Abstract

We demonstrated that tumors in freshly excised whole brain tissue could be differentiated clearly from normal brain tissue using a reflection-type terahertz (THz) imaging system. THz binary images of brain tissues with tumors indicated that the tumor boundaries in the THz images corresponded well to those in visible images. Grey and white-matter regions were distinguishable owing to the different distribution of myelin in the brain tissue. THz images corresponded closely with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results. The MRI and hematoxylin and eosin-stained microscopic images were investigated to account for the intensity differences in the THz images for fresh and paraffin-embedded brain tissue. Our results indicated that the THz signals corresponded to the cell density when water was removed. Thus, THz imaging could be used as a tool for label-free and real-time imaging of brain tumors, which would be helpful for physicians to determine tumor margins during brain surgery.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

Q. T. Ostrom, L. Bauchet, F. G. Davis, I. Deltour, J. L. Fisher, C. E. Langer, M. Pekmezci, J. A. Schwartzbaum, M. C. Turner, K. M. Walsh, M. R. Wrensch, and J. S. Barnholtz-Sloan, “The epidemiology of giloma in adults: a “state of the science” review,” Neuro-oncol.16(7), 896–913 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (3)

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, K.-S. Cho, K.-R. Kim, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model,” J. Appl. Phys.109(6), 064704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Oh, J. Choi, I. Maeng, J. Y. Park, K. Lee, Y.-M. Huh, J.-S. Suh, S. Haam, and J.-H. Son, “Molecular imaging with terahertz waves,” Opt. Express19(5), 4009–4016 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Mehdorn, F. Schwartz, S. Dawirs, J. Hedderich, L. Dorner, and A. Nabavi, “High-field ioMRI in glioblastoma surgery - improvement of resection radicality and survival for the patient?” Acta Neurochir. Suppl. (Wien)109, 103–106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hefti, H. M. Mehdorn, I. Albert, and L. Dorner, “Fluorescence-guided surgery for malignant glioma: a review on aminolevulinic acid induced protoporphyrin IX photodynamic diagnostic in brain tumors,” Current Medical Imaging Reviews6(4), 254–258 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

G. M. Png, R. Flook, B. W.-H. Ng, and D. Abbott, “Terahertz spectroscopy of snap-frozen human brain tissue: an initial study,” Electron. Lett.45(7), 343–345 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Oh, J. Kang, I. Maeng, J.-S. Suh, Y.-M. Huh, S. Haam, and J.-H. Son, “Nanoparticle-enabled terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis,” Opt. Express17(5), 3469–3475 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Stockhammer, M. Misch, P. Horn, A. Koch, N. Fonyuy, and M. Plotkin, “Association of F18-fluoro-ethyl-tyrosin uptake and 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence in gliomas,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien)151(11), 1377–1383 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Son, “Terahertz electromagnetic interactions with biological matter and their applications,” J. Appl. Phys.105(10), 102033 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

R. Weissleder and M. J. Pittet, “Imaging in the era of molecular oncology,” Nature452(7187), 580–589 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

G. I. McIntyre, “Cell hydration as the primary factor in carcinogenesis: A unifying concept,” Med. Hypotheses66(3), 518–526 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(15), 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Masson, M.-P. Sauviat, J.-L. Martin, and G. Gallot, “Ionic contrast terahertz near-field imaging of axonal water fluxes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(13), 4808–4812 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

D. A. Crawley, C. Longbottom, B. E. Cole, C. M. Ciesla, D. Arnone, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz Pulse Imaging: A Pilot Study of Potential Applications in Dentistry,” Caries Res.37(5), 352–359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol.120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abbott, D.

G. M. Png, R. Flook, B. W.-H. Ng, and D. Abbott, “Terahertz spectroscopy of snap-frozen human brain tissue: an initial study,” Electron. Lett.45(7), 343–345 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ahuja, A. T.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albert, I.

M. Hefti, H. M. Mehdorn, I. Albert, and L. Dorner, “Fluorescence-guided surgery for malignant glioma: a review on aminolevulinic acid induced protoporphyrin IX photodynamic diagnostic in brain tumors,” Current Medical Imaging Reviews6(4), 254–258 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, D.

D. A. Crawley, C. Longbottom, B. E. Cole, C. M. Ciesla, D. Arnone, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz Pulse Imaging: A Pilot Study of Potential Applications in Dentistry,” Caries Res.37(5), 352–359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnone, D. D.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol.120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnholtz-Sloan, J. S.

Q. T. Ostrom, L. Bauchet, F. G. Davis, I. Deltour, J. L. Fisher, C. E. Langer, M. Pekmezci, J. A. Schwartzbaum, M. C. Turner, K. M. Walsh, M. R. Wrensch, and J. S. Barnholtz-Sloan, “The epidemiology of giloma in adults: a “state of the science” review,” Neuro-oncol.16(7), 896–913 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Bauchet, L.

Q. T. Ostrom, L. Bauchet, F. G. Davis, I. Deltour, J. L. Fisher, C. E. Langer, M. Pekmezci, J. A. Schwartzbaum, M. C. Turner, K. M. Walsh, M. R. Wrensch, and J. S. Barnholtz-Sloan, “The epidemiology of giloma in adults: a “state of the science” review,” Neuro-oncol.16(7), 896–913 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

Bobrow, L.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, K.-S.

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, K.-S. Cho, K.-R. Kim, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model,” J. Appl. Phys.109(6), 064704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. J.

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, K.-S. Cho, K.-R. Kim, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model,” J. Appl. Phys.109(6), 064704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.

Choi, Y.

Ciesla, C. M.

D. A. Crawley, C. Longbottom, B. E. Cole, C. M. Ciesla, D. Arnone, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz Pulse Imaging: A Pilot Study of Potential Applications in Dentistry,” Caries Res.37(5), 352–359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cole, B. E.

D. A. Crawley, C. Longbottom, B. E. Cole, C. M. Ciesla, D. Arnone, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz Pulse Imaging: A Pilot Study of Potential Applications in Dentistry,” Caries Res.37(5), 352–359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol.120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crawley, D. A.

D. A. Crawley, C. Longbottom, B. E. Cole, C. M. Ciesla, D. Arnone, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz Pulse Imaging: A Pilot Study of Potential Applications in Dentistry,” Caries Res.37(5), 352–359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Darmo, J.

Davis, F. G.

Q. T. Ostrom, L. Bauchet, F. G. Davis, I. Deltour, J. L. Fisher, C. E. Langer, M. Pekmezci, J. A. Schwartzbaum, M. C. Turner, K. M. Walsh, M. R. Wrensch, and J. S. Barnholtz-Sloan, “The epidemiology of giloma in adults: a “state of the science” review,” Neuro-oncol.16(7), 896–913 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Dawirs, S.

H. M. Mehdorn, F. Schwartz, S. Dawirs, J. Hedderich, L. Dorner, and A. Nabavi, “High-field ioMRI in glioblastoma surgery - improvement of resection radicality and survival for the patient?” Acta Neurochir. Suppl. (Wien)109, 103–106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Debbage, P.

Deltour, I.

Q. T. Ostrom, L. Bauchet, F. G. Davis, I. Deltour, J. L. Fisher, C. E. Langer, M. Pekmezci, J. A. Schwartzbaum, M. C. Turner, K. M. Walsh, M. R. Wrensch, and J. S. Barnholtz-Sloan, “The epidemiology of giloma in adults: a “state of the science” review,” Neuro-oncol.16(7), 896–913 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Dorner, L.

H. M. Mehdorn, F. Schwartz, S. Dawirs, J. Hedderich, L. Dorner, and A. Nabavi, “High-field ioMRI in glioblastoma surgery - improvement of resection radicality and survival for the patient?” Acta Neurochir. Suppl. (Wien)109, 103–106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Hefti, H. M. Mehdorn, I. Albert, and L. Dorner, “Fluorescence-guided surgery for malignant glioma: a review on aminolevulinic acid induced protoporphyrin IX photodynamic diagnostic in brain tumors,” Current Medical Imaging Reviews6(4), 254–258 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

S. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(15), 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Darmo, V. Tamosiunas, G. Fasching, J. Kröll, K. Unterrainer, M. Beck, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, C. Kremser, and P. Debbage, “Imaging with a Terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express12(9), 1879–1884 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fasching, G.

Fisher, J. L.

Q. T. Ostrom, L. Bauchet, F. G. Davis, I. Deltour, J. L. Fisher, C. E. Langer, M. Pekmezci, J. A. Schwartzbaum, M. C. Turner, K. M. Walsh, M. R. Wrensch, and J. S. Barnholtz-Sloan, “The epidemiology of giloma in adults: a “state of the science” review,” Neuro-oncol.16(7), 896–913 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, A. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flook, R.

G. M. Png, R. Flook, B. W.-H. Ng, and D. Abbott, “Terahertz spectroscopy of snap-frozen human brain tissue: an initial study,” Electron. Lett.45(7), 343–345 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fonyuy, N.

F. Stockhammer, M. Misch, P. Horn, A. Koch, N. Fonyuy, and M. Plotkin, “Association of F18-fluoro-ethyl-tyrosin uptake and 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence in gliomas,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien)151(11), 1377–1383 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ford, J.

S. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(15), 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gallot, G.

J.-B. Masson, M.-P. Sauviat, J.-L. Martin, and G. Gallot, “Ionic contrast terahertz near-field imaging of axonal water fluxes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(13), 4808–4812 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giovannini, M.

S. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(15), 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Darmo, V. Tamosiunas, G. Fasching, J. Kröll, K. Unterrainer, M. Beck, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, C. Kremser, and P. Debbage, “Imaging with a Terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express12(9), 1879–1884 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haam, S.

Han, J. K.

Han, J.-H.

Harris, G.

S. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(15), 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. S.

S. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(15), 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hatami, F.

S. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(15), 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hedderich, J.

H. M. Mehdorn, F. Schwartz, S. Dawirs, J. Hedderich, L. Dorner, and A. Nabavi, “High-field ioMRI in glioblastoma surgery - improvement of resection radicality and survival for the patient?” Acta Neurochir. Suppl. (Wien)109, 103–106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hefti, M.

M. Hefti, H. M. Mehdorn, I. Albert, and L. Dorner, “Fluorescence-guided surgery for malignant glioma: a review on aminolevulinic acid induced protoporphyrin IX photodynamic diagnostic in brain tumors,” Current Medical Imaging Reviews6(4), 254–258 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Horn, P.

F. Stockhammer, M. Misch, P. Horn, A. Koch, N. Fonyuy, and M. Plotkin, “Association of F18-fluoro-ethyl-tyrosin uptake and 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence in gliomas,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien)151(11), 1377–1383 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoyler, N.

S. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(15), 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huh, Y.-M.

Jimenez-Linan, M.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, J.

Kim, H.

Kim, K. W.

Kim, K.-R.

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, K.-S. Cho, K.-R. Kim, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model,” J. Appl. Phys.109(6), 064704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-S.

Kim, S.

S. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(15), 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. I.

King, D.

S. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(15), 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koch, A.

F. Stockhammer, M. Misch, P. Horn, A. Koch, N. Fonyuy, and M. Plotkin, “Association of F18-fluoro-ethyl-tyrosin uptake and 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence in gliomas,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien)151(11), 1377–1383 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kremser, C.

Kröll, J.

Kurian, A. W.

S. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(15), 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Langer, C. E.

Q. T. Ostrom, L. Bauchet, F. G. Davis, I. Deltour, J. L. Fisher, C. E. Langer, M. Pekmezci, J. A. Schwartzbaum, M. C. Turner, K. M. Walsh, M. R. Wrensch, and J. S. Barnholtz-Sloan, “The epidemiology of giloma in adults: a “state of the science” review,” Neuro-oncol.16(7), 896–913 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

Lee, S. H.

Linfield, E. H.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol.120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Longbottom, C.

D. A. Crawley, C. Longbottom, B. E. Cole, C. M. Ciesla, D. Arnone, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz Pulse Imaging: A Pilot Study of Potential Applications in Dentistry,” Caries Res.37(5), 352–359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maeng, I.

Martin, J.-L.

J.-B. Masson, M.-P. Sauviat, J.-L. Martin, and G. Gallot, “Ionic contrast terahertz near-field imaging of axonal water fluxes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(13), 4808–4812 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masson, J.-B.

J.-B. Masson, M.-P. Sauviat, J.-L. Martin, and G. Gallot, “Ionic contrast terahertz near-field imaging of axonal water fluxes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(13), 4808–4812 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McIntyre, G. I.

G. I. McIntyre, “Cell hydration as the primary factor in carcinogenesis: A unifying concept,” Med. Hypotheses66(3), 518–526 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mehdorn, H. M.

H. M. Mehdorn, F. Schwartz, S. Dawirs, J. Hedderich, L. Dorner, and A. Nabavi, “High-field ioMRI in glioblastoma surgery - improvement of resection radicality and survival for the patient?” Acta Neurochir. Suppl. (Wien)109, 103–106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Hefti, H. M. Mehdorn, I. Albert, and L. Dorner, “Fluorescence-guided surgery for malignant glioma: a review on aminolevulinic acid induced protoporphyrin IX photodynamic diagnostic in brain tumors,” Current Medical Imaging Reviews6(4), 254–258 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Misch, M.

F. Stockhammer, M. Misch, P. Horn, A. Koch, N. Fonyuy, and M. Plotkin, “Association of F18-fluoro-ethyl-tyrosin uptake and 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence in gliomas,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien)151(11), 1377–1383 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nabavi, A.

H. M. Mehdorn, F. Schwartz, S. Dawirs, J. Hedderich, L. Dorner, and A. Nabavi, “High-field ioMRI in glioblastoma surgery - improvement of resection radicality and survival for the patient?” Acta Neurochir. Suppl. (Wien)109, 103–106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ng, B. W.-H.

G. M. Png, R. Flook, B. W.-H. Ng, and D. Abbott, “Terahertz spectroscopy of snap-frozen human brain tissue: an initial study,” Electron. Lett.45(7), 343–345 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oh, S. J.

Ostrom, Q. T.

Q. T. Ostrom, L. Bauchet, F. G. Davis, I. Deltour, J. L. Fisher, C. E. Langer, M. Pekmezci, J. A. Schwartzbaum, M. C. Turner, K. M. Walsh, M. R. Wrensch, and J. S. Barnholtz-Sloan, “The epidemiology of giloma in adults: a “state of the science” review,” Neuro-oncol.16(7), 896–913 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

Park, J. Y.

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, K.-S. Cho, K.-R. Kim, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model,” J. Appl. Phys.109(6), 064704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Oh, J. Choi, I. Maeng, J. Y. Park, K. Lee, Y.-M. Huh, J.-S. Suh, S. Haam, and J.-H. Son, “Molecular imaging with terahertz waves,” Opt. Express19(5), 4009–4016 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J.-H.

Pekmezci, M.

Q. T. Ostrom, L. Bauchet, F. G. Davis, I. Deltour, J. L. Fisher, C. E. Langer, M. Pekmezci, J. A. Schwartzbaum, M. C. Turner, K. M. Walsh, M. R. Wrensch, and J. S. Barnholtz-Sloan, “The epidemiology of giloma in adults: a “state of the science” review,” Neuro-oncol.16(7), 896–913 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Pepper, M.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol.120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Crawley, C. Longbottom, B. E. Cole, C. M. Ciesla, D. Arnone, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz Pulse Imaging: A Pilot Study of Potential Applications in Dentistry,” Caries Res.37(5), 352–359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pickwell-MacPherson, E.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pittet, M. J.

R. Weissleder and M. J. Pittet, “Imaging in the era of molecular oncology,” Nature452(7187), 580–589 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plotkin, M.

F. Stockhammer, M. Misch, P. Horn, A. Koch, N. Fonyuy, and M. Plotkin, “Association of F18-fluoro-ethyl-tyrosin uptake and 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence in gliomas,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien)151(11), 1377–1383 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Png, G. M.

G. M. Png, R. Flook, B. W.-H. Ng, and D. Abbott, “Terahertz spectroscopy of snap-frozen human brain tissue: an initial study,” Electron. Lett.45(7), 343–345 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Purushotham, A. D.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pye, R. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol.120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sauviat, M.-P.

J.-B. Masson, M.-P. Sauviat, J.-L. Martin, and G. Gallot, “Ionic contrast terahertz near-field imaging of axonal water fluxes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(13), 4808–4812 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scalari, G.

S. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(15), 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, F.

H. M. Mehdorn, F. Schwartz, S. Dawirs, J. Hedderich, L. Dorner, and A. Nabavi, “High-field ioMRI in glioblastoma surgery - improvement of resection radicality and survival for the patient?” Acta Neurochir. Suppl. (Wien)109, 103–106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schwartzbaum, J. A.

Q. T. Ostrom, L. Bauchet, F. G. Davis, I. Deltour, J. L. Fisher, C. E. Langer, M. Pekmezci, J. A. Schwartzbaum, M. C. Turner, K. M. Walsh, M. R. Wrensch, and J. S. Barnholtz-Sloan, “The epidemiology of giloma in adults: a “state of the science” review,” Neuro-oncol.16(7), 896–913 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Seok, S.-H.

Son, J.-H.

Stockhammer, F.

F. Stockhammer, M. Misch, P. Horn, A. Koch, N. Fonyuy, and M. Plotkin, “Association of F18-fluoro-ethyl-tyrosin uptake and 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence in gliomas,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien)151(11), 1377–1383 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suh, J.-S.

Sy, S.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamosiunas, V.

Turner, M. C.

Q. T. Ostrom, L. Bauchet, F. G. Davis, I. Deltour, J. L. Fisher, C. E. Langer, M. Pekmezci, J. A. Schwartzbaum, M. C. Turner, K. M. Walsh, M. R. Wrensch, and J. S. Barnholtz-Sloan, “The epidemiology of giloma in adults: a “state of the science” review,” Neuro-oncol.16(7), 896–913 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Unterrainer, K.

Wallace, V. P.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Crawley, C. Longbottom, B. E. Cole, C. M. Ciesla, D. Arnone, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz Pulse Imaging: A Pilot Study of Potential Applications in Dentistry,” Caries Res.37(5), 352–359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol.120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsh, K. M.

Q. T. Ostrom, L. Bauchet, F. G. Davis, I. Deltour, J. L. Fisher, C. E. Langer, M. Pekmezci, J. A. Schwartzbaum, M. C. Turner, K. M. Walsh, M. R. Wrensch, and J. S. Barnholtz-Sloan, “The epidemiology of giloma in adults: a “state of the science” review,” Neuro-oncol.16(7), 896–913 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.-X. J.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weissleder, R.

R. Weissleder and M. J. Pittet, “Imaging in the era of molecular oncology,” Nature452(7187), 580–589 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woodward, R. M.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol.120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wrensch, M. R.

Q. T. Ostrom, L. Bauchet, F. G. Davis, I. Deltour, J. L. Fisher, C. E. Langer, M. Pekmezci, J. A. Schwartzbaum, M. C. Turner, K. M. Walsh, M. R. Wrensch, and J. S. Barnholtz-Sloan, “The epidemiology of giloma in adults: a “state of the science” review,” Neuro-oncol.16(7), 896–913 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.-T.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Neurochir. (Wien) (1)

F. Stockhammer, M. Misch, P. Horn, A. Koch, N. Fonyuy, and M. Plotkin, “Association of F18-fluoro-ethyl-tyrosin uptake and 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence in gliomas,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien)151(11), 1377–1383 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Neurochir. Suppl. (Wien) (1)

H. M. Mehdorn, F. Schwartz, S. Dawirs, J. Hedderich, L. Dorner, and A. Nabavi, “High-field ioMRI in glioblastoma surgery - improvement of resection radicality and survival for the patient?” Acta Neurochir. Suppl. (Wien)109, 103–106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(15), 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Caries Res. (1)

D. A. Crawley, C. Longbottom, B. E. Cole, C. M. Ciesla, D. Arnone, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz Pulse Imaging: A Pilot Study of Potential Applications in Dentistry,” Caries Res.37(5), 352–359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Current Medical Imaging Reviews (1)

M. Hefti, H. M. Mehdorn, I. Albert, and L. Dorner, “Fluorescence-guided surgery for malignant glioma: a review on aminolevulinic acid induced protoporphyrin IX photodynamic diagnostic in brain tumors,” Current Medical Imaging Reviews6(4), 254–258 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

G. M. Png, R. Flook, B. W.-H. Ng, and D. Abbott, “Terahertz spectroscopy of snap-frozen human brain tissue: an initial study,” Electron. Lett.45(7), 343–345 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J.-H. Son, “Terahertz electromagnetic interactions with biological matter and their applications,” J. Appl. Phys.105(10), 102033 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, K.-S. Cho, K.-R. Kim, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model,” J. Appl. Phys.109(6), 064704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol.120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Hypotheses (1)

G. I. McIntyre, “Cell hydration as the primary factor in carcinogenesis: A unifying concept,” Med. Hypotheses66(3), 518–526 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

R. Weissleder and M. J. Pittet, “Imaging in the era of molecular oncology,” Nature452(7187), 580–589 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuro-oncol. (1)

Q. T. Ostrom, L. Bauchet, F. G. Davis, I. Deltour, J. L. Fisher, C. E. Langer, M. Pekmezci, J. A. Schwartzbaum, M. C. Turner, K. M. Walsh, M. R. Wrensch, and J. S. Barnholtz-Sloan, “The epidemiology of giloma in adults: a “state of the science” review,” Neuro-oncol.16(7), 896–913 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

J.-B. Masson, M.-P. Sauviat, J.-L. Martin, and G. Gallot, “Ionic contrast terahertz near-field imaging of axonal water fluxes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(13), 4808–4812 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radiology (1)

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

R. R. Edelman, J. R. Hesselink, and M. B. Zlatkin, Clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Saunders, 1996), Chap. 1.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Visual, THz, and MR images of whole brain images with (a–c) and without (d) tumors. THz image size was 4 × 3 cm2; scanning resolution was 250 μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflectivity of the peak-to-peak values of THz pulses on the horizontal and vertical lines of Figs. 1(a) and 1(d). (a) THz values of the horizontal lines of Figs. 1(a) and 1(d). (b) THz values of the vertical lines of Figs. 1(a) and 1(d). Yellow region shows that the THz reflectivity ranges from 11.8% to 14.2%. Orange region spans from 14.2% to 15.9%.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

THz binary images of whole brain with and without tumors. (a), (b), (c): THz binary images of Figs. 1(a), 1(b), and 1(c) respectively. (d) THz binary image of Fig. 1(d). All binary images were separated by the standard percentage of 14.2%.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison between pathology and THz images of paraffin-embedded whole brains with tumors. (a), (b), (c): H&E-stained visual images of the corresponding paraffin-embedded samples of Figs. 1(a), 1(b), and 1(c), respectively. THz images were constructed using the peak-to-peak values of the THz pulses. THz image size was 3 × 2 cm2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

H&E-stained microscope images of four points on Figs. 4(a) and 4(b). (a) Microscope image of a center of a tumor in Fig. 4(a). (b) Outer region of tumor in Fig. 4(a). (c) Normal region in Fig. 4(a). (d) Hemorrhage region in Fig. 4(b). Black scale bars indicate a length of 50 μm.

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