Abstract

In polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) the use of single-mode fibers causes unpredictable polarization distortions which can result in increased noise levels and erroneous changes in calculated polarization parameters. In the current paper this problem is addressed by a new Jones matrix analysis method that measures and corrects system polarization distortions as a function of wavenumber by spectral analysis of the sample surface polarization state and deeper located birefringent tissue structures. This method was implemented on a passive-component depth-multiplexed swept-source PS-OCT system at 1040 nm which was theoretically modeled using Jones matrix calculus. High-resolution B-scan images are presented of the double-pass phase retardation, diattenuation, and relative optic axis orientation to show the benefits of the new analysis method for in vivo imaging of the human retina. The correction of system polarization distortions yielded reduced phase retardation noise, and better estimates of the diattenuation and the relative optic axis orientation in weakly birefringent tissues. The clinical potential of the system is shown by en face visualization of the phase retardation and optic axis orientation of the retinal nerve fiber layer in a healthy volunteer and a glaucoma patient with nerve fiber loss.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, “State-of-the-art retinal optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.27(1), 45–88 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(1), 94–102 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.27(18), 1610–1612 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(8), 2606–2612 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. Cense, Q. Wang, S. Lee, L. Zhao, A. E. Elsner, C. K. Hitzenberger, and D. T. Miller, “Henle fiber layer phase retardation measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(11), 2296–2306 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. Hitzenberger, “Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT,” Opt. Express12(24), 5940–5951 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Yamanari, Y. Lim, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Visualization of phase retardation of deep posterior eye by polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography with 1- µm probe,” Opt. Express17(15), 12385–12396 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Single camera based spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express15(3), 1054–1063 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B9(6), 903–908 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, “Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.22(12), 934–936 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human eye,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.30(6), 431–451 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. F. G. Schlanitz, B. Baumann, T. Spalek, C. Schütze, C. Ahlers, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Performance of automated drusen detection by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 4571–4579 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Ahlers, W. Geitzenauer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Three-dimensional polarization sensitive OCT imaging and interactive display of the human retina,” Opt. Express17(5), 4151–4165 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. Zotter, M. Pircher, T. Torzicky, B. Baumann, H. Yoshida, F. Hirose, P. Roberts, M. Ritter, C. Schütze, E. Götzinger, W. Trasischker, C. Vass, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Large-field high-speed polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and its applications in ophthalmology,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2720–2732 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. Dwelle, S. Liu, B. Wang, A. McElroy, D. Ho, M. K. Markey, T. Milner, and H. G. Rylander, “Thickness, phase retardation, birefringence, and reflectance of the retinal nerve fiber layer in normal and glaucomatous non-human primates,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(8), 4380–4395 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Hirn, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Analysis of the origin of atypical scanning laser polarimetry patterns by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(12), 5366–5372 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “High-speed fiber based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of in vivo human skin,” Opt. Lett.25(18), 1355–1357 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.6(4), 474–479 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. W. Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Single-detector polarization-sensitive optical frequency domain imaging using high-speed intra A-line polarization modulation,” Opt. Lett.33(12), 1330–1332 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, A. E. Desjardins, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed polarization sensitive optical frequency domain imaging with frequency multiplexing,” Opt. Express16(2), 1096–1103 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. M. Yamanari, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography with continuous source polarization modulation,” Opt. Express16(8), 5892–5906 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. K. H. Kim, B. H. Park, Y. Tu, T. Hasan, B. Lee, J. Li, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive optical frequency domain imaging based on unpolarized light,” Opt. Express19(2), 552–561 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. Y. Lim, Y. J. Hong, L. Duan, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, “Passive component based multifunctional Jones matrix swept source optical coherence tomography for Doppler and polarization imaging,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 1958–1960 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. B. Baumann, W. Choi, B. Potsaid, D. Huang, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Swept source/Fourier domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography with a passive polarization delay unit,” Opt. Express20(9), 10229–10241 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. B. Elmaanaoui, B. Wang, J. C. Dwelle, A. B. McElroy, S. S. Liu, H. G. Rylander, and T. E. Milner, “Birefringence measurement of the retinal nerve fiber layer by swept source polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express19(11), 10252–10268 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. M. Villiger, E. Z. Zhang, S. Nadkarni, W. Y. Oh, B. E. Bouma, and B. J. Vakoc, “Artifacts in polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography caused by polarization mode dispersion,” Opt. Lett.38(6), 923–925 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. E. Z. Zhang, W. Y. Oh, M. L. Villiger, L. Chen, B. E. Bouma, and B. J. Vakoc, “Numerical compensation of system polarization mode dispersion in polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express21(1), 1163–1180 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. M. Villiger, E. Z. Zhang, S. K. Nadkarni, W. Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectral binning for mitigation of polarization mode dispersion artifacts in catheter-based optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express21(14), 16353–16369 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components,” Opt. Lett.29(21), 2512–2514 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. M. J. Ju, Y. J. Hong, S. Makita, Y. Lim, K. Kurokawa, L. Duan, M. Miura, S. Tang, and Y. Yasuno, “Advanced multi-contrast Jones matrix optical coherence tomography for Doppler and polarization sensitive imaging,” Opt. Express21(16), 19412–19436 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. B. Braaf, K. A. Vermeer, V. A. Sicam, E. van Zeeburg, J. C. van Meurs, and J. F. de Boer, “Phase-stabilized optical frequency domain imaging at 1-µm for the measurement of blood flow in the human choroid,” Opt. Express19(21), 20886–20903 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Park, M. Pierce, S. Yun, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, T. Chen, and J. de Boer, “In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve,” Opt. Express12(3), 367–376 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. N. V. Iftimia, D. X. Hammer, C. E. Bigelow, D. I. Rosen, T. Ustun, A. A. Ferrante, D. Vu, and R. D. Ferguson, “Toward noninvasive measurement of blood hematocrit using spectral domain low coherence interferometry and retinal tracking,” Opt. Express14(8), 3377–3388 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. B. H. Park and J. F. De Boer, “Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography” in Optical Coherence Tomography: Technology and Applications, W. Drexler, and J. G. Fujimoto, eds. (Springer, 2008), 653–695.
  39. M. E. Brezinski, “Optical Coherence Tomography Theory: Appendix 5-1” in Optical Coherence Tomography: Principles and Applications, M. E. Brezinski, ed. (Elsevier, 2006), 141–142.
  40. S. Makita, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, “Generalized Jones matrix optical coherence tomography: performance and local birefringence imaging,” Opt. Express18(2), 854–876 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. S. Jiao and L. V. Wang, “Jones-matrix imaging of biological tissues with quadruple-channel optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 350–358 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. R. Leitgeb, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, “Spectral measurement of absorption by spectroscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.25(11), 820–822 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. G. van Soest, M. Villiger, E. Regar, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and A. F. van der Steen, “Frequency domain multiplexing for speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 076018 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. D. Hillmann, T. Bonin, C. Lührs, G. Franke, M. Hagen-Eggert, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Common approach for compensation of axial motion artifacts in swept-source OCT and dispersion in Fourier-domain OCT,” Opt. Express20(6), 6761–6776 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. W. Choi, B. Baumann, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Extracting and compensating dispersion mismatch in ultrahigh-resolution Fourier domain OCT imaging of the retina,” Opt. Express20(23), 25357–25368 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. Y. Lim, M. Yamanari, S. Fukuda, Y. Kaji, T. Kiuchi, M. Miura, T. Oshika, and Y. Yasuno, “Birefringence measurement of cornea and anterior segment by office-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(8), 2392–2402 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. G. D. VanWiggeren and R. Roy, “Transmission of linearly polarized light through a single-mode fiber with random fluctuations of birefringence,” Appl. Opt.38(18), 3888–3892 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  48. S. Jiao, W. Yu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-fiber-based Mueller optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.28(14), 1206–1208 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  49. D. Penninckx and V. Morénas, “Jones matrix of polarization mode dispersion,” Opt. Lett.24(13), 875–877 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  50. M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, B. Baumann, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Corneal birefringence compensation for polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 041210 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  51. B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Optic axis determination accuracy for fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.30(19), 2587–2589 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  52. F. Fanjul-Vélez, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and J. L. Arce-Diego, “Polarimetric analysis of the human cornea measured by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(5), 056004 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  53. E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, T. Schmoll, H. Sattmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle noise reduction in high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express19(15), 14568–14585 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  54. M. Todorović, S. Jiao, L. V. Wang, and G. Stoica, “Determination of local polarization properties of biological samples in the presence of diattenuation by use of Mueller optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.29(20), 2402–2404 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  55. N. Kemp, H. Zaatari, J. Park, H. G. Rylander, and T. Milner, “Form-biattenuance in fibrous tissues measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT),” Opt. Express13(12), 4611–4628 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  56. Q. Zhou, J. Reed, R. Betts, P. Trost, P. Lo, C. Wallace, R. Bienias, G. Li, R. Winnick, W. Papworth, and M. Sinai, “Detection of glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber layer damage by scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation,” Proc. SPIE4951, 32–41 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  57. I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, C. D. Lu, J. Jiang, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Retinal, anterior segment and full eye imaging using ultrahigh speed swept source OCT with vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2733–2751 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  58. A. Petzold, J. F. de Boer, S. Schippling, P. Vermersch, R. Kardon, A. Green, P. A. Calabresi, and C. Polman, “Optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Neurol.9(9), 921–932 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  59. M. Sugita, S. Zotter, M. Pircher, T. Makihira, K. Saito, N. Tomatsu, M. Sato, P. Roberts, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Motion artifact and speckle noise reduction in polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography by retinal tracking,” Biomed. Opt. Express5(1), 106–122 (2014).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  60. K. V. Vienola, B. Braaf, C. K. Sheehy, Q. Yang, P. Tiruveedhula, D. W. Arathorn, J. F. de Boer, and A. Roorda, “Real-time eye motion compensation for OCT imaging with tracking SLO,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2950–2963 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  61. B. Braaf, K. V. Vienola, C. K. Sheehy, Q. Yang, K. A. Vermeer, P. Tiruveedhula, D. W. Arathorn, A. Roorda, and J. F. de Boer, “Real-time eye motion correction in phase-resolved OCT angiography with tracking SLO,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(1), 51–65 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

2013 (6)

B. Braaf, K. V. Vienola, C. K. Sheehy, Q. Yang, K. A. Vermeer, P. Tiruveedhula, D. W. Arathorn, A. Roorda, and J. F. de Boer, “Real-time eye motion correction in phase-resolved OCT angiography with tracking SLO,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(1), 51–65 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, Q. Wang, S. Lee, L. Zhao, A. E. Elsner, C. K. Hitzenberger, and D. T. Miller, “Henle fiber layer phase retardation measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(11), 2296–2306 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Villiger, E. Z. Zhang, S. Nadkarni, W. Y. Oh, B. E. Bouma, and B. J. Vakoc, “Artifacts in polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography caused by polarization mode dispersion,” Opt. Lett.38(6), 923–925 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Z. Zhang, W. Y. Oh, M. L. Villiger, L. Chen, B. E. Bouma, and B. J. Vakoc, “Numerical compensation of system polarization mode dispersion in polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express21(1), 1163–1180 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Villiger, E. Z. Zhang, S. K. Nadkarni, W. Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectral binning for mitigation of polarization mode dispersion artifacts in catheter-based optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express21(14), 16353–16369 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Ju, Y. J. Hong, S. Makita, Y. Lim, K. Kurokawa, L. Duan, M. Miura, S. Tang, and Y. Yasuno, “Advanced multi-contrast Jones matrix optical coherence tomography for Doppler and polarization sensitive imaging,” Opt. Express21(16), 19412–19436 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (9)

Y. Lim, Y. J. Hong, L. Duan, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, “Passive component based multifunctional Jones matrix swept source optical coherence tomography for Doppler and polarization imaging,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 1958–1960 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, W. Choi, B. Potsaid, D. Huang, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Swept source/Fourier domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography with a passive polarization delay unit,” Opt. Express20(9), 10229–10241 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zotter, M. Pircher, T. Torzicky, B. Baumann, H. Yoshida, F. Hirose, P. Roberts, M. Ritter, C. Schütze, E. Götzinger, W. Trasischker, C. Vass, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Large-field high-speed polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and its applications in ophthalmology,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2720–2732 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dwelle, S. Liu, B. Wang, A. McElroy, D. Ho, M. K. Markey, T. Milner, and H. G. Rylander, “Thickness, phase retardation, birefringence, and reflectance of the retinal nerve fiber layer in normal and glaucomatous non-human primates,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(8), 4380–4395 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. V. Vienola, B. Braaf, C. K. Sheehy, Q. Yang, P. Tiruveedhula, D. W. Arathorn, J. F. de Boer, and A. Roorda, “Real-time eye motion compensation for OCT imaging with tracking SLO,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2950–2963 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, C. D. Lu, J. Jiang, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Retinal, anterior segment and full eye imaging using ultrahigh speed swept source OCT with vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2733–2751 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. van Soest, M. Villiger, E. Regar, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and A. F. van der Steen, “Frequency domain multiplexing for speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 076018 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hillmann, T. Bonin, C. Lührs, G. Franke, M. Hagen-Eggert, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Common approach for compensation of axial motion artifacts in swept-source OCT and dispersion in Fourier-domain OCT,” Opt. Express20(6), 6761–6776 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Choi, B. Baumann, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Extracting and compensating dispersion mismatch in ultrahigh-resolution Fourier domain OCT imaging of the retina,” Opt. Express20(23), 25357–25368 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (7)

Y. Lim, M. Yamanari, S. Fukuda, Y. Kaji, T. Kiuchi, M. Miura, T. Oshika, and Y. Yasuno, “Birefringence measurement of cornea and anterior segment by office-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(8), 2392–2402 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, T. Schmoll, H. Sattmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle noise reduction in high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express19(15), 14568–14585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human eye,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.30(6), 431–451 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Schlanitz, B. Baumann, T. Spalek, C. Schütze, C. Ahlers, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Performance of automated drusen detection by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 4571–4579 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Elmaanaoui, B. Wang, J. C. Dwelle, A. B. McElroy, S. S. Liu, H. G. Rylander, and T. E. Milner, “Birefringence measurement of the retinal nerve fiber layer by swept source polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express19(11), 10252–10268 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Braaf, K. A. Vermeer, V. A. Sicam, E. van Zeeburg, J. C. van Meurs, and J. F. de Boer, “Phase-stabilized optical frequency domain imaging at 1-µm for the measurement of blood flow in the human choroid,” Opt. Express19(21), 20886–20903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Kim, B. H. Park, Y. Tu, T. Hasan, B. Lee, J. Li, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive optical frequency domain imaging based on unpolarized light,” Opt. Express19(2), 552–561 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

S. Makita, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, “Generalized Jones matrix optical coherence tomography: performance and local birefringence imaging,” Opt. Express18(2), 854–876 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Petzold, J. F. de Boer, S. Schippling, P. Vermersch, R. Kardon, A. Green, P. A. Calabresi, and C. Polman, “Optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Neurol.9(9), 921–932 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Fanjul-Vélez, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and J. L. Arce-Diego, “Polarimetric analysis of the human cornea measured by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(5), 056004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2008 (6)

2007 (2)

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Single camera based spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express15(3), 1054–1063 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, B. Baumann, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Corneal birefringence compensation for polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 041210 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. V. Iftimia, D. X. Hammer, C. E. Bigelow, D. I. Rosen, T. Ustun, A. A. Ferrante, D. Vu, and R. D. Ferguson, “Toward noninvasive measurement of blood hematocrit using spectral domain low coherence interferometry and retinal tracking,” Opt. Express14(8), 3377–3388 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2004 (6)

M. Todorović, S. Jiao, L. V. Wang, and G. Stoica, “Determination of local polarization properties of biological samples in the presence of diattenuation by use of Mueller optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.29(20), 2402–2404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Park, M. Pierce, S. Yun, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, T. Chen, and J. de Boer, “In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve,” Opt. Express12(3), 367–376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components,” Opt. Lett.29(21), 2512–2514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. Hitzenberger, “Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT,” Opt. Express12(24), 5940–5951 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(1), 94–102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(8), 2606–2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

Q. Zhou, J. Reed, R. Betts, P. Trost, P. Lo, C. Wallace, R. Bienias, G. Li, R. Winnick, W. Papworth, and M. Sinai, “Detection of glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber layer damage by scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation,” Proc. SPIE4951, 32–41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Jiao, W. Yu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-fiber-based Mueller optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.28(14), 1206–1208 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.6(4), 474–479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

1999 (2)

1997 (1)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahlers, C.

F. G. Schlanitz, B. Baumann, T. Spalek, C. Schütze, C. Ahlers, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Performance of automated drusen detection by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 4571–4579 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Ahlers, W. Geitzenauer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Three-dimensional polarization sensitive OCT imaging and interactive display of the human retina,” Opt. Express17(5), 4151–4165 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arathorn, D. W.

Arce-Diego, J. L.

F. Fanjul-Vélez, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and J. L. Arce-Diego, “Polarimetric analysis of the human cornea measured by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(5), 056004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumann, B.

S. Zotter, M. Pircher, T. Torzicky, B. Baumann, H. Yoshida, F. Hirose, P. Roberts, M. Ritter, C. Schütze, E. Götzinger, W. Trasischker, C. Vass, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Large-field high-speed polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and its applications in ophthalmology,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2720–2732 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, W. Choi, B. Potsaid, D. Huang, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Swept source/Fourier domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography with a passive polarization delay unit,” Opt. Express20(9), 10229–10241 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Choi, B. Baumann, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Extracting and compensating dispersion mismatch in ultrahigh-resolution Fourier domain OCT imaging of the retina,” Opt. Express20(23), 25357–25368 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Schlanitz, B. Baumann, T. Spalek, C. Schütze, C. Ahlers, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Performance of automated drusen detection by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 4571–4579 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, T. Schmoll, H. Sattmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle noise reduction in high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express19(15), 14568–14585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Fanjul-Vélez, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and J. L. Arce-Diego, “Polarimetric analysis of the human cornea measured by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(5), 056004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Ahlers, W. Geitzenauer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Three-dimensional polarization sensitive OCT imaging and interactive display of the human retina,” Opt. Express17(5), 4151–4165 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Hirn, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Analysis of the origin of atypical scanning laser polarimetry patterns by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(12), 5366–5372 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Single camera based spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express15(3), 1054–1063 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, B. Baumann, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Corneal birefringence compensation for polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 041210 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Betts, R.

Q. Zhou, J. Reed, R. Betts, P. Trost, P. Lo, C. Wallace, R. Bienias, G. Li, R. Winnick, W. Papworth, and M. Sinai, “Detection of glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber layer damage by scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation,” Proc. SPIE4951, 32–41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bienias, R.

Q. Zhou, J. Reed, R. Betts, P. Trost, P. Lo, C. Wallace, R. Bienias, G. Li, R. Winnick, W. Papworth, and M. Sinai, “Detection of glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber layer damage by scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation,” Proc. SPIE4951, 32–41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bigelow, C. E.

Bonin, T.

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

M. Villiger, E. Z. Zhang, S. Nadkarni, W. Y. Oh, B. E. Bouma, and B. J. Vakoc, “Artifacts in polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography caused by polarization mode dispersion,” Opt. Lett.38(6), 923–925 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Z. Zhang, W. Y. Oh, M. L. Villiger, L. Chen, B. E. Bouma, and B. J. Vakoc, “Numerical compensation of system polarization mode dispersion in polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express21(1), 1163–1180 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Villiger, E. Z. Zhang, S. K. Nadkarni, W. Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectral binning for mitigation of polarization mode dispersion artifacts in catheter-based optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express21(14), 16353–16369 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. van Soest, M. Villiger, E. Regar, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and A. F. van der Steen, “Frequency domain multiplexing for speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 076018 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, A. E. Desjardins, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed polarization sensitive optical frequency domain imaging with frequency multiplexing,” Opt. Express16(2), 1096–1103 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Single-detector polarization-sensitive optical frequency domain imaging using high-speed intra A-line polarization modulation,” Opt. Lett.33(12), 1330–1332 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braaf, B.

Cable, A. E.

Calabresi, P. A.

A. Petzold, J. F. de Boer, S. Schippling, P. Vermersch, R. Kardon, A. Green, P. A. Calabresi, and C. Polman, “Optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Neurol.9(9), 921–932 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

B. Cense, Q. Wang, S. Lee, L. Zhao, A. E. Elsner, C. K. Hitzenberger, and D. T. Miller, “Henle fiber layer phase retardation measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(11), 2296–2306 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Optic axis determination accuracy for fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.30(19), 2587–2589 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Park, M. Pierce, S. Yun, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, T. Chen, and J. de Boer, “In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve,” Opt. Express12(3), 367–376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components,” Opt. Lett.29(21), 2512–2514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(8), 2606–2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.27(18), 1610–1612 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

Chen, T.

Chen, T. C.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(8), 2606–2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.27(18), 1610–1612 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Choi, W.

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

B. Braaf, K. V. Vienola, C. K. Sheehy, Q. Yang, K. A. Vermeer, P. Tiruveedhula, D. W. Arathorn, A. Roorda, and J. F. de Boer, “Real-time eye motion correction in phase-resolved OCT angiography with tracking SLO,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(1), 51–65 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. V. Vienola, B. Braaf, C. K. Sheehy, Q. Yang, P. Tiruveedhula, D. W. Arathorn, J. F. de Boer, and A. Roorda, “Real-time eye motion compensation for OCT imaging with tracking SLO,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2950–2963 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Braaf, K. A. Vermeer, V. A. Sicam, E. van Zeeburg, J. C. van Meurs, and J. F. de Boer, “Phase-stabilized optical frequency domain imaging at 1-µm for the measurement of blood flow in the human choroid,” Opt. Express19(21), 20886–20903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Kim, B. H. Park, Y. Tu, T. Hasan, B. Lee, J. Li, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive optical frequency domain imaging based on unpolarized light,” Opt. Express19(2), 552–561 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Petzold, J. F. de Boer, S. Schippling, P. Vermersch, R. Kardon, A. Green, P. A. Calabresi, and C. Polman, “Optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Neurol.9(9), 921–932 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, A. E. Desjardins, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed polarization sensitive optical frequency domain imaging with frequency multiplexing,” Opt. Express16(2), 1096–1103 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Optic axis determination accuracy for fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.30(19), 2587–2589 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components,” Opt. Lett.29(21), 2512–2514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(8), 2606–2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.27(18), 1610–1612 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.6(4), 474–479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “High-speed fiber based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of in vivo human skin,” Opt. Lett.25(18), 1355–1357 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, “Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.22(12), 934–936 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desjardins, A. E.

Drexler, W.

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, “State-of-the-art retinal optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.27(1), 45–88 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duan, L.

Duker, J. S.

Dwelle, J.

J. Dwelle, S. Liu, B. Wang, A. McElroy, D. Ho, M. K. Markey, T. Milner, and H. G. Rylander, “Thickness, phase retardation, birefringence, and reflectance of the retinal nerve fiber layer in normal and glaucomatous non-human primates,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(8), 4380–4395 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dwelle, J. C.

Elmaanaoui, B.

Elsner, A. E.

Fanjul-Vélez, F.

F. Fanjul-Vélez, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and J. L. Arce-Diego, “Polarimetric analysis of the human cornea measured by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(5), 056004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(1), 94–102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, “Spectral measurement of absorption by spectroscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.25(11), 820–822 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferguson, R. D.

Ferrante, A. A.

Findl, O.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. Hitzenberger, “Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT,” Opt. Express12(24), 5940–5951 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franke, G.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Fukuda, S.

Geitzenauer, W.

Golbaz, I.

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Götzinger, E.

S. Zotter, M. Pircher, T. Torzicky, B. Baumann, H. Yoshida, F. Hirose, P. Roberts, M. Ritter, C. Schütze, E. Götzinger, W. Trasischker, C. Vass, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Large-field high-speed polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and its applications in ophthalmology,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2720–2732 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Schlanitz, B. Baumann, T. Spalek, C. Schütze, C. Ahlers, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Performance of automated drusen detection by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 4571–4579 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, T. Schmoll, H. Sattmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle noise reduction in high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express19(15), 14568–14585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Fanjul-Vélez, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and J. L. Arce-Diego, “Polarimetric analysis of the human cornea measured by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(5), 056004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Ahlers, W. Geitzenauer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Three-dimensional polarization sensitive OCT imaging and interactive display of the human retina,” Opt. Express17(5), 4151–4165 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Hirn, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Analysis of the origin of atypical scanning laser polarimetry patterns by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(12), 5366–5372 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Single camera based spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express15(3), 1054–1063 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, B. Baumann, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Corneal birefringence compensation for polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 041210 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. Hitzenberger, “Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT,” Opt. Express12(24), 5940–5951 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(1), 94–102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, A.

A. Petzold, J. F. de Boer, S. Schippling, P. Vermersch, R. Kardon, A. Green, P. A. Calabresi, and C. Polman, “Optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Neurol.9(9), 921–932 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grulkowski, I.

Hagen-Eggert, M.

Hammer, D. X.

Hasan, T.

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B9(6), 903–908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillmann, D.

Hirn, C.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Hirn, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Analysis of the origin of atypical scanning laser polarimetry patterns by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(12), 5366–5372 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirose, F.

Hitzenberger, C.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

M. Sugita, S. Zotter, M. Pircher, T. Makihira, K. Saito, N. Tomatsu, M. Sato, P. Roberts, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Motion artifact and speckle noise reduction in polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography by retinal tracking,” Biomed. Opt. Express5(1), 106–122 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, Q. Wang, S. Lee, L. Zhao, A. E. Elsner, C. K. Hitzenberger, and D. T. Miller, “Henle fiber layer phase retardation measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(11), 2296–2306 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zotter, M. Pircher, T. Torzicky, B. Baumann, H. Yoshida, F. Hirose, P. Roberts, M. Ritter, C. Schütze, E. Götzinger, W. Trasischker, C. Vass, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Large-field high-speed polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and its applications in ophthalmology,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2720–2732 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Schlanitz, B. Baumann, T. Spalek, C. Schütze, C. Ahlers, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Performance of automated drusen detection by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 4571–4579 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human eye,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.30(6), 431–451 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, T. Schmoll, H. Sattmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle noise reduction in high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express19(15), 14568–14585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Fanjul-Vélez, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and J. L. Arce-Diego, “Polarimetric analysis of the human cornea measured by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(5), 056004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Ahlers, W. Geitzenauer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Three-dimensional polarization sensitive OCT imaging and interactive display of the human retina,” Opt. Express17(5), 4151–4165 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Hirn, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Analysis of the origin of atypical scanning laser polarimetry patterns by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(12), 5366–5372 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Single camera based spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express15(3), 1054–1063 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, B. Baumann, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Corneal birefringence compensation for polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 041210 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(1), 94–102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, “Spectral measurement of absorption by spectroscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.25(11), 820–822 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, D.

J. Dwelle, S. Liu, B. Wang, A. McElroy, D. Ho, M. K. Markey, T. Milner, and H. G. Rylander, “Thickness, phase retardation, birefringence, and reflectance of the retinal nerve fiber layer in normal and glaucomatous non-human primates,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(8), 4380–4395 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, Y. J.

Huang, D.

Hüttmann, G.

Iftimia, N. V.

Jayaraman, V.

Jiang, J.

Jiao, S.

Ju, M. J.

Kaji, Y.

Kardon, R.

A. Petzold, J. F. de Boer, S. Schippling, P. Vermersch, R. Kardon, A. Green, P. A. Calabresi, and C. Polman, “Optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Neurol.9(9), 921–932 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kemp, N.

Kim, K. H.

Kiuchi, T.

Koch, P.

Kowalczyk, A.

Kurokawa, K.

Lee, B.

Lee, S.

Leitgeb, R.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Leydolt, C.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, G.

Q. Zhou, J. Reed, R. Betts, P. Trost, P. Lo, C. Wallace, R. Bienias, G. Li, R. Winnick, W. Papworth, and M. Sinai, “Detection of glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber layer damage by scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation,” Proc. SPIE4951, 32–41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Lim, Y.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J. J.

Liu, S.

J. Dwelle, S. Liu, B. Wang, A. McElroy, D. Ho, M. K. Markey, T. Milner, and H. G. Rylander, “Thickness, phase retardation, birefringence, and reflectance of the retinal nerve fiber layer in normal and glaucomatous non-human primates,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(8), 4380–4395 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, S. S.

Lo, P.

Q. Zhou, J. Reed, R. Betts, P. Trost, P. Lo, C. Wallace, R. Bienias, G. Li, R. Winnick, W. Papworth, and M. Sinai, “Detection of glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber layer damage by scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation,” Proc. SPIE4951, 32–41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C. D.

Lührs, C.

Makihira, T.

Makita, S.

Markey, M. K.

J. Dwelle, S. Liu, B. Wang, A. McElroy, D. Ho, M. K. Markey, T. Milner, and H. G. Rylander, “Thickness, phase retardation, birefringence, and reflectance of the retinal nerve fiber layer in normal and glaucomatous non-human primates,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(8), 4380–4395 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McElroy, A.

J. Dwelle, S. Liu, B. Wang, A. McElroy, D. Ho, M. K. Markey, T. Milner, and H. G. Rylander, “Thickness, phase retardation, birefringence, and reflectance of the retinal nerve fiber layer in normal and glaucomatous non-human primates,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(8), 4380–4395 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McElroy, A. B.

Michels, S.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, D. T.

Milner, T.

J. Dwelle, S. Liu, B. Wang, A. McElroy, D. Ho, M. K. Markey, T. Milner, and H. G. Rylander, “Thickness, phase retardation, birefringence, and reflectance of the retinal nerve fiber layer in normal and glaucomatous non-human primates,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(8), 4380–4395 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Kemp, H. Zaatari, J. Park, H. G. Rylander, and T. Milner, “Form-biattenuance in fibrous tissues measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT),” Opt. Express13(12), 4611–4628 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milner, T. E.

Miura, M.

Morénas, V.

Nadkarni, S.

Nadkarni, S. K.

Nassif, N.

Nelson, J. S.

Oh, W. Y.

Oshika, T.

Papworth, W.

Q. Zhou, J. Reed, R. Betts, P. Trost, P. Lo, C. Wallace, R. Bienias, G. Li, R. Winnick, W. Papworth, and M. Sinai, “Detection of glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber layer damage by scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation,” Proc. SPIE4951, 32–41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, B.

Park, B. H.

K. H. Kim, B. H. Park, Y. Tu, T. Hasan, B. Lee, J. Li, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive optical frequency domain imaging based on unpolarized light,” Opt. Express19(2), 552–561 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, A. E. Desjardins, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed polarization sensitive optical frequency domain imaging with frequency multiplexing,” Opt. Express16(2), 1096–1103 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Optic axis determination accuracy for fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.30(19), 2587–2589 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components,” Opt. Lett.29(21), 2512–2514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(8), 2606–2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.27(18), 1610–1612 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.6(4), 474–479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “High-speed fiber based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of in vivo human skin,” Opt. Lett.25(18), 1355–1357 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J.

Penninckx, D.

Petzold, A.

A. Petzold, J. F. de Boer, S. Schippling, P. Vermersch, R. Kardon, A. Green, P. A. Calabresi, and C. Polman, “Optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Neurol.9(9), 921–932 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pierce, M.

Pierce, M. C.

Pircher, M.

M. Sugita, S. Zotter, M. Pircher, T. Makihira, K. Saito, N. Tomatsu, M. Sato, P. Roberts, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Motion artifact and speckle noise reduction in polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography by retinal tracking,” Biomed. Opt. Express5(1), 106–122 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zotter, M. Pircher, T. Torzicky, B. Baumann, H. Yoshida, F. Hirose, P. Roberts, M. Ritter, C. Schütze, E. Götzinger, W. Trasischker, C. Vass, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Large-field high-speed polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and its applications in ophthalmology,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2720–2732 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Schlanitz, B. Baumann, T. Spalek, C. Schütze, C. Ahlers, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Performance of automated drusen detection by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 4571–4579 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human eye,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.30(6), 431–451 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, T. Schmoll, H. Sattmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle noise reduction in high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express19(15), 14568–14585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Fanjul-Vélez, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and J. L. Arce-Diego, “Polarimetric analysis of the human cornea measured by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(5), 056004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Ahlers, W. Geitzenauer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Three-dimensional polarization sensitive OCT imaging and interactive display of the human retina,” Opt. Express17(5), 4151–4165 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Hirn, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Analysis of the origin of atypical scanning laser polarimetry patterns by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(12), 5366–5372 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Single camera based spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express15(3), 1054–1063 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, B. Baumann, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Corneal birefringence compensation for polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 041210 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(1), 94–102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. Hitzenberger, “Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT,” Opt. Express12(24), 5940–5951 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polman, C.

A. Petzold, J. F. de Boer, S. Schippling, P. Vermersch, R. Kardon, A. Green, P. A. Calabresi, and C. Polman, “Optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Neurol.9(9), 921–932 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potsaid, B.

Prager, F.

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reed, J.

Q. Zhou, J. Reed, R. Betts, P. Trost, P. Lo, C. Wallace, R. Bienias, G. Li, R. Winnick, W. Papworth, and M. Sinai, “Detection of glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber layer damage by scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation,” Proc. SPIE4951, 32–41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Regar, E.

G. van Soest, M. Villiger, E. Regar, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and A. F. van der Steen, “Frequency domain multiplexing for speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 076018 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritter, M.

Roberts, P.

Roorda, A.

Rosen, D. I.

Roy, R.

Rylander, H. G.

Saito, K.

Sato, M.

Sattmann, H.

Saxer, C.

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.6(4), 474–479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saxer, C. E.

Schippling, S.

A. Petzold, J. F. de Boer, S. Schippling, P. Vermersch, R. Kardon, A. Green, P. A. Calabresi, and C. Polman, “Optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Neurol.9(9), 921–932 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlanitz, F. G.

F. G. Schlanitz, B. Baumann, T. Spalek, C. Schütze, C. Ahlers, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Performance of automated drusen detection by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 4571–4579 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt-Erfurth, U.

M. Sugita, S. Zotter, M. Pircher, T. Makihira, K. Saito, N. Tomatsu, M. Sato, P. Roberts, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Motion artifact and speckle noise reduction in polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography by retinal tracking,” Biomed. Opt. Express5(1), 106–122 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zotter, M. Pircher, T. Torzicky, B. Baumann, H. Yoshida, F. Hirose, P. Roberts, M. Ritter, C. Schütze, E. Götzinger, W. Trasischker, C. Vass, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Large-field high-speed polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and its applications in ophthalmology,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2720–2732 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human eye,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.30(6), 431–451 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Schlanitz, B. Baumann, T. Spalek, C. Schütze, C. Ahlers, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Performance of automated drusen detection by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 4571–4579 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Ahlers, W. Geitzenauer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Three-dimensional polarization sensitive OCT imaging and interactive display of the human retina,” Opt. Express17(5), 4151–4165 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmoll, T.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schütze, C.

S. Zotter, M. Pircher, T. Torzicky, B. Baumann, H. Yoshida, F. Hirose, P. Roberts, M. Ritter, C. Schütze, E. Götzinger, W. Trasischker, C. Vass, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Large-field high-speed polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and its applications in ophthalmology,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2720–2732 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Schlanitz, B. Baumann, T. Spalek, C. Schütze, C. Ahlers, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Performance of automated drusen detection by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 4571–4579 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheehy, C. K.

Shishkov, M.

Sicam, V. A.

Sinai, M.

Q. Zhou, J. Reed, R. Betts, P. Trost, P. Lo, C. Wallace, R. Bienias, G. Li, R. Winnick, W. Papworth, and M. Sinai, “Detection of glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber layer damage by scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation,” Proc. SPIE4951, 32–41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Spalek, T.

F. G. Schlanitz, B. Baumann, T. Spalek, C. Schütze, C. Ahlers, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Performance of automated drusen detection by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 4571–4579 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivas, S. M.

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.6(4), 474–479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sticker, M.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(1), 94–102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, “Spectral measurement of absorption by spectroscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.25(11), 820–822 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoica, G.

Sugita, M.

Swanson, E. A.

Tang, S.

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

Tiruveedhula, P.

Todorovic, M.

Tomatsu, N.

Torzicky, T.

Trasischker, W.

Trost, P.

Q. Zhou, J. Reed, R. Betts, P. Trost, P. Lo, C. Wallace, R. Bienias, G. Li, R. Winnick, W. Papworth, and M. Sinai, “Detection of glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber layer damage by scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation,” Proc. SPIE4951, 32–41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tu, Y.

Ustun, T.

Vakoc, B. J.

van der Steen, A. F.

G. van Soest, M. Villiger, E. Regar, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and A. F. van der Steen, “Frequency domain multiplexing for speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 076018 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J.

van Meurs, J. C.

van Soest, G.

G. van Soest, M. Villiger, E. Regar, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and A. F. van der Steen, “Frequency domain multiplexing for speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 076018 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Zeeburg, E.

VanWiggeren, G. D.

Vass, C.

S. Zotter, M. Pircher, T. Torzicky, B. Baumann, H. Yoshida, F. Hirose, P. Roberts, M. Ritter, C. Schütze, E. Götzinger, W. Trasischker, C. Vass, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Large-field high-speed polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and its applications in ophthalmology,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2720–2732 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Hirn, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Analysis of the origin of atypical scanning laser polarimetry patterns by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(12), 5366–5372 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vermeer, K. A.

Vermersch, P.

A. Petzold, J. F. de Boer, S. Schippling, P. Vermersch, R. Kardon, A. Green, P. A. Calabresi, and C. Polman, “Optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Neurol.9(9), 921–932 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vienola, K. V.

Villiger, M.

Villiger, M. L.

Vu, D.

Wallace, C.

Q. Zhou, J. Reed, R. Betts, P. Trost, P. Lo, C. Wallace, R. Bienias, G. Li, R. Winnick, W. Papworth, and M. Sinai, “Detection of glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber layer damage by scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation,” Proc. SPIE4951, 32–41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

J. Dwelle, S. Liu, B. Wang, A. McElroy, D. Ho, M. K. Markey, T. Milner, and H. G. Rylander, “Thickness, phase retardation, birefringence, and reflectance of the retinal nerve fiber layer in normal and glaucomatous non-human primates,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(8), 4380–4395 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Elmaanaoui, B. Wang, J. C. Dwelle, A. B. McElroy, S. S. Liu, H. G. Rylander, and T. E. Milner, “Birefringence measurement of the retinal nerve fiber layer by swept source polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express19(11), 10252–10268 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

Wang, Q.

Winnick, R.

Q. Zhou, J. Reed, R. Betts, P. Trost, P. Lo, C. Wallace, R. Bienias, G. Li, R. Winnick, W. Papworth, and M. Sinai, “Detection of glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber layer damage by scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation,” Proc. SPIE4951, 32–41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wojtkowski, M.

Yamanari, M.

Yang, Q.

Yasuno, Y.

Yoshida, H.

Yu, W.

Yun, S.

Yun, S. H.

Zaatari, H.

Zhang, E. Z.

Zhao, L.

Zhao, Y.

Zhou, Q.

Q. Zhou, J. Reed, R. Betts, P. Trost, P. Lo, C. Wallace, R. Bienias, G. Li, R. Winnick, W. Papworth, and M. Sinai, “Detection of glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber layer damage by scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation,” Proc. SPIE4951, 32–41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zotter, S.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (7)

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, C. D. Lu, J. Jiang, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Retinal, anterior segment and full eye imaging using ultrahigh speed swept source OCT with vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2733–2751 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sugita, S. Zotter, M. Pircher, T. Makihira, K. Saito, N. Tomatsu, M. Sato, P. Roberts, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Motion artifact and speckle noise reduction in polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography by retinal tracking,” Biomed. Opt. Express5(1), 106–122 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. V. Vienola, B. Braaf, C. K. Sheehy, Q. Yang, P. Tiruveedhula, D. W. Arathorn, J. F. de Boer, and A. Roorda, “Real-time eye motion compensation for OCT imaging with tracking SLO,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2950–2963 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Braaf, K. V. Vienola, C. K. Sheehy, Q. Yang, K. A. Vermeer, P. Tiruveedhula, D. W. Arathorn, A. Roorda, and J. F. de Boer, “Real-time eye motion correction in phase-resolved OCT angiography with tracking SLO,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(1), 51–65 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lim, M. Yamanari, S. Fukuda, Y. Kaji, T. Kiuchi, M. Miura, T. Oshika, and Y. Yasuno, “Birefringence measurement of cornea and anterior segment by office-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(8), 2392–2402 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, Q. Wang, S. Lee, L. Zhao, A. E. Elsner, C. K. Hitzenberger, and D. T. Miller, “Henle fiber layer phase retardation measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(11), 2296–2306 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zotter, M. Pircher, T. Torzicky, B. Baumann, H. Yoshida, F. Hirose, P. Roberts, M. Ritter, C. Schütze, E. Götzinger, W. Trasischker, C. Vass, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Large-field high-speed polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and its applications in ophthalmology,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2720–2732 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (6)

J. Dwelle, S. Liu, B. Wang, A. McElroy, D. Ho, M. K. Markey, T. Milner, and H. G. Rylander, “Thickness, phase retardation, birefringence, and reflectance of the retinal nerve fiber layer in normal and glaucomatous non-human primates,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(8), 4380–4395 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Hirn, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Analysis of the origin of atypical scanning laser polarimetry patterns by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(12), 5366–5372 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Schlanitz, B. Baumann, T. Spalek, C. Schütze, C. Ahlers, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Performance of automated drusen detection by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 4571–4579 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(8), 2606–2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (6)

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.6(4), 474–479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(1), 94–102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Fanjul-Vélez, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and J. L. Arce-Diego, “Polarimetric analysis of the human cornea measured by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(5), 056004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, B. Baumann, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Corneal birefringence compensation for polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 041210 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jiao and L. V. Wang, “Jones-matrix imaging of biological tissues with quadruple-channel optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 350–358 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. van Soest, M. Villiger, E. Regar, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and A. F. van der Steen, “Frequency domain multiplexing for speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 076018 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Lancet Neurol. (1)

A. Petzold, J. F. de Boer, S. Schippling, P. Vermersch, R. Kardon, A. Green, P. A. Calabresi, and C. Polman, “Optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Neurol.9(9), 921–932 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (21)

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, T. Schmoll, H. Sattmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle noise reduction in high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express19(15), 14568–14585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Kemp, H. Zaatari, J. Park, H. G. Rylander, and T. Milner, “Form-biattenuance in fibrous tissues measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT),” Opt. Express13(12), 4611–4628 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hillmann, T. Bonin, C. Lührs, G. Franke, M. Hagen-Eggert, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Common approach for compensation of axial motion artifacts in swept-source OCT and dispersion in Fourier-domain OCT,” Opt. Express20(6), 6761–6776 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Choi, B. Baumann, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Extracting and compensating dispersion mismatch in ultrahigh-resolution Fourier domain OCT imaging of the retina,” Opt. Express20(23), 25357–25368 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Ahlers, W. Geitzenauer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Three-dimensional polarization sensitive OCT imaging and interactive display of the human retina,” Opt. Express17(5), 4151–4165 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, Y. Lim, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Visualization of phase retardation of deep posterior eye by polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography with 1- µm probe,” Opt. Express17(15), 12385–12396 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Single camera based spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express15(3), 1054–1063 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. Hitzenberger, “Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT,” Opt. Express12(24), 5940–5951 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, W. Choi, B. Potsaid, D. Huang, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Swept source/Fourier domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography with a passive polarization delay unit,” Opt. Express20(9), 10229–10241 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Elmaanaoui, B. Wang, J. C. Dwelle, A. B. McElroy, S. S. Liu, H. G. Rylander, and T. E. Milner, “Birefringence measurement of the retinal nerve fiber layer by swept source polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express19(11), 10252–10268 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, A. E. Desjardins, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed polarization sensitive optical frequency domain imaging with frequency multiplexing,” Opt. Express16(2), 1096–1103 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography with continuous source polarization modulation,” Opt. Express16(8), 5892–5906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Kim, B. H. Park, Y. Tu, T. Hasan, B. Lee, J. Li, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive optical frequency domain imaging based on unpolarized light,” Opt. Express19(2), 552–561 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Makita, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, “Generalized Jones matrix optical coherence tomography: performance and local birefringence imaging,” Opt. Express18(2), 854–876 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Z. Zhang, W. Y. Oh, M. L. Villiger, L. Chen, B. E. Bouma, and B. J. Vakoc, “Numerical compensation of system polarization mode dispersion in polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express21(1), 1163–1180 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Villiger, E. Z. Zhang, S. K. Nadkarni, W. Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectral binning for mitigation of polarization mode dispersion artifacts in catheter-based optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express21(14), 16353–16369 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Ju, Y. J. Hong, S. Makita, Y. Lim, K. Kurokawa, L. Duan, M. Miura, S. Tang, and Y. Yasuno, “Advanced multi-contrast Jones matrix optical coherence tomography for Doppler and polarization sensitive imaging,” Opt. Express21(16), 19412–19436 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Braaf, K. A. Vermeer, V. A. Sicam, E. van Zeeburg, J. C. van Meurs, and J. F. de Boer, “Phase-stabilized optical frequency domain imaging at 1-µm for the measurement of blood flow in the human choroid,” Opt. Express19(21), 20886–20903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Park, M. Pierce, S. Yun, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, T. Chen, and J. de Boer, “In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve,” Opt. Express12(3), 367–376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. V. Iftimia, D. X. Hammer, C. E. Bigelow, D. I. Rosen, T. Ustun, A. A. Ferrante, D. Vu, and R. D. Ferguson, “Toward noninvasive measurement of blood hematocrit using spectral domain low coherence interferometry and retinal tracking,” Opt. Express14(8), 3377–3388 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (12)

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components,” Opt. Lett.29(21), 2512–2514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lim, Y. J. Hong, L. Duan, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, “Passive component based multifunctional Jones matrix swept source optical coherence tomography for Doppler and polarization imaging,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 1958–1960 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Villiger, E. Z. Zhang, S. Nadkarni, W. Y. Oh, B. E. Bouma, and B. J. Vakoc, “Artifacts in polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography caused by polarization mode dispersion,” Opt. Lett.38(6), 923–925 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Single-detector polarization-sensitive optical frequency domain imaging using high-speed intra A-line polarization modulation,” Opt. Lett.33(12), 1330–1332 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.27(18), 1610–1612 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, “Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.22(12), 934–936 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “High-speed fiber based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of in vivo human skin,” Opt. Lett.25(18), 1355–1357 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, “Spectral measurement of absorption by spectroscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.25(11), 820–822 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Optic axis determination accuracy for fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.30(19), 2587–2589 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jiao, W. Yu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-fiber-based Mueller optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.28(14), 1206–1208 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Penninckx and V. Morénas, “Jones matrix of polarization mode dispersion,” Opt. Lett.24(13), 875–877 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Todorović, S. Jiao, L. V. Wang, and G. Stoica, “Determination of local polarization properties of biological samples in the presence of diattenuation by use of Mueller optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.29(20), 2402–2404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

Q. Zhou, J. Reed, R. Betts, P. Trost, P. Lo, C. Wallace, R. Bienias, G. Li, R. Winnick, W. Papworth, and M. Sinai, “Detection of glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber layer damage by scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation,” Proc. SPIE4951, 32–41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Retin. Eye Res. (2)

M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human eye,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.30(6), 431–451 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, “State-of-the-art retinal optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.27(1), 45–88 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

B. H. Park and J. F. De Boer, “Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography” in Optical Coherence Tomography: Technology and Applications, W. Drexler, and J. G. Fujimoto, eds. (Springer, 2008), 653–695.

M. E. Brezinski, “Optical Coherence Tomography Theory: Appendix 5-1” in Optical Coherence Tomography: Principles and Applications, M. E. Brezinski, ed. (Elsevier, 2006), 141–142.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The optical layout of the PS-OCT setup showing the interferometer (left panel), the ophthalmic interface (upper right panel), and an example of the acquired images (lower right panel). In the sample arm the input light was converted in two depth-multiplexed orthogonal polarization states by a polarization delay unit (PDU) which extended the optical path of the horizontal linearly polarized state. Both states were launched simultaneously into the eye via an ophthalmic interface to record two depth-multiplexed OCT images with a dual-channel polarization-sensitive detection unit (H-det. & V-det.). In the reference arm 10% of the light was fed to a fiber-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer (K-clock) to create a stable interference signal that was used to clock the data-acquisition hardware linearly in wavenumbers. Component abbreviations, PBS: polarizing beam splitter, P: polarizer, PC: polarization controller, C: calibration mirror, GS: galvanometer scanners, DM: dichroic mirror, GP: glass plate, FT: fixation target, CAM: pupil camera.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(A) The principle of spectral binning: OCT fringe data as a function of wavenumber is sequentially multiplied with a series of narrow shifted Gaussian apodization windows to select different spectral bands. Each spectral band is processed individually to obtain spectral properties from the OCT signal. For visualization purposes only 8 out of the 15 bins are shown. (B) The surface state electric field components EH1 (blue circles), EH2 (red squares), EV1 (black diamonds), and EV2 (purple triangles) plotted as a function of wavenumber for their real and imaginary parts, respectively. The field components were normalized on EH1 and varied gradually but significantly along the spectrum. The solid lines show the extra- and interpolation to all wavenumbers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(A) Histograms showing the distributions of |ν11|, |ν12|, |ν21|, |ν22|, φν, and φxy for the center spectral bin. φxy is discussed in the manuscript text down below. Gaussian-like distributions were observed for each parameter. The position of the peak maximum was taken as the value for the calculations of Eqs. (14)-(17). (B) The parameters α(k), |x(k)| and |y(k)| (upper panel) and φν(k), and φxy(k) (lower panel) as a function of wavenumber. The dots represent the center wavenumbers of the spectral bins. Relatively continuous variations were observed for all parameters, which were extended to all wavenumbers (solid lines). The scale for φxy(k) is depicted on the secondary (right side) y-axis.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized Stokes vector traces plotted in the Poincaré sphere as a function of wavenumber for the vertical linear input state at the retinal surface state (row (A)) and for birefringent RNFL tissue at a depth of 159 µm (row (B)) without (left) and with (right) correction for system polarization distortions. (A) Traces are plotted for the first (blue), middle (red), and last (green) B-scans of a volumetric data set. The Stokes vector traces described identical paths before correction over nearly a quarter of the globe, and reduced to single locations after correction. (B) The normalized Stokes vector trace of the RNFL tissue described a similar path over the Poincaré sphere as the retinal surface state before correction, and reduced to a small location after correction.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The correction of system polarization distortions in retinal B-scans of a healthy volunteer. The images of the polarization parameters are paired and displayed without and with correction respectively for a size of 1.3 mm × 6.6 mm (depth × width). (A) Intensity. (B&C) DPPR for a π/2 range. (D&E) DPPR for a π/4 range. (F&G) Diattenuation. (H&I) Relative optic axis orientation in Poincaré representation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Cross-sectional imaging of the superior optic nerve bundle of a healthy volunteer. Image sizes: 0.9 mm × 5.2 mm (depth × width). (A) Intensity. (B) Diattenuation. (C) DPPR. (D) Optic axis orientation in Poincaré representation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

En face maps for the right eye of a healthy volunteer. Image sizes: 5.3 mm × 9.6 mm (height × width). (A) Intensity projection. (B) DPPR. (C) Optic axis orientation in Poincaré representation. (D) SLP RNFL thickness map, 200 µm RNFL thickness is equal to 2.15 rad DPPR. Strong retardation and a well defined optic axis orientation were observed for the nerve fiber bundles leaving the optic nerve head and for the Henle fibers in the fovea. This is consistent with the RNFL thickness map obtained by SLP, which showed a similar retardation pattern.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

En face maps for the left eye of a glaucoma patient. Image sizes: 5.8 mm × 8.9 mm (height × width). (A) Intensity projection. (B) DPPR. (C) Optic axis orientation in Poincaré representation. (D) SLP RNFL thickness map, 200 µm RNFL thickness is equal to 2.15 rad DPPR. Reduced retardation was observed for the superior and inferior nerve fiber bundles in comparison with the healthy volunteer. The loss in the inferior bundle was severe enough to lose information on the optic axis orientation in the lower left image corner. Also the SLP RNFL thickness map showed a reduction in retardation for the inferior nerve fiber bundle.

Equations (32)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I(k)= ( E ref (k)+ E sam (k) ) * ( E ref (k)+ E sam (k) ) = | E ref (k) | 2 + | E sam (k) | 2 +2Re{ E ref * (k) E sam (k) }.
E (k)=I(k)+i( I(k) )=2 E ref * (k) E sam (k).
E ref (k)= J ref (k) E source (k) c ref (k) e ik z ref ,
E sam (k)= J sam (k) E source (k) c sam (k) e ik z sam .
E (k)=[ E H (k) E V (k) ]=[ R H (k) 0 0 R V (k) ] J sam (k) E source (k) c t (k) e ikΔz ,
J sam (k) E source (k)= J out (k) J s (k) J in (k) J pdu (k) E source (k).
J pdu (k) E source (k)=[ α(k)β(Δz+γ) e i( kγ+ρ(k) ) 0 0 β(Δz) ] e in (k).
E(k)=[ E 1 (k), E 2 (k) ]=[ E H1 (k) E H2 (k) E V1 (k) E V2 (k) ] =[ R H (k) 0 0 R V (k) ] J out (k) J s (k) J in (k)[ α(k)β(Δz+γ) e i( kγ+ρ(k) ) 0 0 β(Δz) ] e in (k),
E sample (k)=[ R H (k) 0 0 R V (k) ] J out (k) J s (k) J in (k)[ α(k) e i( kγ'+ρ(k) ) 0 0 1 ] e in (k),
E surf (k)=[ R H (k) 0 0 R V (k) ] J out (k) J in (k)[ α(k) e i( kγ'+ρ(k) ) 0 0 1 ].
E surf 1 (k) E sample (k)= [ α(k) e i( kγ'+ρ(k) ) 0 0 1 ] 1 J in 1 (k) J s (k) J in (k)[ α(k) e i( kγ'+ρ(k) ) 0 0 1 ] e in (k).
ν(k)= [ α(k) e i( kγ'+ρ(k) ) 0 0 1 ] 1 J in 1 (k) R s 1 [ s 1 0 0 s 2 ],
ν(k)=[ ν 11 ν 12 ν 21 ν 22 ]= [ α(k) e i( kγ'+ρ(k) ) 0 0 1 ] 1 J sys 1 (k) J c 1 (k) R s 1 [ s 1 0 0 s 2 ] = [ α(k) e i( kγ'+ρ(k) ) 0 0 1 ] 1 [ x(k) y (k) * y(k) x (k) * ] [ s 1 0 0 s 2 ] =[ s 1 x(k)/(α(k) e i( kγ'+ρ(k) ) ) s 2 y (k) * /(α(k) e i( kγ'+ρ(k) ) ) s 1 y(k) s 2 x (k) * ].
α(k)= ( | ν 21 || ν 22 | )/( | ν 11 || ν 12 | ) ,
| s 1 |= | ν 11 α(k) | 2 + | ν 21 | 2 , | s 2 |= | ν 12 α(k) | 2 + | ν 22 | 2 ,
| x(k) |=| ν 11 |α(k)/| s 1 |=| ν 22 |/| s 2 |, | y(k) |=| ν 12 |α(k)/| s 2 |=| ν 21 |/| s 1 |.
φ ν (k)=arg( x(k)y (k) * e i( kγ'+ρ(k) ) )=arg( ν 11 ν 21 * )=arg( ν 12 ν 22 * ).
Q(k)=[ ( | x(k) |/α(k) ) e i φ ν 2 ( | y(k) |/α(k) ) e i φ ν 2 | y(k) | e i φ ν 2 | x(k) | e i φ ν 2 ] =[ x(k) ¯ /(α(k) e i( kγ'+ρ(k) ) ) y (k) * ¯ /(α(k) e i( kγ'+ρ(k) ) ) y(k) ¯ x (k) * ¯ ][ e i φ x y (k) 2 0 0 e i φ x y(k) 2 ] e i( kγ'+ρ(k) ) 2 = [ α(k) e i( kγ'+ρ(k) ) 0 0 1 ] 1 J sys 1 (k) J c 1 (k) ¯ R s 1 ¯ [ e i φ x y (k) 2 0 0 e i φ x y (k) 2 ] e i( kγ'+ρ(k) ) 2 ,
κ(k)=[ κ 11 κ 12 κ 21 κ 22 ]=Q (k) 1 ν(k) =[ e i φ xy (k) 2 0 0 e i φ xy (k) 2 ] R s ¯ J c (k) ¯ J c 1 (k) R s 1 [ s 1 0 0 s 2 ] e i( kγ'+ρ(k) ) 2 .
φ xy (k)=arg( κ 11 κ 21 * )=arg( κ 22 * κ 12 ).
Q in (k)=Q(k)[ e i φ x y (k) 2 0 0 e i φ x y (k) 2 ] = [ α(k) e i( kγ'+ρ(k) ) 0 0 1 ] 1 J sys 1 (k) J c 1 (k) ¯ R s 1 ¯ e i( kγ'+ρ(k) ) 2 ,
Q out (k)= ( E surf (k) Q in (k) ) 1 = R s ¯ J out 1 (k) [ R H (k) 0 0 R V (k) ] 1 e i( kγ'+ρ(k) ) 2 .
E ^ sample (k)= Q out (k) E sample (k) Q in (k) = R s ¯ J c 1 (k) ¯ J c (k) J s (k) J c (k) J c 1 (k) ¯ R s 1 ¯ e in (k) = R s ¯ J rc T (k) J s (k) J rc (k) R s 1 ¯ e in (k),
E ^ sample (z)=[ E ^ H1 (z) E ^ H2 (z) E ^ V1 (z) E ^ V2 (z) ]={ E ^ sample (k) }= R s ¯ J rc T J s (z) J rc R s 1 ¯ e in (z),
I(z)= | E ^ H1 (z) | 2 + | E ^ V1 (z) | 2 + | E ^ H2 (z) | 2 + | E ^ V2 (z) | 2 .
E ^ surf = R s ¯ J rc T J rc R s 1 ¯ ,
E ^ surf 1 E ^ sample (z)= R s ¯ J rc -1 J s (z) J rc R s 1 ¯ e in (z).
η(z)=| arg( λ 1 λ 2 * ) |,
d(z)=| ε 1 2 ε 2 2 ε 1 2 + ε 2 2 |=| | λ 1 | 2 | λ 2 | 2 | λ 1 | 2 + | λ 2 | 2 |.
ν axis = Q rc ν z = R s ¯ R s 1 S z =[ E ν1x e i S z1 E ν2x e i S z2 E ν1y e i S z1 E ν2y e i S z2 ],
ψ V1 ¯ =arg( n E ^ H1 E ^ V1 * ), ψ H2 ¯ =arg( n E ^ H1 E ^ H2 * ), ψ V2 ¯ =arg( n E ^ H1 E ^ V2 * ).
ψ cor =arg( E ^ H1 + E ^ V1 e i ψ V1 ¯ + E ^ H2 e i ψ H2 ¯ + E ^ V2 e i ψ V2 ¯ ),

Metrics