Abstract

High definition and magnification rigid endoscope plays an important role in modern minimally invasive medical surgery and diagnosis. In this paper, we present the design and evaluation methods of a high definition rigid endoscope, specifically an arthroscope, with a large depth of field (DOF). The incident heights and exit angles of the sampled rays on the relay lens are controlled during the optimization process to ensure an effective field view (70°) and a normal ray path within the limited lens diameter of 2.7 mm. The lens is set up as a multi-configuration system with two extreme and one middle object distances to cover a large DOF. As a result, an entrance pupil of 0.3 mm is achieved for the first time, to bring the theoretical resolution to 23.1 lps/mm in the object space at a working distance of 20 mm, with the wavelength of 0.532 um. The modulation transfer function (MTF) curves approach diffraction limit, and the values are all higher than 0.3 at 160 line pairs/mm (lps/mm) in the image space. Meanwhile, stray light caused by total internal reflection on the inner wall of the rod lenses and the objective lens is eliminated. The measured resolution in the object space at a 20 mm working distance is 22.3 lps/mm, and test results show that other performance characteristics also fulfill design requirements. The relay lenses are designed with only one type of the spacer and two types of lenses to greatly reduce the fabrication and assembly cost. The design method has important research and application values for lens systems used in modern minimally invasive medical surgery and industrial non-destructive testing area.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2013 (2)

2011 (4)

M. Kyrish, U. Utzinger, M. R. Descour, B. K. Baggett, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Ultra-slim plastic endomicroscope objective for non-linear microscopy,” Opt. Express19(8), 7603–7615 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, M. Goetz, A. Hoffman, and P. R. Galle, “New imaging techniques and opportunities in endoscopy,” Nat Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.8(10), 547–553 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Gross, A. M. Buchner, J. E. Crook, J. R. Cangemi, M. F. Picco, H. C. Wolfsen, K. R. DeVault, D. S. Loeb, M. Raimondo, T. A. Woodward, and M. B. Wallace, “A comparison of high definition-image enhanced colonoscopy and standard white-light colonoscopy for colorectal polyp detection,” Endoscopy43(12), 1045–1051 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rastogi, D. S. Early, N. Gupta, A. Bansal, V. Singh, M. Ansstas, S. S. Jonnalagadda, C. E. Hovis, S. Gaddam, S. B. Wani, S. A. Edmundowicz, and P. Sharma, “Randomized, controlled trial of standard-definition white-light, high-definition white-light, and narrow-band imaging colonoscopy for the detection of colon polyps and prediction of polyp histology,” Gastrointest. Endosc.74(3), 593–602 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2007 (2)

J. Galli, G. Cammarota, M. Rigante, E. De Corso, C. Parrilla, G. C. Passali, G. Almadori, and G. Paludetti, “High resolution magnifying endoscopy: a new diagnostic tool also for laryngeal examination?” Acta Otorhinolaryngol. Ital.27(5), 233–236 (2007).
[PubMed]

R. T. Kester, T. S. Tkaczyk, M. R. Descour, T. Christenson, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High numerical aperture microendoscope objective for a fiber confocal reflectance microscope,” Opt. Express15(5), 2409–2420 (2007),.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2002 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

S. J. Spaner and G. L. Warnock, “A brief history of endoscopy, laparoscopy, and laparoscopic surgery,” J. Laparoendosc. Adv. Surg. Tech. A7(6), 369–373 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1994 (2)

S. J. Dobson and J. Ribeiro, “The primary aberration characteristics of thin-lens models of common relay systems,” Meas. Sci. Technol.5(1), 32–36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. Vakil, W. Smith, K. Bourgeois, E. C. Everbach, and K. Knyrim, “Endoscopic measurement of lesion size: improved accuracy with image processing,” Gastrointest. Endosc.40(2), 178–183 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

P. Mouret, “From the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Dig. Surg.8(2), 124–125 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1806 (1)

P. Bozzini, “Light conductor, an invention for viewing internal parts and diseases, together with illustrations,” J. Prac. Med. Surgery24, 107–124 (1806).

Almadori, G.

J. Galli, G. Cammarota, M. Rigante, E. De Corso, C. Parrilla, G. C. Passali, G. Almadori, and G. Paludetti, “High resolution magnifying endoscopy: a new diagnostic tool also for laryngeal examination?” Acta Otorhinolaryngol. Ital.27(5), 233–236 (2007).
[PubMed]

Ansstas, M.

A. Rastogi, D. S. Early, N. Gupta, A. Bansal, V. Singh, M. Ansstas, S. S. Jonnalagadda, C. E. Hovis, S. Gaddam, S. B. Wani, S. A. Edmundowicz, and P. Sharma, “Randomized, controlled trial of standard-definition white-light, high-definition white-light, and narrow-band imaging colonoscopy for the detection of colon polyps and prediction of polyp histology,” Gastrointest. Endosc.74(3), 593–602 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baggett, B. K.

Bansal, A.

A. Rastogi, D. S. Early, N. Gupta, A. Bansal, V. Singh, M. Ansstas, S. S. Jonnalagadda, C. E. Hovis, S. Gaddam, S. B. Wani, S. A. Edmundowicz, and P. Sharma, “Randomized, controlled trial of standard-definition white-light, high-definition white-light, and narrow-band imaging colonoscopy for the detection of colon polyps and prediction of polyp histology,” Gastrointest. Endosc.74(3), 593–602 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bentley, J. L.

Bourgeois, K.

N. Vakil, W. Smith, K. Bourgeois, E. C. Everbach, and K. Knyrim, “Endoscopic measurement of lesion size: improved accuracy with image processing,” Gastrointest. Endosc.40(2), 178–183 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozzini, P.

P. Bozzini, “Light conductor, an invention for viewing internal parts and diseases, together with illustrations,” J. Prac. Med. Surgery24, 107–124 (1806).

Buchner, A. M.

S. A. Gross, A. M. Buchner, J. E. Crook, J. R. Cangemi, M. F. Picco, H. C. Wolfsen, K. R. DeVault, D. S. Loeb, M. Raimondo, T. A. Woodward, and M. B. Wallace, “A comparison of high definition-image enhanced colonoscopy and standard white-light colonoscopy for colorectal polyp detection,” Endoscopy43(12), 1045–1051 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cammarota, G.

J. Galli, G. Cammarota, M. Rigante, E. De Corso, C. Parrilla, G. C. Passali, G. Almadori, and G. Paludetti, “High resolution magnifying endoscopy: a new diagnostic tool also for laryngeal examination?” Acta Otorhinolaryngol. Ital.27(5), 233–236 (2007).
[PubMed]

Cangemi, J. R.

S. A. Gross, A. M. Buchner, J. E. Crook, J. R. Cangemi, M. F. Picco, H. C. Wolfsen, K. R. DeVault, D. S. Loeb, M. Raimondo, T. A. Woodward, and M. B. Wallace, “A comparison of high definition-image enhanced colonoscopy and standard white-light colonoscopy for colorectal polyp detection,” Endoscopy43(12), 1045–1051 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlson, K. D.

Chidley, M. D.

Christenson, T.

Crawford, M. K.

Crook, J. E.

S. A. Gross, A. M. Buchner, J. E. Crook, J. R. Cangemi, M. F. Picco, H. C. Wolfsen, K. R. DeVault, D. S. Loeb, M. Raimondo, T. A. Woodward, and M. B. Wallace, “A comparison of high definition-image enhanced colonoscopy and standard white-light colonoscopy for colorectal polyp detection,” Endoscopy43(12), 1045–1051 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Corso, E.

J. Galli, G. Cammarota, M. Rigante, E. De Corso, C. Parrilla, G. C. Passali, G. Almadori, and G. Paludetti, “High resolution magnifying endoscopy: a new diagnostic tool also for laryngeal examination?” Acta Otorhinolaryngol. Ital.27(5), 233–236 (2007).
[PubMed]

Descour, M. R.

DeVault, K. R.

S. A. Gross, A. M. Buchner, J. E. Crook, J. R. Cangemi, M. F. Picco, H. C. Wolfsen, K. R. DeVault, D. S. Loeb, M. Raimondo, T. A. Woodward, and M. B. Wallace, “A comparison of high definition-image enhanced colonoscopy and standard white-light colonoscopy for colorectal polyp detection,” Endoscopy43(12), 1045–1051 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dobson, S. J.

S. J. Dobson and J. Ribeiro, “The primary aberration characteristics of thin-lens models of common relay systems,” Meas. Sci. Technol.5(1), 32–36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Early, D. S.

A. Rastogi, D. S. Early, N. Gupta, A. Bansal, V. Singh, M. Ansstas, S. S. Jonnalagadda, C. E. Hovis, S. Gaddam, S. B. Wani, S. A. Edmundowicz, and P. Sharma, “Randomized, controlled trial of standard-definition white-light, high-definition white-light, and narrow-band imaging colonoscopy for the detection of colon polyps and prediction of polyp histology,” Gastrointest. Endosc.74(3), 593–602 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edmundowicz, S. A.

A. Rastogi, D. S. Early, N. Gupta, A. Bansal, V. Singh, M. Ansstas, S. S. Jonnalagadda, C. E. Hovis, S. Gaddam, S. B. Wani, S. A. Edmundowicz, and P. Sharma, “Randomized, controlled trial of standard-definition white-light, high-definition white-light, and narrow-band imaging colonoscopy for the detection of colon polyps and prediction of polyp histology,” Gastrointest. Endosc.74(3), 593–602 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Everbach, E. C.

N. Vakil, W. Smith, K. Bourgeois, E. C. Everbach, and K. Knyrim, “Endoscopic measurement of lesion size: improved accuracy with image processing,” Gastrointest. Endosc.40(2), 178–183 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

Gaddam, S.

A. Rastogi, D. S. Early, N. Gupta, A. Bansal, V. Singh, M. Ansstas, S. S. Jonnalagadda, C. E. Hovis, S. Gaddam, S. B. Wani, S. A. Edmundowicz, and P. Sharma, “Randomized, controlled trial of standard-definition white-light, high-definition white-light, and narrow-band imaging colonoscopy for the detection of colon polyps and prediction of polyp histology,” Gastrointest. Endosc.74(3), 593–602 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galle, P. R.

R. Kiesslich, M. Goetz, A. Hoffman, and P. R. Galle, “New imaging techniques and opportunities in endoscopy,” Nat Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.8(10), 547–553 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galli, J.

J. Galli, G. Cammarota, M. Rigante, E. De Corso, C. Parrilla, G. C. Passali, G. Almadori, and G. Paludetti, “High resolution magnifying endoscopy: a new diagnostic tool also for laryngeal examination?” Acta Otorhinolaryngol. Ital.27(5), 233–236 (2007).
[PubMed]

Goetz, M.

R. Kiesslich, M. Goetz, A. Hoffman, and P. R. Galle, “New imaging techniques and opportunities in endoscopy,” Nat Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.8(10), 547–553 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gross, S. A.

S. A. Gross, A. M. Buchner, J. E. Crook, J. R. Cangemi, M. F. Picco, H. C. Wolfsen, K. R. DeVault, D. S. Loeb, M. Raimondo, T. A. Woodward, and M. B. Wallace, “A comparison of high definition-image enhanced colonoscopy and standard white-light colonoscopy for colorectal polyp detection,” Endoscopy43(12), 1045–1051 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gupta, N.

A. Rastogi, D. S. Early, N. Gupta, A. Bansal, V. Singh, M. Ansstas, S. S. Jonnalagadda, C. E. Hovis, S. Gaddam, S. B. Wani, S. A. Edmundowicz, and P. Sharma, “Randomized, controlled trial of standard-definition white-light, high-definition white-light, and narrow-band imaging colonoscopy for the detection of colon polyps and prediction of polyp histology,” Gastrointest. Endosc.74(3), 593–602 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harkrider, C. J.

Hoffman, A.

R. Kiesslich, M. Goetz, A. Hoffman, and P. R. Galle, “New imaging techniques and opportunities in endoscopy,” Nat Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.8(10), 547–553 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hovis, C. E.

A. Rastogi, D. S. Early, N. Gupta, A. Bansal, V. Singh, M. Ansstas, S. S. Jonnalagadda, C. E. Hovis, S. Gaddam, S. B. Wani, S. A. Edmundowicz, and P. Sharma, “Randomized, controlled trial of standard-definition white-light, high-definition white-light, and narrow-band imaging colonoscopy for the detection of colon polyps and prediction of polyp histology,” Gastrointest. Endosc.74(3), 593–602 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hua, H.

Itzkan, I.

Janes, G. S.

Jonnalagadda, S. S.

A. Rastogi, D. S. Early, N. Gupta, A. Bansal, V. Singh, M. Ansstas, S. S. Jonnalagadda, C. E. Hovis, S. Gaddam, S. B. Wani, S. A. Edmundowicz, and P. Sharma, “Randomized, controlled trial of standard-definition white-light, high-definition white-light, and narrow-band imaging colonoscopy for the detection of colon polyps and prediction of polyp histology,” Gastrointest. Endosc.74(3), 593–602 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kester, R. T.

Kiesslich, R.

R. Kiesslich, M. Goetz, A. Hoffman, and P. R. Galle, “New imaging techniques and opportunities in endoscopy,” Nat Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.8(10), 547–553 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knyrim, K.

N. Vakil, W. Smith, K. Bourgeois, E. C. Everbach, and K. Knyrim, “Endoscopic measurement of lesion size: improved accuracy with image processing,” Gastrointest. Endosc.40(2), 178–183 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kyrish, M.

Landau, S. M.

Liang, C.

Loeb, D. S.

S. A. Gross, A. M. Buchner, J. E. Crook, J. R. Cangemi, M. F. Picco, H. C. Wolfsen, K. R. DeVault, D. S. Loeb, M. Raimondo, T. A. Woodward, and M. B. Wallace, “A comparison of high definition-image enhanced colonoscopy and standard white-light colonoscopy for colorectal polyp detection,” Endoscopy43(12), 1045–1051 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, D. T.

Mouret, P.

P. Mouret, “From the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Dig. Surg.8(2), 124–125 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, M.

Paludetti, G.

J. Galli, G. Cammarota, M. Rigante, E. De Corso, C. Parrilla, G. C. Passali, G. Almadori, and G. Paludetti, “High resolution magnifying endoscopy: a new diagnostic tool also for laryngeal examination?” Acta Otorhinolaryngol. Ital.27(5), 233–236 (2007).
[PubMed]

Parrilla, C.

J. Galli, G. Cammarota, M. Rigante, E. De Corso, C. Parrilla, G. C. Passali, G. Almadori, and G. Paludetti, “High resolution magnifying endoscopy: a new diagnostic tool also for laryngeal examination?” Acta Otorhinolaryngol. Ital.27(5), 233–236 (2007).
[PubMed]

Passali, G. C.

J. Galli, G. Cammarota, M. Rigante, E. De Corso, C. Parrilla, G. C. Passali, G. Almadori, and G. Paludetti, “High resolution magnifying endoscopy: a new diagnostic tool also for laryngeal examination?” Acta Otorhinolaryngol. Ital.27(5), 233–236 (2007).
[PubMed]

Picco, M. F.

S. A. Gross, A. M. Buchner, J. E. Crook, J. R. Cangemi, M. F. Picco, H. C. Wolfsen, K. R. DeVault, D. S. Loeb, M. Raimondo, T. A. Woodward, and M. B. Wallace, “A comparison of high definition-image enhanced colonoscopy and standard white-light colonoscopy for colorectal polyp detection,” Endoscopy43(12), 1045–1051 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qin, Y.

Raimondo, M.

S. A. Gross, A. M. Buchner, J. E. Crook, J. R. Cangemi, M. F. Picco, H. C. Wolfsen, K. R. DeVault, D. S. Loeb, M. Raimondo, T. A. Woodward, and M. B. Wallace, “A comparison of high definition-image enhanced colonoscopy and standard white-light colonoscopy for colorectal polyp detection,” Endoscopy43(12), 1045–1051 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rastogi, A.

A. Rastogi, D. S. Early, N. Gupta, A. Bansal, V. Singh, M. Ansstas, S. S. Jonnalagadda, C. E. Hovis, S. Gaddam, S. B. Wani, S. A. Edmundowicz, and P. Sharma, “Randomized, controlled trial of standard-definition white-light, high-definition white-light, and narrow-band imaging colonoscopy for the detection of colon polyps and prediction of polyp histology,” Gastrointest. Endosc.74(3), 593–602 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ribeiro, J.

S. J. Dobson and J. Ribeiro, “The primary aberration characteristics of thin-lens models of common relay systems,” Meas. Sci. Technol.5(1), 32–36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Richards-Kortum, R.

Richards-Kortum, R. R.

Rigante, M.

J. Galli, G. Cammarota, M. Rigante, E. De Corso, C. Parrilla, G. C. Passali, G. Almadori, and G. Paludetti, “High resolution magnifying endoscopy: a new diagnostic tool also for laryngeal examination?” Acta Otorhinolaryngol. Ital.27(5), 233–236 (2007).
[PubMed]

Rouke, J. L.

Sharma, P.

A. Rastogi, D. S. Early, N. Gupta, A. Bansal, V. Singh, M. Ansstas, S. S. Jonnalagadda, C. E. Hovis, S. Gaddam, S. B. Wani, S. A. Edmundowicz, and P. Sharma, “Randomized, controlled trial of standard-definition white-light, high-definition white-light, and narrow-band imaging colonoscopy for the detection of colon polyps and prediction of polyp histology,” Gastrointest. Endosc.74(3), 593–602 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, V.

A. Rastogi, D. S. Early, N. Gupta, A. Bansal, V. Singh, M. Ansstas, S. S. Jonnalagadda, C. E. Hovis, S. Gaddam, S. B. Wani, S. A. Edmundowicz, and P. Sharma, “Randomized, controlled trial of standard-definition white-light, high-definition white-light, and narrow-band imaging colonoscopy for the detection of colon polyps and prediction of polyp histology,” Gastrointest. Endosc.74(3), 593–602 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, W.

N. Vakil, W. Smith, K. Bourgeois, E. C. Everbach, and K. Knyrim, “Endoscopic measurement of lesion size: improved accuracy with image processing,” Gastrointest. Endosc.40(2), 178–183 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spaner, S. J.

S. J. Spaner and G. L. Warnock, “A brief history of endoscopy, laparoscopy, and laparoscopic surgery,” J. Laparoendosc. Adv. Surg. Tech. A7(6), 369–373 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sung, K. B.

Tkaczyk, T. S.

Tomkinson, T. H.

Utzinger, U.

Vakil, N.

N. Vakil, W. Smith, K. Bourgeois, E. C. Everbach, and K. Knyrim, “Endoscopic measurement of lesion size: improved accuracy with image processing,” Gastrointest. Endosc.40(2), 178–183 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dam, J.

Wallace, M. B.

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Figures (26)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Basic optical configuration at the distal end of an endoscope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effective focal length calculation method of relay lenses.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photo taken through a commercial endoscope when the fluorescent lamp locates at four radial object positions: (a) on-axis, (b) 0.38 field, (c) 0.67 field, and (d) full field.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Deliberately exaggerated example of an endoscope objective lens with long thickness and small air space distance. (a) Objective lens with an imaging (red) ray bundle; (b) Objective lens with a ray bundle that enter the first lens; (c) magnified parts of the objective lens.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Light distribution on the image plane with a point source at four radial object positions: (a) on-axis, (b) 0.38 field, (c) 0.67 field, and (d) full field. Top row shows the Pseudo-color results and bottom row shows the true color simulation results.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relay lens unit.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Glass optimization improvement versus time curves.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Optical layout of the endoscope, wherein three sets of relay lens pairs are disposed between an objective lens and an eye lens

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Transverse ray aberrations for the 0.0, 0.38, 0.67, and 1.0 field of the three working distance (WD). (a) WD = 20 mm; (b) WD = 10 mm; (c) WD = 500 mm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Geometric spot diagrams for four radial image positions: on-axis, 0.4, 0.7, and 1.0 field of the three configurations. (a) WD = 20 mm; (b) WD = 10 mm; (c) WD = 500 mm.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Polychromatic modulation transfer function curves of the systems with different WDs for four radial image positions: on-axis, 0.38, 0.67, and 1.0 field. (a) WD = 20 mm; (b) WD = 10 mm; (c) WD = 500 mm.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Distortion plot in percentage of deviation from chief ray location of the systems with different WDs (a) WD = 20 mm; (b) WD = 10 mm; (c) WD = 500 mm.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(a) The 11th pattern of resolution test board (JBT 9328-1999 A3) [32]; (b) PSF plots of the center field; (c) simulation image of the center field; (d) PSF plots of the marginal field; (e) simulation image of the marginal field.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Image simulation result of the color image. (a) The original RGB circle image; (b) the simulated image.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Relative illumination curve of the final design.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

(a) Cumulative possibility estimates and (b) as-built MTF plots of the tolerance analysis at four fields for the endoscope lens optimized for best nominal performance.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

The first three lenses of the objective lens, design to eliminate the stray light.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Endoscope objective lens with imaging and straylight path.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Light distribution results on the image plane with a point source at four radial object positions: (a) on-axis, (b) 0.38, (c) 0.67, and (d) full field. Top row shows the Pseudo-color results and bottom row shows the true color results.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

The rod lens and the V-blocks experiment.

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

Performance testing experiment [29, 30] 1. Light source and collimator, 2. Resolution board, 3. The developed endoscope, 4. Erector tube, 5. Camera, 6. Display, 7. Tube lens, 8. Camera.

Fig. 22
Fig. 22

Photographs obtained from a custom JBT 9328-1999 A3 full resolution target. (a) resolution target at the center field of a commercially available endoscope, (b) resolution target at the center field of the prototyped endoscope, (c) magnified area of the 10th and 11th pattern.

Fig. 23
Fig. 23

(a) FOV testing experiment setup;(b) test image of the developed endoscope.

Fig. 24
Fig. 24

Test image with different WDs. (a) WD = 10 mm; (b) WD = 20 mm; (c) WD = 30 mm; (d) WD = 50 mm; (e) WD = 70 mm; (f) WD = 125 mm.

Fig. 25
Fig. 25

Images of a point source at four different fields through the developed endoscope.

Fig. 26
Fig. 26

Image of a palm.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Design specifications of high performance endoscope

Tables Icon

Table 2 Tolerances value of the endoscope system.

Equations (2)

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r(d)= D e 1.22λd
D e = f obj f relay × D relay

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