Abstract

In this paper, a textile-based sensing principle for long term photopletysmography (PPG) monitoring is presented. Optical fibers were embroidered into textiles such that out-coupling and in-coupling of light was possible. The “light-in light-out” properties of the textile enabled the spectroscopic characterization of human tissue. For the optimization of the textile sensor, three different carrier fabrics and different fiber modifications were compared. The sample with best light coupling efficiency was successfully used to measure heart rate and SpO2 values of a subject. The latter was determined by using a modified Beer-Lambert law and measuring the light attenuation at two different wavelengths (632 nm and 894 nm). Moreover, the system was adapted to work in reflection mode which makes the sensor more versatile. The measurements were additionally compared with commercially available system and showed good correlation.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  29. N. A. A. Rahim, W. McDaniel, K. Bardon, S. Srinivasan, V. Vickerman, P. T. C. So, and J. H. Moon, “Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles for Two-Photon Imaging of Endothelial Cells in a Tissue Model,” Adv. Mater.21(34), 3492–3496 (2009).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

M. Krehel, R. M. Rossi, G. L. Bona, and L. J. Scherer, “Characterization of Flexible Copolymer Optical Fibers for Force Sensing Applications,” Sensors (Basel)13(9), 11956–11968 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

J. Witt, F. Narbonneau, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, J. De Jonckheere, M. Jeanne, D. Kinet, B. Paquet, A. Depré, L. T. D’Angelo, T. Thiel, and R. Logier, “Medical textiles with embedded fiber optic sensors for monitoring of respiratory movement,” IEEE Sens. J.12(1), 246–254 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Venema, N. Blanik, V. Blazek, H. Gehring, A. Opp, and S. Leonhardt, “Advances in reflective oxygen saturation monitoring with a novel in-ear sensor system: Results of a human hypoxia study,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.59(7), 2003–2010 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. K. Svanberg, P. Wollmer, S. Andersson-Engels, and J. Akeson, “Physiological influence of basic perturbations assessed by non-invasive optical techniques in humans,” Br. J. Anaesth.108, 272–273 (2012).

2011

J. Rantala, J. Hannikainen, and J. Vanhala, “Fiber optic sensors for wearable applications,” Pers. Ubiquitous Comput.15(1), 85–96 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

B. Selm, E. A. Gurel, M. Rothmaier, R. M. Rossi, and L. J. Scherer, “Polymeric Optical Fiber Fabrics for Illumination and Sensorial Applications in Textiles,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct.21(11), 1061–1071 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

C. Balas, “Review of biomedical optical imaging-a powerful, non-invasive, non-ionizing technology for improving in vivo diagnosis,” Meas. Sci. Technol.20(10), 104020 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Liehr, P. Lenke, M. Wendt, K. Krebber, M. Seeger, E. Thiele, H. Metschies, B. Gebreselassie, and J. C. Munich, “Polymer Optical Fiber Sensors for Distributed Strain Measurement and Application in Structural Health Monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J.9(11), 1330–1338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. A. A. Rahim, W. McDaniel, K. Bardon, S. Srinivasan, V. Vickerman, P. T. C. So, and J. H. Moon, “Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles for Two-Photon Imaging of Endothelial Cells in a Tissue Model,” Adv. Mater.21(34), 3492–3496 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

F. Narbonneau, D. Kinet, B. Paquet, A. Depré, J. de Jonckheere, R. Logier, J. Zinke, J. Witt, and K. Krebber, “Smart Textile Embedding Optical Fiber Sensors for Healthcare Monitoring during MRI,” Adv. Sci. Technol.60, 134–143 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Rothmaier, B. Selm, S. Spichtig, D. Haensse, and M. Wolf, “Photonic textiles for pulse oximetry,” Opt. Express16(17), 12973–12986 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

J. W. Zheng, Z. B. Zhang, T. H. Wu, and Y. Zhang, “A wearable mobihealth care system supporting real-time diagnosis and alarm,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.45(9), 877–885 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Hanada, “The electromagnetic environment of hospitals: how it is affected by the strength of electromagnetic fields generated both inside and outside the hospital,” Ann. Ist. Super. Sanita43(3), 208–217 (2007).
[PubMed]

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, L. A. Paunescu, A. Michalos, and E. Gratton, “Regional differences of Hemodynamics and oxygenation in the human calf muscle detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry,” J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol.18(9), 1094–1101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

C. N. Scanaill, S. Carew, P. Barralon, N. Noury, D. Lyons, and G. M. Lyons, “A review of approaches to mobility telemonitoring of the elderly in their living environment,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.34(4), 547–563 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

R. F. Edlich, K. L. Winters, C. R. Woodard, R. M. Buschbacher, W. B. Long, J. H. Gebhart, and E. K. Ma, “Pressure ulcer prevention,” J. Long Term Eff. Med. Implants14(4), 285–304 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry,” J. Vasc. Surg.37(5), 1017–1026 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

B. Toth, A. Becker, and B. Seelbach-Göbel, “Oxygen saturation in healthy newborn infants immediately after birth measured by pulse oximetry,” Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.266(2), 105–107 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

A. Louw, C. Cracco, C. Cerf, A. Harf, P. Duvaldestin, F. Lemaire, and L. Brochard, “Accuracy of pulse oximetry in the intensive care unit,” Intensive Care Med.27(10), 1606–1613 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

E. R. Post, M. Orth, P. R. Russo, and N. Gershenfeld, “E-broidery: Design and fabrication of textile-based computing,” IBM Syst. J.39(3.4), 840–860 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. T. Rheineck-Leyssius and C. J. Kalkman, “Influence of pulse oximeter settings on the frequency of alarms and detection of hypoxemia: Theoretical effects of artifact rejection, alarm delay, averaging, median filtering or a lower setting of the alarm limit,” J. Clin. Monit. Comput.14(3), 151–156 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

J. P. Isbister, “Physiology and pathophysiology of blood volume regulation,” Transfus. Sci.18(3), 409–423 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

R. Woodgate and L. J. Kristjanson, “A young child’s pain: How parents and nurses ‘take care’,” Int. J. Nurs. Stud.33(3), 271–284 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. M. Dassel, R. Graaff, A. Meijer, W. G. Zijlstra, and J. G. Aarnoudse, “Reflectance pulse oximetry at the forehead of newborns: The influence of varying pressure on the probe,” J. Clin. Monit.12(6), 421–428 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

J. Y. Ding, M. R. Shahriari, and G. H. Sigel, “Fiber Optic Ph Sensors Prepared by Sol-Gel Immobilization Technique,” Electron. Lett.27(17), 1560–1562 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1982

T. G. Giallorenzi, J. A. Bucaro, A. Dandridge, G. H. Sigel, J. H. Cole, S. C. Rashleigh, and R. G. Priest, “Optical Fiber Sensor Technology,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(4), 626–665 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Aarnoudse, J. G.

A. C. M. Dassel, R. Graaff, A. Meijer, W. G. Zijlstra, and J. G. Aarnoudse, “Reflectance pulse oximetry at the forehead of newborns: The influence of varying pressure on the probe,” J. Clin. Monit.12(6), 421–428 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akeson, J.

E. K. Svanberg, P. Wollmer, S. Andersson-Engels, and J. Akeson, “Physiological influence of basic perturbations assessed by non-invasive optical techniques in humans,” Br. J. Anaesth.108, 272–273 (2012).

Andersson-Engels, S.

E. K. Svanberg, P. Wollmer, S. Andersson-Engels, and J. Akeson, “Physiological influence of basic perturbations assessed by non-invasive optical techniques in humans,” Br. J. Anaesth.108, 272–273 (2012).

Balas, C.

C. Balas, “Review of biomedical optical imaging-a powerful, non-invasive, non-ionizing technology for improving in vivo diagnosis,” Meas. Sci. Technol.20(10), 104020 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bardon, K.

N. A. A. Rahim, W. McDaniel, K. Bardon, S. Srinivasan, V. Vickerman, P. T. C. So, and J. H. Moon, “Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles for Two-Photon Imaging of Endothelial Cells in a Tissue Model,” Adv. Mater.21(34), 3492–3496 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barralon, P.

C. N. Scanaill, S. Carew, P. Barralon, N. Noury, D. Lyons, and G. M. Lyons, “A review of approaches to mobility telemonitoring of the elderly in their living environment,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.34(4), 547–563 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, A.

B. Toth, A. Becker, and B. Seelbach-Göbel, “Oxygen saturation in healthy newborn infants immediately after birth measured by pulse oximetry,” Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.266(2), 105–107 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blanik, N.

B. Venema, N. Blanik, V. Blazek, H. Gehring, A. Opp, and S. Leonhardt, “Advances in reflective oxygen saturation monitoring with a novel in-ear sensor system: Results of a human hypoxia study,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.59(7), 2003–2010 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blazek, V.

B. Venema, N. Blanik, V. Blazek, H. Gehring, A. Opp, and S. Leonhardt, “Advances in reflective oxygen saturation monitoring with a novel in-ear sensor system: Results of a human hypoxia study,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.59(7), 2003–2010 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bona, G. L.

M. Krehel, R. M. Rossi, G. L. Bona, and L. J. Scherer, “Characterization of Flexible Copolymer Optical Fibers for Force Sensing Applications,” Sensors (Basel)13(9), 11956–11968 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brochard, L.

A. Louw, C. Cracco, C. Cerf, A. Harf, P. Duvaldestin, F. Lemaire, and L. Brochard, “Accuracy of pulse oximetry in the intensive care unit,” Intensive Care Med.27(10), 1606–1613 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bucaro, J. A.

T. G. Giallorenzi, J. A. Bucaro, A. Dandridge, G. H. Sigel, J. H. Cole, S. C. Rashleigh, and R. G. Priest, “Optical Fiber Sensor Technology,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(4), 626–665 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Buschbacher, R. M.

R. F. Edlich, K. L. Winters, C. R. Woodard, R. M. Buschbacher, W. B. Long, J. H. Gebhart, and E. K. Ma, “Pressure ulcer prevention,” J. Long Term Eff. Med. Implants14(4), 285–304 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carew, S.

C. N. Scanaill, S. Carew, P. Barralon, N. Noury, D. Lyons, and G. M. Lyons, “A review of approaches to mobility telemonitoring of the elderly in their living environment,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.34(4), 547–563 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerf, C.

A. Louw, C. Cracco, C. Cerf, A. Harf, P. Duvaldestin, F. Lemaire, and L. Brochard, “Accuracy of pulse oximetry in the intensive care unit,” Intensive Care Med.27(10), 1606–1613 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, J. H.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, L. A. Paunescu, A. Michalos, and E. Gratton, “Regional differences of Hemodynamics and oxygenation in the human calf muscle detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry,” J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol.18(9), 1094–1101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry,” J. Vasc. Surg.37(5), 1017–1026 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choudhury, D.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry,” J. Vasc. Surg.37(5), 1017–1026 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cole, J. H.

T. G. Giallorenzi, J. A. Bucaro, A. Dandridge, G. H. Sigel, J. H. Cole, S. C. Rashleigh, and R. G. Priest, “Optical Fiber Sensor Technology,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(4), 626–665 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Coussirat, D.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry,” J. Vasc. Surg.37(5), 1017–1026 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cracco, C.

A. Louw, C. Cracco, C. Cerf, A. Harf, P. Duvaldestin, F. Lemaire, and L. Brochard, “Accuracy of pulse oximetry in the intensive care unit,” Intensive Care Med.27(10), 1606–1613 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D’Angelo, L. T.

J. Witt, F. Narbonneau, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, J. De Jonckheere, M. Jeanne, D. Kinet, B. Paquet, A. Depré, L. T. D’Angelo, T. Thiel, and R. Logier, “Medical textiles with embedded fiber optic sensors for monitoring of respiratory movement,” IEEE Sens. J.12(1), 246–254 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dandridge, A.

T. G. Giallorenzi, J. A. Bucaro, A. Dandridge, G. H. Sigel, J. H. Cole, S. C. Rashleigh, and R. G. Priest, “Optical Fiber Sensor Technology,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(4), 626–665 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Dassel, A. C. M.

A. C. M. Dassel, R. Graaff, A. Meijer, W. G. Zijlstra, and J. G. Aarnoudse, “Reflectance pulse oximetry at the forehead of newborns: The influence of varying pressure on the probe,” J. Clin. Monit.12(6), 421–428 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Jonckheere, J.

J. Witt, F. Narbonneau, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, J. De Jonckheere, M. Jeanne, D. Kinet, B. Paquet, A. Depré, L. T. D’Angelo, T. Thiel, and R. Logier, “Medical textiles with embedded fiber optic sensors for monitoring of respiratory movement,” IEEE Sens. J.12(1), 246–254 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Narbonneau, D. Kinet, B. Paquet, A. Depré, J. de Jonckheere, R. Logier, J. Zinke, J. Witt, and K. Krebber, “Smart Textile Embedding Optical Fiber Sensors for Healthcare Monitoring during MRI,” Adv. Sci. Technol.60, 134–143 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Depré, A.

J. Witt, F. Narbonneau, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, J. De Jonckheere, M. Jeanne, D. Kinet, B. Paquet, A. Depré, L. T. D’Angelo, T. Thiel, and R. Logier, “Medical textiles with embedded fiber optic sensors for monitoring of respiratory movement,” IEEE Sens. J.12(1), 246–254 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Narbonneau, D. Kinet, B. Paquet, A. Depré, J. de Jonckheere, R. Logier, J. Zinke, J. Witt, and K. Krebber, “Smart Textile Embedding Optical Fiber Sensors for Healthcare Monitoring during MRI,” Adv. Sci. Technol.60, 134–143 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ding, J. Y.

J. Y. Ding, M. R. Shahriari, and G. H. Sigel, “Fiber Optic Ph Sensors Prepared by Sol-Gel Immobilization Technique,” Electron. Lett.27(17), 1560–1562 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Duvaldestin, P.

A. Louw, C. Cracco, C. Cerf, A. Harf, P. Duvaldestin, F. Lemaire, and L. Brochard, “Accuracy of pulse oximetry in the intensive care unit,” Intensive Care Med.27(10), 1606–1613 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edlich, R. F.

R. F. Edlich, K. L. Winters, C. R. Woodard, R. M. Buschbacher, W. B. Long, J. H. Gebhart, and E. K. Ma, “Pressure ulcer prevention,” J. Long Term Eff. Med. Implants14(4), 285–304 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gebhart, J. H.

R. F. Edlich, K. L. Winters, C. R. Woodard, R. M. Buschbacher, W. B. Long, J. H. Gebhart, and E. K. Ma, “Pressure ulcer prevention,” J. Long Term Eff. Med. Implants14(4), 285–304 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gebreselassie, B.

S. Liehr, P. Lenke, M. Wendt, K. Krebber, M. Seeger, E. Thiele, H. Metschies, B. Gebreselassie, and J. C. Munich, “Polymer Optical Fiber Sensors for Distributed Strain Measurement and Application in Structural Health Monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J.9(11), 1330–1338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gehring, H.

B. Venema, N. Blanik, V. Blazek, H. Gehring, A. Opp, and S. Leonhardt, “Advances in reflective oxygen saturation monitoring with a novel in-ear sensor system: Results of a human hypoxia study,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.59(7), 2003–2010 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gershenfeld, N.

E. R. Post, M. Orth, P. R. Russo, and N. Gershenfeld, “E-broidery: Design and fabrication of textile-based computing,” IBM Syst. J.39(3.4), 840–860 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Giallorenzi, T. G.

T. G. Giallorenzi, J. A. Bucaro, A. Dandridge, G. H. Sigel, J. H. Cole, S. C. Rashleigh, and R. G. Priest, “Optical Fiber Sensor Technology,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(4), 626–665 (1982).
[CrossRef]

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A. C. M. Dassel, R. Graaff, A. Meijer, W. G. Zijlstra, and J. G. Aarnoudse, “Reflectance pulse oximetry at the forehead of newborns: The influence of varying pressure on the probe,” J. Clin. Monit.12(6), 421–428 (1996).
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U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, L. A. Paunescu, A. Michalos, and E. Gratton, “Regional differences of Hemodynamics and oxygenation in the human calf muscle detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry,” J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol.18(9), 1094–1101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry,” J. Vasc. Surg.37(5), 1017–1026 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. Selm, E. A. Gurel, M. Rothmaier, R. M. Rossi, and L. J. Scherer, “Polymeric Optical Fiber Fabrics for Illumination and Sensorial Applications in Textiles,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct.21(11), 1061–1071 (2010).
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J. Rantala, J. Hannikainen, and J. Vanhala, “Fiber optic sensors for wearable applications,” Pers. Ubiquitous Comput.15(1), 85–96 (2011).
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A. Louw, C. Cracco, C. Cerf, A. Harf, P. Duvaldestin, F. Lemaire, and L. Brochard, “Accuracy of pulse oximetry in the intensive care unit,” Intensive Care Med.27(10), 1606–1613 (2001).
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U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry,” J. Vasc. Surg.37(5), 1017–1026 (2003).
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A. T. Rheineck-Leyssius and C. J. Kalkman, “Influence of pulse oximeter settings on the frequency of alarms and detection of hypoxemia: Theoretical effects of artifact rejection, alarm delay, averaging, median filtering or a lower setting of the alarm limit,” J. Clin. Monit. Comput.14(3), 151–156 (1998).
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J. Witt, F. Narbonneau, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, J. De Jonckheere, M. Jeanne, D. Kinet, B. Paquet, A. Depré, L. T. D’Angelo, T. Thiel, and R. Logier, “Medical textiles with embedded fiber optic sensors for monitoring of respiratory movement,” IEEE Sens. J.12(1), 246–254 (2012).
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F. Narbonneau, D. Kinet, B. Paquet, A. Depré, J. de Jonckheere, R. Logier, J. Zinke, J. Witt, and K. Krebber, “Smart Textile Embedding Optical Fiber Sensors for Healthcare Monitoring during MRI,” Adv. Sci. Technol.60, 134–143 (2008).
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Krebber, K.

J. Witt, F. Narbonneau, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, J. De Jonckheere, M. Jeanne, D. Kinet, B. Paquet, A. Depré, L. T. D’Angelo, T. Thiel, and R. Logier, “Medical textiles with embedded fiber optic sensors for monitoring of respiratory movement,” IEEE Sens. J.12(1), 246–254 (2012).
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S. Liehr, P. Lenke, M. Wendt, K. Krebber, M. Seeger, E. Thiele, H. Metschies, B. Gebreselassie, and J. C. Munich, “Polymer Optical Fiber Sensors for Distributed Strain Measurement and Application in Structural Health Monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J.9(11), 1330–1338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Narbonneau, D. Kinet, B. Paquet, A. Depré, J. de Jonckheere, R. Logier, J. Zinke, J. Witt, and K. Krebber, “Smart Textile Embedding Optical Fiber Sensors for Healthcare Monitoring during MRI,” Adv. Sci. Technol.60, 134–143 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krehel, M.

M. Krehel, R. M. Rossi, G. L. Bona, and L. J. Scherer, “Characterization of Flexible Copolymer Optical Fibers for Force Sensing Applications,” Sensors (Basel)13(9), 11956–11968 (2013).
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A. Louw, C. Cracco, C. Cerf, A. Harf, P. Duvaldestin, F. Lemaire, and L. Brochard, “Accuracy of pulse oximetry in the intensive care unit,” Intensive Care Med.27(10), 1606–1613 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lenke, P.

S. Liehr, P. Lenke, M. Wendt, K. Krebber, M. Seeger, E. Thiele, H. Metschies, B. Gebreselassie, and J. C. Munich, “Polymer Optical Fiber Sensors for Distributed Strain Measurement and Application in Structural Health Monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J.9(11), 1330–1338 (2009).
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Leonhardt, S.

B. Venema, N. Blanik, V. Blazek, H. Gehring, A. Opp, and S. Leonhardt, “Advances in reflective oxygen saturation monitoring with a novel in-ear sensor system: Results of a human hypoxia study,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.59(7), 2003–2010 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levi, M.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry,” J. Vasc. Surg.37(5), 1017–1026 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liehr, S.

S. Liehr, P. Lenke, M. Wendt, K. Krebber, M. Seeger, E. Thiele, H. Metschies, B. Gebreselassie, and J. C. Munich, “Polymer Optical Fiber Sensors for Distributed Strain Measurement and Application in Structural Health Monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J.9(11), 1330–1338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Logier, R.

J. Witt, F. Narbonneau, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, J. De Jonckheere, M. Jeanne, D. Kinet, B. Paquet, A. Depré, L. T. D’Angelo, T. Thiel, and R. Logier, “Medical textiles with embedded fiber optic sensors for monitoring of respiratory movement,” IEEE Sens. J.12(1), 246–254 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Narbonneau, D. Kinet, B. Paquet, A. Depré, J. de Jonckheere, R. Logier, J. Zinke, J. Witt, and K. Krebber, “Smart Textile Embedding Optical Fiber Sensors for Healthcare Monitoring during MRI,” Adv. Sci. Technol.60, 134–143 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Long, W. B.

R. F. Edlich, K. L. Winters, C. R. Woodard, R. M. Buschbacher, W. B. Long, J. H. Gebhart, and E. K. Ma, “Pressure ulcer prevention,” J. Long Term Eff. Med. Implants14(4), 285–304 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Louw, A.

A. Louw, C. Cracco, C. Cerf, A. Harf, P. Duvaldestin, F. Lemaire, and L. Brochard, “Accuracy of pulse oximetry in the intensive care unit,” Intensive Care Med.27(10), 1606–1613 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyons, D.

C. N. Scanaill, S. Carew, P. Barralon, N. Noury, D. Lyons, and G. M. Lyons, “A review of approaches to mobility telemonitoring of the elderly in their living environment,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.34(4), 547–563 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyons, G. M.

C. N. Scanaill, S. Carew, P. Barralon, N. Noury, D. Lyons, and G. M. Lyons, “A review of approaches to mobility telemonitoring of the elderly in their living environment,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.34(4), 547–563 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. F. Edlich, K. L. Winters, C. R. Woodard, R. M. Buschbacher, W. B. Long, J. H. Gebhart, and E. K. Ma, “Pressure ulcer prevention,” J. Long Term Eff. Med. Implants14(4), 285–304 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mantulin, W. W.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry,” J. Vasc. Surg.37(5), 1017–1026 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDaniel, W.

N. A. A. Rahim, W. McDaniel, K. Bardon, S. Srinivasan, V. Vickerman, P. T. C. So, and J. H. Moon, “Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles for Two-Photon Imaging of Endothelial Cells in a Tissue Model,” Adv. Mater.21(34), 3492–3496 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meijer, A.

A. C. M. Dassel, R. Graaff, A. Meijer, W. G. Zijlstra, and J. G. Aarnoudse, “Reflectance pulse oximetry at the forehead of newborns: The influence of varying pressure on the probe,” J. Clin. Monit.12(6), 421–428 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Metschies, H.

S. Liehr, P. Lenke, M. Wendt, K. Krebber, M. Seeger, E. Thiele, H. Metschies, B. Gebreselassie, and J. C. Munich, “Polymer Optical Fiber Sensors for Distributed Strain Measurement and Application in Structural Health Monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J.9(11), 1330–1338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Michalos, A.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, L. A. Paunescu, A. Michalos, and E. Gratton, “Regional differences of Hemodynamics and oxygenation in the human calf muscle detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry,” J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol.18(9), 1094–1101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry,” J. Vasc. Surg.37(5), 1017–1026 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moon, J. H.

N. A. A. Rahim, W. McDaniel, K. Bardon, S. Srinivasan, V. Vickerman, P. T. C. So, and J. H. Moon, “Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles for Two-Photon Imaging of Endothelial Cells in a Tissue Model,” Adv. Mater.21(34), 3492–3496 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Munich, J. C.

S. Liehr, P. Lenke, M. Wendt, K. Krebber, M. Seeger, E. Thiele, H. Metschies, B. Gebreselassie, and J. C. Munich, “Polymer Optical Fiber Sensors for Distributed Strain Measurement and Application in Structural Health Monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J.9(11), 1330–1338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Narbonneau, F.

J. Witt, F. Narbonneau, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, J. De Jonckheere, M. Jeanne, D. Kinet, B. Paquet, A. Depré, L. T. D’Angelo, T. Thiel, and R. Logier, “Medical textiles with embedded fiber optic sensors for monitoring of respiratory movement,” IEEE Sens. J.12(1), 246–254 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Narbonneau, D. Kinet, B. Paquet, A. Depré, J. de Jonckheere, R. Logier, J. Zinke, J. Witt, and K. Krebber, “Smart Textile Embedding Optical Fiber Sensors for Healthcare Monitoring during MRI,” Adv. Sci. Technol.60, 134–143 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Noury, N.

C. N. Scanaill, S. Carew, P. Barralon, N. Noury, D. Lyons, and G. M. Lyons, “A review of approaches to mobility telemonitoring of the elderly in their living environment,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.34(4), 547–563 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opp, A.

B. Venema, N. Blanik, V. Blazek, H. Gehring, A. Opp, and S. Leonhardt, “Advances in reflective oxygen saturation monitoring with a novel in-ear sensor system: Results of a human hypoxia study,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.59(7), 2003–2010 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orth, M.

E. R. Post, M. Orth, P. R. Russo, and N. Gershenfeld, “E-broidery: Design and fabrication of textile-based computing,” IBM Syst. J.39(3.4), 840–860 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paquet, B.

J. Witt, F. Narbonneau, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, J. De Jonckheere, M. Jeanne, D. Kinet, B. Paquet, A. Depré, L. T. D’Angelo, T. Thiel, and R. Logier, “Medical textiles with embedded fiber optic sensors for monitoring of respiratory movement,” IEEE Sens. J.12(1), 246–254 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Narbonneau, D. Kinet, B. Paquet, A. Depré, J. de Jonckheere, R. Logier, J. Zinke, J. Witt, and K. Krebber, “Smart Textile Embedding Optical Fiber Sensors for Healthcare Monitoring during MRI,” Adv. Sci. Technol.60, 134–143 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Paunescu, L. A.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, L. A. Paunescu, A. Michalos, and E. Gratton, “Regional differences of Hemodynamics and oxygenation in the human calf muscle detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry,” J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol.18(9), 1094–1101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry,” J. Vasc. Surg.37(5), 1017–1026 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pola, T.

T. Pola and J. Vanhala, “Textile electrodes in ECG measurement,” Proceedings of the 2007 International Conference on Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing, 635–639 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Post, E. R.

E. R. Post, M. Orth, P. R. Russo, and N. Gershenfeld, “E-broidery: Design and fabrication of textile-based computing,” IBM Syst. J.39(3.4), 840–860 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Priest, R. G.

T. G. Giallorenzi, J. A. Bucaro, A. Dandridge, G. H. Sigel, J. H. Cole, S. C. Rashleigh, and R. G. Priest, “Optical Fiber Sensor Technology,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(4), 626–665 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Rahim, N. A. A.

N. A. A. Rahim, W. McDaniel, K. Bardon, S. Srinivasan, V. Vickerman, P. T. C. So, and J. H. Moon, “Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles for Two-Photon Imaging of Endothelial Cells in a Tissue Model,” Adv. Mater.21(34), 3492–3496 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rantala, J.

J. Rantala, J. Hannikainen, and J. Vanhala, “Fiber optic sensors for wearable applications,” Pers. Ubiquitous Comput.15(1), 85–96 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rashleigh, S. C.

T. G. Giallorenzi, J. A. Bucaro, A. Dandridge, G. H. Sigel, J. H. Cole, S. C. Rashleigh, and R. G. Priest, “Optical Fiber Sensor Technology,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(4), 626–665 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Rheineck-Leyssius, A. T.

A. T. Rheineck-Leyssius and C. J. Kalkman, “Influence of pulse oximeter settings on the frequency of alarms and detection of hypoxemia: Theoretical effects of artifact rejection, alarm delay, averaging, median filtering or a lower setting of the alarm limit,” J. Clin. Monit. Comput.14(3), 151–156 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rossi, R. M.

M. Krehel, R. M. Rossi, G. L. Bona, and L. J. Scherer, “Characterization of Flexible Copolymer Optical Fibers for Force Sensing Applications,” Sensors (Basel)13(9), 11956–11968 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Selm, E. A. Gurel, M. Rothmaier, R. M. Rossi, and L. J. Scherer, “Polymeric Optical Fiber Fabrics for Illumination and Sensorial Applications in Textiles,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct.21(11), 1061–1071 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rothmaier, M.

B. Selm, E. A. Gurel, M. Rothmaier, R. M. Rossi, and L. J. Scherer, “Polymeric Optical Fiber Fabrics for Illumination and Sensorial Applications in Textiles,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct.21(11), 1061–1071 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Rothmaier, B. Selm, S. Spichtig, D. Haensse, and M. Wolf, “Photonic textiles for pulse oximetry,” Opt. Express16(17), 12973–12986 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russo, P. R.

E. R. Post, M. Orth, P. R. Russo, and N. Gershenfeld, “E-broidery: Design and fabrication of textile-based computing,” IBM Syst. J.39(3.4), 840–860 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Safonova, L. P.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry,” J. Vasc. Surg.37(5), 1017–1026 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scanaill, C. N.

C. N. Scanaill, S. Carew, P. Barralon, N. Noury, D. Lyons, and G. M. Lyons, “A review of approaches to mobility telemonitoring of the elderly in their living environment,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.34(4), 547–563 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherer, L. J.

M. Krehel, R. M. Rossi, G. L. Bona, and L. J. Scherer, “Characterization of Flexible Copolymer Optical Fibers for Force Sensing Applications,” Sensors (Basel)13(9), 11956–11968 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Selm, E. A. Gurel, M. Rothmaier, R. M. Rossi, and L. J. Scherer, “Polymeric Optical Fiber Fabrics for Illumination and Sensorial Applications in Textiles,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct.21(11), 1061–1071 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schukar, M.

J. Witt, F. Narbonneau, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, J. De Jonckheere, M. Jeanne, D. Kinet, B. Paquet, A. Depré, L. T. D’Angelo, T. Thiel, and R. Logier, “Medical textiles with embedded fiber optic sensors for monitoring of respiratory movement,” IEEE Sens. J.12(1), 246–254 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Seeger, M.

S. Liehr, P. Lenke, M. Wendt, K. Krebber, M. Seeger, E. Thiele, H. Metschies, B. Gebreselassie, and J. C. Munich, “Polymer Optical Fiber Sensors for Distributed Strain Measurement and Application in Structural Health Monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J.9(11), 1330–1338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seelbach-Göbel, B.

B. Toth, A. Becker, and B. Seelbach-Göbel, “Oxygen saturation in healthy newborn infants immediately after birth measured by pulse oximetry,” Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.266(2), 105–107 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Selm, B.

B. Selm, E. A. Gurel, M. Rothmaier, R. M. Rossi, and L. J. Scherer, “Polymeric Optical Fiber Fabrics for Illumination and Sensorial Applications in Textiles,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct.21(11), 1061–1071 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Rothmaier, B. Selm, S. Spichtig, D. Haensse, and M. Wolf, “Photonic textiles for pulse oximetry,” Opt. Express16(17), 12973–12986 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shahriari, M. R.

J. Y. Ding, M. R. Shahriari, and G. H. Sigel, “Fiber Optic Ph Sensors Prepared by Sol-Gel Immobilization Technique,” Electron. Lett.27(17), 1560–1562 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sigel, G. H.

J. Y. Ding, M. R. Shahriari, and G. H. Sigel, “Fiber Optic Ph Sensors Prepared by Sol-Gel Immobilization Technique,” Electron. Lett.27(17), 1560–1562 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Giallorenzi, J. A. Bucaro, A. Dandridge, G. H. Sigel, J. H. Cole, S. C. Rashleigh, and R. G. Priest, “Optical Fiber Sensor Technology,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(4), 626–665 (1982).
[CrossRef]

So, P. T. C.

N. A. A. Rahim, W. McDaniel, K. Bardon, S. Srinivasan, V. Vickerman, P. T. C. So, and J. H. Moon, “Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles for Two-Photon Imaging of Endothelial Cells in a Tissue Model,” Adv. Mater.21(34), 3492–3496 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Spichtig, S.

Srinivasan, S.

N. A. A. Rahim, W. McDaniel, K. Bardon, S. Srinivasan, V. Vickerman, P. T. C. So, and J. H. Moon, “Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles for Two-Photon Imaging of Endothelial Cells in a Tissue Model,” Adv. Mater.21(34), 3492–3496 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Svanberg, E. K.

E. K. Svanberg, P. Wollmer, S. Andersson-Engels, and J. Akeson, “Physiological influence of basic perturbations assessed by non-invasive optical techniques in humans,” Br. J. Anaesth.108, 272–273 (2012).

Thiel, T.

J. Witt, F. Narbonneau, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, J. De Jonckheere, M. Jeanne, D. Kinet, B. Paquet, A. Depré, L. T. D’Angelo, T. Thiel, and R. Logier, “Medical textiles with embedded fiber optic sensors for monitoring of respiratory movement,” IEEE Sens. J.12(1), 246–254 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Thiele, E.

S. Liehr, P. Lenke, M. Wendt, K. Krebber, M. Seeger, E. Thiele, H. Metschies, B. Gebreselassie, and J. C. Munich, “Polymer Optical Fiber Sensors for Distributed Strain Measurement and Application in Structural Health Monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J.9(11), 1330–1338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Toth, B.

B. Toth, A. Becker, and B. Seelbach-Göbel, “Oxygen saturation in healthy newborn infants immediately after birth measured by pulse oximetry,” Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.266(2), 105–107 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vanhala, J.

J. Rantala, J. Hannikainen, and J. Vanhala, “Fiber optic sensors for wearable applications,” Pers. Ubiquitous Comput.15(1), 85–96 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Pola and J. Vanhala, “Textile electrodes in ECG measurement,” Proceedings of the 2007 International Conference on Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing, 635–639 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Venema, B.

B. Venema, N. Blanik, V. Blazek, H. Gehring, A. Opp, and S. Leonhardt, “Advances in reflective oxygen saturation monitoring with a novel in-ear sensor system: Results of a human hypoxia study,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.59(7), 2003–2010 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vickerman, V.

N. A. A. Rahim, W. McDaniel, K. Bardon, S. Srinivasan, V. Vickerman, P. T. C. So, and J. H. Moon, “Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles for Two-Photon Imaging of Endothelial Cells in a Tissue Model,” Adv. Mater.21(34), 3492–3496 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wendt, M.

S. Liehr, P. Lenke, M. Wendt, K. Krebber, M. Seeger, E. Thiele, H. Metschies, B. Gebreselassie, and J. C. Munich, “Polymer Optical Fiber Sensors for Distributed Strain Measurement and Application in Structural Health Monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J.9(11), 1330–1338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Winters, K. L.

R. F. Edlich, K. L. Winters, C. R. Woodard, R. M. Buschbacher, W. B. Long, J. H. Gebhart, and E. K. Ma, “Pressure ulcer prevention,” J. Long Term Eff. Med. Implants14(4), 285–304 (2004).
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Witt, J.

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M. Rothmaier, B. Selm, S. Spichtig, D. Haensse, and M. Wolf, “Photonic textiles for pulse oximetry,” Opt. Express16(17), 12973–12986 (2008).
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U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, L. A. Paunescu, A. Michalos, and E. Gratton, “Regional differences of Hemodynamics and oxygenation in the human calf muscle detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry,” J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol.18(9), 1094–1101 (2007).
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E. K. Svanberg, P. Wollmer, S. Andersson-Engels, and J. Akeson, “Physiological influence of basic perturbations assessed by non-invasive optical techniques in humans,” Br. J. Anaesth.108, 272–273 (2012).

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J. W. Zheng, Z. B. Zhang, T. H. Wu, and Y. Zhang, “A wearable mobihealth care system supporting real-time diagnosis and alarm,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.45(9), 877–885 (2007).
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J. W. Zheng, Z. B. Zhang, T. H. Wu, and Y. Zhang, “A wearable mobihealth care system supporting real-time diagnosis and alarm,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.45(9), 877–885 (2007).
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Adv. Mater.

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Ann. Biomed. Eng.

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E. Hanada, “The electromagnetic environment of hospitals: how it is affected by the strength of electromagnetic fields generated both inside and outside the hospital,” Ann. Ist. Super. Sanita43(3), 208–217 (2007).
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E. K. Svanberg, P. Wollmer, S. Andersson-Engels, and J. Akeson, “Physiological influence of basic perturbations assessed by non-invasive optical techniques in humans,” Br. J. Anaesth.108, 272–273 (2012).

Electron. Lett.

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T. G. Giallorenzi, J. A. Bucaro, A. Dandridge, G. H. Sigel, J. H. Cole, S. C. Rashleigh, and R. G. Priest, “Optical Fiber Sensor Technology,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(4), 626–665 (1982).
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[CrossRef]

J. Witt, F. Narbonneau, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, J. De Jonckheere, M. Jeanne, D. Kinet, B. Paquet, A. Depré, L. T. D’Angelo, T. Thiel, and R. Logier, “Medical textiles with embedded fiber optic sensors for monitoring of respiratory movement,” IEEE Sens. J.12(1), 246–254 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

B. Venema, N. Blanik, V. Blazek, H. Gehring, A. Opp, and S. Leonhardt, “Advances in reflective oxygen saturation monitoring with a novel in-ear sensor system: Results of a human hypoxia study,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.59(7), 2003–2010 (2012).
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R. Woodgate and L. J. Kristjanson, “A young child’s pain: How parents and nurses ‘take care’,” Int. J. Nurs. Stud.33(3), 271–284 (1996).
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Intensive Care Med.

A. Louw, C. Cracco, C. Cerf, A. Harf, P. Duvaldestin, F. Lemaire, and L. Brochard, “Accuracy of pulse oximetry in the intensive care unit,” Intensive Care Med.27(10), 1606–1613 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. C. M. Dassel, R. Graaff, A. Meijer, W. G. Zijlstra, and J. G. Aarnoudse, “Reflectance pulse oximetry at the forehead of newborns: The influence of varying pressure on the probe,” J. Clin. Monit.12(6), 421–428 (1996).
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A. T. Rheineck-Leyssius and C. J. Kalkman, “Influence of pulse oximeter settings on the frequency of alarms and detection of hypoxemia: Theoretical effects of artifact rejection, alarm delay, averaging, median filtering or a lower setting of the alarm limit,” J. Clin. Monit. Comput.14(3), 151–156 (1998).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, L. A. Paunescu, A. Michalos, and E. Gratton, “Regional differences of Hemodynamics and oxygenation in the human calf muscle detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry,” J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol.18(9), 1094–1101 (2007).
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J. Vasc. Surg.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry,” J. Vasc. Surg.37(5), 1017–1026 (2003).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Analysis of different depths of tissue. The further from the illumination point the deeper parts of tissue are penetrated (dotted line)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sketch presenting embroidered optical fibers. Where (1) optical fibers stitched to couple the light out; (2) three dimensional embroidered black ring to prevent light short circuit. (3),(4) and (5) represent rings of optical fibers stitched to couple the light in. Each “V”-shaped line in the rings represents a portion of a single optical fiber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two types of embroidery patterns. On the left hand side, the ‘M’ type pattern is presented and on the right hand side, the ‘V’ type pattern. Red dots represent fixation points with the carrier textile. Pattern ‘M’ consisted of 54 optical fibers (12, 18, 24 in each ring from the middle to the outer one, respectively) whereas total number of fibers in the ‘ V’ pattern was 82 (18, 28, 36 in each ring counting from the middle to the outer one)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Setup for measurements of the light in-coupling efficiency. On (a) the setup of the PDMS-based human tissue model is shown. The PDMS consisted of India ink and the polymer film was placed on the supporting metal rings and the LED was located centrally. (b) shows the placement of the textile when tested

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measurement conditions of the heart rate and the oxygen saturation recording using the presented photonic textile. Light is coupled from the middle of the textile into the tissue of the finger and is then scattered back to the textile. On the right hand side top view of the photonic textile, without the finger, is presented: light is delivered by the central fiber, while the black ring prevents “short circuit” (see also Fig. 2).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

A luminous textile used in this study is bent to show the flexibility of the fabric. The fiber bundles of each ring were connected to LEDs with different colours to illustrate the successful separation of the fiber bundles and the light out-coupling efficiency.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Efficiency of light coupling into photonic textile with its standard deviation (n = 5)

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Graphs presenting the original time traces of light absorption in the tissue together with the calculated heart rate and blood oxygenation values. Parts (a), (b) and (c) represent measurements form rings 2-4 (Fig. 2) respectively; and in (d) the fibers of all three rings were combined.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Listing of all manufactured samples and their abbreviations

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ΔHHb×d×DPF=(0.239Δ A 692nm +0.099Δ A 834nm )
Δ O 2 Hb×d×DPF=(0.185Δ A 692nm 0.508 Δ 834nm )
Sp O 2 [%]=ΔOHb/(Δ O 2 Hb+ΔHHb)

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