Abstract

The state-of-the-art laparoscope lacks the ability to capture high-magnification and wide-angle images simultaneously, which introduces challenges when both close- up views for details and wide-angle overviews for orientation are required in clinical practice. A multi-resolution foveated laparoscope (MRFL) which can provide the surgeon both high-magnification close-up and wide-angle images was proposed to address the limitations of the state-of-art surgical laparoscopes. In this paper, we present the overall system design from both clinical and optical system perspectives along with a set of experiments to characterize the optical performances of our prototype system and describe our preliminary in-vivo evaluation of the prototype with a pig model. The experimental results demonstrate that at the optimum working distance of 120mm, the high-magnification probe has a resolution of 6.35lp/mm and image a surgical area of 53 × 40mm2; the wide-angle probe provides a surgical area coverage of 160 × 120mm2 with a resolution of 2.83lp/mm. The in-vivo evaluation demonstrates that MRFL has great potential in clinical applications for improving the safety and efficiency of the laparoscopic surgery.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Rassweiler, O. Seemann, M. Schulze, D. Teber, M. Hatzinger, and T. Frede, “Laparoscopic versus open radical prostatectomy: a comparative study at a single institution,” J. Urol.169(5), 1689–1693 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Heemskerk, R. Zandbergen, J. G. Maessen, J. W. M. Greve, and N. D. Bouvy, “Advantages of advanced laparoscopic systems,” Surg. Endosc.20(5), 730–733 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. P. Wu, C. S. Ou, S. L. Chen, E. Y. Yen, and R. Rowbotham, “Complications and recommended practices for electrosurgery in laparoscopy,” Am. J. Surg.179(1), 67–73 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. R. Voyles and R. D. Tucker, “Education and engineering solutions for potential problems with laparoscopic monopolar electrosurgery,” Am. J. Surg.164(1), 57–62 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Canes, M. M. Desai, M. Aron, G. P. Haber, R. K. Goel, R. J. Stein, J. H. Kaouk, and I. S. Gill, “Transumbilical single-port surgery: evolution and current status,” Eur. Urol.54(5), 1020–1030 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Rassweiler, K. C. Safi, S. Subotic, D. Teber, and T. Frede, “Robotics and telesurgery - an update on their position in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy,” Minim. Invasive Ther. Allied Technol.14(2), 109–122 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030504 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Lee, M. Choi, E. Lee, K. D. Jung, J. H. Chang, and W. Kim, “Zoom lens design using liquid lens for laparoscope,” Opt. Express21(2), 1751–1761 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. S. Terry, Z. C. Mills, J. A. Schoen, and M. E. Rentschler, “Single-port-access surgery with a novel magnet camera system,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.59(4), 1187–1193 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. B. Tamadazte, G. Fiard, J. Long, P. Cinguin, and S. Voros, “Enhanced vision system for laparoscopic surgery,” in proceeding of IEEE conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (Osaka, Japan, 2013), pp. 5702–5705.
  11. Y. Yamauchi, J. Yamashita, Y. Fukui, K. Yokoyama, T. Sekiya, E. Ito, M. Kanai, T. Fukuyo, D. Hashimoto, and H. Iseki, “A dual-view endoscope with image shift,” in proceedings of Computer assisted radiology and surgery (Paris, France, 2002), pp. 183–187.
  12. Y. Qin, H. Hua, and M. Nguyen, “Multiresolution foveated laparoscope with high resolvability,” Opt. Lett.38(13), 2191–2193 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. A. Pierre, M. N. Ferrandino, W. N. Simmons, C. Fernandez, P. Zhong, D. M. Albala, and G. M. Preminger, “High definition laparoscopy: objective assessment of performance characteristics and comparison with standard laparoscopy,” J. Endourol.23(3), 523–528 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

2012 (1)

B. S. Terry, Z. C. Mills, J. A. Schoen, and M. E. Rentschler, “Single-port-access surgery with a novel magnet camera system,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.59(4), 1187–1193 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

S. A. Pierre, M. N. Ferrandino, W. N. Simmons, C. Fernandez, P. Zhong, D. M. Albala, and G. M. Preminger, “High definition laparoscopy: objective assessment of performance characteristics and comparison with standard laparoscopy,” J. Endourol.23(3), 523–528 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

D. Canes, M. M. Desai, M. Aron, G. P. Haber, R. K. Goel, R. J. Stein, J. H. Kaouk, and I. S. Gill, “Transumbilical single-port surgery: evolution and current status,” Eur. Urol.54(5), 1020–1030 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

J. Heemskerk, R. Zandbergen, J. G. Maessen, J. W. M. Greve, and N. D. Bouvy, “Advantages of advanced laparoscopic systems,” Surg. Endosc.20(5), 730–733 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

J. Rassweiler, K. C. Safi, S. Subotic, D. Teber, and T. Frede, “Robotics and telesurgery - an update on their position in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy,” Minim. Invasive Ther. Allied Technol.14(2), 109–122 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

J. Rassweiler, O. Seemann, M. Schulze, D. Teber, M. Hatzinger, and T. Frede, “Laparoscopic versus open radical prostatectomy: a comparative study at a single institution,” J. Urol.169(5), 1689–1693 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. P. Wu, C. S. Ou, S. L. Chen, E. Y. Yen, and R. Rowbotham, “Complications and recommended practices for electrosurgery in laparoscopy,” Am. J. Surg.179(1), 67–73 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

C. R. Voyles and R. D. Tucker, “Education and engineering solutions for potential problems with laparoscopic monopolar electrosurgery,” Am. J. Surg.164(1), 57–62 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albala, D. M.

S. A. Pierre, M. N. Ferrandino, W. N. Simmons, C. Fernandez, P. Zhong, D. M. Albala, and G. M. Preminger, “High definition laparoscopy: objective assessment of performance characteristics and comparison with standard laparoscopy,” J. Endourol.23(3), 523–528 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arianpour, A.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aron, M.

D. Canes, M. M. Desai, M. Aron, G. P. Haber, R. K. Goel, R. J. Stein, J. H. Kaouk, and I. S. Gill, “Transumbilical single-port surgery: evolution and current status,” Eur. Urol.54(5), 1020–1030 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouvy, N. D.

J. Heemskerk, R. Zandbergen, J. G. Maessen, J. W. M. Greve, and N. D. Bouvy, “Advantages of advanced laparoscopic systems,” Surg. Endosc.20(5), 730–733 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Canes, D.

D. Canes, M. M. Desai, M. Aron, G. P. Haber, R. K. Goel, R. J. Stein, J. H. Kaouk, and I. S. Gill, “Transumbilical single-port surgery: evolution and current status,” Eur. Urol.54(5), 1020–1030 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, J. H.

Chen, S. L.

M. P. Wu, C. S. Ou, S. L. Chen, E. Y. Yen, and R. Rowbotham, “Complications and recommended practices for electrosurgery in laparoscopy,” Am. J. Surg.179(1), 67–73 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, S. H.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, M.

Desai, M. M.

D. Canes, M. M. Desai, M. Aron, G. P. Haber, R. K. Goel, R. J. Stein, J. H. Kaouk, and I. S. Gill, “Transumbilical single-port surgery: evolution and current status,” Eur. Urol.54(5), 1020–1030 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernandez, C.

S. A. Pierre, M. N. Ferrandino, W. N. Simmons, C. Fernandez, P. Zhong, D. M. Albala, and G. M. Preminger, “High definition laparoscopy: objective assessment of performance characteristics and comparison with standard laparoscopy,” J. Endourol.23(3), 523–528 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrandino, M. N.

S. A. Pierre, M. N. Ferrandino, W. N. Simmons, C. Fernandez, P. Zhong, D. M. Albala, and G. M. Preminger, “High definition laparoscopy: objective assessment of performance characteristics and comparison with standard laparoscopy,” J. Endourol.23(3), 523–528 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Francis, C. S.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frede, T.

J. Rassweiler, K. C. Safi, S. Subotic, D. Teber, and T. Frede, “Robotics and telesurgery - an update on their position in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy,” Minim. Invasive Ther. Allied Technol.14(2), 109–122 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rassweiler, O. Seemann, M. Schulze, D. Teber, M. Hatzinger, and T. Frede, “Laparoscopic versus open radical prostatectomy: a comparative study at a single institution,” J. Urol.169(5), 1689–1693 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gill, I. S.

D. Canes, M. M. Desai, M. Aron, G. P. Haber, R. K. Goel, R. J. Stein, J. H. Kaouk, and I. S. Gill, “Transumbilical single-port surgery: evolution and current status,” Eur. Urol.54(5), 1020–1030 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goel, R. K.

D. Canes, M. M. Desai, M. Aron, G. P. Haber, R. K. Goel, R. J. Stein, J. H. Kaouk, and I. S. Gill, “Transumbilical single-port surgery: evolution and current status,” Eur. Urol.54(5), 1020–1030 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greve, J. W. M.

J. Heemskerk, R. Zandbergen, J. G. Maessen, J. W. M. Greve, and N. D. Bouvy, “Advantages of advanced laparoscopic systems,” Surg. Endosc.20(5), 730–733 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haber, G. P.

D. Canes, M. M. Desai, M. Aron, G. P. Haber, R. K. Goel, R. J. Stein, J. H. Kaouk, and I. S. Gill, “Transumbilical single-port surgery: evolution and current status,” Eur. Urol.54(5), 1020–1030 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hatzinger, M.

J. Rassweiler, O. Seemann, M. Schulze, D. Teber, M. Hatzinger, and T. Frede, “Laparoscopic versus open radical prostatectomy: a comparative study at a single institution,” J. Urol.169(5), 1689–1693 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heemskerk, J.

J. Heemskerk, R. Zandbergen, J. G. Maessen, J. W. M. Greve, and N. D. Bouvy, “Advantages of advanced laparoscopic systems,” Surg. Endosc.20(5), 730–733 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horgan, S.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hua, H.

Johnson, D.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, K. D.

Kaouk, J. H.

D. Canes, M. M. Desai, M. Aron, G. P. Haber, R. K. Goel, R. J. Stein, J. H. Kaouk, and I. S. Gill, “Transumbilical single-port surgery: evolution and current status,” Eur. Urol.54(5), 1020–1030 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, W.

Lee, E.

Lee, S.

Lo, Y. H.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maessen, J. G.

J. Heemskerk, R. Zandbergen, J. G. Maessen, J. W. M. Greve, and N. D. Bouvy, “Advantages of advanced laparoscopic systems,” Surg. Endosc.20(5), 730–733 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mills, Z. C.

B. S. Terry, Z. C. Mills, J. A. Schoen, and M. E. Rentschler, “Single-port-access surgery with a novel magnet camera system,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.59(4), 1187–1193 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mintz, Y.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, M.

Ou, C. S.

M. P. Wu, C. S. Ou, S. L. Chen, E. Y. Yen, and R. Rowbotham, “Complications and recommended practices for electrosurgery in laparoscopy,” Am. J. Surg.179(1), 67–73 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pierre, S. A.

S. A. Pierre, M. N. Ferrandino, W. N. Simmons, C. Fernandez, P. Zhong, D. M. Albala, and G. M. Preminger, “High definition laparoscopy: objective assessment of performance characteristics and comparison with standard laparoscopy,” J. Endourol.23(3), 523–528 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preminger, G. M.

S. A. Pierre, M. N. Ferrandino, W. N. Simmons, C. Fernandez, P. Zhong, D. M. Albala, and G. M. Preminger, “High definition laparoscopy: objective assessment of performance characteristics and comparison with standard laparoscopy,” J. Endourol.23(3), 523–528 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiao, W.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qin, Y.

Rassweiler, J.

J. Rassweiler, K. C. Safi, S. Subotic, D. Teber, and T. Frede, “Robotics and telesurgery - an update on their position in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy,” Minim. Invasive Ther. Allied Technol.14(2), 109–122 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rassweiler, O. Seemann, M. Schulze, D. Teber, M. Hatzinger, and T. Frede, “Laparoscopic versus open radical prostatectomy: a comparative study at a single institution,” J. Urol.169(5), 1689–1693 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rentschler, M. E.

B. S. Terry, Z. C. Mills, J. A. Schoen, and M. E. Rentschler, “Single-port-access surgery with a novel magnet camera system,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.59(4), 1187–1193 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rowbotham, R.

M. P. Wu, C. S. Ou, S. L. Chen, E. Y. Yen, and R. Rowbotham, “Complications and recommended practices for electrosurgery in laparoscopy,” Am. J. Surg.179(1), 67–73 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Safi, K. C.

J. Rassweiler, K. C. Safi, S. Subotic, D. Teber, and T. Frede, “Robotics and telesurgery - an update on their position in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy,” Minim. Invasive Ther. Allied Technol.14(2), 109–122 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schoen, J. A.

B. S. Terry, Z. C. Mills, J. A. Schoen, and M. E. Rentschler, “Single-port-access surgery with a novel magnet camera system,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.59(4), 1187–1193 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulze, M.

J. Rassweiler, O. Seemann, M. Schulze, D. Teber, M. Hatzinger, and T. Frede, “Laparoscopic versus open radical prostatectomy: a comparative study at a single institution,” J. Urol.169(5), 1689–1693 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seemann, O.

J. Rassweiler, O. Seemann, M. Schulze, D. Teber, M. Hatzinger, and T. Frede, “Laparoscopic versus open radical prostatectomy: a comparative study at a single institution,” J. Urol.169(5), 1689–1693 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simmons, W. N.

S. A. Pierre, M. N. Ferrandino, W. N. Simmons, C. Fernandez, P. Zhong, D. M. Albala, and G. M. Preminger, “High definition laparoscopy: objective assessment of performance characteristics and comparison with standard laparoscopy,” J. Endourol.23(3), 523–528 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stein, R. J.

D. Canes, M. M. Desai, M. Aron, G. P. Haber, R. K. Goel, R. J. Stein, J. H. Kaouk, and I. S. Gill, “Transumbilical single-port surgery: evolution and current status,” Eur. Urol.54(5), 1020–1030 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Subotic, S.

J. Rassweiler, K. C. Safi, S. Subotic, D. Teber, and T. Frede, “Robotics and telesurgery - an update on their position in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy,” Minim. Invasive Ther. Allied Technol.14(2), 109–122 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talamini, M.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teber, D.

J. Rassweiler, K. C. Safi, S. Subotic, D. Teber, and T. Frede, “Robotics and telesurgery - an update on their position in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy,” Minim. Invasive Ther. Allied Technol.14(2), 109–122 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rassweiler, O. Seemann, M. Schulze, D. Teber, M. Hatzinger, and T. Frede, “Laparoscopic versus open radical prostatectomy: a comparative study at a single institution,” J. Urol.169(5), 1689–1693 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terry, B. S.

B. S. Terry, Z. C. Mills, J. A. Schoen, and M. E. Rentschler, “Single-port-access surgery with a novel magnet camera system,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.59(4), 1187–1193 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, F. S.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tucker, R. D.

C. R. Voyles and R. D. Tucker, “Education and engineering solutions for potential problems with laparoscopic monopolar electrosurgery,” Am. J. Surg.164(1), 57–62 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voyles, C. R.

C. R. Voyles and R. D. Tucker, “Education and engineering solutions for potential problems with laparoscopic monopolar electrosurgery,” Am. J. Surg.164(1), 57–62 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, M. P.

M. P. Wu, C. S. Ou, S. L. Chen, E. Y. Yen, and R. Rowbotham, “Complications and recommended practices for electrosurgery in laparoscopy,” Am. J. Surg.179(1), 67–73 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yen, E. Y.

M. P. Wu, C. S. Ou, S. L. Chen, E. Y. Yen, and R. Rowbotham, “Complications and recommended practices for electrosurgery in laparoscopy,” Am. J. Surg.179(1), 67–73 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zandbergen, R.

J. Heemskerk, R. Zandbergen, J. G. Maessen, J. W. M. Greve, and N. D. Bouvy, “Advantages of advanced laparoscopic systems,” Surg. Endosc.20(5), 730–733 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhong, P.

S. A. Pierre, M. N. Ferrandino, W. N. Simmons, C. Fernandez, P. Zhong, D. M. Albala, and G. M. Preminger, “High definition laparoscopy: objective assessment of performance characteristics and comparison with standard laparoscopy,” J. Endourol.23(3), 523–528 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Surg. (2)

M. P. Wu, C. S. Ou, S. L. Chen, E. Y. Yen, and R. Rowbotham, “Complications and recommended practices for electrosurgery in laparoscopy,” Am. J. Surg.179(1), 67–73 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Voyles and R. D. Tucker, “Education and engineering solutions for potential problems with laparoscopic monopolar electrosurgery,” Am. J. Surg.164(1), 57–62 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. Urol. (1)

D. Canes, M. M. Desai, M. Aron, G. P. Haber, R. K. Goel, R. J. Stein, J. H. Kaouk, and I. S. Gill, “Transumbilical single-port surgery: evolution and current status,” Eur. Urol.54(5), 1020–1030 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

B. S. Terry, Z. C. Mills, J. A. Schoen, and M. E. Rentschler, “Single-port-access surgery with a novel magnet camera system,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.59(4), 1187–1193 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Endourol. (1)

S. A. Pierre, M. N. Ferrandino, W. N. Simmons, C. Fernandez, P. Zhong, D. M. Albala, and G. M. Preminger, “High definition laparoscopy: objective assessment of performance characteristics and comparison with standard laparoscopy,” J. Endourol.23(3), 523–528 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Urol. (1)

J. Rassweiler, O. Seemann, M. Schulze, D. Teber, M. Hatzinger, and T. Frede, “Laparoscopic versus open radical prostatectomy: a comparative study at a single institution,” J. Urol.169(5), 1689–1693 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minim. Invasive Ther. Allied Technol. (1)

J. Rassweiler, K. C. Safi, S. Subotic, D. Teber, and T. Frede, “Robotics and telesurgery - an update on their position in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy,” Minim. Invasive Ther. Allied Technol.14(2), 109–122 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Surg. Endosc. (1)

J. Heemskerk, R. Zandbergen, J. G. Maessen, J. W. M. Greve, and N. D. Bouvy, “Advantages of advanced laparoscopic systems,” Surg. Endosc.20(5), 730–733 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

B. Tamadazte, G. Fiard, J. Long, P. Cinguin, and S. Voros, “Enhanced vision system for laparoscopic surgery,” in proceeding of IEEE conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (Osaka, Japan, 2013), pp. 5702–5705.

Y. Yamauchi, J. Yamashita, Y. Fukui, K. Yokoyama, T. Sekiya, E. Ito, M. Kanai, T. Fukuyo, D. Hashimoto, and H. Iseki, “A dual-view endoscope with image shift,” in proceedings of Computer assisted radiology and surgery (Paris, France, 2002), pp. 183–187.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Conceptual idea for operation of MRFL in laparoscopic surgery.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic layout of a dual-resolution, foveated laparoscope for minimally invasive surgery. The scope consists of a wide-angle imaging probe and a high-magnification probe. The two probes share the same objective lens, relay lens groups, and scanning lens groups.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical system layout of a MRFL prototype with a low-length profile, consisting of an objective lens group (a), 2 telecentric rod lens relay groups (b), a scanning lens group (c), a wide-angle probe (d), and a high-magnification probe (e).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

MRFL prototypes in comparison with a commercially available standard laparoscope.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Images and intensity profiles of the resolution target of the high-magnification probe at 120mm working distance orienting at the center field, (a) in vertical direction; (b) in horizontal direction.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Images and intensity profiles of the resolution target of the high-magnification probe at 120mm working distance orienting at the corner field, (a) in vertical direction; (b) in horizontal direction.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Images and intensity profiles of the resolution target of the center field of the wide-angle probe at 120mm working distance, (a) in vertical direction; (b) in horizontal direction.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Images and intensity profiles of the resolution target of the center field of the wide-angle probe at 120mm working distance, (a) in vertical direction; (b) in horizontal direction

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

MTF measurement

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

In-vivo animal test

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

MRFL in-vivo evaluation with a porcine model at an approximately 120mm working distance from the surgical cite: (a) high-magnification image of the spleen; (b) wide-angle image of the spleen; (c) high-magnification image of the gallbladder; (d) wide-angle image of the gallbladder. The high-magnification and wide-angle images were acquired simultaneously through the MRFL prototype.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Demonstration of situational awareness. (a) (c) high-magnification images of the gallbladder captured by the high-magnification probe of the MRFL system failed to show the insertion and close approach of another surgical instrument; (b) (d) wide-angle views, corresponding to (a) and (c), respectively, by the wide-angle probe shows the overview of the abdominal cavity with a clear visualization of the surgical instruments as well as their insertion path, preventing accidental collision or injuries.

Tables (6)

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Table 1 First-order optical design specifications of a MRFL prototype system

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Table 2 Optical performance characterization of a low-length profile MRFL prototype at 120mm working distance

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Table 3 Image contrast of the high-magnification probe orienting at the center field

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Table 4 Image contrast of the high-magnification probe orienting at the corner field.

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Table 5 Image contrast of the center field of the wide-angle probe

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Table 6 Image contrast of the corner field of the wide-angle probe

Equations (2)

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Φ=εAΩ
m highmag = f obj WD × m relay n f highmag f scan

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