Abstract

The fluorescence of Intralipid and polystyrene microspheres with sphere diameter of 1 µm at a representative lipid and microsphere concentration for simulation of mucosal tissue scattering has not been a subject of extensive experimental study. In order to elucidate the quantitative relationship between lipid and microsphere concentration and the respective fluorescent intensity, the extrinsic fluorescence spectra between 360 nm and 650 nm (step size of 5 nm) were measured at different lipid concentrations (from 0.25% to 5%) and different microsphere concentrations (0.00364, 0.0073, 0.0131 spheres per cubic micrometer) using laser excitation at 355 nm with pulse energy of 2.8 µJ. Current findings indicated that Intralipid has a broadband emission between 360 and 650 nm with a primary peak at 500 nm and a secondary peak at 450 nm while polystyrene microspheres have a single peak at 500 nm. In addition, for similar scattering properties the fluorescence of Intralipid solutions is approximately three-fold stronger than that of the microsphere solutions. Furthermore, Intralipid phantoms with lipid concentrations ~2% (simulating the bottom layer of mucosa) produce up to seven times stronger fluorescent emission than phantoms with lipid concentration ~0.25% (simulating the top layer of mucosa). The fluoresence decays of Intralipid and microsphere solutions were also recorded for estimation of fluorescence lifetime.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. Siegel, E. Ward, O. Brawley, and A. Jemal, “Cancer statistics, 2011: the impact of eliminating socioeconomic and racial disparities on premature cancer deaths,” CA Cancer J. Clin.61(4), 212–236 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Müller and B. H. Hendriks, “Recovering intrinsic fluorescence by Monte Carlo modeling,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(2), 027009 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. Vishwanath and M. A. Mycek, “Time-resolved photon migration in bi-layered tissue models,” Opt. Express13(19), 7466–7482 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Q. Wang, K. Shastri, and T. J. Pfefer, “Experimental and theoretical evaluation of a fiber-optic approach for optical property measurement in layered epithelial tissue,” Appl. Opt.49(28), 5309–5320 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implications,” J. Biomed. Opt.6(4), 385–396 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and preneoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(3), 511–522 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P.-L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology,” Endoscopy39(7), 599–605 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. V. N. Le, Q. Wang, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and T. J. Pfefer, “Monte Carlo modeling of light-tissue interactions in narrow band imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(1), 010504 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. Hazen, J. Welch, S. Malin, T. Ruchti, A. Lorenz, T. Troy, S. Thennadil, and T. Blank, “A Human Tissue Surrogate,” WIPO Patent 2001058344 (2001).
  10. A. K. Dunn, V. P. Wallace, M. Coleno, M. W. Berns, and B. J. Tromberg, “Influence of optical properties on two-photon fluorescence imaging in turbid samples,” Appl. Opt.39(7), 1194–1201 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Swartling, J. Svensson, D. Bengtsson, K. Terike, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Fluorescence spectra provide information on the depth of fluorescent lesions in tissue,” Appl. Opt.44(10), 1934–1941 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. H. Chung, A. E. Cerussi, S. I. Merritt, J. Ruth, and B. J. Tromberg, “Non-invasive tissue temperature measurements based on quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) of water,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(13), 3753–3765 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. Wagnières, S. Cheng, M. Zellweger, N. Utke, D. Braichotte, J. P. Ballini, and H. van den Bergh, “An optical phantom with tissue-like properties in the visible for use in PDT and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(7), 1415–1426 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041102 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. B. S. Suresh Anand and N. Sujatha, “Effects of Intralipid-10% in fluorescence distortion studies on liquid-tissue phantoms in UV range,” J. Biophotonics4(1-2), 92–97 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. N. Rajaram, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup table-based inverse model for determining optical properties of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(5), 050501 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. N. Rajaram, T. J. Aramil, K. Lee, J. S. Reichenberg, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “Design and validation of a clinical instrument for spectral diagnosis of cutaneous malignancy,” Appl. Opt.49(2), 142–152 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Q. Liu, C. Zhu, and N. Ramanujam, “Experimental validation of Monte Carlo modeling of fluorescence in tissues in the UV-visible spectrum,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(2), 223–236 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Q. Wang, D. Le, J. Ramella-Roman, and J. Pfefer, “Broadband ultraviolet-visible optical property measurement in layered turbid media,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(6), 1226–1240 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol.58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. Godin, A. K. Bryan, T. P. Burg, K. Babcock, and S. R. Manalis, “Measuring the mass, density, and size of particles and cells using a suspended microchannel resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 123121 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene-based composite materials,” Nature442(7100), 282–286 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. L. V. Wang and H. I. Wu, Biomedical Optics: Principles and Imaging (Wiley, 2007), Chap. 2.
  24. P. D. T. Huibers, “Models for the wavelength dependence of the index of refraction of water,” Appl. Opt.36(16), 3785–3787 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. X. Quan and E. S. Fry, “Empirical equation for the index of refraction of seawater,” Appl. Opt.34(18), 3477–3480 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol.48(24), 4165–4172 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. S. A. Prahl, “Mie Scattering Calculator”. http://omlc.ogi.edu/calc/mie_calc.html
  28. Z. Nie, R. An, J. E. Hayward, T. J. Farrell, and Q. Fang, “Hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime imaging for optical biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(9), 096001 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. Y. Yuan, J.-Y. Hwang, M. Krishnamoorthy, J. Ning, Y. Zhang, K. Ye, R. C. Wang, M. J. Deen, and Q. Fang, “High throughput AOTF-based time-resolved fluorescence spectrometer for optical biopsy,” Opt. Lett.34(7), 1132–1134 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. H. J. van Staveren, C. J. Moes, J. van Marie, S. A. Prahl, and M. J. van Gemert, “Light scattering in Intralipid-10% in the wavelength range of 400-1100 nm,” Appl. Opt.30(31), 4507–4514 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med.12(5), 510–519 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. B. Aernouts, E. Zamora-Rojas, R. Van Beers, R. Watté, L. Wang, M. Tsuta, J. Lammertyn, and W. Saeys, “Supercontinuum laser based optical characterization of Intralipid® phantoms in the 500-2250 nm range,” Opt. Express21(26), 32450–32467 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Springer, 2006), Chap. 4.
  34. M. Y. Berezin and S. Achilefu, “Fluorescence lifetime measurements and biological imaging,” Chem. Rev.110(5), 2641–2684 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. A. Kienle, L. Lilge, M. S. Patterson, R. Hibst, R. Steiner, and B. C. Wilson, “Spatially resolved absolute diffuse reflectance measurements for noninvasive determination of the optical scattering and absorption coefficients of biological tissue,” Appl. Opt.35(13), 2304–2314 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. M. Gao, G. Lewis, G. M. Turner, A. Soubret, and V. Ntziachristos, “Effects of background fluorescence in fluorescence molecular tomography,” Appl. Opt.44(26), 5468–5474 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

M. Müller and B. H. Hendriks, “Recovering intrinsic fluorescence by Monte Carlo modeling,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(2), 027009 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. N. Le, Q. Wang, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and T. J. Pfefer, “Monte Carlo modeling of light-tissue interactions in narrow band imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(1), 010504 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol.58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Nie, R. An, J. E. Hayward, T. J. Farrell, and Q. Fang, “Hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime imaging for optical biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(9), 096001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Aernouts, E. Zamora-Rojas, R. Van Beers, R. Watté, L. Wang, M. Tsuta, J. Lammertyn, and W. Saeys, “Supercontinuum laser based optical characterization of Intralipid® phantoms in the 500-2250 nm range,” Opt. Express21(26), 32450–32467 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

B. S. Suresh Anand and N. Sujatha, “Effects of Intralipid-10% in fluorescence distortion studies on liquid-tissue phantoms in UV range,” J. Biophotonics4(1-2), 92–97 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Siegel, E. Ward, O. Brawley, and A. Jemal, “Cancer statistics, 2011: the impact of eliminating socioeconomic and racial disparities on premature cancer deaths,” CA Cancer J. Clin.61(4), 212–236 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

S. H. Chung, A. E. Cerussi, S. I. Merritt, J. Ruth, and B. J. Tromberg, “Non-invasive tissue temperature measurements based on quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) of water,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(13), 3753–3765 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Rajaram, T. J. Aramil, K. Lee, J. S. Reichenberg, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “Design and validation of a clinical instrument for spectral diagnosis of cutaneous malignancy,” Appl. Opt.49(2), 142–152 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, K. Shastri, and T. J. Pfefer, “Experimental and theoretical evaluation of a fiber-optic approach for optical property measurement in layered epithelial tissue,” Appl. Opt.49(28), 5309–5320 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Y. Berezin and S. Achilefu, “Fluorescence lifetime measurements and biological imaging,” Chem. Rev.110(5), 2641–2684 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

N. Rajaram, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup table-based inverse model for determining optical properties of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(5), 050501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

M. Godin, A. K. Bryan, T. P. Burg, K. Babcock, and S. R. Manalis, “Measuring the mass, density, and size of particles and cells using a suspended microchannel resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 123121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P.-L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology,” Endoscopy39(7), 599–605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene-based composite materials,” Nature442(7100), 282–286 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and preneoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(3), 511–522 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

Q. Liu, C. Zhu, and N. Ramanujam, “Experimental validation of Monte Carlo modeling of fluorescence in tissues in the UV-visible spectrum,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(2), 223–236 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol.48(24), 4165–4172 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implications,” J. Biomed. Opt.6(4), 385–396 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1997 (2)

P. D. T. Huibers, “Models for the wavelength dependence of the index of refraction of water,” Appl. Opt.36(16), 3785–3787 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wagnières, S. Cheng, M. Zellweger, N. Utke, D. Braichotte, J. P. Ballini, and H. van den Bergh, “An optical phantom with tissue-like properties in the visible for use in PDT and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(7), 1415–1426 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med.12(5), 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

Achilefu, S.

M. Y. Berezin and S. Achilefu, “Fluorescence lifetime measurements and biological imaging,” Chem. Rev.110(5), 2641–2684 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aernouts, B.

Aguirre, A. D.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P.-L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology,” Endoscopy39(7), 599–605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

An, R.

Z. Nie, R. An, J. E. Hayward, T. J. Farrell, and Q. Fang, “Hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime imaging for optical biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(9), 096001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersson-Engels, S.

Aramil, T. J.

Arifler, D.

S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and preneoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(3), 511–522 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Babcock, K.

M. Godin, A. K. Bryan, T. P. Burg, K. Babcock, and S. R. Manalis, “Measuring the mass, density, and size of particles and cells using a suspended microchannel resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 123121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ballini, J. P.

G. Wagnières, S. Cheng, M. Zellweger, N. Utke, D. Braichotte, J. P. Ballini, and H. van den Bergh, “An optical phantom with tissue-like properties in the visible for use in PDT and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(7), 1415–1426 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bengtsson, D.

Berezin, M. Y.

M. Y. Berezin and S. Achilefu, “Fluorescence lifetime measurements and biological imaging,” Chem. Rev.110(5), 2641–2684 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berns, M. W.

Boiko, I.

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implications,” J. Biomed. Opt.6(4), 385–396 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braichotte, D.

G. Wagnières, S. Cheng, M. Zellweger, N. Utke, D. Braichotte, J. P. Ballini, and H. van den Bergh, “An optical phantom with tissue-like properties in the visible for use in PDT and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(7), 1415–1426 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brawley, O.

R. Siegel, E. Ward, O. Brawley, and A. Jemal, “Cancer statistics, 2011: the impact of eliminating socioeconomic and racial disparities on premature cancer deaths,” CA Cancer J. Clin.61(4), 212–236 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brock, R. S.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol.48(24), 4165–4172 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bryan, A. K.

M. Godin, A. K. Bryan, T. P. Burg, K. Babcock, and S. R. Manalis, “Measuring the mass, density, and size of particles and cells using a suspended microchannel resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 123121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Burg, T. P.

M. Godin, A. K. Bryan, T. P. Burg, K. Babcock, and S. R. Manalis, “Measuring the mass, density, and size of particles and cells using a suspended microchannel resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 123121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cerussi, A. E.

S. H. Chung, A. E. Cerussi, S. I. Merritt, J. Ruth, and B. J. Tromberg, “Non-invasive tissue temperature measurements based on quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) of water,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(13), 3753–3765 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S. K.

S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and preneoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(3), 511–522 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P.-L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology,” Endoscopy39(7), 599–605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, S.

G. Wagnières, S. Cheng, M. Zellweger, N. Utke, D. Braichotte, J. P. Ballini, and H. van den Bergh, “An optical phantom with tissue-like properties in the visible for use in PDT and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(7), 1415–1426 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chung, S. H.

S. H. Chung, A. E. Cerussi, S. I. Merritt, J. Ruth, and B. J. Tromberg, “Non-invasive tissue temperature measurements based on quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) of water,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(13), 3753–3765 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coleno, M.

Deen, M. J.

Desai, S.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P.-L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology,” Endoscopy39(7), 599–605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dikin, D. A.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene-based composite materials,” Nature442(7100), 282–286 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dommett, G. H.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene-based composite materials,” Nature442(7100), 282–286 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drezek, R.

S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and preneoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(3), 511–522 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implications,” J. Biomed. Opt.6(4), 385–396 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunn, A. K.

Fang, Q.

Farrell, T. J.

Z. Nie, R. An, J. E. Hayward, T. J. Farrell, and Q. Fang, “Hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime imaging for optical biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(9), 096001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Figueiredo, M.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P.-L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology,” Endoscopy39(7), 599–605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flock, S. T.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med.12(5), 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Follen, M.

S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and preneoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(3), 511–522 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implications,” J. Biomed. Opt.6(4), 385–396 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fry, E. S.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P.-L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology,” Endoscopy39(7), 599–605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, M.

Godin, M.

M. Godin, A. K. Bryan, T. P. Burg, K. Babcock, and S. R. Manalis, “Measuring the mass, density, and size of particles and cells using a suspended microchannel resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 123121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hayward, J. E.

Z. Nie, R. An, J. E. Hayward, T. J. Farrell, and Q. Fang, “Hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime imaging for optical biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(9), 096001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendriks, B. H.

M. Müller and B. H. Hendriks, “Recovering intrinsic fluorescence by Monte Carlo modeling,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(2), 027009 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herz, P. R.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P.-L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology,” Endoscopy39(7), 599–605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hibst, R.

Hsiung, P.-L.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P.-L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology,” Endoscopy39(7), 599–605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, X. H.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol.48(24), 4165–4172 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Q.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P.-L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology,” Endoscopy39(7), 599–605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, S. W.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P.-L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology,” Endoscopy39(7), 599–605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huibers, P. D. T.

Hwang, J.-Y.

Jacobs, K. M.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol.48(24), 4165–4172 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol.58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med.12(5), 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jemal, A.

R. Siegel, E. Ward, O. Brawley, and A. Jemal, “Cancer statistics, 2011: the impact of eliminating socioeconomic and racial disparities on premature cancer deaths,” CA Cancer J. Clin.61(4), 212–236 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kienle, A.

Kohlhaas, K. M.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene-based composite materials,” Nature442(7100), 282–286 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koski, A.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P.-L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology,” Endoscopy39(7), 599–605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krishnamoorthy, M.

Lammertyn, J.

Le, D.

Le, V. N.

V. N. Le, Q. Wang, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and T. J. Pfefer, “Monte Carlo modeling of light-tissue interactions in narrow band imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(1), 010504 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

Lewis, G.

Lilge, L.

Liu, Q.

Q. Liu, C. Zhu, and N. Ramanujam, “Experimental validation of Monte Carlo modeling of fluorescence in tissues in the UV-visible spectrum,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(2), 223–236 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, J. Q.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol.48(24), 4165–4172 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, X.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol.48(24), 4165–4172 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malpica, A.

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implications,” J. Biomed. Opt.6(4), 385–396 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manalis, S. R.

M. Godin, A. K. Bryan, T. P. Burg, K. Babcock, and S. R. Manalis, “Measuring the mass, density, and size of particles and cells using a suspended microchannel resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 123121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mashimo, H.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P.-L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology,” Endoscopy39(7), 599–605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merritt, S. I.

S. H. Chung, A. E. Cerussi, S. I. Merritt, J. Ruth, and B. J. Tromberg, “Non-invasive tissue temperature measurements based on quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) of water,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(13), 3753–3765 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moes, C. J.

Müller, M.

M. Müller and B. H. Hendriks, “Recovering intrinsic fluorescence by Monte Carlo modeling,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(2), 027009 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mycek, M. A.

Nguyen, S. T.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene-based composite materials,” Nature442(7100), 282–286 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, T. H.

N. Rajaram, T. J. Aramil, K. Lee, J. S. Reichenberg, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “Design and validation of a clinical instrument for spectral diagnosis of cutaneous malignancy,” Appl. Opt.49(2), 142–152 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Rajaram, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup table-based inverse model for determining optical properties of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(5), 050501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nie, Z.

Z. Nie, R. An, J. E. Hayward, T. J. Farrell, and Q. Fang, “Hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime imaging for optical biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(9), 096001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ning, J.

Ntziachristos, V.

Patterson, M. S.

Pedrosa, M.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P.-L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology,” Endoscopy39(7), 599–605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfefer, J.

Pfefer, T. J.

V. N. Le, Q. Wang, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and T. J. Pfefer, “Monte Carlo modeling of light-tissue interactions in narrow band imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(1), 010504 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, K. Shastri, and T. J. Pfefer, “Experimental and theoretical evaluation of a fiber-optic approach for optical property measurement in layered epithelial tissue,” Appl. Opt.49(28), 5309–5320 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piner, R. D.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene-based composite materials,” Nature442(7100), 282–286 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pogue, B. W.

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prahl, S. A.

Quan, X.

Rajaram, N.

N. Rajaram, T. J. Aramil, K. Lee, J. S. Reichenberg, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “Design and validation of a clinical instrument for spectral diagnosis of cutaneous malignancy,” Appl. Opt.49(2), 142–152 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Rajaram, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup table-based inverse model for determining optical properties of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(5), 050501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramanujam, N.

Q. Liu, C. Zhu, and N. Ramanujam, “Experimental validation of Monte Carlo modeling of fluorescence in tissues in the UV-visible spectrum,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(2), 223–236 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramella-Roman, J.

Ramella-Roman, J. C.

V. N. Le, Q. Wang, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and T. J. Pfefer, “Monte Carlo modeling of light-tissue interactions in narrow band imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(1), 010504 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reichenberg, J. S.

Richards-Kortum, R.

S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and preneoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(3), 511–522 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implications,” J. Biomed. Opt.6(4), 385–396 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruoff, R. S.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene-based composite materials,” Nature442(7100), 282–286 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruth, J.

S. H. Chung, A. E. Cerussi, S. I. Merritt, J. Ruth, and B. J. Tromberg, “Non-invasive tissue temperature measurements based on quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) of water,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(13), 3753–3765 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saeys, W.

Schmitt, J. M.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P.-L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology,” Endoscopy39(7), 599–605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shastri, K.

Siegel, R.

R. Siegel, E. Ward, O. Brawley, and A. Jemal, “Cancer statistics, 2011: the impact of eliminating socioeconomic and racial disparities on premature cancer deaths,” CA Cancer J. Clin.61(4), 212–236 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokolov, K.

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implications,” J. Biomed. Opt.6(4), 385–396 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soubret, A.

Stach, E. A.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene-based composite materials,” Nature442(7100), 282–286 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stankovich, S.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene-based composite materials,” Nature442(7100), 282–286 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Star, W. M.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med.12(5), 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steiner, R.

Sujatha, N.

B. S. Suresh Anand and N. Sujatha, “Effects of Intralipid-10% in fluorescence distortion studies on liquid-tissue phantoms in UV range,” J. Biophotonics4(1-2), 92–97 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suresh Anand, B. S.

B. S. Suresh Anand and N. Sujatha, “Effects of Intralipid-10% in fluorescence distortion studies on liquid-tissue phantoms in UV range,” J. Biophotonics4(1-2), 92–97 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svensson, J.

Swartling, J.

Terike, K.

Tromberg, B. J.

S. H. Chung, A. E. Cerussi, S. I. Merritt, J. Ruth, and B. J. Tromberg, “Non-invasive tissue temperature measurements based on quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) of water,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(13), 3753–3765 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Dunn, V. P. Wallace, M. Coleno, M. W. Berns, and B. J. Tromberg, “Influence of optical properties on two-photon fluorescence imaging in turbid samples,” Appl. Opt.39(7), 1194–1201 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsuta, M.

Tunnell, J. W.

N. Rajaram, T. J. Aramil, K. Lee, J. S. Reichenberg, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “Design and validation of a clinical instrument for spectral diagnosis of cutaneous malignancy,” Appl. Opt.49(2), 142–152 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Rajaram, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup table-based inverse model for determining optical properties of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(5), 050501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner, G. M.

Utke, N.

G. Wagnières, S. Cheng, M. Zellweger, N. Utke, D. Braichotte, J. P. Ballini, and H. van den Bergh, “An optical phantom with tissue-like properties in the visible for use in PDT and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(7), 1415–1426 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Utzinger, U.

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implications,” J. Biomed. Opt.6(4), 385–396 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Beers, R.

van den Bergh, H.

G. Wagnières, S. Cheng, M. Zellweger, N. Utke, D. Braichotte, J. P. Ballini, and H. van den Bergh, “An optical phantom with tissue-like properties in the visible for use in PDT and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(7), 1415–1426 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med.12(5), 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. van Staveren, C. J. Moes, J. van Marie, S. A. Prahl, and M. J. van Gemert, “Light scattering in Intralipid-10% in the wavelength range of 400-1100 nm,” Appl. Opt.30(31), 4507–4514 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Marie, J.

van Staveren, H. J.

Vishwanath, K.

Wagnières, G.

G. Wagnières, S. Cheng, M. Zellweger, N. Utke, D. Braichotte, J. P. Ballini, and H. van den Bergh, “An optical phantom with tissue-like properties in the visible for use in PDT and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(7), 1415–1426 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallace, V. P.

Wang, L.

Wang, Q.

Wang, R. C.

Ward, E.

R. Siegel, E. Ward, O. Brawley, and A. Jemal, “Cancer statistics, 2011: the impact of eliminating socioeconomic and racial disparities on premature cancer deaths,” CA Cancer J. Clin.61(4), 212–236 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watté, R.

Wilson, B. C.

Yang, P.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol.48(24), 4165–4172 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, K.

Yuan, Y.

Zamora-Rojas, E.

Zellweger, M.

G. Wagnières, S. Cheng, M. Zellweger, N. Utke, D. Braichotte, J. P. Ballini, and H. van den Bergh, “An optical phantom with tissue-like properties in the visible for use in PDT and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(7), 1415–1426 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Zhu, C.

Q. Liu, C. Zhu, and N. Ramanujam, “Experimental validation of Monte Carlo modeling of fluorescence in tissues in the UV-visible spectrum,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(2), 223–236 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zimney, E. J.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene-based composite materials,” Nature442(7100), 282–286 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (9)

H. J. van Staveren, C. J. Moes, J. van Marie, S. A. Prahl, and M. J. van Gemert, “Light scattering in Intralipid-10% in the wavelength range of 400-1100 nm,” Appl. Opt.30(31), 4507–4514 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. D. T. Huibers, “Models for the wavelength dependence of the index of refraction of water,” Appl. Opt.36(16), 3785–3787 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Quan and E. S. Fry, “Empirical equation for the index of refraction of seawater,” Appl. Opt.34(18), 3477–3480 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, L. Lilge, M. S. Patterson, R. Hibst, R. Steiner, and B. C. Wilson, “Spatially resolved absolute diffuse reflectance measurements for noninvasive determination of the optical scattering and absorption coefficients of biological tissue,” Appl. Opt.35(13), 2304–2314 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Dunn, V. P. Wallace, M. Coleno, M. W. Berns, and B. J. Tromberg, “Influence of optical properties on two-photon fluorescence imaging in turbid samples,” Appl. Opt.39(7), 1194–1201 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Swartling, J. Svensson, D. Bengtsson, K. Terike, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Fluorescence spectra provide information on the depth of fluorescent lesions in tissue,” Appl. Opt.44(10), 1934–1941 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gao, G. Lewis, G. M. Turner, A. Soubret, and V. Ntziachristos, “Effects of background fluorescence in fluorescence molecular tomography,” Appl. Opt.44(26), 5468–5474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Rajaram, T. J. Aramil, K. Lee, J. S. Reichenberg, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “Design and validation of a clinical instrument for spectral diagnosis of cutaneous malignancy,” Appl. Opt.49(2), 142–152 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, K. Shastri, and T. J. Pfefer, “Experimental and theoretical evaluation of a fiber-optic approach for optical property measurement in layered epithelial tissue,” Appl. Opt.49(28), 5309–5320 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Godin, A. K. Bryan, T. P. Burg, K. Babcock, and S. R. Manalis, “Measuring the mass, density, and size of particles and cells using a suspended microchannel resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 123121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

CA Cancer J. Clin. (1)

R. Siegel, E. Ward, O. Brawley, and A. Jemal, “Cancer statistics, 2011: the impact of eliminating socioeconomic and racial disparities on premature cancer deaths,” CA Cancer J. Clin.61(4), 212–236 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Rev. (1)

M. Y. Berezin and S. Achilefu, “Fluorescence lifetime measurements and biological imaging,” Chem. Rev.110(5), 2641–2684 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Endoscopy (1)

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P.-L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology,” Endoscopy39(7), 599–605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (8)

V. N. Le, Q. Wang, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and T. J. Pfefer, “Monte Carlo modeling of light-tissue interactions in narrow band imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(1), 010504 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Müller and B. H. Hendriks, “Recovering intrinsic fluorescence by Monte Carlo modeling,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(2), 027009 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implications,” J. Biomed. Opt.6(4), 385–396 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and preneoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(3), 511–522 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Rajaram, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup table-based inverse model for determining optical properties of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(5), 050501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Nie, R. An, J. E. Hayward, T. J. Farrell, and Q. Fang, “Hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime imaging for optical biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(9), 096001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, C. Zhu, and N. Ramanujam, “Experimental validation of Monte Carlo modeling of fluorescence in tissues in the UV-visible spectrum,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(2), 223–236 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biophotonics (1)

B. S. Suresh Anand and N. Sujatha, “Effects of Intralipid-10% in fluorescence distortion studies on liquid-tissue phantoms in UV range,” J. Biophotonics4(1-2), 92–97 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med.12(5), 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene-based composite materials,” Nature442(7100), 282–286 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (4)

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol.48(24), 4165–4172 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol.58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Chung, A. E. Cerussi, S. I. Merritt, J. Ruth, and B. J. Tromberg, “Non-invasive tissue temperature measurements based on quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) of water,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(13), 3753–3765 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wagnières, S. Cheng, M. Zellweger, N. Utke, D. Braichotte, J. P. Ballini, and H. van den Bergh, “An optical phantom with tissue-like properties in the visible for use in PDT and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(7), 1415–1426 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

K. Hazen, J. Welch, S. Malin, T. Ruchti, A. Lorenz, T. Troy, S. Thennadil, and T. Blank, “A Human Tissue Surrogate,” WIPO Patent 2001058344 (2001).

S. A. Prahl, “Mie Scattering Calculator”. http://omlc.ogi.edu/calc/mie_calc.html

L. V. Wang and H. I. Wu, Biomedical Optics: Principles and Imaging (Wiley, 2007), Chap. 2.

J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Springer, 2006), Chap. 4.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Scattering coefficients (µs) as a function of lipid concentration at 450 nm and 500 nm, (b) Predicted µs of Intralipid 10%: extrapolated data (current) vs. previous literature data by van Staveren et al [30] and Flock et al. [31].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reduced-scattering coefficients (µs): Intralipid phantoms at different lipid concentration versus literature data [5]

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Numerical calculation of Mie theory using current program compared to Prahl’s calculator [27]: (a) scattering coefficients of 0.72% microsphere phantom, (b) anisotropy

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated reduced scattering coefficients (µs) of microsphere phantoms versus µs of mucosal tissues.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fluorescent intensity of Intralipid phantoms with different lipid concentrations: 2%, 3%, 5% (a), 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, and 1.5% (b). The inset in (b) shows auto-scales of the same curves.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fluorescent intensity of Intralipid phantoms with different lipid concentration: 2%, 3%, 5% (a), 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% (b). The inset in (b) shows auto-scales of the same curves. Data was collected with a time-resolved fluorometer.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Fluorescent intensity collected with a time-resolved fluorometer (TRF) and spectrometer (SPEC) at 450 nm as a function of lipid concentration or µs values at 450 nm. Intensity of phantoms in each case was normalized to that of phantom with lipid concentration 5%.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Fluoresence of microsphere phantoms using a spectrometer (a), and a time-resolved fluorometer (b).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Fluoresence of Intralipid compared to microspheres: The measurements were performed with a spectrometer.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Normalized fluorescence decays of Intralipid phantoms with lipid concentration of 2% and microsphere phantom with sphere concentration of 0.72%.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N= 6x yπ d 3
n water (λ)=1.313+ 15.762 λ 4382 λ 2 + 1145500 λ 3
n sphere (λ)=1.5725+ 0.0031080 λ 2 0.00034779 λ 4

Metrics