, C. Dentinger, B. Lutz, L. Nguyen, J. Zhang, H. Qin, M. Yamakawa, M. Cao, Y. Lu, A. J. Chmura, J. Zhu, X. Su, A. A. Berlin, S. Chan, and B. Knudsen, “Composite organic-inorganic nanoparticles as Raman labels for tissue analysis,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 351–356 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nguyen, L. N.

B. R. Lutz, C. E. Dentinger, L. N. Nguyen, L. Sun, J. Zhang, A. N. Allen, S. Chan, and B. S. Knudsen, “Spectral analysis of multiplex Raman probe signatures,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2306–2314 (2008).
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Q. T. Nguyen and R. Y. Tsien, “Fluorescence-guided surgery with live molecular navigation--a new cutting edge,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 13(9), 653–662 (2013).
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X. Wang, X. Qian, J. J. Beitler, Z. G. Chen, F. R. Khuri, M. M. Lewis, H. J. C. Shin, S. Nie, and D. M. Shin, “Detection of circulating tumor cells in human peripheral blood using surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 71(5), 1526–1532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Mohs, M. C. Mancini, S. Singhal, J. M. Provenzale, B. Leyland-Jones, M. D. Wang, and S. Nie, “Hand-held spectroscopic device for in vivo and intraoperative tumor detection: contrast enhancement, detection sensitivity, and tissue penetration,” Anal. Chem. 82(21), 9058–9065 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nielsen, C. H.

C. L. Zavaleta, K. B. Hartman, Z. Miao, M. L. James, P. Kempen, A. S. Thakor, C. H. Nielsen, R. Sinclair, Z. Cheng, and S. S. Gambhir, “Preclinical evaluation of Raman nanoparticle biodistribution for their potential use in clinical endoscopy imaging,” Small 7(15), 2232–2240 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Novelli, M.

E. L. Bird-Lieberman, A. A. Neves, P. Lao-Sirieix, M. O’Donovan, M. Novelli, L. B. Lovat, W. S. Eng, L. K. Mahal, K. M. Brindle, and R. C. Fitzgerald, “Molecular imaging using fluorescent lectins permits rapid endoscopic identification of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Nat. Med. 18(2), 315–321 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. L. Bird-Lieberman, A. A. Neves, P. Lao-Sirieix, M. O’Donovan, M. Novelli, L. B. Lovat, W. S. Eng, L. K. Mahal, K. M. Brindle, and R. C. Fitzgerald, “Molecular imaging using fluorescent lectins permits rapid endoscopic identification of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Nat. Med. 18(2), 315–321 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Donovan, M.

E. L. Bird-Lieberman, A. A. Neves, P. Lao-Sirieix, M. O’Donovan, M. Novelli, L. B. Lovat, W. S. Eng, L. K. Mahal, K. M. Brindle, and R. C. Fitzgerald, “Molecular imaging using fluorescent lectins permits rapid endoscopic identification of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Nat. Med. 18(2), 315–321 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. L. Bird-Lieberman, A. A. Neves, P. Lao-Sirieix, M. O’Donovan, M. Novelli, L. B. Lovat, W. S. Eng, L. K. Mahal, K. M. Brindle, and R. C. Fitzgerald, “Molecular imaging using fluorescent lectins permits rapid endoscopic identification of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Nat. Med. 18(2), 315–321 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohira, M.

T. Hori, Y. Yamashita, M. Ohira, Y. Matsumura, K. Muguruma, and K. Hirakawa, “A novel orthotopic implantation model of human esophageal carcinoma in nude rats: CD44H mediates cancer cell invasion in vitro and in vivo,” Int. J. Cancer 92(4), 489–496 (2001).
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D. M. Parkin, F. I. Bray, and S. S. Devesa, “Cancer burden in the year 2000. The global picture,” Eur. J. Cancer 37(Suppl 8), 4–66 (2001).
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J. A. Evans, D. S. Early, V. Chandraskhara, K. V. Chathadi, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, K. Q. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, S. F. Pasha, R. Sharaf, A. K. Shergill, J. A. Dominitz, B. D. Cash, and ASGE Standards of Practice CommitteeAmerican Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, “The role of endoscopy in the assessment and treatment of esophageal cancer,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 77(3), 328–334 (2013).
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Paulmurugan, R.

A. S. Thakor, R. Luong, R. Paulmurugan, F. I. Lin, P. Kempen, C. Zavaleta, P. Chu, T. F. Massoud, R. Sinclair, and S. S. Gambhir, “The fate and toxicity of Raman-active silica-gold nanoparticles in mice,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(79), 79ra33 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piotti, M. E.

W. E. Doering, M. E. Piotti, M. J. Natan, and R. G. Freeman, “SERS as a Foundation for Nanoscale, Optically Detected Biological Labels,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3100–3108 (2007).
[Crossref]

Piraka, C.

M. B. Sturm, B. P. Joshi, S. Lu, C. Piraka, S. Khondee, B. J. Elmunzer, R. S. Kwon, D. G. Beer, H. D. Appelman, D. K. Turgeon, and T. D. Wang, “Targeted imaging of esophageal neoplasia with a fluorescently labeled peptide: first-in-human results,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(184), 184ra61 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pitter, K.

M. F. Kircher, A. de la Zerda, J. V. Jokerst, C. L. Zavaleta, P. J. Kempen, E. Mittra, K. Pitter, R. Huang, C. Campos, F. Habte, R. Sinclair, C. W. Brennan, I. K. Mellinghoff, E. C. Holland, and S. S. Gambhir, “A brain tumor molecular imaging strategy using a new triple-modality MRI-photoacoustic-Raman nanoparticle,” Nat. Med. 18(5), 829–834 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pogue, B. W.

K. M. Tichauer, K. S. Samkoe, K. J. Sexton, J. R. Gunn, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “Improved tumor contrast achieved by single time point dual-reporter fluorescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Tichauer, K. S. Samkoe, K. J. Sexton, S. K. Hextrum, H. H. Yang, W. S. Klubben, J. R. Gunn, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “In vivo quantification of tumor receptor binding potential with dual-reporter molecular imaging,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 14(5), 584–592 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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A. P. Polednak, “Trends in survival for both histologic types of esophageal cancer in US surveillance, epidemiology and end results areas,” Int. J. Cancer 105(1), 98–100 (2003).
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Provenzale, J. M.

A. M. Mohs, M. C. Mancini, S. Singhal, J. M. Provenzale, B. Leyland-Jones, M. D. Wang, and S. Nie, “Hand-held spectroscopic device for in vivo and intraoperative tumor detection: contrast enhancement, detection sensitivity, and tissue penetration,” Anal. Chem. 82(21), 9058–9065 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qian, X.

X. Wang, X. Qian, J. J. Beitler, Z. G. Chen, F. R. Khuri, M. M. Lewis, H. J. C. Shin, S. Nie, and D. M. Shin, “Detection of circulating tumor cells in human peripheral blood using surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 71(5), 1526–1532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qin, H.

L. Sun, K.-B. Sung, C. Dentinger, B. Lutz, L. Nguyen, J. Zhang, H. Qin, M. Yamakawa, M. Cao, Y. Lu, A. J. Chmura, J. Zhu, X. Su, A. A. Berlin, S. Chan, and B. Knudsen, “Composite organic-inorganic nanoparticles as Raman labels for tissue analysis,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 351–356 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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A. Hellebust and R. Richards-Kortum, “Advances in molecular imaging: targeted optical contrast agents for cancer diagnostics,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 7(3), 429–445 (2012).
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Sahbaie, P.

P.-L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 454–458 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. Wang, S. Friedland, P. Sahbaie, R. Soetikno, P. L. Hsiung, J. T. C. Liu, J. M. Crawford, and C. H. Contag, “Functional Imaging of Colonic Mucosa With a Fibered Confocal Microscope for Real-Time In Vivo Pathology,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(11), 1300–1305 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Samkoe, K. S.

K. M. Tichauer, K. S. Samkoe, K. J. Sexton, S. K. Hextrum, H. H. Yang, W. S. Klubben, J. R. Gunn, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “In vivo quantification of tumor receptor binding potential with dual-reporter molecular imaging,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 14(5), 584–592 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Tichauer, K. S. Samkoe, K. J. Sexton, J. R. Gunn, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “Improved tumor contrast achieved by single time point dual-reporter fluorescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Samoylova, T. I.

T. I. Samoylova, N. E. Morrison, L. P. Globa, and N. R. Cox, “Peptide phage display: opportunities for development of personalized anti-cancer strategies,” Anticancer. Agents Med. Chem. 6(1), 9–17 (2006).
[PubMed]

Sensarn, S.

E. Garai, S. Sensarn, C. L. Zavaleta, D. V. d. Sompel, N. O. Loewke, M. J. Mandella, S. S. Gambhir, and C. H. Contag, “High-sensitivity, real-time, ratiometric imaging of surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles with a clinically translatable Raman endoscope device,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 096008 (2013).

C. L. Zavaleta, E. Garai, J. T. C. Liu, S. Sensarn, M. J. Mandella, D. Van de Sompel, S. Friedland, J. Van Dam, C. H. Contag, and S. S. Gambhir, “A Raman-based endoscopic strategy for multiplexed molecular imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(25), E2288–E2297 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sexton, K. J.

K. M. Tichauer, K. S. Samkoe, K. J. Sexton, J. R. Gunn, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “Improved tumor contrast achieved by single time point dual-reporter fluorescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Tichauer, K. S. Samkoe, K. J. Sexton, S. K. Hextrum, H. H. Yang, W. S. Klubben, J. R. Gunn, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “In vivo quantification of tumor receptor binding potential with dual-reporter molecular imaging,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 14(5), 584–592 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. Y. Sha, H. Xu, M. J. Natan, and R. Cromer, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering tags for rapid and homogeneous detection of circulating tumor cells in the presence of human whole blood,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(51), 17214–17215 (2008).
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J. A. Evans, D. S. Early, V. Chandraskhara, K. V. Chathadi, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, K. Q. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, S. F. Pasha, R. Sharaf, A. K. Shergill, J. A. Dominitz, B. D. Cash, and ASGE Standards of Practice CommitteeAmerican Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, “The role of endoscopy in the assessment and treatment of esophageal cancer,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 77(3), 328–334 (2013).
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J. A. Evans, D. S. Early, V. Chandraskhara, K. V. Chathadi, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, K. Q. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, S. F. Pasha, R. Sharaf, A. K. Shergill, J. A. Dominitz, B. D. Cash, and ASGE Standards of Practice CommitteeAmerican Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, “The role of endoscopy in the assessment and treatment of esophageal cancer,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 77(3), 328–334 (2013).
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X. Wang, X. Qian, J. J. Beitler, Z. G. Chen, F. R. Khuri, M. M. Lewis, H. J. C. Shin, S. Nie, and D. M. Shin, “Detection of circulating tumor cells in human peripheral blood using surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 71(5), 1526–1532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shin, H. J. C.

X. Wang, X. Qian, J. J. Beitler, Z. G. Chen, F. R. Khuri, M. M. Lewis, H. J. C. Shin, S. Nie, and D. M. Shin, “Detection of circulating tumor cells in human peripheral blood using surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 71(5), 1526–1532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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C. L. Zavaleta, B. R. Smith, I. Walton, W. Doering, G. Davis, B. Shojaei, M. J. Natan, and S. S. Gambhir, “Multiplexed imaging of surface enhanced Raman scattering nanotags in living mice using noninvasive Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(32), 13511–13516 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sinclair, R.

M. F. Kircher, A. de la Zerda, J. V. Jokerst, C. L. Zavaleta, P. J. Kempen, E. Mittra, K. Pitter, R. Huang, C. Campos, F. Habte, R. Sinclair, C. W. Brennan, I. K. Mellinghoff, E. C. Holland, and S. S. Gambhir, “A brain tumor molecular imaging strategy using a new triple-modality MRI-photoacoustic-Raman nanoparticle,” Nat. Med. 18(5), 829–834 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Thakor, R. Luong, R. Paulmurugan, F. I. Lin, P. Kempen, C. Zavaleta, P. Chu, T. F. Massoud, R. Sinclair, and S. S. Gambhir, “The fate and toxicity of Raman-active silica-gold nanoparticles in mice,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(79), 79ra33 (2011).
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C. L. Zavaleta, K. B. Hartman, Z. Miao, M. L. James, P. Kempen, A. S. Thakor, C. H. Nielsen, R. Sinclair, Z. Cheng, and S. S. Gambhir, “Preclinical evaluation of Raman nanoparticle biodistribution for their potential use in clinical endoscopy imaging,” Small 7(15), 2232–2240 (2011).
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A. M. Mohs, M. C. Mancini, S. Singhal, J. M. Provenzale, B. Leyland-Jones, M. D. Wang, and S. Nie, “Hand-held spectroscopic device for in vivo and intraoperative tumor detection: contrast enhancement, detection sensitivity, and tissue penetration,” Anal. Chem. 82(21), 9058–9065 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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C. L. Zavaleta, B. R. Smith, I. Walton, W. Doering, G. Davis, B. Shojaei, M. J. Natan, and S. S. Gambhir, “Multiplexed imaging of surface enhanced Raman scattering nanotags in living mice using noninvasive Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(32), 13511–13516 (2009).
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P.-L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 454–458 (2008).
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T. D. Wang, S. Friedland, P. Sahbaie, R. Soetikno, P. L. Hsiung, J. T. C. Liu, J. M. Crawford, and C. H. Contag, “Functional Imaging of Colonic Mucosa With a Fibered Confocal Microscope for Real-Time In Vivo Pathology,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(11), 1300–1305 (2007).
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Y. W. Wang, A. Khan, M. Som, D. Wang, Y. Chen, S. Y. Leigh, D. Meza, P. Z. McVeigh, B. C. Wilson, and J. T. C. Liu, “Rapid ratiometric biomarker detection with topically applied SERS nanoparticles,” Technology (Singap) 2(2), 118–132 (2014).
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S. Y. Leigh, M. Som, and J. T. C. Liu, “Method for Assessing the Reliability of Molecular Diagnostics Based on Multiplexed SERS-Coded Nanoparticles,” PLoS ONE 8(4), e62084 (2013).
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E. Garai, S. Sensarn, C. L. Zavaleta, D. V. d. Sompel, N. O. Loewke, M. J. Mandella, S. S. Gambhir, and C. H. Contag, “High-sensitivity, real-time, ratiometric imaging of surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles with a clinically translatable Raman endoscope device,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 096008 (2013).

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G. D. Stoner and L. S. Wang, “Chemoprevention of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with berries,” Top. Curr. Chem. 329, 1–20 (2012).
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G. D. Stoner and A. Gupta, “Etiology and chemoprevention of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” Carcinogenesis 22(11), 1737–1746 (2001).
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X. Su, J. Zhang, L. Sun, T. W. Koo, S. Chan, N. Sundararajan, M. Yamakawa, and A. A. Berlin, “Composite organic-inorganic nanoparticles (COINs) with chemically encoded optical signatures,” Nano Lett. 5(1), 49–54 (2005).
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B. R. Lutz, C. E. Dentinger, L. N. Nguyen, L. Sun, J. Zhang, A. N. Allen, S. Chan, and B. S. Knudsen, “Spectral analysis of multiplex Raman probe signatures,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2306–2314 (2008).
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L. Sun, K.-B. Sung, C. Dentinger, B. Lutz, L. Nguyen, J. Zhang, H. Qin, M. Yamakawa, M. Cao, Y. Lu, A. J. Chmura, J. Zhu, X. Su, A. A. Berlin, S. Chan, and B. Knudsen, “Composite organic-inorganic nanoparticles as Raman labels for tissue analysis,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 351–356 (2007).
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X. Su, J. Zhang, L. Sun, T. W. Koo, S. Chan, N. Sundararajan, M. Yamakawa, and A. A. Berlin, “Composite organic-inorganic nanoparticles (COINs) with chemically encoded optical signatures,” Nano Lett. 5(1), 49–54 (2005).
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X. Su, J. Zhang, L. Sun, T. W. Koo, S. Chan, N. Sundararajan, M. Yamakawa, and A. A. Berlin, “Composite organic-inorganic nanoparticles (COINs) with chemically encoded optical signatures,” Nano Lett. 5(1), 49–54 (2005).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thakor, A. S.

C. L. Zavaleta, K. B. Hartman, Z. Miao, M. L. James, P. Kempen, A. S. Thakor, C. H. Nielsen, R. Sinclair, Z. Cheng, and S. S. Gambhir, “Preclinical evaluation of Raman nanoparticle biodistribution for their potential use in clinical endoscopy imaging,” Small 7(15), 2232–2240 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Thakor, R. Luong, R. Paulmurugan, F. I. Lin, P. Kempen, C. Zavaleta, P. Chu, T. F. Massoud, R. Sinclair, and S. S. Gambhir, “The fate and toxicity of Raman-active silica-gold nanoparticles in mice,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(79), 79ra33 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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K. M. Tichauer, K. S. Samkoe, K. J. Sexton, J. R. Gunn, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “Improved tumor contrast achieved by single time point dual-reporter fluorescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Tichauer, K. S. Samkoe, K. J. Sexton, S. K. Hextrum, H. H. Yang, W. S. Klubben, J. R. Gunn, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “In vivo quantification of tumor receptor binding potential with dual-reporter molecular imaging,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 14(5), 584–592 (2012).
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M. B. Sturm, B. P. Joshi, S. Lu, C. Piraka, S. Khondee, B. J. Elmunzer, R. S. Kwon, D. G. Beer, H. D. Appelman, D. K. Turgeon, and T. D. Wang, “Targeted imaging of esophageal neoplasia with a fluorescently labeled peptide: first-in-human results,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(184), 184ra61 (2013).
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Van Dam, J.

C. L. Zavaleta, E. Garai, J. T. C. Liu, S. Sensarn, M. J. Mandella, D. Van de Sompel, S. Friedland, J. Van Dam, C. H. Contag, and S. S. Gambhir, “A Raman-based endoscopic strategy for multiplexed molecular imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(25), E2288–E2297 (2013).
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C. L. Zavaleta, E. Garai, J. T. C. Liu, S. Sensarn, M. J. Mandella, D. Van de Sompel, S. Friedland, J. Van Dam, C. H. Contag, and S. S. Gambhir, “A Raman-based endoscopic strategy for multiplexed molecular imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(25), E2288–E2297 (2013).
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S. E. Bohndiek, A. Wagadarikar, C. L. Zavaleta, D. Van de Sompel, E. Garai, J. V. Jokerst, S. Yazdanfar, and S. S. Gambhir, “A small animal Raman instrument for rapid, wide-area, spectroscopic imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(30), 12408–12413 (2013).
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P. Z. McVeigh, R. J. Mallia, I. Veilleux, and B. C. Wilson, “Widefield quantitative multiplex surface enhanced Raman scattering imaging in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(4), 046011 (2013).
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R. J. Mallia, P. Z. McVeigh, I. Veilleux, and B. C. Wilson, “Filter-based method for background removal in high-sensitivity wide-field-surface-enhanced Raman scattering imaging in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 076017 (2012).
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S. E. Bohndiek, A. Wagadarikar, C. L. Zavaleta, D. Van de Sompel, E. Garai, J. V. Jokerst, S. Yazdanfar, and S. S. Gambhir, “A small animal Raman instrument for rapid, wide-area, spectroscopic imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(30), 12408–12413 (2013).
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Walton, I.

C. L. Zavaleta, B. R. Smith, I. Walton, W. Doering, G. Davis, B. Shojaei, M. J. Natan, and S. S. Gambhir, “Multiplexed imaging of surface enhanced Raman scattering nanotags in living mice using noninvasive Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(32), 13511–13516 (2009).
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Wang, D.

Y. W. Wang, A. Khan, M. Som, D. Wang, Y. Chen, S. Y. Leigh, D. Meza, P. Z. McVeigh, B. C. Wilson, and J. T. C. Liu, “Rapid ratiometric biomarker detection with topically applied SERS nanoparticles,” Technology (Singap) 2(2), 118–132 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L. S.

G. D. Stoner and L. S. Wang, “Chemoprevention of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with berries,” Top. Curr. Chem. 329, 1–20 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, M. D.

A. M. Mohs, M. C. Mancini, S. Singhal, J. M. Provenzale, B. Leyland-Jones, M. D. Wang, and S. Nie, “Hand-held spectroscopic device for in vivo and intraoperative tumor detection: contrast enhancement, detection sensitivity, and tissue penetration,” Anal. Chem. 82(21), 9058–9065 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, T. D.

M. B. Sturm, B. P. Joshi, S. Lu, C. Piraka, S. Khondee, B. J. Elmunzer, R. S. Kwon, D. G. Beer, H. D. Appelman, D. K. Turgeon, and T. D. Wang, “Targeted imaging of esophageal neoplasia with a fluorescently labeled peptide: first-in-human results,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(184), 184ra61 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P.-L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 454–458 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. Wang, S. Friedland, P. Sahbaie, R. Soetikno, P. L. Hsiung, J. T. C. Liu, J. M. Crawford, and C. H. Contag, “Functional Imaging of Colonic Mucosa With a Fibered Confocal Microscope for Real-Time In Vivo Pathology,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(11), 1300–1305 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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X. Wang, X. Qian, J. J. Beitler, Z. G. Chen, F. R. Khuri, M. M. Lewis, H. J. C. Shin, S. Nie, and D. M. Shin, “Detection of circulating tumor cells in human peripheral blood using surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 71(5), 1526–1532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y. Q.

Y. Q. Wang, B. Yan, and L. X. Chen, “SERS Tags: Novel Optical Nanoprobes for Bioanalysis,” Chem. Rev. 113(3), 1391–1428 (2013).
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Y. W. Wang, A. Khan, M. Som, D. Wang, Y. Chen, S. Y. Leigh, D. Meza, P. Z. McVeigh, B. C. Wilson, and J. T. C. Liu, “Rapid ratiometric biomarker detection with topically applied SERS nanoparticles,” Technology (Singap) 2(2), 118–132 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y. W. Wang, A. Khan, M. Som, D. Wang, Y. Chen, S. Y. Leigh, D. Meza, P. Z. McVeigh, B. C. Wilson, and J. T. C. Liu, “Rapid ratiometric biomarker detection with topically applied SERS nanoparticles,” Technology (Singap) 2(2), 118–132 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Z. McVeigh, R. J. Mallia, I. Veilleux, and B. C. Wilson, “Widefield quantitative multiplex surface enhanced Raman scattering imaging in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(4), 046011 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Mallia, P. Z. McVeigh, I. Veilleux, and B. C. Wilson, “Filter-based method for background removal in high-sensitivity wide-field-surface-enhanced Raman scattering imaging in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 076017 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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P.-L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 454–458 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

M. Y. Sha, H. Xu, M. J. Natan, and R. Cromer, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering tags for rapid and homogeneous detection of circulating tumor cells in the presence of human whole blood,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(51), 17214–17215 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamakawa, M.

L. Sun, K.-B. Sung, C. Dentinger, B. Lutz, L. Nguyen, J. Zhang, H. Qin, M. Yamakawa, M. Cao, Y. Lu, A. J. Chmura, J. Zhu, X. Su, A. A. Berlin, S. Chan, and B. Knudsen, “Composite organic-inorganic nanoparticles as Raman labels for tissue analysis,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 351–356 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Su, J. Zhang, L. Sun, T. W. Koo, S. Chan, N. Sundararajan, M. Yamakawa, and A. A. Berlin, “Composite organic-inorganic nanoparticles (COINs) with chemically encoded optical signatures,” Nano Lett. 5(1), 49–54 (2005).
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T. Hori, Y. Yamashita, M. Ohira, Y. Matsumura, K. Muguruma, and K. Hirakawa, “A novel orthotopic implantation model of human esophageal carcinoma in nude rats: CD44H mediates cancer cell invasion in vitro and in vivo,” Int. J. Cancer 92(4), 489–496 (2001).
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Y. Q. Wang, B. Yan, and L. X. Chen, “SERS Tags: Novel Optical Nanoprobes for Bioanalysis,” Chem. Rev. 113(3), 1391–1428 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, H. H.

K. M. Tichauer, K. S. Samkoe, K. J. Sexton, S. K. Hextrum, H. H. Yang, W. S. Klubben, J. R. Gunn, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “In vivo quantification of tumor receptor binding potential with dual-reporter molecular imaging,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 14(5), 584–592 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yazdanfar, S.

S. E. Bohndiek, A. Wagadarikar, C. L. Zavaleta, D. Van de Sompel, E. Garai, J. V. Jokerst, S. Yazdanfar, and S. S. Gambhir, “A small animal Raman instrument for rapid, wide-area, spectroscopic imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(30), 12408–12413 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. Lee, H. Chon, S.-Y. Yoon, E. K. Lee, S.-I. Chang, D. W. Lim, and J. Choo, “Fabrication of SERS-fluorescence dual modal nanoprobes and application to multiplex cancer cell imaging,” Nanoscale 4(1), 124–129 (2011).
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Zavaleta, C.

J. V. Jokerst, Z. Miao, C. Zavaleta, Z. Cheng, and S. S. Gambhir, “Affibody-Functionalized Gold-Silica Nanoparticles for Raman Molecular Imaging of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor,” Small 7(5), 625–633 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Thakor, R. Luong, R. Paulmurugan, F. I. Lin, P. Kempen, C. Zavaleta, P. Chu, T. F. Massoud, R. Sinclair, and S. S. Gambhir, “The fate and toxicity of Raman-active silica-gold nanoparticles in mice,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(79), 79ra33 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zavaleta, C. L.

E. Garai, S. Sensarn, C. L. Zavaleta, D. V. d. Sompel, N. O. Loewke, M. J. Mandella, S. S. Gambhir, and C. H. Contag, “High-sensitivity, real-time, ratiometric imaging of surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles with a clinically translatable Raman endoscope device,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 096008 (2013).

S. E. Bohndiek, A. Wagadarikar, C. L. Zavaleta, D. Van de Sompel, E. Garai, J. V. Jokerst, S. Yazdanfar, and S. S. Gambhir, “A small animal Raman instrument for rapid, wide-area, spectroscopic imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(30), 12408–12413 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Zavaleta, E. Garai, J. T. C. Liu, S. Sensarn, M. J. Mandella, D. Van de Sompel, S. Friedland, J. Van Dam, C. H. Contag, and S. S. Gambhir, “A Raman-based endoscopic strategy for multiplexed molecular imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(25), E2288–E2297 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Kircher, A. de la Zerda, J. V. Jokerst, C. L. Zavaleta, P. J. Kempen, E. Mittra, K. Pitter, R. Huang, C. Campos, F. Habte, R. Sinclair, C. W. Brennan, I. K. Mellinghoff, E. C. Holland, and S. S. Gambhir, “A brain tumor molecular imaging strategy using a new triple-modality MRI-photoacoustic-Raman nanoparticle,” Nat. Med. 18(5), 829–834 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Zavaleta, K. B. Hartman, Z. Miao, M. L. James, P. Kempen, A. S. Thakor, C. H. Nielsen, R. Sinclair, Z. Cheng, and S. S. Gambhir, “Preclinical evaluation of Raman nanoparticle biodistribution for their potential use in clinical endoscopy imaging,” Small 7(15), 2232–2240 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Zavaleta, B. R. Smith, I. Walton, W. Doering, G. Davis, B. Shojaei, M. J. Natan, and S. S. Gambhir, “Multiplexed imaging of surface enhanced Raman scattering nanotags in living mice using noninvasive Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(32), 13511–13516 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

B. R. Lutz, C. E. Dentinger, L. N. Nguyen, L. Sun, J. Zhang, A. N. Allen, S. Chan, and B. S. Knudsen, “Spectral analysis of multiplex Raman probe signatures,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2306–2314 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Sun, K.-B. Sung, C. Dentinger, B. Lutz, L. Nguyen, J. Zhang, H. Qin, M. Yamakawa, M. Cao, Y. Lu, A. J. Chmura, J. Zhu, X. Su, A. A. Berlin, S. Chan, and B. Knudsen, “Composite organic-inorganic nanoparticles as Raman labels for tissue analysis,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 351–356 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Su, J. Zhang, L. Sun, T. W. Koo, S. Chan, N. Sundararajan, M. Yamakawa, and A. A. Berlin, “Composite organic-inorganic nanoparticles (COINs) with chemically encoded optical signatures,” Nano Lett. 5(1), 49–54 (2005).
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Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (3153 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a customized spectral-imaging endoscope and SERS-endoscopy system. (a) Experimental platform to detect multiplexed NPs within the esophagus of a rat. (b) Zoom-in rendering of the prism and fiber-bundle imaging probe within a glass guide tube and rat esophagus (Media 1). (c) Cross-sectional illustration of the illumination and collection beam paths. (d) Scanning trajectory for comprehensive imaging of the rat esophagus. To illustrate our scanning strategy, the guide tube is unfolded and the neutral position (0°) and turning points ( ± 180°) are marked. The probe rotates between ± 180° as it is slowly pulled out of the esophagus. The colored circles represent the spot size of the laser illumination and the spacing between consecutive spectral acquisitions (image pixels).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reproducibility and linearity of endoscopic spectral measurements. (a) Measurement variability depends on integration time. (b) Single NP flavor and (c-f) a two-flavor linearity test. Error bars represent one standard deviation of the measured concentrations or concentration ratios. For the two-flavor experiments, the NP flavors S420 and S440 were mixed in either a 1:1 ratio (c, d) or a 3:1 ratio (e, f) to test the accuracy of the demultiplexing algorithm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Tissue phantom imaging. Two flavors of NPs were mixed in either a 1:1 ratio (a, b, e, f) or a 3:1 ratio (c, d, g, h) within a Matrigel phantom at both high (H) and low (L) concentrations. (a, c) Measured concentrations of the two NP flavors; (b, d) ratio of measured NP concentrations; (e, g) image of the NP concentrations (S440); (f, h) image of the NP ratios.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ex vivo imaging of the rat esophagus. (a) Photograph of the Raman endoscope. (b) The reference spectra of the NP flavors S420 and S440; (c) Raw spectra from freshly excised esophagus and NP-stained esophagus (untreated or NAC-treated); (d) Zoom-in view showing the distal probe tip in a guide tube and tumor phantoms (green box) on a freshly excised rat esophagus. Images showing measured concentrations of S420 (e) and S440 (f), as well as the concentration ratio of S420/S440 (g). Scale bars = 2 mm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

In vivo imaging performed after an oral-gavage protocol. (a) Photograph of the in vivo experimental system with an anesthetized rat. (b) CV of the imaged concentrations (S420) and concentration ratios (S420/S440) within the esophagus at different detector integration times showing that the NP ratios are relatively constant in spite of large fluctuations in absolute NP concentration. Images showing measured concentrations of S420 (c) and concentration ratios of S420/S440 (d). Scale bars = 2 mm. (e) Reconstructed esophagus images with physical coordinates. The lower teeth of the rat were used as a z = 0 reference point in the axial direction.

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