C. F. Carle, T. Maddess, and A. C. James, “Contraction anisocoria: Segregation, summation, and saturation in the pupillary pathway,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52, 2365–2371 (2011).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Y. Chen, M. Adjouadi, C. Han, J. Wang, A. Barreto, N. Rishe, and J. Andrian, “A highly accurate and computationally efficient approach for unconstrained iris segmentation,” Image Vis. Comput.28, 261–269 (2010).

[CrossRef]

A. Bell, A. C. James, M. Kolic, R. W. Essex, and T. Maddess, “Dichoptic multifocal pupillography reveals afferent visual field defects in early type 2 diabetes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51, 602–608 (2010).

[CrossRef]

W. Sankowski, K. Grabowski, M. Napieralska, M. Zubert, and A. Napieralski, “Reliable algorithm for iris segmentation in eye image,” Image Vis. Comput., 28, 231–237, 2010.

[CrossRef]

H. Proenca, “Iris recognition: On the segmentation of degraded images acquired in the visible wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis Mach. Intell.32(8), 1502–1516 (2010).

[CrossRef]

Z. He, T. Tan, Z. Sun, and X. Qiu, “Toward accurate and fast iris segmentation for iris biometrics,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis Mach. Intell.31(9), 1670–1684 (2009).

[CrossRef]

S. A. C. Schuckers, N. A. Schmid, A. Abhyankar, V. Dorairaj, C. K. Boyce, and L. A. Hornak, “On techniques for angle compensation in nonideal iris recognition,” IEEE transactions on systems, man, cybernetics. Part B, Cybern. a publication IEEE Syst. Man, Cybern. Soc., 37, 1176–1190 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. Kanatani, “Ellipse fitting with hyperaccuracy,” IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst.E89-D, 2653–2660 (2006).

[CrossRef]

A. Fitzgibbon, M. Pilu, and R. B. Fisher, “Direct least square fitting of ellipses,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis Mach. Intell.21, 476–480 (1999).

[CrossRef]

J. C. Lagarias, J. A. Reeds, M. H. Wright, and P. E. Wright, “Convergence properties of the nelder-mead simplex method in low dimensions,” SIAM J. Optim.9, 112–147 (1998).

[CrossRef]

K. Kanatani, “Statistical bias of conic fitting and renormalization,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis Mach. Intell.16, 320–326 (1994).

[CrossRef]

J. Daugman, “High confidence visual recognition of persons by a test of statistical independence,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis Mach. Intell.15(11), 1148–1161 (1993).

[CrossRef]

G. Taubin, “Estimation of planar curves, surfaces, and nonplanar space curves defined by implicit equations with applications to edge and range image segmentation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis Mach. Intell.13, 1115–1138 (1991).

[CrossRef]

J. Porrill, “Fitting ellipses and predicting confidence envelopes using a bias corrected kalman filter,” Image Vis. Comput.8, 37–41 (1990).

[CrossRef]

H. Yuen, J. Princen, J. Illingworth, and J. Kittler, “Comparative study of hough transform methods for circle finding,” Image Vis. Comput.8, 71–77 (1990).

[CrossRef]

C. Broyden, “The convergence of a class of double-rank minimization algorithms 1. general considerations,” IMA J. Appl. Math.6, 76–90 (1970).

[CrossRef]

R. Fletcher, “A new approach to variable metric algorithms,” The Comp. J.13, 317–322 (1970).

[CrossRef]

D. Goldfarb, “A family of variable-metric methods derived by variational means,” Math. Comput.24, 23–26 (1970).

[CrossRef]

D. F. Shanno, “Conditioning of quasi-newton methods for function minimization,” Math. Comput.24, 647–656 (1970).

[CrossRef]

J. A. Nelder and R. Mead, “A simplex method for function minimization,” Comp. J.7, 308–313 (1965).

[CrossRef]

S. A. C. Schuckers, N. A. Schmid, A. Abhyankar, V. Dorairaj, C. K. Boyce, and L. A. Hornak, “On techniques for angle compensation in nonideal iris recognition,” IEEE transactions on systems, man, cybernetics. Part B, Cybern. a publication IEEE Syst. Man, Cybern. Soc., 37, 1176–1190 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Y. Chen, M. Adjouadi, C. Han, J. Wang, A. Barreto, N. Rishe, and J. Andrian, “A highly accurate and computationally efficient approach for unconstrained iris segmentation,” Image Vis. Comput.28, 261–269 (2010).

[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, M. Adjouadi, C. Han, J. Wang, A. Barreto, N. Rishe, and J. Andrian, “A highly accurate and computationally efficient approach for unconstrained iris segmentation,” Image Vis. Comput.28, 261–269 (2010).

[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, M. Adjouadi, C. Han, J. Wang, A. Barreto, N. Rishe, and J. Andrian, “A highly accurate and computationally efficient approach for unconstrained iris segmentation,” Image Vis. Comput.28, 261–269 (2010).

[CrossRef]

A. Bell, A. C. James, M. Kolic, R. W. Essex, and T. Maddess, “Dichoptic multifocal pupillography reveals afferent visual field defects in early type 2 diabetes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51, 602–608 (2010).

[CrossRef]

S. A. C. Schuckers, N. A. Schmid, A. Abhyankar, V. Dorairaj, C. K. Boyce, and L. A. Hornak, “On techniques for angle compensation in nonideal iris recognition,” IEEE transactions on systems, man, cybernetics. Part B, Cybern. a publication IEEE Syst. Man, Cybern. Soc., 37, 1176–1190 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

C. Broyden, “The convergence of a class of double-rank minimization algorithms 1. general considerations,” IMA J. Appl. Math.6, 76–90 (1970).

[CrossRef]

T. Camus and R. Wildes, “Reliable and fast eye finding in close-up images,” in 16th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, 2002. Proceedings, 1, 389–394 vol. 1, 2002.

C. F. Carle, T. Maddess, and A. C. James, “Contraction anisocoria: Segregation, summation, and saturation in the pupillary pathway,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52, 2365–2371 (2011).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Y. Chen, M. Adjouadi, C. Han, J. Wang, A. Barreto, N. Rishe, and J. Andrian, “A highly accurate and computationally efficient approach for unconstrained iris segmentation,” Image Vis. Comput.28, 261–269 (2010).

[CrossRef]

J. Daugman, “High confidence visual recognition of persons by a test of statistical independence,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis Mach. Intell.15(11), 1148–1161 (1993).

[CrossRef]

S. A. C. Schuckers, N. A. Schmid, A. Abhyankar, V. Dorairaj, C. K. Boyce, and L. A. Hornak, “On techniques for angle compensation in nonideal iris recognition,” IEEE transactions on systems, man, cybernetics. Part B, Cybern. a publication IEEE Syst. Man, Cybern. Soc., 37, 1176–1190 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. Bell, A. C. James, M. Kolic, R. W. Essex, and T. Maddess, “Dichoptic multifocal pupillography reveals afferent visual field defects in early type 2 diabetes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51, 602–608 (2010).

[CrossRef]

A. Fitzgibbon, M. Pilu, and R. B. Fisher, “Direct least square fitting of ellipses,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis Mach. Intell.21, 476–480 (1999).

[CrossRef]

A. Fitzgibbon, M. Pilu, and R. B. Fisher, “Direct least square fitting of ellipses,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis Mach. Intell.21, 476–480 (1999).

[CrossRef]

R. Fletcher, “A new approach to variable metric algorithms,” The Comp. J.13, 317–322 (1970).

[CrossRef]

D. Goldfarb, “A family of variable-metric methods derived by variational means,” Math. Comput.24, 23–26 (1970).

[CrossRef]

W. Sankowski, K. Grabowski, M. Napieralska, M. Zubert, and A. Napieralski, “Reliable algorithm for iris segmentation in eye image,” Image Vis. Comput., 28, 231–237, 2010.

[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, M. Adjouadi, C. Han, J. Wang, A. Barreto, N. Rishe, and J. Andrian, “A highly accurate and computationally efficient approach for unconstrained iris segmentation,” Image Vis. Comput.28, 261–269 (2010).

[CrossRef]

Z. He, T. Tan, Z. Sun, and X. Qiu, “Toward accurate and fast iris segmentation for iris biometrics,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis Mach. Intell.31(9), 1670–1684 (2009).

[CrossRef]

Z. He, T. Tan, and Z. Sun, “Iris localization via pulling and pushing,” in 18th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, 2006. ICPR 2006, 4, 366–369, 2006.

S. A. C. Schuckers, N. A. Schmid, A. Abhyankar, V. Dorairaj, C. K. Boyce, and L. A. Hornak, “On techniques for angle compensation in nonideal iris recognition,” IEEE transactions on systems, man, cybernetics. Part B, Cybern. a publication IEEE Syst. Man, Cybern. Soc., 37, 1176–1190 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. Yuen, J. Princen, J. Illingworth, and J. Kittler, “Comparative study of hough transform methods for circle finding,” Image Vis. Comput.8, 71–77 (1990).

[CrossRef]

C. F. Carle, T. Maddess, and A. C. James, “Contraction anisocoria: Segregation, summation, and saturation in the pupillary pathway,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52, 2365–2371 (2011).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. Bell, A. C. James, M. Kolic, R. W. Essex, and T. Maddess, “Dichoptic multifocal pupillography reveals afferent visual field defects in early type 2 diabetes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51, 602–608 (2010).

[CrossRef]

K. Kanatani, “Ellipse fitting with hyperaccuracy,” IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst.E89-D, 2653–2660 (2006).

[CrossRef]

K. Kanatani, “Statistical bias of conic fitting and renormalization,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis Mach. Intell.16, 320–326 (1994).

[CrossRef]

H. Yuen, J. Princen, J. Illingworth, and J. Kittler, “Comparative study of hough transform methods for circle finding,” Image Vis. Comput.8, 71–77 (1990).

[CrossRef]

A. Bell, A. C. James, M. Kolic, R. W. Essex, and T. Maddess, “Dichoptic multifocal pupillography reveals afferent visual field defects in early type 2 diabetes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51, 602–608 (2010).

[CrossRef]

J. C. Lagarias, J. A. Reeds, M. H. Wright, and P. E. Wright, “Convergence properties of the nelder-mead simplex method in low dimensions,” SIAM J. Optim.9, 112–147 (1998).

[CrossRef]

C. F. Carle, T. Maddess, and A. C. James, “Contraction anisocoria: Segregation, summation, and saturation in the pupillary pathway,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52, 2365–2371 (2011).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. Bell, A. C. James, M. Kolic, R. W. Essex, and T. Maddess, “Dichoptic multifocal pupillography reveals afferent visual field defects in early type 2 diabetes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51, 602–608 (2010).

[CrossRef]

E. S. Maini, “Robust ellipse-specific fitting for real-time machine vision,” in Brain, Vision, and Artificial Intelligence, M. Gregorio, V. Maio, M. Frucci, and C. Musio, eds. (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2005) vol. 3704, pp. 318–327.

[CrossRef]

J. A. Nelder and R. Mead, “A simplex method for function minimization,” Comp. J.7, 308–313 (1965).

[CrossRef]

J. Miles., www.milesresearch.com . Image use permission kindly granted by owner.

W. Sankowski, K. Grabowski, M. Napieralska, M. Zubert, and A. Napieralski, “Reliable algorithm for iris segmentation in eye image,” Image Vis. Comput., 28, 231–237, 2010.

[CrossRef]

W. Sankowski, K. Grabowski, M. Napieralska, M. Zubert, and A. Napieralski, “Reliable algorithm for iris segmentation in eye image,” Image Vis. Comput., 28, 231–237, 2010.

[CrossRef]

J. A. Nelder and R. Mead, “A simplex method for function minimization,” Comp. J.7, 308–313 (1965).

[CrossRef]

A. Fitzgibbon, M. Pilu, and R. B. Fisher, “Direct least square fitting of ellipses,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis Mach. Intell.21, 476–480 (1999).

[CrossRef]

J. Porrill, “Fitting ellipses and predicting confidence envelopes using a bias corrected kalman filter,” Image Vis. Comput.8, 37–41 (1990).

[CrossRef]

H. Yuen, J. Princen, J. Illingworth, and J. Kittler, “Comparative study of hough transform methods for circle finding,” Image Vis. Comput.8, 71–77 (1990).

[CrossRef]

H. Proenca, “Iris recognition: On the segmentation of degraded images acquired in the visible wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis Mach. Intell.32(8), 1502–1516 (2010).

[CrossRef]

Z. He, T. Tan, Z. Sun, and X. Qiu, “Toward accurate and fast iris segmentation for iris biometrics,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis Mach. Intell.31(9), 1670–1684 (2009).

[CrossRef]

J. C. Lagarias, J. A. Reeds, M. H. Wright, and P. E. Wright, “Convergence properties of the nelder-mead simplex method in low dimensions,” SIAM J. Optim.9, 112–147 (1998).

[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, M. Adjouadi, C. Han, J. Wang, A. Barreto, N. Rishe, and J. Andrian, “A highly accurate and computationally efficient approach for unconstrained iris segmentation,” Image Vis. Comput.28, 261–269 (2010).

[CrossRef]

W. Sankowski, K. Grabowski, M. Napieralska, M. Zubert, and A. Napieralski, “Reliable algorithm for iris segmentation in eye image,” Image Vis. Comput., 28, 231–237, 2010.

[CrossRef]

S. A. C. Schuckers, N. A. Schmid, A. Abhyankar, V. Dorairaj, C. K. Boyce, and L. A. Hornak, “On techniques for angle compensation in nonideal iris recognition,” IEEE transactions on systems, man, cybernetics. Part B, Cybern. a publication IEEE Syst. Man, Cybern. Soc., 37, 1176–1190 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. A. C. Schuckers, N. A. Schmid, A. Abhyankar, V. Dorairaj, C. K. Boyce, and L. A. Hornak, “On techniques for angle compensation in nonideal iris recognition,” IEEE transactions on systems, man, cybernetics. Part B, Cybern. a publication IEEE Syst. Man, Cybern. Soc., 37, 1176–1190 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. F. Shanno, “Conditioning of quasi-newton methods for function minimization,” Math. Comput.24, 647–656 (1970).

[CrossRef]

Z. He, T. Tan, Z. Sun, and X. Qiu, “Toward accurate and fast iris segmentation for iris biometrics,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis Mach. Intell.31(9), 1670–1684 (2009).

[CrossRef]

Z. He, T. Tan, and Z. Sun, “Iris localization via pulling and pushing,” in 18th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, 2006. ICPR 2006, 4, 366–369, 2006.

Z. He, T. Tan, Z. Sun, and X. Qiu, “Toward accurate and fast iris segmentation for iris biometrics,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis Mach. Intell.31(9), 1670–1684 (2009).

[CrossRef]

Z. He, T. Tan, and Z. Sun, “Iris localization via pulling and pushing,” in 18th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, 2006. ICPR 2006, 4, 366–369, 2006.

G. Taubin, “Estimation of planar curves, surfaces, and nonplanar space curves defined by implicit equations with applications to edge and range image segmentation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis Mach. Intell.13, 1115–1138 (1991).

[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, M. Adjouadi, C. Han, J. Wang, A. Barreto, N. Rishe, and J. Andrian, “A highly accurate and computationally efficient approach for unconstrained iris segmentation,” Image Vis. Comput.28, 261–269 (2010).

[CrossRef]

T. Camus and R. Wildes, “Reliable and fast eye finding in close-up images,” in 16th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, 2002. Proceedings, 1, 389–394 vol. 1, 2002.

J. C. Lagarias, J. A. Reeds, M. H. Wright, and P. E. Wright, “Convergence properties of the nelder-mead simplex method in low dimensions,” SIAM J. Optim.9, 112–147 (1998).

[CrossRef]

J. C. Lagarias, J. A. Reeds, M. H. Wright, and P. E. Wright, “Convergence properties of the nelder-mead simplex method in low dimensions,” SIAM J. Optim.9, 112–147 (1998).

[CrossRef]

H. Yuen, J. Princen, J. Illingworth, and J. Kittler, “Comparative study of hough transform methods for circle finding,” Image Vis. Comput.8, 71–77 (1990).

[CrossRef]

W. Sankowski, K. Grabowski, M. Napieralska, M. Zubert, and A. Napieralski, “Reliable algorithm for iris segmentation in eye image,” Image Vis. Comput., 28, 231–237, 2010.

[CrossRef]

J. A. Nelder and R. Mead, “A simplex method for function minimization,” Comp. J.7, 308–313 (1965).

[CrossRef]

G. Taubin, “Estimation of planar curves, surfaces, and nonplanar space curves defined by implicit equations with applications to edge and range image segmentation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis Mach. Intell.13, 1115–1138 (1991).

[CrossRef]

A. Fitzgibbon, M. Pilu, and R. B. Fisher, “Direct least square fitting of ellipses,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis Mach. Intell.21, 476–480 (1999).

[CrossRef]

K. Kanatani, “Statistical bias of conic fitting and renormalization,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis Mach. Intell.16, 320–326 (1994).

[CrossRef]

J. Daugman, “High confidence visual recognition of persons by a test of statistical independence,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis Mach. Intell.15(11), 1148–1161 (1993).

[CrossRef]

H. Proenca, “Iris recognition: On the segmentation of degraded images acquired in the visible wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis Mach. Intell.32(8), 1502–1516 (2010).

[CrossRef]

Z. He, T. Tan, Z. Sun, and X. Qiu, “Toward accurate and fast iris segmentation for iris biometrics,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis Mach. Intell.31(9), 1670–1684 (2009).

[CrossRef]

S. A. C. Schuckers, N. A. Schmid, A. Abhyankar, V. Dorairaj, C. K. Boyce, and L. A. Hornak, “On techniques for angle compensation in nonideal iris recognition,” IEEE transactions on systems, man, cybernetics. Part B, Cybern. a publication IEEE Syst. Man, Cybern. Soc., 37, 1176–1190 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. Kanatani, “Ellipse fitting with hyperaccuracy,” IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst.E89-D, 2653–2660 (2006).

[CrossRef]

C. Broyden, “The convergence of a class of double-rank minimization algorithms 1. general considerations,” IMA J. Appl. Math.6, 76–90 (1970).

[CrossRef]

J. Porrill, “Fitting ellipses and predicting confidence envelopes using a bias corrected kalman filter,” Image Vis. Comput.8, 37–41 (1990).

[CrossRef]

W. Sankowski, K. Grabowski, M. Napieralska, M. Zubert, and A. Napieralski, “Reliable algorithm for iris segmentation in eye image,” Image Vis. Comput., 28, 231–237, 2010.

[CrossRef]

H. Yuen, J. Princen, J. Illingworth, and J. Kittler, “Comparative study of hough transform methods for circle finding,” Image Vis. Comput.8, 71–77 (1990).

[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, M. Adjouadi, C. Han, J. Wang, A. Barreto, N. Rishe, and J. Andrian, “A highly accurate and computationally efficient approach for unconstrained iris segmentation,” Image Vis. Comput.28, 261–269 (2010).

[CrossRef]

A. Bell, A. C. James, M. Kolic, R. W. Essex, and T. Maddess, “Dichoptic multifocal pupillography reveals afferent visual field defects in early type 2 diabetes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51, 602–608 (2010).

[CrossRef]

C. F. Carle, T. Maddess, and A. C. James, “Contraction anisocoria: Segregation, summation, and saturation in the pupillary pathway,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52, 2365–2371 (2011).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Goldfarb, “A family of variable-metric methods derived by variational means,” Math. Comput.24, 23–26 (1970).

[CrossRef]

D. F. Shanno, “Conditioning of quasi-newton methods for function minimization,” Math. Comput.24, 647–656 (1970).

[CrossRef]

J. C. Lagarias, J. A. Reeds, M. H. Wright, and P. E. Wright, “Convergence properties of the nelder-mead simplex method in low dimensions,” SIAM J. Optim.9, 112–147 (1998).

[CrossRef]

R. Fletcher, “A new approach to variable metric algorithms,” The Comp. J.13, 317–322 (1970).

[CrossRef]

E. S. Maini, “Robust ellipse-specific fitting for real-time machine vision,” in Brain, Vision, and Artificial Intelligence, M. Gregorio, V. Maio, M. Frucci, and C. Musio, eds. (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2005) vol. 3704, pp. 318–327.

[CrossRef]

J. Miles., www.milesresearch.com . Image use permission kindly granted by owner.

Z. He, T. Tan, and Z. Sun, “Iris localization via pulling and pushing,” in 18th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, 2006. ICPR 2006, 4, 366–369, 2006.

T. Camus and R. Wildes, “Reliable and fast eye finding in close-up images,” in 16th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, 2002. Proceedings, 1, 389–394 vol. 1, 2002.