Abstract

We report three-dimensional (3D) imaging of microcirculation within human cavity tissues in vivo using a high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) at 1300 nm with a modified probe interface. Volumetric structural OCT images of the inner tissues of oral and nasal cavities are acquired with a field of view of 2 mm × 2 mm. Two types of disposable and detachable probe attachments are devised and applied to the port of the imaging probe of OCT system, enabling forward and side imaging scans for selective and easy access to specific cavity tissue sites. Blood perfusion is mapped with OCT-based microangiography from 3D structural OCT images, in which a novel vessel extraction algorithm is used to decouple dynamic light scattering signals, due to moving blood cells, from the background scattering signals due to static tissue elements. Characteristic tissue anatomy and microvessel architectures of various cavity tissue regions of a healthy human volunteer are identified with the 3D OCT images and the corresponding 3D vascular perfusion maps at a level approaching capillary resolution. The initial finding suggests that the proposed method may be engineered into a promising tool for evaluating and monitoring tissue microcirculation and its alteration within a wide-range of cavity tissues in the patients with various pathological conditions.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figs.2014.
  2. M.-T. Tsai, H.-C. Lee, C.-K. Lee, C.-H. Yu, H.-M. Chen, C.-P. Chiang, C.-C. Chang, Y.-M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Effective indicators for diagnosis of oral cancer using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(20), 15847–15862 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. Byakodi, S. Byakodi, S. Hiremath, J. Byakodi, S. Adaki, K. Marathe, and P. Mahind, “Oral cancer in India: an epidemiologic and clinical review,” J. Community Health37(2), 316–319 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Wojtkowski, “High-speed optical coherence tomography: basics and applications,” Appl. Opt.49(16), D30–D61 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051403 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Marschall, B. Sander, M. Mogensen, T. M. Jørgensen, and P. E. Andersen, “Optical coherence tomography-current technology and applications in clinical and biomedical research,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.400(9), 2699–2720 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, “Theory, developments and applications of optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(15), 2519–2535 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Balas, “Review of biomedical optical imaging–a powerful, non-invasive, non-ionizing technology for improving in vivo diagnosis,” Meas. Sci. Technol.20(10), 104020 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Tang, T. B. Krasieva, Z. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, “Combined multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography using a 12-fs broadband source,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 020502 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. An, P. Li, T. T. Shen, and R. K. Wang, “High speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging at 500,000 A‑lines per second,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(10), 2770–2783 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. An, P. Li, G. Lan, D. Malchow, and R. K. Wang, “High-resolution 1050 nm spectral domain retinal optical coherence tomography at 120 kHz A-scan rate with 6.1 mm imaging depth,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(2), 245–259 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Ishida, N. Nishizawa, T. Ohta, and K. Itoh, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography in 1.7 µm region with fiber laser supercontinuum in low-water-absorption samples,” Appl. Phys. Express4(5), 052501 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Zhang and J. U. Kang, “Real-time intraoperative 4D full-range FD-OCT based on the dual graphics processing units architecture for microsurgery guidance,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(4), 764–770 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter,” Opt. Lett.28(20), 1981–1983 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. T.-H. Tsai, B. Potsaid, Y. K. Tao, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, M. F. Kraus, C. Zhou, J. Hornegger, H. Mashimo, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography using micromotor imaging catheter and VCSEL technology,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(7), 1119–1132 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(18), 2183–2189 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J.-F. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.132(10), 1074–1081 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. C.-K. Lee, T.-T. Chi, C.-T. Wu, M.-T. Tsai, C.-P. Chiang, and C. C. Yang, “Diagnosis of oral precancer with optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(7), 1632–1646 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. I. Grulkowski, J. K. Nowak, K. Karnowski, P. Zebryk, M. Puszczewicz, J. Walkowiak, and M. Wojtkowski, “Quantitative assessment of oral mucosa and labial minor salivary glands in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome using swept source OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express5(1), 259–274 (2014).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. P. Wilder-Smith, K. Lee, S. Guo, J. Zhang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, and D. Messadi, “In vivo diagnosis of oral dysplasia and malignancy using optical coherence tomography: preliminary studies in 50 patients,” Lasers Surg. Med.41(5), 353–357 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. U. Mahmood, J. Ridgway, R. Jackson, S. Guo, J. Su, W. Armstrong, T. Shibuya, R. Crumley, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the nasal mucosa,” Am. J. Rhinol.20(2), 155–159 (2006).
    [PubMed]
  22. S.-H. Kim, N. H. Cho, K. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. S. Koo, J. H. Kim, J. H. Chang, and E. C. Choi, “Correlations of oral tongue cancer invasion with matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression,” J. Surg. Oncol.93(4), 330–337 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. P. H. Corrêa, L. C. C. Nunes, A. C. B. R. Johann, M. C. Aguiar, R. S. Gomez, and R. A. Mesquita, “Prevalence of oral hemangioma, vascular malformation and varix in a Brazilian population,” Braz. Oral Res.21(1), 40–45 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. M. Astekar, A. Joshi, G. Ramesh, and R. Metgud, “Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and microvessel density in oral tumorigenesis,” J. Oral Maxillofac. Pathol.16(1), 22–26 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. Y.-S. Fu and K. H. Perzin, “Non-epithelial tumors of the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and nasopharynx: A clinicopathologic study. I. General Features and Vascular Tumors,” Cancer33(5), 1275–1288 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. P. Wilder-Smith, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. Zhang, Q. Wang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, H. Wigdor, J. Schwartz, and J. Epstein, “In vivo imaging of oral mucositis in an animal model using optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography,” Clin. Cancer Res.13(8), 2449–2454 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. L. L. Otis, D. Piao, C. W. Gibson, and Q. Zhu, “Quantifying labial blood flow using optical Doppler tomography,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod.98(2), 189–194 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. S. G. Proskurin, Y. He, and R. K. Wang, “Determination of flow velocity vector based on Doppler shift and spectrum broadening with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.28(14), 1227–1229 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, E. H. Moriyama, M. Khurana, N. R. Munce, M. K. K. Leung, J. Jiang, A. Cable, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Speckle variance detection of microvasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.33(13), 1530–1532 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. H. C. Hendargo, R. P. McNabb, A.-H. Dhalla, N. Shepherd, and J. A. Izatt, “Doppler velocity detection limitations in spectrometer-based versus swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(8), 2175–2188 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. H. Ren, Y. Wang, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “Power optical Doppler tomography imaging of blood vessel in human skin and M-mode Doppler imaging of blood flow in chick chrioallantoic membrane,” Proc. SPIE4956, 225–231 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  32. X. Li, and H. Ren, “Clutter rejection filters for optical Doppler tomography,” US Patent 20070216908.
  33. H. Ren, T. Sun, D. J. MacDonald, M. J. Cobb, and X. Li, “Real-time in vivo blood-flow imaging by moving-scatterer-sensitive spectral-domain optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett.31(7), 927–929 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. H. Ren and X. Li, “Clutter rejection filters for optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Express14(13), 6103–6112 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, “Three dimensional optical angiography,” Opt. Express15(7), 4083–4097 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. R. K. Wang and S. Hurst, “Mapping of cerebro-vascular blood perfusion in mice with skin and skull intact by Optical Micro-AngioGraphy at 1.3 mum wavelength,” Opt. Express15(18), 11402–11412 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. L. An, J. Qin, and R. K. Wang, “Ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography for in vivo imaging of microcirculations within human skin tissue beds,” Opt. Express18(8), 8220–8228 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. R. K. Wang, L. An, P. Francis, and D. J. Wilson, “Depth-resolved imaging of capillary networks in retina and choroid using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography,” Opt. Lett.35(9), 1467–1469 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. M. S. Mahmud, D. W. Cadotte, B. Vuong, C. Sun, T. W. H. Luk, A. Mariampillai, and V. X. D. Yang, “Review of speckle and phase variance optical coherence tomography to visualize microvascular networks,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(5), 050901 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. J. Enfield, E. Jonathan, and M. Leahy, “In vivo imaging of the microcirculation of the volar forearm using correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cmOCT),” Biomed. Opt. Express2(5), 1184–1193 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. C. Blatter, J. Weingast, A. Alex, B. Grajciar, W. Wieser, W. Drexler, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “In situ structural and microangiographic assessment of human skin lesions with high-speed OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(10), 2636–2646 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. Y. Watanabe, Y. Takahashi, and H. Numazawa, “Graphics processing unit accelerated intensity-based optical coherence tomography angiography using differential frames with real-time motion correction,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(2), 021105 (2014).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. B. Davoudi, A. Lindenmaier, B. A. Standish, G. Allo, K. Bizheva, and A. Vitkin, “Noninvasive in vivo structural and vascular imaging of human oral tissues with spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(5), 826–839 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. B. Davoudi, M. Morrison, K. Bizheva, V. X. D. Yang, R. Dinniwell, W. Levin, and I. A. Vitkin, “Optical coherence tomography platform for microvascular imaging and quantification: initial experience in late oral radiation toxicity patients,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(7), 076008 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. W. J. Choi, R. Reif, S. Yousefi, and R. K. Wang, “Improved microcirculation imaging of human skin in vivo using optical microangiography with a correlation mapping mask,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(3), 036010 (2014).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. W. J. Choi, H. Wang, and R. K. Wang, “Optical coherence tomography microangiography for monitoring the response of vascular perfusion to external pressure on human skin tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(5), 056003 (2014).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. http://www.thorlabs.us/newgrouppage9.cfm?objectgroup_id=6473&pn=OCS1310V1 .
  48. I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, C. D. Lu, J. Jiang, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Retinal, anterior segment and full eye imaging using ultrahigh speed swept source OCT with vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2733–2751 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  49. Laser Institute of America, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers ANSI Z136.1-2000,” American National Standards Institute Inc., New York, NY (2000).
  50. J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, D. Schwartz, and S. E. Fraser, “Volumetric microvascular imaging of human retina using optical coherence tomography with a novel motion contrast technique,” Opt. Express17(24), 22190–22200 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  51. G. A. Scardina and P. Messina, “Hashimotoʼs thyroiditis: lingual and labial capillary microcirculation in patients affected by macroglossia,” Int. J. Morphol.25(2), 411–416 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  52. R. Djaberi, J. D. Schuijf, E. J. de Koning, D. C. Wijewickrama, A. M. Pereira, J. W. Smit, L. J. Kroft, A. Roos, J. J. Bax, T. J. Rabelink, and J. W. Jukema, “Non-invasive assessment of microcirculation by sidestream dark field imaging as a marker of coronary artery disease in diabetes,” Diab. Vasc. Dis. Res.10(2), 123–134 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  53. R. V. Krstič, Human Microscopic Anatomy: An Atlas for Students of Medicine and Biology (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991).
  54. E. A. Naumova, T. Dierkes, J. Sprang, and W. H. Arnold, “The oral mucosal surface and blood vessels,” Head Face Med.9(1), 8 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2014

W. J. Choi, R. Reif, S. Yousefi, and R. K. Wang, “Improved microcirculation imaging of human skin in vivo using optical microangiography with a correlation mapping mask,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(3), 036010 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Choi, H. Wang, and R. K. Wang, “Optical coherence tomography microangiography for monitoring the response of vascular perfusion to external pressure on human skin tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(5), 056003 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Watanabe, Y. Takahashi, and H. Numazawa, “Graphics processing unit accelerated intensity-based optical coherence tomography angiography using differential frames with real-time motion correction,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(2), 021105 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, J. K. Nowak, K. Karnowski, P. Zebryk, M. Puszczewicz, J. Walkowiak, and M. Wojtkowski, “Quantitative assessment of oral mucosa and labial minor salivary glands in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome using swept source OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express5(1), 259–274 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

L. An, P. Li, G. Lan, D. Malchow, and R. K. Wang, “High-resolution 1050 nm spectral domain retinal optical coherence tomography at 120 kHz A-scan rate with 6.1 mm imaging depth,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(2), 245–259 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-H. Tsai, B. Potsaid, Y. K. Tao, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, M. F. Kraus, C. Zhou, J. Hornegger, H. Mashimo, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography using micromotor imaging catheter and VCSEL technology,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(7), 1119–1132 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Djaberi, J. D. Schuijf, E. J. de Koning, D. C. Wijewickrama, A. M. Pereira, J. W. Smit, L. J. Kroft, A. Roos, J. J. Bax, T. J. Rabelink, and J. W. Jukema, “Non-invasive assessment of microcirculation by sidestream dark field imaging as a marker of coronary artery disease in diabetes,” Diab. Vasc. Dis. Res.10(2), 123–134 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Naumova, T. Dierkes, J. Sprang, and W. H. Arnold, “The oral mucosal surface and blood vessels,” Head Face Med.9(1), 8 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Mahmud, D. W. Cadotte, B. Vuong, C. Sun, T. W. H. Luk, A. Mariampillai, and V. X. D. Yang, “Review of speckle and phase variance optical coherence tomography to visualize microvascular networks,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(5), 050901 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Davoudi, M. Morrison, K. Bizheva, V. X. D. Yang, R. Dinniwell, W. Levin, and I. A. Vitkin, “Optical coherence tomography platform for microvascular imaging and quantification: initial experience in late oral radiation toxicity patients,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(7), 076008 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

M. Astekar, A. Joshi, G. Ramesh, and R. Metgud, “Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and microvessel density in oral tumorigenesis,” J. Oral Maxillofac. Pathol.16(1), 22–26 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Byakodi, S. Byakodi, S. Hiremath, J. Byakodi, S. Adaki, K. Marathe, and P. Mahind, “Oral cancer in India: an epidemiologic and clinical review,” J. Community Health37(2), 316–319 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Davoudi, A. Lindenmaier, B. A. Standish, G. Allo, K. Bizheva, and A. Vitkin, “Noninvasive in vivo structural and vascular imaging of human oral tissues with spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(5), 826–839 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Lee, T.-T. Chi, C.-T. Wu, M.-T. Tsai, C.-P. Chiang, and C. C. Yang, “Diagnosis of oral precancer with optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(7), 1632–1646 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Blatter, J. Weingast, A. Alex, B. Grajciar, W. Wieser, W. Drexler, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “In situ structural and microangiographic assessment of human skin lesions with high-speed OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(10), 2636–2646 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, C. D. Lu, J. Jiang, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Retinal, anterior segment and full eye imaging using ultrahigh speed swept source OCT with vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2733–2751 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

2010

2009

C. Balas, “Review of biomedical optical imaging–a powerful, non-invasive, non-ionizing technology for improving in vivo diagnosis,” Meas. Sci. Technol.20(10), 104020 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Lee, S. Guo, J. Zhang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, and D. Messadi, “In vivo diagnosis of oral dysplasia and malignancy using optical coherence tomography: preliminary studies in 50 patients,” Lasers Surg. Med.41(5), 353–357 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, D. Schwartz, and S. E. Fraser, “Volumetric microvascular imaging of human retina using optical coherence tomography with a novel motion contrast technique,” Opt. Express17(24), 22190–22200 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, “Three dimensional optical angiography,” Opt. Express15(7), 4083–4097 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang and S. Hurst, “Mapping of cerebro-vascular blood perfusion in mice with skin and skull intact by Optical Micro-AngioGraphy at 1.3 mum wavelength,” Opt. Express15(18), 11402–11412 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Scardina and P. Messina, “Hashimotoʼs thyroiditis: lingual and labial capillary microcirculation in patients affected by macroglossia,” Int. J. Morphol.25(2), 411–416 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. H. Corrêa, L. C. C. Nunes, A. C. B. R. Johann, M. C. Aguiar, R. S. Gomez, and R. A. Mesquita, “Prevalence of oral hemangioma, vascular malformation and varix in a Brazilian population,” Braz. Oral Res.21(1), 40–45 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wilder-Smith, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. Zhang, Q. Wang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, H. Wigdor, J. Schwartz, and J. Epstein, “In vivo imaging of oral mucositis in an animal model using optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography,” Clin. Cancer Res.13(8), 2449–2454 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

U. Mahmood, J. Ridgway, R. Jackson, S. Guo, J. Su, W. Armstrong, T. Shibuya, R. Crumley, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the nasal mucosa,” Am. J. Rhinol.20(2), 155–159 (2006).
[PubMed]

S.-H. Kim, N. H. Cho, K. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. S. Koo, J. H. Kim, J. H. Chang, and E. C. Choi, “Correlations of oral tongue cancer invasion with matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression,” J. Surg. Oncol.93(4), 330–337 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tang, T. B. Krasieva, Z. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, “Combined multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography using a 12-fs broadband source,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 020502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ren, T. Sun, D. J. MacDonald, M. J. Cobb, and X. Li, “Real-time in vivo blood-flow imaging by moving-scatterer-sensitive spectral-domain optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett.31(7), 927–929 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ren and X. Li, “Clutter rejection filters for optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Express14(13), 6103–6112 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J.-F. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.132(10), 1074–1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, “Theory, developments and applications of optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(15), 2519–2535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

L. L. Otis, D. Piao, C. W. Gibson, and Q. Zhu, “Quantifying labial blood flow using optical Doppler tomography,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod.98(2), 189–194 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

1974

Y.-S. Fu and K. H. Perzin, “Non-epithelial tumors of the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and nasopharynx: A clinicopathologic study. I. General Features and Vascular Tumors,” Cancer33(5), 1275–1288 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adaki, S.

R. Byakodi, S. Byakodi, S. Hiremath, J. Byakodi, S. Adaki, K. Marathe, and P. Mahind, “Oral cancer in India: an epidemiologic and clinical review,” J. Community Health37(2), 316–319 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aguiar, M. C.

P. H. Corrêa, L. C. C. Nunes, A. C. B. R. Johann, M. C. Aguiar, R. S. Gomez, and R. A. Mesquita, “Prevalence of oral hemangioma, vascular malformation and varix in a Brazilian population,” Braz. Oral Res.21(1), 40–45 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alex, A.

Allo, G.

An, L.

Andersen, P. E.

S. Marschall, B. Sander, M. Mogensen, T. M. Jørgensen, and P. E. Andersen, “Optical coherence tomography-current technology and applications in clinical and biomedical research,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.400(9), 2699–2720 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armstrong, W.

U. Mahmood, J. Ridgway, R. Jackson, S. Guo, J. Su, W. Armstrong, T. Shibuya, R. Crumley, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the nasal mucosa,” Am. J. Rhinol.20(2), 155–159 (2006).
[PubMed]

Armstrong, W. B.

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J.-F. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.132(10), 1074–1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, W. H.

E. A. Naumova, T. Dierkes, J. Sprang, and W. H. Arnold, “The oral mucosal surface and blood vessels,” Head Face Med.9(1), 8 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Astekar, M.

M. Astekar, A. Joshi, G. Ramesh, and R. Metgud, “Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and microvessel density in oral tumorigenesis,” J. Oral Maxillofac. Pathol.16(1), 22–26 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balas, C.

C. Balas, “Review of biomedical optical imaging–a powerful, non-invasive, non-ionizing technology for improving in vivo diagnosis,” Meas. Sci. Technol.20(10), 104020 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bax, J. J.

R. Djaberi, J. D. Schuijf, E. J. de Koning, D. C. Wijewickrama, A. M. Pereira, J. W. Smit, L. J. Kroft, A. Roos, J. J. Bax, T. J. Rabelink, and J. W. Jukema, “Non-invasive assessment of microcirculation by sidestream dark field imaging as a marker of coronary artery disease in diabetes,” Diab. Vasc. Dis. Res.10(2), 123–134 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bizheva, K.

B. Davoudi, M. Morrison, K. Bizheva, V. X. D. Yang, R. Dinniwell, W. Levin, and I. A. Vitkin, “Optical coherence tomography platform for microvascular imaging and quantification: initial experience in late oral radiation toxicity patients,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(7), 076008 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Davoudi, A. Lindenmaier, B. A. Standish, G. Allo, K. Bizheva, and A. Vitkin, “Noninvasive in vivo structural and vascular imaging of human oral tissues with spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(5), 826–839 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blatter, C.

Boppart, S. A.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boudoux, C.

Bouma, B. E.

Byakodi, J.

R. Byakodi, S. Byakodi, S. Hiremath, J. Byakodi, S. Adaki, K. Marathe, and P. Mahind, “Oral cancer in India: an epidemiologic and clinical review,” J. Community Health37(2), 316–319 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byakodi, R.

R. Byakodi, S. Byakodi, S. Hiremath, J. Byakodi, S. Adaki, K. Marathe, and P. Mahind, “Oral cancer in India: an epidemiologic and clinical review,” J. Community Health37(2), 316–319 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byakodi, S.

R. Byakodi, S. Byakodi, S. Hiremath, J. Byakodi, S. Adaki, K. Marathe, and P. Mahind, “Oral cancer in India: an epidemiologic and clinical review,” J. Community Health37(2), 316–319 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

Cable, A. E.

Cadotte, D. W.

M. S. Mahmud, D. W. Cadotte, B. Vuong, C. Sun, T. W. H. Luk, A. Mariampillai, and V. X. D. Yang, “Review of speckle and phase variance optical coherence tomography to visualize microvascular networks,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(5), 050901 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C.-C.

Chang, J. H.

S.-H. Kim, N. H. Cho, K. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. S. Koo, J. H. Kim, J. H. Chang, and E. C. Choi, “Correlations of oral tongue cancer invasion with matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression,” J. Surg. Oncol.93(4), 330–337 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.-M.

Chen, Z.

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Lee, S. Guo, J. Zhang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, and D. Messadi, “In vivo diagnosis of oral dysplasia and malignancy using optical coherence tomography: preliminary studies in 50 patients,” Lasers Surg. Med.41(5), 353–357 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wilder-Smith, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. Zhang, Q. Wang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, H. Wigdor, J. Schwartz, and J. Epstein, “In vivo imaging of oral mucositis in an animal model using optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography,” Clin. Cancer Res.13(8), 2449–2454 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tang, T. B. Krasieva, Z. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, “Combined multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography using a 12-fs broadband source,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 020502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J.-F. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.132(10), 1074–1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Mahmood, J. Ridgway, R. Jackson, S. Guo, J. Su, W. Armstrong, T. Shibuya, R. Crumley, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the nasal mucosa,” Am. J. Rhinol.20(2), 155–159 (2006).
[PubMed]

H. Ren, Y. Wang, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “Power optical Doppler tomography imaging of blood vessel in human skin and M-mode Doppler imaging of blood flow in chick chrioallantoic membrane,” Proc. SPIE4956, 225–231 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chi, T.-T.

Chiang, C.-P.

Cho, N. H.

S.-H. Kim, N. H. Cho, K. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. S. Koo, J. H. Kim, J. H. Chang, and E. C. Choi, “Correlations of oral tongue cancer invasion with matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression,” J. Surg. Oncol.93(4), 330–337 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, E. C.

S.-H. Kim, N. H. Cho, K. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. S. Koo, J. H. Kim, J. H. Chang, and E. C. Choi, “Correlations of oral tongue cancer invasion with matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression,” J. Surg. Oncol.93(4), 330–337 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, W. J.

W. J. Choi, R. Reif, S. Yousefi, and R. K. Wang, “Improved microcirculation imaging of human skin in vivo using optical microangiography with a correlation mapping mask,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(3), 036010 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Choi, H. Wang, and R. K. Wang, “Optical coherence tomography microangiography for monitoring the response of vascular perfusion to external pressure on human skin tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(5), 056003 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choma, M. A.

Cobb, M. J.

Corrêa, P. H.

P. H. Corrêa, L. C. C. Nunes, A. C. B. R. Johann, M. C. Aguiar, R. S. Gomez, and R. A. Mesquita, “Prevalence of oral hemangioma, vascular malformation and varix in a Brazilian population,” Braz. Oral Res.21(1), 40–45 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crumley, R.

U. Mahmood, J. Ridgway, R. Jackson, S. Guo, J. Su, W. Armstrong, T. Shibuya, R. Crumley, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the nasal mucosa,” Am. J. Rhinol.20(2), 155–159 (2006).
[PubMed]

Crumley, R. L.

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J.-F. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.132(10), 1074–1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davoudi, B.

B. Davoudi, M. Morrison, K. Bizheva, V. X. D. Yang, R. Dinniwell, W. Levin, and I. A. Vitkin, “Optical coherence tomography platform for microvascular imaging and quantification: initial experience in late oral radiation toxicity patients,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(7), 076008 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Davoudi, A. Lindenmaier, B. A. Standish, G. Allo, K. Bizheva, and A. Vitkin, “Noninvasive in vivo structural and vascular imaging of human oral tissues with spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(5), 826–839 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Koning, E. J.

R. Djaberi, J. D. Schuijf, E. J. de Koning, D. C. Wijewickrama, A. M. Pereira, J. W. Smit, L. J. Kroft, A. Roos, J. J. Bax, T. J. Rabelink, and J. W. Jukema, “Non-invasive assessment of microcirculation by sidestream dark field imaging as a marker of coronary artery disease in diabetes,” Diab. Vasc. Dis. Res.10(2), 123–134 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dhalla, A.-H.

Dierkes, T.

E. A. Naumova, T. Dierkes, J. Sprang, and W. H. Arnold, “The oral mucosal surface and blood vessels,” Head Face Med.9(1), 8 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dinniwell, R.

B. Davoudi, M. Morrison, K. Bizheva, V. X. D. Yang, R. Dinniwell, W. Levin, and I. A. Vitkin, “Optical coherence tomography platform for microvascular imaging and quantification: initial experience in late oral radiation toxicity patients,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(7), 076008 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Djaberi, R.

R. Djaberi, J. D. Schuijf, E. J. de Koning, D. C. Wijewickrama, A. M. Pereira, J. W. Smit, L. J. Kroft, A. Roos, J. J. Bax, T. J. Rabelink, and J. W. Jukema, “Non-invasive assessment of microcirculation by sidestream dark field imaging as a marker of coronary artery disease in diabetes,” Diab. Vasc. Dis. Res.10(2), 123–134 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

Duker, J. S.

Enfield, J.

Epstein, J.

P. Wilder-Smith, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. Zhang, Q. Wang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, H. Wigdor, J. Schwartz, and J. Epstein, “In vivo imaging of oral mucositis in an animal model using optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography,” Clin. Cancer Res.13(8), 2449–2454 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fingler, J.

Francis, P.

Fraser, S. E.

Fu, Y.-S.

Y.-S. Fu and K. H. Perzin, “Non-epithelial tumors of the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and nasopharynx: A clinicopathologic study. I. General Features and Vascular Tumors,” Cancer33(5), 1275–1288 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gibson, C. W.

L. L. Otis, D. Piao, C. W. Gibson, and Q. Zhu, “Quantifying labial blood flow using optical Doppler tomography,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod.98(2), 189–194 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gomez, R. S.

P. H. Corrêa, L. C. C. Nunes, A. C. B. R. Johann, M. C. Aguiar, R. S. Gomez, and R. A. Mesquita, “Prevalence of oral hemangioma, vascular malformation and varix in a Brazilian population,” Braz. Oral Res.21(1), 40–45 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grajciar, B.

Gruber, A.

Grulkowski, I.

Gu, M.

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J.-F. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.132(10), 1074–1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, S.

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Lee, S. Guo, J. Zhang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, and D. Messadi, “In vivo diagnosis of oral dysplasia and malignancy using optical coherence tomography: preliminary studies in 50 patients,” Lasers Surg. Med.41(5), 353–357 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J.-F. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.132(10), 1074–1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Mahmood, J. Ridgway, R. Jackson, S. Guo, J. Su, W. Armstrong, T. Shibuya, R. Crumley, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the nasal mucosa,” Am. J. Rhinol.20(2), 155–159 (2006).
[PubMed]

Hammer-Wilson, M. J.

P. Wilder-Smith, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. Zhang, Q. Wang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, H. Wigdor, J. Schwartz, and J. Epstein, “In vivo imaging of oral mucositis in an animal model using optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography,” Clin. Cancer Res.13(8), 2449–2454 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanson, S. R.

He, Y.

Heim, P. J. S.

Hendargo, H. C.

Hiremath, S.

R. Byakodi, S. Byakodi, S. Hiremath, J. Byakodi, S. Adaki, K. Marathe, and P. Mahind, “Oral cancer in India: an epidemiologic and clinical review,” J. Community Health37(2), 316–319 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hornegger, J.

Huber, R.

Hurst, S.

Ishida, S.

S. Ishida, N. Nishizawa, T. Ohta, and K. Itoh, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography in 1.7 µm region with fiber laser supercontinuum in low-water-absorption samples,” Appl. Phys. Express4(5), 052501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

S. Ishida, N. Nishizawa, T. Ohta, and K. Itoh, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography in 1.7 µm region with fiber laser supercontinuum in low-water-absorption samples,” Appl. Phys. Express4(5), 052501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Izatt, J. A.

Jackson, R.

U. Mahmood, J. Ridgway, R. Jackson, S. Guo, J. Su, W. Armstrong, T. Shibuya, R. Crumley, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the nasal mucosa,” Am. J. Rhinol.20(2), 155–159 (2006).
[PubMed]

Jackson, R. P.

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J.-F. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.132(10), 1074–1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

Jayaraman, V.

Jiang, J.

Johann, A. C. B. R.

P. H. Corrêa, L. C. C. Nunes, A. C. B. R. Johann, M. C. Aguiar, R. S. Gomez, and R. A. Mesquita, “Prevalence of oral hemangioma, vascular malformation and varix in a Brazilian population,” Braz. Oral Res.21(1), 40–45 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jonathan, E.

Jørgensen, T. M.

S. Marschall, B. Sander, M. Mogensen, T. M. Jørgensen, and P. E. Andersen, “Optical coherence tomography-current technology and applications in clinical and biomedical research,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.400(9), 2699–2720 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joshi, A.

M. Astekar, A. Joshi, G. Ramesh, and R. Metgud, “Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and microvessel density in oral tumorigenesis,” J. Oral Maxillofac. Pathol.16(1), 22–26 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jukema, J. W.

R. Djaberi, J. D. Schuijf, E. J. de Koning, D. C. Wijewickrama, A. M. Pereira, J. W. Smit, L. J. Kroft, A. Roos, J. J. Bax, T. J. Rabelink, and J. W. Jukema, “Non-invasive assessment of microcirculation by sidestream dark field imaging as a marker of coronary artery disease in diabetes,” Diab. Vasc. Dis. Res.10(2), 123–134 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, J. U.

Karnowski, K.

Khurana, M.

Kim, J. H.

S.-H. Kim, N. H. Cho, K. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. S. Koo, J. H. Kim, J. H. Chang, and E. C. Choi, “Correlations of oral tongue cancer invasion with matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression,” J. Surg. Oncol.93(4), 330–337 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

S.-H. Kim, N. H. Cho, K. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. S. Koo, J. H. Kim, J. H. Chang, and E. C. Choi, “Correlations of oral tongue cancer invasion with matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression,” J. Surg. Oncol.93(4), 330–337 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S.-H.

S.-H. Kim, N. H. Cho, K. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. S. Koo, J. H. Kim, J. H. Chang, and E. C. Choi, “Correlations of oral tongue cancer invasion with matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression,” J. Surg. Oncol.93(4), 330–337 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koo, B. S.

S.-H. Kim, N. H. Cho, K. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. S. Koo, J. H. Kim, J. H. Chang, and E. C. Choi, “Correlations of oral tongue cancer invasion with matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression,” J. Surg. Oncol.93(4), 330–337 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krasieva, T. B.

S. Tang, T. B. Krasieva, Z. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, “Combined multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography using a 12-fs broadband source,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 020502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kraus, M. F.

Kroft, L. J.

R. Djaberi, J. D. Schuijf, E. J. de Koning, D. C. Wijewickrama, A. M. Pereira, J. W. Smit, L. J. Kroft, A. Roos, J. J. Bax, T. J. Rabelink, and J. W. Jukema, “Non-invasive assessment of microcirculation by sidestream dark field imaging as a marker of coronary artery disease in diabetes,” Diab. Vasc. Dis. Res.10(2), 123–134 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lan, G.

Leahy, M.

Lee, C.-K.

Lee, H.-C.

Lee, J. S.

S.-H. Kim, N. H. Cho, K. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. S. Koo, J. H. Kim, J. H. Chang, and E. C. Choi, “Correlations of oral tongue cancer invasion with matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression,” J. Surg. Oncol.93(4), 330–337 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Lee, S. Guo, J. Zhang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, and D. Messadi, “In vivo diagnosis of oral dysplasia and malignancy using optical coherence tomography: preliminary studies in 50 patients,” Lasers Surg. Med.41(5), 353–357 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R. A.

Leung, M. K. K.

Levin, W.

B. Davoudi, M. Morrison, K. Bizheva, V. X. D. Yang, R. Dinniwell, W. Levin, and I. A. Vitkin, “Optical coherence tomography platform for microvascular imaging and quantification: initial experience in late oral radiation toxicity patients,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(7), 076008 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, P.

Li, X.

Lindenmaier, A.

Liu, J. J.

Lu, C. D.

Luk, T. W. H.

M. S. Mahmud, D. W. Cadotte, B. Vuong, C. Sun, T. W. H. Luk, A. Mariampillai, and V. X. D. Yang, “Review of speckle and phase variance optical coherence tomography to visualize microvascular networks,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(5), 050901 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, Z.

MacDonald, D. J.

Mahind, P.

R. Byakodi, S. Byakodi, S. Hiremath, J. Byakodi, S. Adaki, K. Marathe, and P. Mahind, “Oral cancer in India: an epidemiologic and clinical review,” J. Community Health37(2), 316–319 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahmood, U.

U. Mahmood, J. Ridgway, R. Jackson, S. Guo, J. Su, W. Armstrong, T. Shibuya, R. Crumley, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the nasal mucosa,” Am. J. Rhinol.20(2), 155–159 (2006).
[PubMed]

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J.-F. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.132(10), 1074–1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahmud, M. S.

M. S. Mahmud, D. W. Cadotte, B. Vuong, C. Sun, T. W. H. Luk, A. Mariampillai, and V. X. D. Yang, “Review of speckle and phase variance optical coherence tomography to visualize microvascular networks,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(5), 050901 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malchow, D.

Marathe, K.

R. Byakodi, S. Byakodi, S. Hiremath, J. Byakodi, S. Adaki, K. Marathe, and P. Mahind, “Oral cancer in India: an epidemiologic and clinical review,” J. Community Health37(2), 316–319 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mariampillai, A.

M. S. Mahmud, D. W. Cadotte, B. Vuong, C. Sun, T. W. H. Luk, A. Mariampillai, and V. X. D. Yang, “Review of speckle and phase variance optical coherence tomography to visualize microvascular networks,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(5), 050901 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, E. H. Moriyama, M. Khurana, N. R. Munce, M. K. K. Leung, J. Jiang, A. Cable, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Speckle variance detection of microvasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.33(13), 1530–1532 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marks, D. L.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marschall, S.

S. Marschall, B. Sander, M. Mogensen, T. M. Jørgensen, and P. E. Andersen, “Optical coherence tomography-current technology and applications in clinical and biomedical research,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.400(9), 2699–2720 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mashimo, H.

McNabb, R. P.

Mesquita, R. A.

P. H. Corrêa, L. C. C. Nunes, A. C. B. R. Johann, M. C. Aguiar, R. S. Gomez, and R. A. Mesquita, “Prevalence of oral hemangioma, vascular malformation and varix in a Brazilian population,” Braz. Oral Res.21(1), 40–45 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Messadi, D.

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Lee, S. Guo, J. Zhang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, and D. Messadi, “In vivo diagnosis of oral dysplasia and malignancy using optical coherence tomography: preliminary studies in 50 patients,” Lasers Surg. Med.41(5), 353–357 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Messina, P.

G. A. Scardina and P. Messina, “Hashimotoʼs thyroiditis: lingual and labial capillary microcirculation in patients affected by macroglossia,” Int. J. Morphol.25(2), 411–416 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Metgud, R.

M. Astekar, A. Joshi, G. Ramesh, and R. Metgud, “Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and microvessel density in oral tumorigenesis,” J. Oral Maxillofac. Pathol.16(1), 22–26 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mogensen, M.

S. Marschall, B. Sander, M. Mogensen, T. M. Jørgensen, and P. E. Andersen, “Optical coherence tomography-current technology and applications in clinical and biomedical research,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.400(9), 2699–2720 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moriyama, E. H.

Morrison, M.

B. Davoudi, M. Morrison, K. Bizheva, V. X. D. Yang, R. Dinniwell, W. Levin, and I. A. Vitkin, “Optical coherence tomography platform for microvascular imaging and quantification: initial experience in late oral radiation toxicity patients,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(7), 076008 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munce, N. R.

Naumova, E. A.

E. A. Naumova, T. Dierkes, J. Sprang, and W. H. Arnold, “The oral mucosal surface and blood vessels,” Head Face Med.9(1), 8 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, J. S.

H. Ren, Y. Wang, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “Power optical Doppler tomography imaging of blood vessel in human skin and M-mode Doppler imaging of blood flow in chick chrioallantoic membrane,” Proc. SPIE4956, 225–231 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, F. T.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishizawa, N.

S. Ishida, N. Nishizawa, T. Ohta, and K. Itoh, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography in 1.7 µm region with fiber laser supercontinuum in low-water-absorption samples,” Appl. Phys. Express4(5), 052501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nowak, J. K.

Numazawa, H.

Y. Watanabe, Y. Takahashi, and H. Numazawa, “Graphics processing unit accelerated intensity-based optical coherence tomography angiography using differential frames with real-time motion correction,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(2), 021105 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nunes, L. C. C.

P. H. Corrêa, L. C. C. Nunes, A. C. B. R. Johann, M. C. Aguiar, R. S. Gomez, and R. A. Mesquita, “Prevalence of oral hemangioma, vascular malformation and varix in a Brazilian population,” Braz. Oral Res.21(1), 40–45 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohta, T.

S. Ishida, N. Nishizawa, T. Ohta, and K. Itoh, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography in 1.7 µm region with fiber laser supercontinuum in low-water-absorption samples,” Appl. Phys. Express4(5), 052501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Oldenburg, A. L.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osann, K.

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Lee, S. Guo, J. Zhang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, and D. Messadi, “In vivo diagnosis of oral dysplasia and malignancy using optical coherence tomography: preliminary studies in 50 patients,” Lasers Surg. Med.41(5), 353–357 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wilder-Smith, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. Zhang, Q. Wang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, H. Wigdor, J. Schwartz, and J. Epstein, “In vivo imaging of oral mucositis in an animal model using optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography,” Clin. Cancer Res.13(8), 2449–2454 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Otis, L. L.

L. L. Otis, D. Piao, C. W. Gibson, and Q. Zhu, “Quantifying labial blood flow using optical Doppler tomography,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod.98(2), 189–194 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pereira, A. M.

R. Djaberi, J. D. Schuijf, E. J. de Koning, D. C. Wijewickrama, A. M. Pereira, J. W. Smit, L. J. Kroft, A. Roos, J. J. Bax, T. J. Rabelink, and J. W. Jukema, “Non-invasive assessment of microcirculation by sidestream dark field imaging as a marker of coronary artery disease in diabetes,” Diab. Vasc. Dis. Res.10(2), 123–134 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perzin, K. H.

Y.-S. Fu and K. H. Perzin, “Non-epithelial tumors of the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and nasopharynx: A clinicopathologic study. I. General Features and Vascular Tumors,” Cancer33(5), 1275–1288 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piao, D.

L. L. Otis, D. Piao, C. W. Gibson, and Q. Zhu, “Quantifying labial blood flow using optical Doppler tomography,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod.98(2), 189–194 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potsaid, B.

Proskurin, S. G.

Puszczewicz, M.

Qin, J.

Rabelink, T. J.

R. Djaberi, J. D. Schuijf, E. J. de Koning, D. C. Wijewickrama, A. M. Pereira, J. W. Smit, L. J. Kroft, A. Roos, J. J. Bax, T. J. Rabelink, and J. W. Jukema, “Non-invasive assessment of microcirculation by sidestream dark field imaging as a marker of coronary artery disease in diabetes,” Diab. Vasc. Dis. Res.10(2), 123–134 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramesh, G.

M. Astekar, A. Joshi, G. Ramesh, and R. Metgud, “Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and microvessel density in oral tumorigenesis,” J. Oral Maxillofac. Pathol.16(1), 22–26 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reif, R.

W. J. Choi, R. Reif, S. Yousefi, and R. K. Wang, “Improved microcirculation imaging of human skin in vivo using optical microangiography with a correlation mapping mask,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(3), 036010 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, H.

Ridgway, J.

U. Mahmood, J. Ridgway, R. Jackson, S. Guo, J. Su, W. Armstrong, T. Shibuya, R. Crumley, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the nasal mucosa,” Am. J. Rhinol.20(2), 155–159 (2006).
[PubMed]

Ridgway, J. M.

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J.-F. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.132(10), 1074–1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roos, A.

R. Djaberi, J. D. Schuijf, E. J. de Koning, D. C. Wijewickrama, A. M. Pereira, J. W. Smit, L. J. Kroft, A. Roos, J. J. Bax, T. J. Rabelink, and J. W. Jukema, “Non-invasive assessment of microcirculation by sidestream dark field imaging as a marker of coronary artery disease in diabetes,” Diab. Vasc. Dis. Res.10(2), 123–134 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sander, B.

S. Marschall, B. Sander, M. Mogensen, T. M. Jørgensen, and P. E. Andersen, “Optical coherence tomography-current technology and applications in clinical and biomedical research,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.400(9), 2699–2720 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarunic, M. V.

Scardina, G. A.

G. A. Scardina and P. Messina, “Hashimotoʼs thyroiditis: lingual and labial capillary microcirculation in patients affected by macroglossia,” Int. J. Morphol.25(2), 411–416 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schuijf, J. D.

R. Djaberi, J. D. Schuijf, E. J. de Koning, D. C. Wijewickrama, A. M. Pereira, J. W. Smit, L. J. Kroft, A. Roos, J. J. Bax, T. J. Rabelink, and J. W. Jukema, “Non-invasive assessment of microcirculation by sidestream dark field imaging as a marker of coronary artery disease in diabetes,” Diab. Vasc. Dis. Res.10(2), 123–134 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartz, D.

Schwartz, J.

P. Wilder-Smith, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. Zhang, Q. Wang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, H. Wigdor, J. Schwartz, and J. Epstein, “In vivo imaging of oral mucositis in an animal model using optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography,” Clin. Cancer Res.13(8), 2449–2454 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, T. T.

Shepherd, N.

Shibuya, T.

U. Mahmood, J. Ridgway, R. Jackson, S. Guo, J. Su, W. Armstrong, T. Shibuya, R. Crumley, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the nasal mucosa,” Am. J. Rhinol.20(2), 155–159 (2006).
[PubMed]

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J.-F. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.132(10), 1074–1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smit, J. W.

R. Djaberi, J. D. Schuijf, E. J. de Koning, D. C. Wijewickrama, A. M. Pereira, J. W. Smit, L. J. Kroft, A. Roos, J. J. Bax, T. J. Rabelink, and J. W. Jukema, “Non-invasive assessment of microcirculation by sidestream dark field imaging as a marker of coronary artery disease in diabetes,” Diab. Vasc. Dis. Res.10(2), 123–134 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sprang, J.

E. A. Naumova, T. Dierkes, J. Sprang, and W. H. Arnold, “The oral mucosal surface and blood vessels,” Head Face Med.9(1), 8 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Standish, B. A.

Su, J.

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J.-F. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.132(10), 1074–1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Mahmood, J. Ridgway, R. Jackson, S. Guo, J. Su, W. Armstrong, T. Shibuya, R. Crumley, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the nasal mucosa,” Am. J. Rhinol.20(2), 155–159 (2006).
[PubMed]

Sun, C.

M. S. Mahmud, D. W. Cadotte, B. Vuong, C. Sun, T. W. H. Luk, A. Mariampillai, and V. X. D. Yang, “Review of speckle and phase variance optical coherence tomography to visualize microvascular networks,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(5), 050901 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, T.

Takahashi, Y.

Y. Watanabe, Y. Takahashi, and H. Numazawa, “Graphics processing unit accelerated intensity-based optical coherence tomography angiography using differential frames with real-time motion correction,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(2), 021105 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, S.

S. Tang, T. B. Krasieva, Z. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, “Combined multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography using a 12-fs broadband source,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 020502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, Y. K.

Tearney, G. J.

Tomlins, P. H.

P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, “Theory, developments and applications of optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(15), 2519–2535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tromberg, B. J.

S. Tang, T. B. Krasieva, Z. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, “Combined multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography using a 12-fs broadband source,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 020502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, M.-T.

Tsai, T.-H.

Vitkin, A.

Vitkin, I. A.

B. Davoudi, M. Morrison, K. Bizheva, V. X. D. Yang, R. Dinniwell, W. Levin, and I. A. Vitkin, “Optical coherence tomography platform for microvascular imaging and quantification: initial experience in late oral radiation toxicity patients,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(7), 076008 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, E. H. Moriyama, M. Khurana, N. R. Munce, M. K. K. Leung, J. Jiang, A. Cable, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Speckle variance detection of microvasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.33(13), 1530–1532 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vuong, B.

M. S. Mahmud, D. W. Cadotte, B. Vuong, C. Sun, T. W. H. Luk, A. Mariampillai, and V. X. D. Yang, “Review of speckle and phase variance optical coherence tomography to visualize microvascular networks,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(5), 050901 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walkowiak, J.

Wang, H.

W. J. Choi, H. Wang, and R. K. Wang, “Optical coherence tomography microangiography for monitoring the response of vascular perfusion to external pressure on human skin tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(5), 056003 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

P. Wilder-Smith, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. Zhang, Q. Wang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, H. Wigdor, J. Schwartz, and J. Epstein, “In vivo imaging of oral mucositis in an animal model using optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography,” Clin. Cancer Res.13(8), 2449–2454 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

W. J. Choi, H. Wang, and R. K. Wang, “Optical coherence tomography microangiography for monitoring the response of vascular perfusion to external pressure on human skin tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(5), 056003 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Choi, R. Reif, S. Yousefi, and R. K. Wang, “Improved microcirculation imaging of human skin in vivo using optical microangiography with a correlation mapping mask,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(3), 036010 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An, P. Li, G. Lan, D. Malchow, and R. K. Wang, “High-resolution 1050 nm spectral domain retinal optical coherence tomography at 120 kHz A-scan rate with 6.1 mm imaging depth,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(2), 245–259 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An, P. Li, T. T. Shen, and R. K. Wang, “High speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging at 500,000 A‑lines per second,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(10), 2770–2783 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, L. An, P. Francis, and D. J. Wilson, “Depth-resolved imaging of capillary networks in retina and choroid using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography,” Opt. Lett.35(9), 1467–1469 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An, J. Qin, and R. K. Wang, “Ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography for in vivo imaging of microcirculations within human skin tissue beds,” Opt. Express18(8), 8220–8228 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang and S. Hurst, “Mapping of cerebro-vascular blood perfusion in mice with skin and skull intact by Optical Micro-AngioGraphy at 1.3 mum wavelength,” Opt. Express15(18), 11402–11412 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, “Three dimensional optical angiography,” Opt. Express15(7), 4083–4097 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, “Theory, developments and applications of optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(15), 2519–2535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Proskurin, Y. He, and R. K. Wang, “Determination of flow velocity vector based on Doppler shift and spectrum broadening with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.28(14), 1227–1229 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

H. Ren, Y. Wang, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “Power optical Doppler tomography imaging of blood vessel in human skin and M-mode Doppler imaging of blood flow in chick chrioallantoic membrane,” Proc. SPIE4956, 225–231 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.-M.

Watanabe, Y.

Y. Watanabe, Y. Takahashi, and H. Numazawa, “Graphics processing unit accelerated intensity-based optical coherence tomography angiography using differential frames with real-time motion correction,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(2), 021105 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weingast, J.

Werner, J. S.

Wieser, W.

Wigdor, H.

P. Wilder-Smith, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. Zhang, Q. Wang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, H. Wigdor, J. Schwartz, and J. Epstein, “In vivo imaging of oral mucositis in an animal model using optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography,” Clin. Cancer Res.13(8), 2449–2454 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wijewickrama, D. C.

R. Djaberi, J. D. Schuijf, E. J. de Koning, D. C. Wijewickrama, A. M. Pereira, J. W. Smit, L. J. Kroft, A. Roos, J. J. Bax, T. J. Rabelink, and J. W. Jukema, “Non-invasive assessment of microcirculation by sidestream dark field imaging as a marker of coronary artery disease in diabetes,” Diab. Vasc. Dis. Res.10(2), 123–134 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilder-Smith, P.

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Lee, S. Guo, J. Zhang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, and D. Messadi, “In vivo diagnosis of oral dysplasia and malignancy using optical coherence tomography: preliminary studies in 50 patients,” Lasers Surg. Med.41(5), 353–357 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wilder-Smith, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. Zhang, Q. Wang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, H. Wigdor, J. Schwartz, and J. Epstein, “In vivo imaging of oral mucositis in an animal model using optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography,” Clin. Cancer Res.13(8), 2449–2454 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

Wilson, D. J.

Wojtkowski, M.

Wong, B.

U. Mahmood, J. Ridgway, R. Jackson, S. Guo, J. Su, W. Armstrong, T. Shibuya, R. Crumley, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the nasal mucosa,” Am. J. Rhinol.20(2), 155–159 (2006).
[PubMed]

Wong, B. J.-F.

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J.-F. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.132(10), 1074–1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, C.-T.

Yang, C.

Yang, C. C.

Yang, V. X. D.

M. S. Mahmud, D. W. Cadotte, B. Vuong, C. Sun, T. W. H. Luk, A. Mariampillai, and V. X. D. Yang, “Review of speckle and phase variance optical coherence tomography to visualize microvascular networks,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(5), 050901 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Davoudi, M. Morrison, K. Bizheva, V. X. D. Yang, R. Dinniwell, W. Levin, and I. A. Vitkin, “Optical coherence tomography platform for microvascular imaging and quantification: initial experience in late oral radiation toxicity patients,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(7), 076008 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, E. H. Moriyama, M. Khurana, N. R. Munce, M. K. K. Leung, J. Jiang, A. Cable, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Speckle variance detection of microvasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.33(13), 1530–1532 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yousefi, S.

W. J. Choi, R. Reif, S. Yousefi, and R. K. Wang, “Improved microcirculation imaging of human skin in vivo using optical microangiography with a correlation mapping mask,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(3), 036010 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, C.-H.

Yun, S. H.

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zebryk, P.

Zhang, J.

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Lee, S. Guo, J. Zhang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, and D. Messadi, “In vivo diagnosis of oral dysplasia and malignancy using optical coherence tomography: preliminary studies in 50 patients,” Lasers Surg. Med.41(5), 353–357 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wilder-Smith, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. Zhang, Q. Wang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, H. Wigdor, J. Schwartz, and J. Epstein, “In vivo imaging of oral mucositis in an animal model using optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography,” Clin. Cancer Res.13(8), 2449–2454 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, K.

Zhou, C.

Zhu, Q.

L. L. Otis, D. Piao, C. W. Gibson, and Q. Zhu, “Quantifying labial blood flow using optical Doppler tomography,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod.98(2), 189–194 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zysk, A. M.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Rhinol.

U. Mahmood, J. Ridgway, R. Jackson, S. Guo, J. Su, W. Armstrong, T. Shibuya, R. Crumley, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the nasal mucosa,” Am. J. Rhinol.20(2), 155–159 (2006).
[PubMed]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem.

S. Marschall, B. Sander, M. Mogensen, T. M. Jørgensen, and P. E. Andersen, “Optical coherence tomography-current technology and applications in clinical and biomedical research,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.400(9), 2699–2720 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Express

S. Ishida, N. Nishizawa, T. Ohta, and K. Itoh, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography in 1.7 µm region with fiber laser supercontinuum in low-water-absorption samples,” Appl. Phys. Express4(5), 052501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J.-F. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.132(10), 1074–1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express

K. Zhang and J. U. Kang, “Real-time intraoperative 4D full-range FD-OCT based on the dual graphics processing units architecture for microsurgery guidance,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(4), 764–770 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Enfield, E. Jonathan, and M. Leahy, “In vivo imaging of the microcirculation of the volar forearm using correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cmOCT),” Biomed. Opt. Express2(5), 1184–1193 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Hendargo, R. P. McNabb, A.-H. Dhalla, N. Shepherd, and J. A. Izatt, “Doppler velocity detection limitations in spectrometer-based versus swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(8), 2175–2188 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An, P. Li, T. T. Shen, and R. K. Wang, “High speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging at 500,000 A‑lines per second,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(10), 2770–2783 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Davoudi, A. Lindenmaier, B. A. Standish, G. Allo, K. Bizheva, and A. Vitkin, “Noninvasive in vivo structural and vascular imaging of human oral tissues with spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(5), 826–839 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Lee, T.-T. Chi, C.-T. Wu, M.-T. Tsai, C.-P. Chiang, and C. C. Yang, “Diagnosis of oral precancer with optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(7), 1632–1646 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Blatter, J. Weingast, A. Alex, B. Grajciar, W. Wieser, W. Drexler, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “In situ structural and microangiographic assessment of human skin lesions with high-speed OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(10), 2636–2646 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, C. D. Lu, J. Jiang, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Retinal, anterior segment and full eye imaging using ultrahigh speed swept source OCT with vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2733–2751 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An, P. Li, G. Lan, D. Malchow, and R. K. Wang, “High-resolution 1050 nm spectral domain retinal optical coherence tomography at 120 kHz A-scan rate with 6.1 mm imaging depth,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(2), 245–259 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-H. Tsai, B. Potsaid, Y. K. Tao, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, M. F. Kraus, C. Zhou, J. Hornegger, H. Mashimo, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography using micromotor imaging catheter and VCSEL technology,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(7), 1119–1132 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, J. K. Nowak, K. Karnowski, P. Zebryk, M. Puszczewicz, J. Walkowiak, and M. Wojtkowski, “Quantitative assessment of oral mucosa and labial minor salivary glands in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome using swept source OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express5(1), 259–274 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braz. Oral Res.

P. H. Corrêa, L. C. C. Nunes, A. C. B. R. Johann, M. C. Aguiar, R. S. Gomez, and R. A. Mesquita, “Prevalence of oral hemangioma, vascular malformation and varix in a Brazilian population,” Braz. Oral Res.21(1), 40–45 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer

Y.-S. Fu and K. H. Perzin, “Non-epithelial tumors of the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and nasopharynx: A clinicopathologic study. I. General Features and Vascular Tumors,” Cancer33(5), 1275–1288 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Cancer Res.

P. Wilder-Smith, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. Zhang, Q. Wang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, H. Wigdor, J. Schwartz, and J. Epstein, “In vivo imaging of oral mucositis in an animal model using optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography,” Clin. Cancer Res.13(8), 2449–2454 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diab. Vasc. Dis. Res.

R. Djaberi, J. D. Schuijf, E. J. de Koning, D. C. Wijewickrama, A. M. Pereira, J. W. Smit, L. J. Kroft, A. Roos, J. J. Bax, T. J. Rabelink, and J. W. Jukema, “Non-invasive assessment of microcirculation by sidestream dark field imaging as a marker of coronary artery disease in diabetes,” Diab. Vasc. Dis. Res.10(2), 123–134 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Head Face Med.

E. A. Naumova, T. Dierkes, J. Sprang, and W. H. Arnold, “The oral mucosal surface and blood vessels,” Head Face Med.9(1), 8 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Morphol.

G. A. Scardina and P. Messina, “Hashimotoʼs thyroiditis: lingual and labial capillary microcirculation in patients affected by macroglossia,” Int. J. Morphol.25(2), 411–416 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Watanabe, Y. Takahashi, and H. Numazawa, “Graphics processing unit accelerated intensity-based optical coherence tomography angiography using differential frames with real-time motion correction,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(2), 021105 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Mahmud, D. W. Cadotte, B. Vuong, C. Sun, T. W. H. Luk, A. Mariampillai, and V. X. D. Yang, “Review of speckle and phase variance optical coherence tomography to visualize microvascular networks,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(5), 050901 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Davoudi, M. Morrison, K. Bizheva, V. X. D. Yang, R. Dinniwell, W. Levin, and I. A. Vitkin, “Optical coherence tomography platform for microvascular imaging and quantification: initial experience in late oral radiation toxicity patients,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(7), 076008 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Choi, R. Reif, S. Yousefi, and R. K. Wang, “Improved microcirculation imaging of human skin in vivo using optical microangiography with a correlation mapping mask,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(3), 036010 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Choi, H. Wang, and R. K. Wang, “Optical coherence tomography microangiography for monitoring the response of vascular perfusion to external pressure on human skin tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(5), 056003 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tang, T. B. Krasieva, Z. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, “Combined multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography using a 12-fs broadband source,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 020502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Community Health

R. Byakodi, S. Byakodi, S. Hiremath, J. Byakodi, S. Adaki, K. Marathe, and P. Mahind, “Oral cancer in India: an epidemiologic and clinical review,” J. Community Health37(2), 316–319 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Oral Maxillofac. Pathol.

M. Astekar, A. Joshi, G. Ramesh, and R. Metgud, “Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and microvessel density in oral tumorigenesis,” J. Oral Maxillofac. Pathol.16(1), 22–26 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, “Theory, developments and applications of optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(15), 2519–2535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Surg. Oncol.

S.-H. Kim, N. H. Cho, K. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. S. Koo, J. H. Kim, J. H. Chang, and E. C. Choi, “Correlations of oral tongue cancer invasion with matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression,” J. Surg. Oncol.93(4), 330–337 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med.

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Lee, S. Guo, J. Zhang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, and D. Messadi, “In vivo diagnosis of oral dysplasia and malignancy using optical coherence tomography: preliminary studies in 50 patients,” Lasers Surg. Med.41(5), 353–357 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

C. Balas, “Review of biomedical optical imaging–a powerful, non-invasive, non-ionizing technology for improving in vivo diagnosis,” Meas. Sci. Technol.20(10), 104020 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod.

L. L. Otis, D. Piao, C. W. Gibson, and Q. Zhu, “Quantifying labial blood flow using optical Doppler tomography,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod.98(2), 189–194 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

H. Ren, Y. Wang, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “Power optical Doppler tomography imaging of blood vessel in human skin and M-mode Doppler imaging of blood flow in chick chrioallantoic membrane,” Proc. SPIE4956, 225–231 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

X. Li, and H. Ren, “Clutter rejection filters for optical Doppler tomography,” US Patent 20070216908.

http://www.thorlabs.us/newgrouppage9.cfm?objectgroup_id=6473&pn=OCS1310V1 .

American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figs.2014.

Laser Institute of America, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers ANSI Z136.1-2000,” American National Standards Institute Inc., New York, NY (2000).

R. V. Krstič, Human Microscopic Anatomy: An Atlas for Students of Medicine and Biology (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991).

Supplementary Material (5)

» Media 1: MPG (8928 KB)     
» Media 2: MPG (6750 KB)     
» Media 3: MPG (10641 KB)     
» Media 4: MPG (5992 KB)     
» Media 5: MPG (5153 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photographs of the swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) system for human cavity imaging. (a) Portable benchtop SS-OCT system on the wheeled cart, (b) Probe stage for oral cavity imaging, (c) Probe stage for nasal cavity imaging.2.2 Probe attachment design for side/forward imaging of the cavity tissues

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

OCT probe design for imaging the cavity tissues. (a) and (d) Illustration of the probe attachments for side-viewing and forward-viewing imaging, respectively. (b) and (e) Pictures of the probes incorporated each probe attachment, (a) and (d). (c) and (f) photographed scanning beam pattern using the side-viewing probe and the forward-viewing probe, respectively

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Optical spectrum of the probe output of the VCSEL SS-OCT system. (b) Logarithmic plot of the measured sensitivity profiles (divided the PSF by the standard deviation of noise floor) against the different imaging depth. Sensitivity reduction is negligible up to depth of 4.25 mm in air. (c) Free space axial resolution values defined as FWHM of the PSF amplitudes with the imaging depth. Horizontal line indicates the mean value of 20.9 µm. (d) En face OCT image of top surface of the 1951 USAF test target. From an intensity line profile (solid line in the image), a fair of lines with a distance gap of 22 µm are recognizable, corresponding to the lateral resolution of the system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

In vivo microvascular imaging of the lower lip of healthy volunteer with the forward-viewing probe. (a) 3D rendered OCT structural image with the 3D mOMAG data (yellow) overlay. (b) and (c) Representative cross-sectional structural and mOMAG images (2.0 mm (X) × 1.35 mm (Z)) at a position (a black box) in (a), respectively. (d) Overlay of the mOMAG image (red) on the structural image. EP: epithelium, LP: lamina propria. (e) and (f) 2D en face views (2.0 mm (X) × 2.0 mm (Y)) of the 3D mOMAG data volumes taken over depths of 253 µm and 407 µm from the surface, respectively. Black bars in (a) are the depth ranges for (e) and (f). Arrow heads in (e) indicate hairpin-like capillary loops emerged from the arterioles (arrows) in (f). A fly-through image of the microvasculature is shown with a movie clip (Media 1). Scale bars: 0.5 mm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

In vivo microvascular imaging at the tongue apex of a healthy volunteer with the forward-viewing probe. (a) 3D rendered OCT structural image with the 3D mOMAG data (yellow) overlay. (b) and (c) Representative cross-sectional structural and mOMAG images (2.0 mm (X) × 1.66 mm (Z)) at a position (a black box) in (a), respectively. (d) Overlay of the mOMAG image (red) on the structural image. EP: epithelium, FuP: fungiform papillae, FiP: filiform papillae, CT: connective tissue, LP: lamina propria. (e) and (f) 2D en face views (2.0 mm (X) × 2.0 mm (Y)) of the 3D mOMAG data volumes taken over depths of 434 µm and 692 µm from the surface, respectively. Black bars in (a) are the depth ranges for (e) and (f). Arrow heads in (e) and (f) indicate vertically oriented separate capillary loops in the individual FiPs, which are much narrower and fewer than those of the FuPs (asterisks in (e)). A fly-through image of the microvasculature is shown with a movie clip (Media 2). Scale bars: 0.5 mm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

In vivo microvascular imaging of mucosa of the lower lip of a healthy volunteer with the forward-viewing probe. (a) 3D rendered OCT structural image with the 3D mOMAG data (yellow) overlay. (b) and (c) Representative cross-sectional structural and mOMAG images (2.0 mm (X) × 1.6 mm (Z)) at a position (a black box) in (a), respectively. (d) Overlay of the mOMAG image (red) on the structural image. EP: epithelium, LP: lamina propria, SG: salivary gland. (e) and (f) 2D en face views (2.0 mm (X) × 2.0 mm (Y)) of the 3D mOMAG data volumes taken over depths of 362 µm and 656 µm from the surface, respectively. Black bars in (a) are the depth ranges for (e) and (f). A fly-through image of the microvasculature is shown with a movie clip (Media 3). Scale bars: 0.5 mm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

In vivo microvascular imaging of buccal (chick) mucosa of a healthy volunteer with the side-viewing probe. (a) 3D rendered OCT structural image with the 3D mOMAG data (yellow) overlay. (b) and (c) Representative cross-sectional structural and mOMAG images (2.0 mm (X) × 1.72 mm (Z)) at a position (a black box) in (a), respectively. (d) Overlay of the mOMAG image (red) on the structural image. SS: sheath surface, EP: epithelium, LP: lamina propria. (e) and (f) 2D en face views (2.0 mm (X) × 2.0 mm (Y)) of the 3D mOMAG data volumes taken over depths of 461 µm and 588 µm from the surface, respectively. Black bars in (a) are the depth ranges for (e) and (f). The vascularity is quite similar to the mucolabial microcirculatory bed in Fig. 6. A fly-through image of the microvasculature is shown with a movie clip (Media 4). Scale bars: 0.5 mm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

In vivo microvascular imaging of inferior turbinate in nasal cavity of a healthy volunteer with the side-viewing probe. (a) 3D rendered OCT structural image with the 3D mOMAG data (yellow) overlay. (b) and (c) Representative cross-sectional structural and mOMAG images (2.0 mm (X) × 1.57 mm (Z)) at a position (a black box) in (a), respectively. (d) Overlay of the mOMAG image (red) on the structural image. PCE: pseudostratified columnar epithelium, LP: lamina propria, SG: seromucinous duct. (e) 2D en face view (2.0 mm (X) × 2.0 mm (Y)) of the 3D mOMAG data volumes taken over depths of 502 µm from the surface, demonstrating vascular characteristics with the ring-like microvasculature. Cut-offs across the vessels (arrow heads) are due to beam shading by the leaned nasal hairs. Black bar in (a) is the depth range for (e). (f) The vasculature with an en face OCT tomogram at 502 µm in depth overlay, indicating that each nasal hair in the hair pores (arrows) is surrounded by ring-like vessels, possibly feeding nutrients for the hair growth. A fly-through image of the microvasculature is shown with a movie clip (Media 5). Scale bars: 0.5 mm.

Metrics