Abstract

An image processing algorithm is developed for quantitative assessment of tear meniscus dynamics from continuous optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements. Clinical utility of dynamic OCT tear meniscus measurement is assessed in studies of tear meniscus parameters. The results indicate that any apparent changes in the early post-blink phase meniscus parameters are essentially related to the longitudinal movements of the eye and not to the formation of tear meniscus corresponding to tear film build-up. Dynamic acquisition of tear film meniscus is essential for providing reliable estimates of its parameters such as height, depth, and area.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [PubMed]
  3. D. R. Korb, “Survey of preferred tests for diagnosis of the tear film and dry eye,” Cornea19(4), 483–486 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. J. Bron, “Diagnosis of dry eye,” Surv. Ophthalmol.45(Suppl 2), S221–S226 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Khanal, A. Tomlinson, A. McFadyen, C. Diaper, and K. Ramaesh, “Dry eye diagnosis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(4), 1407–1414 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. J. Nichols and L. T. Sinnott, “Tear film, contact lens, and patient-related factors associated with contact lens-related dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(4), 1319–1328 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. H. Szczesna-Iskander, D. R. Iskander, S. A. Read, and D. Alonso-Caneiro, “Noninvasive in vivo assessment of soft contact lens type on tear film surface quality,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(1), 525–531 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. N. Yokoi and A. Komuro, “Non-invasive methods of assessing the tear film,” Exp. Eye Res.78(3), 399–407 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. H. Szczesna-Iskander and D. R. Iskander, “Future directions in non-invasive measurements of tear film surface kinetics,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), 749–759 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. C. Pflugfelder, S. C. Tseng, O. Sanabria, H. Kell, C. G. Garcia, C. Felix, W. Feuer, and B. L. Reis, “Evaluation of subjective assessments and objective diagnostic tests for diagnosing tear-film disorders known to cause ocular irritation,” Cornea17(1), 38–56 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. R. Iskander and M. J. Collins, “Applications of high-speed videokeratoscopy,” Clin. Exp. Optom.88(4), 223–231 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Wang, P. Simmons, J. Aquavella, J. Vehige, J. Palakuru, S. Chung, and C. Feng, “Dynamic distribution of artificial tears on the ocular surface,” Arch. Ophthalmol.126(5), 619–625 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Q. Chen, J. Wang, A. Tao, M. Shen, S. Jiao, and F. Lu, “Ultrahigh-resolution measurement by optical coherence tomography of dynamic tear film changes on contact lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 1988–1993 (2010).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. R. Fukuda, T. Usui, T. Miyai, S. Yamagami, and S. Amano, “Tear meniscus evaluation by anterior segment swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.155(4), 620–624 (2013).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. E. Bitton, A. Keech, T. Simpson, and L. Jones, “Variability of the analysis of the tear meniscus height by optical coherence tomography,” Optom. Vis. Sci.84(9), 903–908 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. M. J. Doughty, “Consideration of three types of spontaneous eyeblink activity in normal humans: during reading and video display terminal use, in primary gaze, and while in conversation,” Optom. Vis. Sci.78(10), 712–725 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. J. Németh, B. Erdélyi, B. Csákány, P. Gáspár, A. Soumelidis, F. Kahlesz, and Z. Lang, “High-speed videotopographic measurement of tear film build-up time,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.43(6), 1783–1790 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  32. D. H. Szczesna and D. R. Iskander, “Lateral shearing interferometry for analysis of tear film surface kinetics,” Optom. Vis. Sci.87(7), 513–517 (2010).
    [PubMed]
  33. N. Otsu, “A threshold selection method from gray-level histograms,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern.9(1), 62–66 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  34. D. Robert Iskander and H. T. Kasprzak, “Dynamics in longitudinal eye movements and corneal shape,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.26(6), 572–579 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. D. R. Korb, J. V. Greiner, T. Glonek, R. Esbah, V. M. Finnemore, and A. C. Whalen, “Effect of periocular humidity on the tear film lipid layer,” Cornea15(2), 129–134 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. M. J. Collins, D. R. Iskander, A. Saunders, S. Hook, E. Anthony, and R. Gillon, “Blinking patterns and corneal staining,” Eye Contact Lens32(6), 287–293 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. M. Shen, J. Li, J. Wang, H. Ma, C. Cai, A. Tao, Y. Yuan, and F. Lu, “Upper and lower tear menisci in the diagnosis of dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(6), 2722–2726 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. N. Yokoi, A. J. Bron, J. M. Tiffany, K. Maruyama, A. Komuro, and S. Kinoshita, “Relationship between tear volume and tear meniscus curvature,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(9), 1265–1269 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. N. Yokoi, H. Yamada, Y. Mizukusa, A. J. Bron, J. M. Tiffany, T. Kato, and S. Kinoshita, “Rheology of tear film lipid layer spread in normal and aqueous tear-deficient dry eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(12), 5319–5324 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

S. Bandlitz, C. Purslow, P. J. Murphy, H. Pult, and A. J. Bron, “A new portable digital meniscometer,” Optom. Vis. Sci.91(1), e1–e8 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

R. Fukuda, T. Usui, T. Miyai, S. Yamagami, and S. Amano, “Tear meniscus evaluation by anterior segment swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.155(4), 620–624 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

D. H. Szczesna-Iskander, D. R. Iskander, S. A. Read, and D. Alonso-Caneiro, “Noninvasive in vivo assessment of soft contact lens type on tear film surface quality,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(1), 525–531 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Szczesna-Iskander and D. R. Iskander, “Future directions in non-invasive measurements of tear film surface kinetics,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), 749–759 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

Q. Chen, J. Wang, A. Tao, M. Shen, S. Jiao, and F. Lu, “Ultrahigh-resolution measurement by optical coherence tomography of dynamic tear film changes on contact lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 1988–1993 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Szczesna and D. R. Iskander, “Lateral shearing interferometry for analysis of tear film surface kinetics,” Optom. Vis. Sci.87(7), 513–517 (2010).
[PubMed]

2009 (3)

Q. Chen, J. Wang, M. Shen, C. Cai, J. Li, L. Cui, J. Qu, and F. Lu, “Lower volumes of tear menisci in contact lens wearers with dry eye symptoms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(7), 3159–3163 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shen, J. Li, J. Wang, H. Ma, C. Cai, A. Tao, Y. Yuan, and F. Lu, “Upper and lower tear menisci in the diagnosis of dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(6), 2722–2726 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shen, J. Li, J. Wang, H. Ma, C. Cai, A. Tao, Y. Yuan, and F. Lu, “Upper and lower tear menisci in the diagnosis of dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(6), 2722–2726 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

N. Yokoi, H. Yamada, Y. Mizukusa, A. J. Bron, J. M. Tiffany, T. Kato, and S. Kinoshita, “Rheology of tear film lipid layer spread in normal and aqueous tear-deficient dry eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(12), 5319–5324 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, P. Simmons, J. Aquavella, J. Vehige, J. Palakuru, S. Chung, and C. Feng, “Dynamic distribution of artificial tears on the ocular surface,” Arch. Ophthalmol.126(5), 619–625 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Khanal, A. Tomlinson, A. McFadyen, C. Diaper, and K. Ramaesh, “Dry eye diagnosis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(4), 1407–1414 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

E. Bitton, A. Keech, T. Simpson, and L. Jones, “Variability of the analysis of the tear meniscus height by optical coherence tomography,” Optom. Vis. Sci.84(9), 903–908 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (6)

J. Wang, J. Aquavella, J. Palakuru, and S. Chung, “Repeated measurements of dynamic tear distribution on the ocular surface after instillation of artificial tears,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(8), 3325–3329 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Robert Iskander and H. T. Kasprzak, “Dynamics in longitudinal eye movements and corneal shape,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.26(6), 572–579 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Savini, P. Barboni, and M. Zanini, “Tear meniscus evaluation by optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging37(2), 112–118 (2006).
[PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Aquavella, J. Palakuru, S. Chung, and C. Feng, “Relationships between central tear film thickness and tear menisci of the upper and lower eyelids,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(10), 4349–4355 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Nichols and L. T. Sinnott, “Tear film, contact lens, and patient-related factors associated with contact lens-related dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(4), 1319–1328 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Collins, D. R. Iskander, A. Saunders, S. Hook, E. Anthony, and R. Gillon, “Blinking patterns and corneal staining,” Eye Contact Lens32(6), 287–293 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

D. R. Iskander and M. J. Collins, “Applications of high-speed videokeratoscopy,” Clin. Exp. Optom.88(4), 223–231 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Johnson and P. J. Murphy, “The agreement and repeatability of tear meniscus height measurement methods,” Optom. Vis. Sci.82(12), 1030–1037 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

L. W. Jones, S. Rahman, R. Leech, T. Simpson, and D. Fonn, “Determination of inferior tear meniscus height and inferior tear meniscus volume using optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45, 144 (2004).
[PubMed]

N. Yokoi and A. Komuro, “Non-invasive methods of assessing the tear film,” Exp. Eye Res.78(3), 399–407 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. de Paiva and S. C. Pflugfelder, “Tear clearance implications for ocular surface health,” Exp. Eye Res.78(3), 395–397 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Yokoi, A. J. Bron, J. M. Tiffany, K. Maruyama, A. Komuro, and S. Kinoshita, “Relationship between tear volume and tear meniscus curvature,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(9), 1265–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

L. W. Jones, S. Rahman, R. Leech, T. Simpson, D. Fonn, J. G. Vehige, and P. A. Simmons, “Determination of tear meniscus height using a novel method based upon optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.44, 2461 (2003).
[PubMed]

2002 (1)

J. Németh, B. Erdélyi, B. Csákány, P. Gáspár, A. Soumelidis, F. Kahlesz, and Z. Lang, “High-speed videotopographic measurement of tear film build-up time,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.43(6), 1783–1790 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (2)

M. J. Doughty, “Consideration of three types of spontaneous eyeblink activity in normal humans: during reading and video display terminal use, in primary gaze, and while in conversation,” Optom. Vis. Sci.78(10), 712–725 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Bron, “Diagnosis of dry eye,” Surv. Ophthalmol.45(Suppl 2), S221–S226 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

D. R. Korb, “Survey of preferred tests for diagnosis of the tear film and dry eye,” Cornea19(4), 483–486 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Oguz, N. Yokoi, and S. Kinoshita, “The height and radius of the tear meniscus and methods for examining these parameters,” Cornea19(4), 497–500 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

N. Yokoi, A. Bron, J. Tiffany, N. Brown, J. Hsuan, and C. Fowler, “Reflective meniscometry: a non-invasive method to measure tear meniscus curvature,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.83(1), 92–97 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

J. L. Creech, L. T. Do, I. Fatt, and C. J. Radke, “In vivo tear-film thickness determination and implications for tear-film stability,” Curr. Eye Res.17(11), 1058–1066 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Pflugfelder, S. C. Tseng, O. Sanabria, H. Kell, C. G. Garcia, C. Felix, W. Feuer, and B. L. Reis, “Evaluation of subjective assessments and objective diagnostic tests for diagnosing tear-film disorders known to cause ocular irritation,” Cornea17(1), 38–56 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

T. R. Golding, A. S. Bruce, and J. C. Mainstone, “Relationship between tear-meniscus parameters and tear-film breakup,” Cornea16(6), 649–661 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Tseng and K. Tsubota, “Important concepts for treating ocular surface and tear disorders,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.124(6), 825–835 (1997).
[PubMed]

1996 (1)

D. R. Korb, J. V. Greiner, T. Glonek, R. Esbah, V. M. Finnemore, and A. C. Whalen, “Effect of periocular humidity on the tear film lipid layer,” Cornea15(2), 129–134 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

N. Otsu, “A threshold selection method from gray-level histograms,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern.9(1), 62–66 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Alonso-Caneiro, D.

D. H. Szczesna-Iskander, D. R. Iskander, S. A. Read, and D. Alonso-Caneiro, “Noninvasive in vivo assessment of soft contact lens type on tear film surface quality,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(1), 525–531 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amano, S.

R. Fukuda, T. Usui, T. Miyai, S. Yamagami, and S. Amano, “Tear meniscus evaluation by anterior segment swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.155(4), 620–624 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anthony, E.

M. J. Collins, D. R. Iskander, A. Saunders, S. Hook, E. Anthony, and R. Gillon, “Blinking patterns and corneal staining,” Eye Contact Lens32(6), 287–293 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aquavella, J.

J. Wang, P. Simmons, J. Aquavella, J. Vehige, J. Palakuru, S. Chung, and C. Feng, “Dynamic distribution of artificial tears on the ocular surface,” Arch. Ophthalmol.126(5), 619–625 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Aquavella, J. Palakuru, and S. Chung, “Repeated measurements of dynamic tear distribution on the ocular surface after instillation of artificial tears,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(8), 3325–3329 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Aquavella, J. Palakuru, S. Chung, and C. Feng, “Relationships between central tear film thickness and tear menisci of the upper and lower eyelids,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(10), 4349–4355 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bandlitz, S.

S. Bandlitz, C. Purslow, P. J. Murphy, H. Pult, and A. J. Bron, “A new portable digital meniscometer,” Optom. Vis. Sci.91(1), e1–e8 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barboni, P.

G. Savini, P. Barboni, and M. Zanini, “Tear meniscus evaluation by optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging37(2), 112–118 (2006).
[PubMed]

Bitton, E.

E. Bitton, A. Keech, T. Simpson, and L. Jones, “Variability of the analysis of the tear meniscus height by optical coherence tomography,” Optom. Vis. Sci.84(9), 903–908 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bron, A.

N. Yokoi, A. Bron, J. Tiffany, N. Brown, J. Hsuan, and C. Fowler, “Reflective meniscometry: a non-invasive method to measure tear meniscus curvature,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.83(1), 92–97 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bron, A. J.

S. Bandlitz, C. Purslow, P. J. Murphy, H. Pult, and A. J. Bron, “A new portable digital meniscometer,” Optom. Vis. Sci.91(1), e1–e8 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Yokoi, H. Yamada, Y. Mizukusa, A. J. Bron, J. M. Tiffany, T. Kato, and S. Kinoshita, “Rheology of tear film lipid layer spread in normal and aqueous tear-deficient dry eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(12), 5319–5324 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Yokoi, A. J. Bron, J. M. Tiffany, K. Maruyama, A. Komuro, and S. Kinoshita, “Relationship between tear volume and tear meniscus curvature,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(9), 1265–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Bron, “Diagnosis of dry eye,” Surv. Ophthalmol.45(Suppl 2), S221–S226 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, N.

N. Yokoi, A. Bron, J. Tiffany, N. Brown, J. Hsuan, and C. Fowler, “Reflective meniscometry: a non-invasive method to measure tear meniscus curvature,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.83(1), 92–97 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruce, A. S.

T. R. Golding, A. S. Bruce, and J. C. Mainstone, “Relationship between tear-meniscus parameters and tear-film breakup,” Cornea16(6), 649–661 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, C.

Q. Chen, J. Wang, M. Shen, C. Cai, J. Li, L. Cui, J. Qu, and F. Lu, “Lower volumes of tear menisci in contact lens wearers with dry eye symptoms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(7), 3159–3163 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shen, J. Li, J. Wang, H. Ma, C. Cai, A. Tao, Y. Yuan, and F. Lu, “Upper and lower tear menisci in the diagnosis of dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(6), 2722–2726 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shen, J. Li, J. Wang, H. Ma, C. Cai, A. Tao, Y. Yuan, and F. Lu, “Upper and lower tear menisci in the diagnosis of dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(6), 2722–2726 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Q.

Q. Chen, J. Wang, A. Tao, M. Shen, S. Jiao, and F. Lu, “Ultrahigh-resolution measurement by optical coherence tomography of dynamic tear film changes on contact lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 1988–1993 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Chen, J. Wang, M. Shen, C. Cai, J. Li, L. Cui, J. Qu, and F. Lu, “Lower volumes of tear menisci in contact lens wearers with dry eye symptoms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(7), 3159–3163 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chung, S.

J. Wang, P. Simmons, J. Aquavella, J. Vehige, J. Palakuru, S. Chung, and C. Feng, “Dynamic distribution of artificial tears on the ocular surface,” Arch. Ophthalmol.126(5), 619–625 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Aquavella, J. Palakuru, S. Chung, and C. Feng, “Relationships between central tear film thickness and tear menisci of the upper and lower eyelids,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(10), 4349–4355 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Aquavella, J. Palakuru, and S. Chung, “Repeated measurements of dynamic tear distribution on the ocular surface after instillation of artificial tears,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(8), 3325–3329 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collins, M. J.

M. J. Collins, D. R. Iskander, A. Saunders, S. Hook, E. Anthony, and R. Gillon, “Blinking patterns and corneal staining,” Eye Contact Lens32(6), 287–293 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Iskander and M. J. Collins, “Applications of high-speed videokeratoscopy,” Clin. Exp. Optom.88(4), 223–231 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Creech, J. L.

J. L. Creech, L. T. Do, I. Fatt, and C. J. Radke, “In vivo tear-film thickness determination and implications for tear-film stability,” Curr. Eye Res.17(11), 1058–1066 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Csákány, B.

J. Németh, B. Erdélyi, B. Csákány, P. Gáspár, A. Soumelidis, F. Kahlesz, and Z. Lang, “High-speed videotopographic measurement of tear film build-up time,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.43(6), 1783–1790 (2002).
[PubMed]

Cui, L.

Q. Chen, J. Wang, M. Shen, C. Cai, J. Li, L. Cui, J. Qu, and F. Lu, “Lower volumes of tear menisci in contact lens wearers with dry eye symptoms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(7), 3159–3163 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Paiva, C. S.

C. S. de Paiva and S. C. Pflugfelder, “Tear clearance implications for ocular surface health,” Exp. Eye Res.78(3), 395–397 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diaper, C.

S. Khanal, A. Tomlinson, A. McFadyen, C. Diaper, and K. Ramaesh, “Dry eye diagnosis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(4), 1407–1414 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Do, L. T.

J. L. Creech, L. T. Do, I. Fatt, and C. J. Radke, “In vivo tear-film thickness determination and implications for tear-film stability,” Curr. Eye Res.17(11), 1058–1066 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doughty, M. J.

M. J. Doughty, “Consideration of three types of spontaneous eyeblink activity in normal humans: during reading and video display terminal use, in primary gaze, and while in conversation,” Optom. Vis. Sci.78(10), 712–725 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erdélyi, B.

J. Németh, B. Erdélyi, B. Csákány, P. Gáspár, A. Soumelidis, F. Kahlesz, and Z. Lang, “High-speed videotopographic measurement of tear film build-up time,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.43(6), 1783–1790 (2002).
[PubMed]

Esbah, R.

D. R. Korb, J. V. Greiner, T. Glonek, R. Esbah, V. M. Finnemore, and A. C. Whalen, “Effect of periocular humidity on the tear film lipid layer,” Cornea15(2), 129–134 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fatt, I.

J. L. Creech, L. T. Do, I. Fatt, and C. J. Radke, “In vivo tear-film thickness determination and implications for tear-film stability,” Curr. Eye Res.17(11), 1058–1066 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Felix, C.

S. C. Pflugfelder, S. C. Tseng, O. Sanabria, H. Kell, C. G. Garcia, C. Felix, W. Feuer, and B. L. Reis, “Evaluation of subjective assessments and objective diagnostic tests for diagnosing tear-film disorders known to cause ocular irritation,” Cornea17(1), 38–56 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, C.

J. Wang, P. Simmons, J. Aquavella, J. Vehige, J. Palakuru, S. Chung, and C. Feng, “Dynamic distribution of artificial tears on the ocular surface,” Arch. Ophthalmol.126(5), 619–625 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Aquavella, J. Palakuru, S. Chung, and C. Feng, “Relationships between central tear film thickness and tear menisci of the upper and lower eyelids,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(10), 4349–4355 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feuer, W.

S. C. Pflugfelder, S. C. Tseng, O. Sanabria, H. Kell, C. G. Garcia, C. Felix, W. Feuer, and B. L. Reis, “Evaluation of subjective assessments and objective diagnostic tests for diagnosing tear-film disorders known to cause ocular irritation,” Cornea17(1), 38–56 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finnemore, V. M.

D. R. Korb, J. V. Greiner, T. Glonek, R. Esbah, V. M. Finnemore, and A. C. Whalen, “Effect of periocular humidity on the tear film lipid layer,” Cornea15(2), 129–134 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fonn, D.

L. W. Jones, S. Rahman, R. Leech, T. Simpson, and D. Fonn, “Determination of inferior tear meniscus height and inferior tear meniscus volume using optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45, 144 (2004).
[PubMed]

L. W. Jones, S. Rahman, R. Leech, T. Simpson, D. Fonn, J. G. Vehige, and P. A. Simmons, “Determination of tear meniscus height using a novel method based upon optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.44, 2461 (2003).
[PubMed]

Fowler, C.

N. Yokoi, A. Bron, J. Tiffany, N. Brown, J. Hsuan, and C. Fowler, “Reflective meniscometry: a non-invasive method to measure tear meniscus curvature,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.83(1), 92–97 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukuda, R.

R. Fukuda, T. Usui, T. Miyai, S. Yamagami, and S. Amano, “Tear meniscus evaluation by anterior segment swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.155(4), 620–624 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia, C. G.

S. C. Pflugfelder, S. C. Tseng, O. Sanabria, H. Kell, C. G. Garcia, C. Felix, W. Feuer, and B. L. Reis, “Evaluation of subjective assessments and objective diagnostic tests for diagnosing tear-film disorders known to cause ocular irritation,” Cornea17(1), 38–56 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gáspár, P.

J. Németh, B. Erdélyi, B. Csákány, P. Gáspár, A. Soumelidis, F. Kahlesz, and Z. Lang, “High-speed videotopographic measurement of tear film build-up time,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.43(6), 1783–1790 (2002).
[PubMed]

Gillon, R.

M. J. Collins, D. R. Iskander, A. Saunders, S. Hook, E. Anthony, and R. Gillon, “Blinking patterns and corneal staining,” Eye Contact Lens32(6), 287–293 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glonek, T.

D. R. Korb, J. V. Greiner, T. Glonek, R. Esbah, V. M. Finnemore, and A. C. Whalen, “Effect of periocular humidity on the tear film lipid layer,” Cornea15(2), 129–134 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Golding, T. R.

T. R. Golding, A. S. Bruce, and J. C. Mainstone, “Relationship between tear-meniscus parameters and tear-film breakup,” Cornea16(6), 649–661 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greiner, J. V.

D. R. Korb, J. V. Greiner, T. Glonek, R. Esbah, V. M. Finnemore, and A. C. Whalen, “Effect of periocular humidity on the tear film lipid layer,” Cornea15(2), 129–134 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hook, S.

M. J. Collins, D. R. Iskander, A. Saunders, S. Hook, E. Anthony, and R. Gillon, “Blinking patterns and corneal staining,” Eye Contact Lens32(6), 287–293 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsuan, J.

N. Yokoi, A. Bron, J. Tiffany, N. Brown, J. Hsuan, and C. Fowler, “Reflective meniscometry: a non-invasive method to measure tear meniscus curvature,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.83(1), 92–97 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iskander, D. R.

D. H. Szczesna-Iskander and D. R. Iskander, “Future directions in non-invasive measurements of tear film surface kinetics,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), 749–759 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Szczesna-Iskander, D. R. Iskander, S. A. Read, and D. Alonso-Caneiro, “Noninvasive in vivo assessment of soft contact lens type on tear film surface quality,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(1), 525–531 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Szczesna and D. R. Iskander, “Lateral shearing interferometry for analysis of tear film surface kinetics,” Optom. Vis. Sci.87(7), 513–517 (2010).
[PubMed]

M. J. Collins, D. R. Iskander, A. Saunders, S. Hook, E. Anthony, and R. Gillon, “Blinking patterns and corneal staining,” Eye Contact Lens32(6), 287–293 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Iskander and M. J. Collins, “Applications of high-speed videokeratoscopy,” Clin. Exp. Optom.88(4), 223–231 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiao, S.

Q. Chen, J. Wang, A. Tao, M. Shen, S. Jiao, and F. Lu, “Ultrahigh-resolution measurement by optical coherence tomography of dynamic tear film changes on contact lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 1988–1993 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, M. E.

M. E. Johnson and P. J. Murphy, “The agreement and repeatability of tear meniscus height measurement methods,” Optom. Vis. Sci.82(12), 1030–1037 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, L.

E. Bitton, A. Keech, T. Simpson, and L. Jones, “Variability of the analysis of the tear meniscus height by optical coherence tomography,” Optom. Vis. Sci.84(9), 903–908 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, L. W.

L. W. Jones, S. Rahman, R. Leech, T. Simpson, and D. Fonn, “Determination of inferior tear meniscus height and inferior tear meniscus volume using optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45, 144 (2004).
[PubMed]

L. W. Jones, S. Rahman, R. Leech, T. Simpson, D. Fonn, J. G. Vehige, and P. A. Simmons, “Determination of tear meniscus height using a novel method based upon optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.44, 2461 (2003).
[PubMed]

Kahlesz, F.

J. Németh, B. Erdélyi, B. Csákány, P. Gáspár, A. Soumelidis, F. Kahlesz, and Z. Lang, “High-speed videotopographic measurement of tear film build-up time,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.43(6), 1783–1790 (2002).
[PubMed]

Kasprzak, H. T.

D. Robert Iskander and H. T. Kasprzak, “Dynamics in longitudinal eye movements and corneal shape,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.26(6), 572–579 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kato, T.

N. Yokoi, H. Yamada, Y. Mizukusa, A. J. Bron, J. M. Tiffany, T. Kato, and S. Kinoshita, “Rheology of tear film lipid layer spread in normal and aqueous tear-deficient dry eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(12), 5319–5324 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keech, A.

E. Bitton, A. Keech, T. Simpson, and L. Jones, “Variability of the analysis of the tear meniscus height by optical coherence tomography,” Optom. Vis. Sci.84(9), 903–908 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kell, H.

S. C. Pflugfelder, S. C. Tseng, O. Sanabria, H. Kell, C. G. Garcia, C. Felix, W. Feuer, and B. L. Reis, “Evaluation of subjective assessments and objective diagnostic tests for diagnosing tear-film disorders known to cause ocular irritation,” Cornea17(1), 38–56 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khanal, S.

S. Khanal, A. Tomlinson, A. McFadyen, C. Diaper, and K. Ramaesh, “Dry eye diagnosis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(4), 1407–1414 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kinoshita, S.

N. Yokoi, H. Yamada, Y. Mizukusa, A. J. Bron, J. M. Tiffany, T. Kato, and S. Kinoshita, “Rheology of tear film lipid layer spread in normal and aqueous tear-deficient dry eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(12), 5319–5324 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Yokoi, A. J. Bron, J. M. Tiffany, K. Maruyama, A. Komuro, and S. Kinoshita, “Relationship between tear volume and tear meniscus curvature,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(9), 1265–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Oguz, N. Yokoi, and S. Kinoshita, “The height and radius of the tear meniscus and methods for examining these parameters,” Cornea19(4), 497–500 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Komuro, A.

N. Yokoi and A. Komuro, “Non-invasive methods of assessing the tear film,” Exp. Eye Res.78(3), 399–407 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Yokoi, A. J. Bron, J. M. Tiffany, K. Maruyama, A. Komuro, and S. Kinoshita, “Relationship between tear volume and tear meniscus curvature,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(9), 1265–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korb, D. R.

D. R. Korb, “Survey of preferred tests for diagnosis of the tear film and dry eye,” Cornea19(4), 483–486 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Korb, J. V. Greiner, T. Glonek, R. Esbah, V. M. Finnemore, and A. C. Whalen, “Effect of periocular humidity on the tear film lipid layer,” Cornea15(2), 129–134 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lang, Z.

J. Németh, B. Erdélyi, B. Csákány, P. Gáspár, A. Soumelidis, F. Kahlesz, and Z. Lang, “High-speed videotopographic measurement of tear film build-up time,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.43(6), 1783–1790 (2002).
[PubMed]

Leech, R.

L. W. Jones, S. Rahman, R. Leech, T. Simpson, and D. Fonn, “Determination of inferior tear meniscus height and inferior tear meniscus volume using optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45, 144 (2004).
[PubMed]

L. W. Jones, S. Rahman, R. Leech, T. Simpson, D. Fonn, J. G. Vehige, and P. A. Simmons, “Determination of tear meniscus height using a novel method based upon optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.44, 2461 (2003).
[PubMed]

Li, J.

M. Shen, J. Li, J. Wang, H. Ma, C. Cai, A. Tao, Y. Yuan, and F. Lu, “Upper and lower tear menisci in the diagnosis of dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(6), 2722–2726 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Chen, J. Wang, M. Shen, C. Cai, J. Li, L. Cui, J. Qu, and F. Lu, “Lower volumes of tear menisci in contact lens wearers with dry eye symptoms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(7), 3159–3163 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shen, J. Li, J. Wang, H. Ma, C. Cai, A. Tao, Y. Yuan, and F. Lu, “Upper and lower tear menisci in the diagnosis of dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(6), 2722–2726 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, F.

Q. Chen, J. Wang, A. Tao, M. Shen, S. Jiao, and F. Lu, “Ultrahigh-resolution measurement by optical coherence tomography of dynamic tear film changes on contact lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 1988–1993 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Chen, J. Wang, M. Shen, C. Cai, J. Li, L. Cui, J. Qu, and F. Lu, “Lower volumes of tear menisci in contact lens wearers with dry eye symptoms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(7), 3159–3163 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shen, J. Li, J. Wang, H. Ma, C. Cai, A. Tao, Y. Yuan, and F. Lu, “Upper and lower tear menisci in the diagnosis of dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(6), 2722–2726 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shen, J. Li, J. Wang, H. Ma, C. Cai, A. Tao, Y. Yuan, and F. Lu, “Upper and lower tear menisci in the diagnosis of dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(6), 2722–2726 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, H.

M. Shen, J. Li, J. Wang, H. Ma, C. Cai, A. Tao, Y. Yuan, and F. Lu, “Upper and lower tear menisci in the diagnosis of dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(6), 2722–2726 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shen, J. Li, J. Wang, H. Ma, C. Cai, A. Tao, Y. Yuan, and F. Lu, “Upper and lower tear menisci in the diagnosis of dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(6), 2722–2726 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mainstone, J. C.

T. R. Golding, A. S. Bruce, and J. C. Mainstone, “Relationship between tear-meniscus parameters and tear-film breakup,” Cornea16(6), 649–661 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maruyama, K.

N. Yokoi, A. J. Bron, J. M. Tiffany, K. Maruyama, A. Komuro, and S. Kinoshita, “Relationship between tear volume and tear meniscus curvature,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(9), 1265–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McFadyen, A.

S. Khanal, A. Tomlinson, A. McFadyen, C. Diaper, and K. Ramaesh, “Dry eye diagnosis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(4), 1407–1414 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyai, T.

R. Fukuda, T. Usui, T. Miyai, S. Yamagami, and S. Amano, “Tear meniscus evaluation by anterior segment swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.155(4), 620–624 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mizukusa, Y.

N. Yokoi, H. Yamada, Y. Mizukusa, A. J. Bron, J. M. Tiffany, T. Kato, and S. Kinoshita, “Rheology of tear film lipid layer spread in normal and aqueous tear-deficient dry eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(12), 5319–5324 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murphy, P. J.

S. Bandlitz, C. Purslow, P. J. Murphy, H. Pult, and A. J. Bron, “A new portable digital meniscometer,” Optom. Vis. Sci.91(1), e1–e8 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Johnson and P. J. Murphy, “The agreement and repeatability of tear meniscus height measurement methods,” Optom. Vis. Sci.82(12), 1030–1037 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Németh, J.

J. Németh, B. Erdélyi, B. Csákány, P. Gáspár, A. Soumelidis, F. Kahlesz, and Z. Lang, “High-speed videotopographic measurement of tear film build-up time,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.43(6), 1783–1790 (2002).
[PubMed]

Nichols, J. J.

J. J. Nichols and L. T. Sinnott, “Tear film, contact lens, and patient-related factors associated with contact lens-related dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(4), 1319–1328 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oguz, H.

H. Oguz, N. Yokoi, and S. Kinoshita, “The height and radius of the tear meniscus and methods for examining these parameters,” Cornea19(4), 497–500 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Otsu, N.

N. Otsu, “A threshold selection method from gray-level histograms,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern.9(1), 62–66 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Palakuru, J.

J. Wang, P. Simmons, J. Aquavella, J. Vehige, J. Palakuru, S. Chung, and C. Feng, “Dynamic distribution of artificial tears on the ocular surface,” Arch. Ophthalmol.126(5), 619–625 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Aquavella, J. Palakuru, and S. Chung, “Repeated measurements of dynamic tear distribution on the ocular surface after instillation of artificial tears,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(8), 3325–3329 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Aquavella, J. Palakuru, S. Chung, and C. Feng, “Relationships between central tear film thickness and tear menisci of the upper and lower eyelids,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(10), 4349–4355 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pflugfelder, S. C.

C. S. de Paiva and S. C. Pflugfelder, “Tear clearance implications for ocular surface health,” Exp. Eye Res.78(3), 395–397 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Pflugfelder, S. C. Tseng, O. Sanabria, H. Kell, C. G. Garcia, C. Felix, W. Feuer, and B. L. Reis, “Evaluation of subjective assessments and objective diagnostic tests for diagnosing tear-film disorders known to cause ocular irritation,” Cornea17(1), 38–56 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pult, H.

S. Bandlitz, C. Purslow, P. J. Murphy, H. Pult, and A. J. Bron, “A new portable digital meniscometer,” Optom. Vis. Sci.91(1), e1–e8 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Purslow, C.

S. Bandlitz, C. Purslow, P. J. Murphy, H. Pult, and A. J. Bron, “A new portable digital meniscometer,” Optom. Vis. Sci.91(1), e1–e8 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qu, J.

Q. Chen, J. Wang, M. Shen, C. Cai, J. Li, L. Cui, J. Qu, and F. Lu, “Lower volumes of tear menisci in contact lens wearers with dry eye symptoms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(7), 3159–3163 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radke, C. J.

J. L. Creech, L. T. Do, I. Fatt, and C. J. Radke, “In vivo tear-film thickness determination and implications for tear-film stability,” Curr. Eye Res.17(11), 1058–1066 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rahman, S.

L. W. Jones, S. Rahman, R. Leech, T. Simpson, and D. Fonn, “Determination of inferior tear meniscus height and inferior tear meniscus volume using optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45, 144 (2004).
[PubMed]

L. W. Jones, S. Rahman, R. Leech, T. Simpson, D. Fonn, J. G. Vehige, and P. A. Simmons, “Determination of tear meniscus height using a novel method based upon optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.44, 2461 (2003).
[PubMed]

Ramaesh, K.

S. Khanal, A. Tomlinson, A. McFadyen, C. Diaper, and K. Ramaesh, “Dry eye diagnosis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(4), 1407–1414 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Read, S. A.

D. H. Szczesna-Iskander, D. R. Iskander, S. A. Read, and D. Alonso-Caneiro, “Noninvasive in vivo assessment of soft contact lens type on tear film surface quality,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(1), 525–531 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reis, B. L.

S. C. Pflugfelder, S. C. Tseng, O. Sanabria, H. Kell, C. G. Garcia, C. Felix, W. Feuer, and B. L. Reis, “Evaluation of subjective assessments and objective diagnostic tests for diagnosing tear-film disorders known to cause ocular irritation,” Cornea17(1), 38–56 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robert Iskander, D.

D. Robert Iskander and H. T. Kasprzak, “Dynamics in longitudinal eye movements and corneal shape,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.26(6), 572–579 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanabria, O.

S. C. Pflugfelder, S. C. Tseng, O. Sanabria, H. Kell, C. G. Garcia, C. Felix, W. Feuer, and B. L. Reis, “Evaluation of subjective assessments and objective diagnostic tests for diagnosing tear-film disorders known to cause ocular irritation,” Cornea17(1), 38–56 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saunders, A.

M. J. Collins, D. R. Iskander, A. Saunders, S. Hook, E. Anthony, and R. Gillon, “Blinking patterns and corneal staining,” Eye Contact Lens32(6), 287–293 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Savini, G.

G. Savini, P. Barboni, and M. Zanini, “Tear meniscus evaluation by optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging37(2), 112–118 (2006).
[PubMed]

Shen, M.

Q. Chen, J. Wang, A. Tao, M. Shen, S. Jiao, and F. Lu, “Ultrahigh-resolution measurement by optical coherence tomography of dynamic tear film changes on contact lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 1988–1993 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Chen, J. Wang, M. Shen, C. Cai, J. Li, L. Cui, J. Qu, and F. Lu, “Lower volumes of tear menisci in contact lens wearers with dry eye symptoms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(7), 3159–3163 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shen, J. Li, J. Wang, H. Ma, C. Cai, A. Tao, Y. Yuan, and F. Lu, “Upper and lower tear menisci in the diagnosis of dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(6), 2722–2726 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shen, J. Li, J. Wang, H. Ma, C. Cai, A. Tao, Y. Yuan, and F. Lu, “Upper and lower tear menisci in the diagnosis of dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(6), 2722–2726 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simmons, P.

J. Wang, P. Simmons, J. Aquavella, J. Vehige, J. Palakuru, S. Chung, and C. Feng, “Dynamic distribution of artificial tears on the ocular surface,” Arch. Ophthalmol.126(5), 619–625 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simmons, P. A.

L. W. Jones, S. Rahman, R. Leech, T. Simpson, D. Fonn, J. G. Vehige, and P. A. Simmons, “Determination of tear meniscus height using a novel method based upon optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.44, 2461 (2003).
[PubMed]

Simpson, T.

E. Bitton, A. Keech, T. Simpson, and L. Jones, “Variability of the analysis of the tear meniscus height by optical coherence tomography,” Optom. Vis. Sci.84(9), 903–908 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. W. Jones, S. Rahman, R. Leech, T. Simpson, and D. Fonn, “Determination of inferior tear meniscus height and inferior tear meniscus volume using optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45, 144 (2004).
[PubMed]

L. W. Jones, S. Rahman, R. Leech, T. Simpson, D. Fonn, J. G. Vehige, and P. A. Simmons, “Determination of tear meniscus height using a novel method based upon optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.44, 2461 (2003).
[PubMed]

Sinnott, L. T.

J. J. Nichols and L. T. Sinnott, “Tear film, contact lens, and patient-related factors associated with contact lens-related dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(4), 1319–1328 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soumelidis, A.

J. Németh, B. Erdélyi, B. Csákány, P. Gáspár, A. Soumelidis, F. Kahlesz, and Z. Lang, “High-speed videotopographic measurement of tear film build-up time,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.43(6), 1783–1790 (2002).
[PubMed]

Szczesna, D. H.

D. H. Szczesna and D. R. Iskander, “Lateral shearing interferometry for analysis of tear film surface kinetics,” Optom. Vis. Sci.87(7), 513–517 (2010).
[PubMed]

Szczesna-Iskander, D. H.

D. H. Szczesna-Iskander, D. R. Iskander, S. A. Read, and D. Alonso-Caneiro, “Noninvasive in vivo assessment of soft contact lens type on tear film surface quality,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(1), 525–531 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Szczesna-Iskander and D. R. Iskander, “Future directions in non-invasive measurements of tear film surface kinetics,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), 749–759 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, A.

Q. Chen, J. Wang, A. Tao, M. Shen, S. Jiao, and F. Lu, “Ultrahigh-resolution measurement by optical coherence tomography of dynamic tear film changes on contact lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 1988–1993 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shen, J. Li, J. Wang, H. Ma, C. Cai, A. Tao, Y. Yuan, and F. Lu, “Upper and lower tear menisci in the diagnosis of dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(6), 2722–2726 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shen, J. Li, J. Wang, H. Ma, C. Cai, A. Tao, Y. Yuan, and F. Lu, “Upper and lower tear menisci in the diagnosis of dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(6), 2722–2726 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tiffany, J.

N. Yokoi, A. Bron, J. Tiffany, N. Brown, J. Hsuan, and C. Fowler, “Reflective meniscometry: a non-invasive method to measure tear meniscus curvature,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.83(1), 92–97 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tiffany, J. M.

N. Yokoi, H. Yamada, Y. Mizukusa, A. J. Bron, J. M. Tiffany, T. Kato, and S. Kinoshita, “Rheology of tear film lipid layer spread in normal and aqueous tear-deficient dry eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(12), 5319–5324 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Yokoi, A. J. Bron, J. M. Tiffany, K. Maruyama, A. Komuro, and S. Kinoshita, “Relationship between tear volume and tear meniscus curvature,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(9), 1265–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomlinson, A.

S. Khanal, A. Tomlinson, A. McFadyen, C. Diaper, and K. Ramaesh, “Dry eye diagnosis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(4), 1407–1414 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tseng, S. C.

S. C. Pflugfelder, S. C. Tseng, O. Sanabria, H. Kell, C. G. Garcia, C. Felix, W. Feuer, and B. L. Reis, “Evaluation of subjective assessments and objective diagnostic tests for diagnosing tear-film disorders known to cause ocular irritation,” Cornea17(1), 38–56 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Tseng and K. Tsubota, “Important concepts for treating ocular surface and tear disorders,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.124(6), 825–835 (1997).
[PubMed]

Tsubota, K.

S. C. Tseng and K. Tsubota, “Important concepts for treating ocular surface and tear disorders,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.124(6), 825–835 (1997).
[PubMed]

Usui, T.

R. Fukuda, T. Usui, T. Miyai, S. Yamagami, and S. Amano, “Tear meniscus evaluation by anterior segment swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.155(4), 620–624 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vehige, J.

J. Wang, P. Simmons, J. Aquavella, J. Vehige, J. Palakuru, S. Chung, and C. Feng, “Dynamic distribution of artificial tears on the ocular surface,” Arch. Ophthalmol.126(5), 619–625 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vehige, J. G.

L. W. Jones, S. Rahman, R. Leech, T. Simpson, D. Fonn, J. G. Vehige, and P. A. Simmons, “Determination of tear meniscus height using a novel method based upon optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.44, 2461 (2003).
[PubMed]

Wang, J.

Q. Chen, J. Wang, A. Tao, M. Shen, S. Jiao, and F. Lu, “Ultrahigh-resolution measurement by optical coherence tomography of dynamic tear film changes on contact lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 1988–1993 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Chen, J. Wang, M. Shen, C. Cai, J. Li, L. Cui, J. Qu, and F. Lu, “Lower volumes of tear menisci in contact lens wearers with dry eye symptoms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(7), 3159–3163 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shen, J. Li, J. Wang, H. Ma, C. Cai, A. Tao, Y. Yuan, and F. Lu, “Upper and lower tear menisci in the diagnosis of dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(6), 2722–2726 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shen, J. Li, J. Wang, H. Ma, C. Cai, A. Tao, Y. Yuan, and F. Lu, “Upper and lower tear menisci in the diagnosis of dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(6), 2722–2726 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, P. Simmons, J. Aquavella, J. Vehige, J. Palakuru, S. Chung, and C. Feng, “Dynamic distribution of artificial tears on the ocular surface,” Arch. Ophthalmol.126(5), 619–625 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Aquavella, J. Palakuru, S. Chung, and C. Feng, “Relationships between central tear film thickness and tear menisci of the upper and lower eyelids,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(10), 4349–4355 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Aquavella, J. Palakuru, and S. Chung, “Repeated measurements of dynamic tear distribution on the ocular surface after instillation of artificial tears,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(8), 3325–3329 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whalen, A. C.

D. R. Korb, J. V. Greiner, T. Glonek, R. Esbah, V. M. Finnemore, and A. C. Whalen, “Effect of periocular humidity on the tear film lipid layer,” Cornea15(2), 129–134 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, H.

N. Yokoi, H. Yamada, Y. Mizukusa, A. J. Bron, J. M. Tiffany, T. Kato, and S. Kinoshita, “Rheology of tear film lipid layer spread in normal and aqueous tear-deficient dry eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(12), 5319–5324 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamagami, S.

R. Fukuda, T. Usui, T. Miyai, S. Yamagami, and S. Amano, “Tear meniscus evaluation by anterior segment swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.155(4), 620–624 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yokoi, N.

N. Yokoi, H. Yamada, Y. Mizukusa, A. J. Bron, J. M. Tiffany, T. Kato, and S. Kinoshita, “Rheology of tear film lipid layer spread in normal and aqueous tear-deficient dry eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(12), 5319–5324 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Yokoi, A. J. Bron, J. M. Tiffany, K. Maruyama, A. Komuro, and S. Kinoshita, “Relationship between tear volume and tear meniscus curvature,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(9), 1265–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Yokoi and A. Komuro, “Non-invasive methods of assessing the tear film,” Exp. Eye Res.78(3), 399–407 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Oguz, N. Yokoi, and S. Kinoshita, “The height and radius of the tear meniscus and methods for examining these parameters,” Cornea19(4), 497–500 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Yokoi, A. Bron, J. Tiffany, N. Brown, J. Hsuan, and C. Fowler, “Reflective meniscometry: a non-invasive method to measure tear meniscus curvature,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.83(1), 92–97 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, Y.

M. Shen, J. Li, J. Wang, H. Ma, C. Cai, A. Tao, Y. Yuan, and F. Lu, “Upper and lower tear menisci in the diagnosis of dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(6), 2722–2726 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shen, J. Li, J. Wang, H. Ma, C. Cai, A. Tao, Y. Yuan, and F. Lu, “Upper and lower tear menisci in the diagnosis of dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(6), 2722–2726 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zanini, M.

G. Savini, P. Barboni, and M. Zanini, “Tear meniscus evaluation by optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging37(2), 112–118 (2006).
[PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (2)

S. C. Tseng and K. Tsubota, “Important concepts for treating ocular surface and tear disorders,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.124(6), 825–835 (1997).
[PubMed]

R. Fukuda, T. Usui, T. Miyai, S. Yamagami, and S. Amano, “Tear meniscus evaluation by anterior segment swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.155(4), 620–624 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (2)

N. Yokoi, A. J. Bron, J. M. Tiffany, K. Maruyama, A. Komuro, and S. Kinoshita, “Relationship between tear volume and tear meniscus curvature,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(9), 1265–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, P. Simmons, J. Aquavella, J. Vehige, J. Palakuru, S. Chung, and C. Feng, “Dynamic distribution of artificial tears on the ocular surface,” Arch. Ophthalmol.126(5), 619–625 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

N. Yokoi, A. Bron, J. Tiffany, N. Brown, J. Hsuan, and C. Fowler, “Reflective meniscometry: a non-invasive method to measure tear meniscus curvature,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.83(1), 92–97 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Exp. Optom. (1)

D. R. Iskander and M. J. Collins, “Applications of high-speed videokeratoscopy,” Clin. Exp. Optom.88(4), 223–231 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornea (5)

T. R. Golding, A. S. Bruce, and J. C. Mainstone, “Relationship between tear-meniscus parameters and tear-film breakup,” Cornea16(6), 649–661 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Oguz, N. Yokoi, and S. Kinoshita, “The height and radius of the tear meniscus and methods for examining these parameters,” Cornea19(4), 497–500 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Korb, “Survey of preferred tests for diagnosis of the tear film and dry eye,” Cornea19(4), 483–486 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Pflugfelder, S. C. Tseng, O. Sanabria, H. Kell, C. G. Garcia, C. Felix, W. Feuer, and B. L. Reis, “Evaluation of subjective assessments and objective diagnostic tests for diagnosing tear-film disorders known to cause ocular irritation,” Cornea17(1), 38–56 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Korb, J. V. Greiner, T. Glonek, R. Esbah, V. M. Finnemore, and A. C. Whalen, “Effect of periocular humidity on the tear film lipid layer,” Cornea15(2), 129–134 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Eye Res. (1)

J. L. Creech, L. T. Do, I. Fatt, and C. J. Radke, “In vivo tear-film thickness determination and implications for tear-film stability,” Curr. Eye Res.17(11), 1058–1066 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Exp. Eye Res. (2)

C. S. de Paiva and S. C. Pflugfelder, “Tear clearance implications for ocular surface health,” Exp. Eye Res.78(3), 395–397 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Yokoi and A. Komuro, “Non-invasive methods of assessing the tear film,” Exp. Eye Res.78(3), 399–407 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eye Contact Lens (1)

M. J. Collins, D. R. Iskander, A. Saunders, S. Hook, E. Anthony, and R. Gillon, “Blinking patterns and corneal staining,” Eye Contact Lens32(6), 287–293 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. (1)

N. Otsu, “A threshold selection method from gray-level histograms,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern.9(1), 62–66 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (13)

J. Németh, B. Erdélyi, B. Csákány, P. Gáspár, A. Soumelidis, F. Kahlesz, and Z. Lang, “High-speed videotopographic measurement of tear film build-up time,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.43(6), 1783–1790 (2002).
[PubMed]

M. Shen, J. Li, J. Wang, H. Ma, C. Cai, A. Tao, Y. Yuan, and F. Lu, “Upper and lower tear menisci in the diagnosis of dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(6), 2722–2726 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Yokoi, H. Yamada, Y. Mizukusa, A. J. Bron, J. M. Tiffany, T. Kato, and S. Kinoshita, “Rheology of tear film lipid layer spread in normal and aqueous tear-deficient dry eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(12), 5319–5324 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Aquavella, J. Palakuru, S. Chung, and C. Feng, “Relationships between central tear film thickness and tear menisci of the upper and lower eyelids,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(10), 4349–4355 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. W. Jones, S. Rahman, R. Leech, T. Simpson, D. Fonn, J. G. Vehige, and P. A. Simmons, “Determination of tear meniscus height using a novel method based upon optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.44, 2461 (2003).
[PubMed]

L. W. Jones, S. Rahman, R. Leech, T. Simpson, and D. Fonn, “Determination of inferior tear meniscus height and inferior tear meniscus volume using optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45, 144 (2004).
[PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Aquavella, J. Palakuru, and S. Chung, “Repeated measurements of dynamic tear distribution on the ocular surface after instillation of artificial tears,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(8), 3325–3329 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Khanal, A. Tomlinson, A. McFadyen, C. Diaper, and K. Ramaesh, “Dry eye diagnosis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(4), 1407–1414 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Nichols and L. T. Sinnott, “Tear film, contact lens, and patient-related factors associated with contact lens-related dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(4), 1319–1328 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Szczesna-Iskander, D. R. Iskander, S. A. Read, and D. Alonso-Caneiro, “Noninvasive in vivo assessment of soft contact lens type on tear film surface quality,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(1), 525–531 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shen, J. Li, J. Wang, H. Ma, C. Cai, A. Tao, Y. Yuan, and F. Lu, “Upper and lower tear menisci in the diagnosis of dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(6), 2722–2726 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Chen, J. Wang, M. Shen, C. Cai, J. Li, L. Cui, J. Qu, and F. Lu, “Lower volumes of tear menisci in contact lens wearers with dry eye symptoms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(7), 3159–3163 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Chen, J. Wang, A. Tao, M. Shen, S. Jiao, and F. Lu, “Ultrahigh-resolution measurement by optical coherence tomography of dynamic tear film changes on contact lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 1988–1993 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (1)

D. Robert Iskander and H. T. Kasprzak, “Dynamics in longitudinal eye movements and corneal shape,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.26(6), 572–579 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging (1)

G. Savini, P. Barboni, and M. Zanini, “Tear meniscus evaluation by optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging37(2), 112–118 (2006).
[PubMed]

Optom. Vis. Sci. (6)

E. Bitton, A. Keech, T. Simpson, and L. Jones, “Variability of the analysis of the tear meniscus height by optical coherence tomography,” Optom. Vis. Sci.84(9), 903–908 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Doughty, “Consideration of three types of spontaneous eyeblink activity in normal humans: during reading and video display terminal use, in primary gaze, and while in conversation,” Optom. Vis. Sci.78(10), 712–725 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Szczesna and D. R. Iskander, “Lateral shearing interferometry for analysis of tear film surface kinetics,” Optom. Vis. Sci.87(7), 513–517 (2010).
[PubMed]

S. Bandlitz, C. Purslow, P. J. Murphy, H. Pult, and A. J. Bron, “A new portable digital meniscometer,” Optom. Vis. Sci.91(1), e1–e8 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Szczesna-Iskander and D. R. Iskander, “Future directions in non-invasive measurements of tear film surface kinetics,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), 749–759 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Johnson and P. J. Murphy, “The agreement and repeatability of tear meniscus height measurement methods,” Optom. Vis. Sci.82(12), 1030–1037 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surv. Ophthalmol. (1)

A. J. Bron, “Diagnosis of dry eye,” Surv. Ophthalmol.45(Suppl 2), S221–S226 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

G. Tsechpenakis and J. Wang, “CRF-based segmentation of human tear meniscus obtained with optical coherence tomography” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2007), pp. V509–V512.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

An example of B-scan of the inferior meniscus taken from a series of post-blink measurements. The position of the B-scan with respect to the eye (left) and the corresponding raw OCT image (right).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The schematics of the proposed tear meniscus parameter estimation algorithm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The three important steps of mask generation. Filtering (A), multi-threshold segmentation (B), and class merging with post-processing (C).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

An example of extracted and estimated EEE (left) and its position within the ROI image (right).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

An example of extracted and estimated tear meniscus profile.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

An example of automatically extracted parameters of tear film meniscus dynamics. Dashed vertical lines indicate the first resolvable post-blink scan.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The average over multiple measurements of the TMA (square root), TMD, and TMH for each of the considered subjects (A to J).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

An example of automatically extracted parameters of tear film meniscus dynamics where subject was asked to exercise regular eye twitching. Dashed vertical lines indicate the first resolvable post-blink scan.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Examples of different OCT tear meniscus measurement scans. Ticks and crosses indicate whether the proposed algorithm could or could not successfully process the type of acquired image. Both signs indicate a probabilistic behavior of the algorithm.

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