Abstract

Magnetic particles are versatile imaging agents that have found wide spread applicability in diagnostic, therapeutic, and rheology applications. In this study, we demonstrate that mechanical waves generated by a localized inclusion of magnetic nanoparticles can be used for assessment of the tissue viscoelastic properties using magnetomotive optical coherence elastography. We show these capabilities in tissue mimicking elastic and viscoelastic phantoms and in biological tissues by measuring the shear wave speed under magnetomotive excitation. Furthermore, we demonstrate the extraction of the complex shear modulus by measuring the shear wave speed at different frequencies and fitting to a Kelvin-Voigt model.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (7)

B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “A review of optical coherence elastography: fundamentals, techniques and prospects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.20(2), 272–288 (2014).
[CrossRef]

T.-M. Nguyen, S. Song, B. Arnal, Z. Huang, M. O’Donnell, and R. K. Wang, “Visualizing ultrasonically induced shear wave propagation using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography for dynamic elastography,” Opt. Lett.39(4), 838–841 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Razani, T. W. H. Luk, A. Mariampillai, P. Siegler, T.-R. Kiehl, M. C. Kolios, and V. X. D. Yang, “Optical coherence tomography detection of shear wave propagation in inhomogeneous tissue equivalent phantoms and ex-vivo carotid artery samples,” Biomed. Opt. Express5(3), 895–906 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, G. Guan, F. Zhang, G. Nabi, R. K. Wang, and Z. Huang, “Laser induced surface acoustic wave combined with phase sensitive optical coherence tomography for superficial tissue characterization: a solution for practical application,” Biomed. Opt. Express5(5), 1403–1419 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Crecea, B. W. Graf, T. Kim, G. Popescu, and S. A. Boppart, “High resolution phase-sensitive magnetomotive optical coherence microscopy for tracking magnetic microbeads and cellular mechanics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.20(2), 25–31 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, A. Ahmad, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, J. Li, J. Rasio, Z. Hubler, D. Spillman, K. S. Suslick, and S. A. Boppart, “Magnetomotive optical coherence tomography for the assessment of atherosclerotic lesions using αvβ3 integrin-targeted microspheres,” Mol. Imaging Biol.16(1), 36–43 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Nguyen, S. Zhou, J. L. Robert, V. Shamdasani, and H. Xie, “Development of oil-in-gelatin phantoms for viscoelasticity measurement in ultrasound shear wave elastography,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.40(1), 168–176 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

Y. Wang and M. F. Insana, “Viscoelastic properties of rodent mammary tumors using ultrasonic shear-wave imaging,” Ultrason. Imaging35(2), 126–145 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Evertsson, M. Cinthio, S. Fredriksson, F. Olsson, H. W. Persson, and T. Jansson, “Frequency- and phase-sensitive magnetomotive ultrasound imaging of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control60(3), 481–491 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Crecea, A. Ahmad, and S. A. Boppart, “Magnetomotive optical coherence elastography for microrheology of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121504 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Song, Z. Huang, T.-M. Nguyen, E. Y. Wong, B. Arnal, M. O’Donnell, and R. K. Wang, “Shear modulus imaging by direct visualization of propagating shear waves with phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121509 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Song, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Tracking mechanical wave propagation within tissue using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography: motion artifact and its compensation,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121505 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (8)

M. Razani, A. Mariampillai, C. Sun, T. W. H. Luk, V. X. D. Yang, and M. C. Kolios, “Feasibility of optical coherence elastography measurements of shear wave propagation in homogeneous tissue equivalent phantoms,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(5), 972–980 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Qi, R. Chen, L. Chou, G. Liu, J. Zhang, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, “Phase-resolved acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(11), 110505 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Manapuram, S. Aglyamov, F. M. Menodiado, M. Mashiatulla, S. Wang, S. A. Baranov, J. Li, S. Emelianov, and K. V. Larin, “Estimation of shear wave velocity in gelatin phantoms utilizing PhS-SSOCT,” Laser Phys.22(9), 1439–1444 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Li, G. Guan, X. Cheng, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Quantitative elastography provided by surface acoustic waves measured by phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 722–724 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for tissue boundary detection,” Opt. Lett.37(12), 2310–2312 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Koo, C. Lee, H. W. Kang, Y. W. Lee, J. Kim, and J. Oh, “Pulsed magneto-motive optical coherence tomography for remote cellular imaging,” Opt. Lett.37(17), 3714–3716 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wang, J. Li, R. K. Manapuram, F. M. Menodiado, D. R. Ingram, M. D. Twa, A. J. Lazar, D. C. Lev, R. E. Pollock, and K. V. Larin, “Noncontact measurement of elasticity for the detection of soft-tissue tumors using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography combined with a focused air-puff system,” Opt. Lett.37(24), 5184–5186 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Chen, A. Yao, E. E. Zheng, J. Lin, and Y. Zheng, “Shear wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry based on a different mechanical model for soft tissue characterization,” J. Ultrasound Med.31(12), 2001–2011 (2012).
[PubMed]

2011 (3)

T. Deffieux, J. L. Gennisson, J. Bercoff, and M. Tanter, “On the effects of reflected waves in transient shear wave elastography,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control58(10), 2032–2035 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Parker, M. M. Doyley, and D. J. Rubens, “Imaging the elastic properties of tissue: the 20 year perspective,” Phys. Med. Biol.56(1), R1–R29 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Nightingale, “Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging: a review,” Curr. Med. Imaging Rev.7(4), 328–339 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (7)

X. Liang and S. A. Boppart, “Biomechanical properties of in vivo human skin from dynamic optical coherence elastography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.57(4), 953–959 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liang, V. Crecea, and S. A. Boppart, “Dynamic optical coherence elastography: a review,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci.3(4), 221–233 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Orescanin and M. Insana, “Shear modulus estimation with vibrating needle stimulation,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control57(6), 1358–1367 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Krishnan, “Biomedical nanomagnetics: a spin through possibilities in imaging, diagnostics, and therapy,” IEEE Trans. Magn.46(7), 2523–2558 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. John, R. Rezaeipoor, S. G. Adie, E. J. Chaney, A. L. Oldenburg, M. Marjanovic, J. P. Haldar, B. P. Sutton, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo magnetomotive optical molecular imaging using targeted magnetic nanoprobes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(18), 8085–8090 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Oldenburg and S. A. Boppart, “Resonant acoustic spectroscopy of soft tissues using embedded magnetomotive nanotransducers and optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(4), 1189–1201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Grimwood, L. Garcia, J. Bamber, J. Holmes, P. Woolliams, P. Tomlins, and Q. A. Pankhurst, “Elastographic contrast generation in optical coherence tomography from a localized shear stress,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(18), 5515–5528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (8)

V. I. Shubayev, T. R. Pisanic, and S. Jin, “Magnetic nanoparticles for theragnostics,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.61(6), 467–477 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vappou, C. Maleke, and E. E. Konofagou, “Quantitative viscoelastic parameters measured by harmonic motion imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(11), 3579–3594 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chen, M. W. Urban, C. Pislaru, R. Kinnick, Y. Zheng, A. Yao, and J. F. Greenleaf, “Shearwave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (SDUV) for measuring tissue elasticity and viscosity,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control56(1), 55–62 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Urban, S. Chen, and J. F. Greenleaf, “Error in estimates of tissue material properties from shear wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control56(4), 748–758 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Crecea, A. L. Oldenburg, X. Liang, T. S. Ralston, and S. A. Boppart, “Magnetomotive nanoparticle transducers for optical rheology of viscoelastic materials,” Opt. Express17(25), 23114–23122 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Deffieux, G. Montaldo, M. Tanter, and M. Fink, “Shear wave spectroscopy for in vivo quantification of human soft tissues visco-elasticity,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging28(3), 313–322 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wilhelm and F. Gazeau, “Magnetic nanoparticles: Internal probes and heaters within living cells,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater.321(7), 671–674 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Liang, M. Orescanin, K. S. Toohey, M. F. Insana, and S. A. Boppart, “Acoustomotive optical coherence elastography for measuring material mechanical properties,” Opt. Lett.34(19), 2894–2896 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

A. L. Oldenburg, V. Crecea, S. A. Rinne, and S. A. Boppart, “Phase-resolved magnetomotive OCT for imaging nanomolar concentrations of magnetic nanoparticles in tissues,” Opt. Express16(15), 11525–11539 (2008).
[PubMed]

R. W. Chan and M. L. Rodriguez, “A simple-shear rheometer for linear viscoelastic characterization of vocal fold tissues at phonatory frequencies,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.124(2), 1207–1219 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

Y. Zheng, S. Chen, W. Tan, R. Kinnick, and J. F. Greenleaf, “Detection of tissue harmonic motion induced by ultrasonic radiation force using pulse-echo ultrasound and Kalman filter,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control54(2), 290–300 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

Q. C. C. Chan, G. Li, R. L. Ehman, R. C. Grimm, R. Li, and E. S. Yang, “Needle shear wave driver for magnetic resonance elastography,” Magn. Reson. Med.55(5), 1175–1179 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Kirkpatrick, R. K. Wang, and D. D. Duncan, “OCT-based elastography for large and small deformations,” Opt. Express14(24), 11585–11597 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

S. Chen, M. Fatemi, and J. F. Greenleaf, “Quantifying elasticity and viscosity from measurement of shear wave speed dispersion,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.115(6), 2781–2785 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bercoff, M. Tanter, M. Muller, and M. Fink, “The role of viscosity in the impulse diffraction field of elastic waves induced by the acoustic radiation force,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control51(11), 1523–1536 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

S. Catheline, J. L. Gennisson, and M. Fink, “Measurement of elastic nonlinearity of soft solid with transient elastography,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.114(6), 3087–3091 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Gennisson, S. Catheline, S. Chaffaï, and M. Fink, “Transient elastography in anisotropic medium: application to the measurement of slow and fast shear wave speeds in muscles,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.114(1), 536–541 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bercoff, S. Chaffai, M. Tanter, L. Sandrin, S. Catheline, M. Fink, J. L. Gennisson, and M. Meunier, “In vivo breast tumor detection using transient elastography,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.29(10), 1387–1396 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Greenleaf, M. Fatemi, and M. Insana, “Selected methods for imaging elastic properties of biological tissues,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng.5(1), 57–78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

V. Dutt, R. R. Kinnick, R. Muthupillai, T. E. Oliphant, R. L. Ehman, and J. F. Greenleaf, “Acoustic shear-wave imaging using echo ultrasound compared to magnetic resonance elastography,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.26(3), 397–403 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

S. Catheline, F. Wu, and M. Fink, “A solution to diffraction biases in sonoelasticity: The acoustic impulse technique,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.105(5), 2941–2950 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Benkherourou, C. Rochas, P. Tracqui, L. Tranqui, and P. Y. Guméry, “Standardization of a method for characterizing low-concentration biogels: elastic properties of low-concentration agarose gels,” J. Biomech. Eng.121(2), 184–187 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography by direct visualization of propagating acoustic strain waves,” Science269(5232), 1854–1857 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

Y. Yamakoshi, J. Sato, and T. Sato, “Ultrasonic imaging of internal vibration of soft tissue under forced vibration,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control37(2), 45–53 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

E. L. Madsen, J. A. Zagzebski, and G. R. Frank, “Oil-in-gelatin dispersions for use as ultrasonically tissue-mimicking materials,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.8(3), 277–287 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adie, S. G.

R. John, R. Rezaeipoor, S. G. Adie, E. J. Chaney, A. L. Oldenburg, M. Marjanovic, J. P. Haldar, B. P. Sutton, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo magnetomotive optical molecular imaging using targeted magnetic nanoprobes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(18), 8085–8090 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aglyamov, S.

R. Manapuram, S. Aglyamov, F. M. Menodiado, M. Mashiatulla, S. Wang, S. A. Baranov, J. Li, S. Emelianov, and K. V. Larin, “Estimation of shear wave velocity in gelatin phantoms utilizing PhS-SSOCT,” Laser Phys.22(9), 1439–1444 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, A.

J. Kim, A. Ahmad, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, J. Li, J. Rasio, Z. Hubler, D. Spillman, K. S. Suslick, and S. A. Boppart, “Magnetomotive optical coherence tomography for the assessment of atherosclerotic lesions using αvβ3 integrin-targeted microspheres,” Mol. Imaging Biol.16(1), 36–43 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Crecea, A. Ahmad, and S. A. Boppart, “Magnetomotive optical coherence elastography for microrheology of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121504 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnal, B.

T.-M. Nguyen, S. Song, B. Arnal, Z. Huang, M. O’Donnell, and R. K. Wang, “Visualizing ultrasonically induced shear wave propagation using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography for dynamic elastography,” Opt. Lett.39(4), 838–841 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Song, Z. Huang, T.-M. Nguyen, E. Y. Wong, B. Arnal, M. O’Donnell, and R. K. Wang, “Shear modulus imaging by direct visualization of propagating shear waves with phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121509 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bamber, J.

A. Grimwood, L. Garcia, J. Bamber, J. Holmes, P. Woolliams, P. Tomlins, and Q. A. Pankhurst, “Elastographic contrast generation in optical coherence tomography from a localized shear stress,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(18), 5515–5528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baranov, S. A.

R. Manapuram, S. Aglyamov, F. M. Menodiado, M. Mashiatulla, S. Wang, S. A. Baranov, J. Li, S. Emelianov, and K. V. Larin, “Estimation of shear wave velocity in gelatin phantoms utilizing PhS-SSOCT,” Laser Phys.22(9), 1439–1444 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Benkherourou, M.

M. Benkherourou, C. Rochas, P. Tracqui, L. Tranqui, and P. Y. Guméry, “Standardization of a method for characterizing low-concentration biogels: elastic properties of low-concentration agarose gels,” J. Biomech. Eng.121(2), 184–187 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bercoff, J.

T. Deffieux, J. L. Gennisson, J. Bercoff, and M. Tanter, “On the effects of reflected waves in transient shear wave elastography,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control58(10), 2032–2035 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bercoff, M. Tanter, M. Muller, and M. Fink, “The role of viscosity in the impulse diffraction field of elastic waves induced by the acoustic radiation force,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control51(11), 1523–1536 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bercoff, S. Chaffai, M. Tanter, L. Sandrin, S. Catheline, M. Fink, J. L. Gennisson, and M. Meunier, “In vivo breast tumor detection using transient elastography,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.29(10), 1387–1396 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

J. Kim, A. Ahmad, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, J. Li, J. Rasio, Z. Hubler, D. Spillman, K. S. Suslick, and S. A. Boppart, “Magnetomotive optical coherence tomography for the assessment of atherosclerotic lesions using αvβ3 integrin-targeted microspheres,” Mol. Imaging Biol.16(1), 36–43 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Crecea, B. W. Graf, T. Kim, G. Popescu, and S. A. Boppart, “High resolution phase-sensitive magnetomotive optical coherence microscopy for tracking magnetic microbeads and cellular mechanics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.20(2), 25–31 (2014).
[CrossRef]

V. Crecea, A. Ahmad, and S. A. Boppart, “Magnetomotive optical coherence elastography for microrheology of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121504 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. John, R. Rezaeipoor, S. G. Adie, E. J. Chaney, A. L. Oldenburg, M. Marjanovic, J. P. Haldar, B. P. Sutton, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo magnetomotive optical molecular imaging using targeted magnetic nanoprobes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(18), 8085–8090 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liang and S. A. Boppart, “Biomechanical properties of in vivo human skin from dynamic optical coherence elastography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.57(4), 953–959 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liang, V. Crecea, and S. A. Boppart, “Dynamic optical coherence elastography: a review,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci.3(4), 221–233 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Oldenburg and S. A. Boppart, “Resonant acoustic spectroscopy of soft tissues using embedded magnetomotive nanotransducers and optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(4), 1189–1201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Crecea, A. L. Oldenburg, X. Liang, T. S. Ralston, and S. A. Boppart, “Magnetomotive nanoparticle transducers for optical rheology of viscoelastic materials,” Opt. Express17(25), 23114–23122 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liang, M. Orescanin, K. S. Toohey, M. F. Insana, and S. A. Boppart, “Acoustomotive optical coherence elastography for measuring material mechanical properties,” Opt. Lett.34(19), 2894–2896 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Oldenburg, V. Crecea, S. A. Rinne, and S. A. Boppart, “Phase-resolved magnetomotive OCT for imaging nanomolar concentrations of magnetic nanoparticles in tissues,” Opt. Express16(15), 11525–11539 (2008).
[PubMed]

A. L. Oldenburg, F. J.-J. Toublan, K. S. Suslick, A. Wei, and S. A. Boppart, “Magnetomotive contrast for in vivo optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express13(17), 6597–6614 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Catheline, S.

J. Bercoff, S. Chaffai, M. Tanter, L. Sandrin, S. Catheline, M. Fink, J. L. Gennisson, and M. Meunier, “In vivo breast tumor detection using transient elastography,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.29(10), 1387–1396 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Catheline, J. L. Gennisson, and M. Fink, “Measurement of elastic nonlinearity of soft solid with transient elastography,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.114(6), 3087–3091 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Gennisson, S. Catheline, S. Chaffaï, and M. Fink, “Transient elastography in anisotropic medium: application to the measurement of slow and fast shear wave speeds in muscles,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.114(1), 536–541 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Catheline, F. Wu, and M. Fink, “A solution to diffraction biases in sonoelasticity: The acoustic impulse technique,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.105(5), 2941–2950 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaffai, S.

J. Bercoff, S. Chaffai, M. Tanter, L. Sandrin, S. Catheline, M. Fink, J. L. Gennisson, and M. Meunier, “In vivo breast tumor detection using transient elastography,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.29(10), 1387–1396 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaffaï, S.

J. L. Gennisson, S. Catheline, S. Chaffaï, and M. Fink, “Transient elastography in anisotropic medium: application to the measurement of slow and fast shear wave speeds in muscles,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.114(1), 536–541 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, Q. C. C.

Q. C. C. Chan, G. Li, R. L. Ehman, R. C. Grimm, R. Li, and E. S. Yang, “Needle shear wave driver for magnetic resonance elastography,” Magn. Reson. Med.55(5), 1175–1179 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, R. W.

R. W. Chan and M. L. Rodriguez, “A simple-shear rheometer for linear viscoelastic characterization of vocal fold tissues at phonatory frequencies,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.124(2), 1207–1219 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaney, E. J.

J. Kim, A. Ahmad, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, J. Li, J. Rasio, Z. Hubler, D. Spillman, K. S. Suslick, and S. A. Boppart, “Magnetomotive optical coherence tomography for the assessment of atherosclerotic lesions using αvβ3 integrin-targeted microspheres,” Mol. Imaging Biol.16(1), 36–43 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. John, R. Rezaeipoor, S. G. Adie, E. J. Chaney, A. L. Oldenburg, M. Marjanovic, J. P. Haldar, B. P. Sutton, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo magnetomotive optical molecular imaging using targeted magnetic nanoprobes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(18), 8085–8090 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K.

K. Chen, A. Yao, E. E. Zheng, J. Lin, and Y. Zheng, “Shear wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry based on a different mechanical model for soft tissue characterization,” J. Ultrasound Med.31(12), 2001–2011 (2012).
[PubMed]

Chen, R.

W. Qi, R. Chen, L. Chou, G. Liu, J. Zhang, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, “Phase-resolved acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(11), 110505 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

S. Chen, M. W. Urban, C. Pislaru, R. Kinnick, Y. Zheng, A. Yao, and J. F. Greenleaf, “Shearwave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (SDUV) for measuring tissue elasticity and viscosity,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control56(1), 55–62 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Urban, S. Chen, and J. F. Greenleaf, “Error in estimates of tissue material properties from shear wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control56(4), 748–758 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zheng, S. Chen, W. Tan, R. Kinnick, and J. F. Greenleaf, “Detection of tissue harmonic motion induced by ultrasonic radiation force using pulse-echo ultrasound and Kalman filter,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control54(2), 290–300 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chen, M. Fatemi, and J. F. Greenleaf, “Quantifying elasticity and viscosity from measurement of shear wave speed dispersion,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.115(6), 2781–2785 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

W. Qi, R. Chen, L. Chou, G. Liu, J. Zhang, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, “Phase-resolved acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(11), 110505 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, X.

Chou, L.

W. Qi, R. Chen, L. Chou, G. Liu, J. Zhang, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, “Phase-resolved acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(11), 110505 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cinthio, M.

M. Evertsson, M. Cinthio, S. Fredriksson, F. Olsson, H. W. Persson, and T. Jansson, “Frequency- and phase-sensitive magnetomotive ultrasound imaging of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control60(3), 481–491 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crecea, V.

V. Crecea, B. W. Graf, T. Kim, G. Popescu, and S. A. Boppart, “High resolution phase-sensitive magnetomotive optical coherence microscopy for tracking magnetic microbeads and cellular mechanics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.20(2), 25–31 (2014).
[CrossRef]

V. Crecea, A. Ahmad, and S. A. Boppart, “Magnetomotive optical coherence elastography for microrheology of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121504 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liang, V. Crecea, and S. A. Boppart, “Dynamic optical coherence elastography: a review,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci.3(4), 221–233 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Crecea, A. L. Oldenburg, X. Liang, T. S. Ralston, and S. A. Boppart, “Magnetomotive nanoparticle transducers for optical rheology of viscoelastic materials,” Opt. Express17(25), 23114–23122 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Oldenburg, V. Crecea, S. A. Rinne, and S. A. Boppart, “Phase-resolved magnetomotive OCT for imaging nanomolar concentrations of magnetic nanoparticles in tissues,” Opt. Express16(15), 11525–11539 (2008).
[PubMed]

Deffieux, T.

T. Deffieux, J. L. Gennisson, J. Bercoff, and M. Tanter, “On the effects of reflected waves in transient shear wave elastography,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control58(10), 2032–2035 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Deffieux, G. Montaldo, M. Tanter, and M. Fink, “Shear wave spectroscopy for in vivo quantification of human soft tissues visco-elasticity,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging28(3), 313–322 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doyley, M. M.

K. J. Parker, M. M. Doyley, and D. J. Rubens, “Imaging the elastic properties of tissue: the 20 year perspective,” Phys. Med. Biol.56(1), R1–R29 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duncan, D. D.

Dutt, V.

V. Dutt, R. R. Kinnick, R. Muthupillai, T. E. Oliphant, R. L. Ehman, and J. F. Greenleaf, “Acoustic shear-wave imaging using echo ultrasound compared to magnetic resonance elastography,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.26(3), 397–403 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ehman, R. L.

Q. C. C. Chan, G. Li, R. L. Ehman, R. C. Grimm, R. Li, and E. S. Yang, “Needle shear wave driver for magnetic resonance elastography,” Magn. Reson. Med.55(5), 1175–1179 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Dutt, R. R. Kinnick, R. Muthupillai, T. E. Oliphant, R. L. Ehman, and J. F. Greenleaf, “Acoustic shear-wave imaging using echo ultrasound compared to magnetic resonance elastography,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.26(3), 397–403 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography by direct visualization of propagating acoustic strain waves,” Science269(5232), 1854–1857 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emelianov, S.

R. Manapuram, S. Aglyamov, F. M. Menodiado, M. Mashiatulla, S. Wang, S. A. Baranov, J. Li, S. Emelianov, and K. V. Larin, “Estimation of shear wave velocity in gelatin phantoms utilizing PhS-SSOCT,” Laser Phys.22(9), 1439–1444 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Evertsson, M.

M. Evertsson, M. Cinthio, S. Fredriksson, F. Olsson, H. W. Persson, and T. Jansson, “Frequency- and phase-sensitive magnetomotive ultrasound imaging of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control60(3), 481–491 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fatemi, M.

S. Chen, M. Fatemi, and J. F. Greenleaf, “Quantifying elasticity and viscosity from measurement of shear wave speed dispersion,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.115(6), 2781–2785 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Greenleaf, M. Fatemi, and M. Insana, “Selected methods for imaging elastic properties of biological tissues,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng.5(1), 57–78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fink, M.

T. Deffieux, G. Montaldo, M. Tanter, and M. Fink, “Shear wave spectroscopy for in vivo quantification of human soft tissues visco-elasticity,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging28(3), 313–322 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bercoff, M. Tanter, M. Muller, and M. Fink, “The role of viscosity in the impulse diffraction field of elastic waves induced by the acoustic radiation force,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control51(11), 1523–1536 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Gennisson, S. Catheline, S. Chaffaï, and M. Fink, “Transient elastography in anisotropic medium: application to the measurement of slow and fast shear wave speeds in muscles,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.114(1), 536–541 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Catheline, J. L. Gennisson, and M. Fink, “Measurement of elastic nonlinearity of soft solid with transient elastography,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.114(6), 3087–3091 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bercoff, S. Chaffai, M. Tanter, L. Sandrin, S. Catheline, M. Fink, J. L. Gennisson, and M. Meunier, “In vivo breast tumor detection using transient elastography,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.29(10), 1387–1396 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Catheline, F. Wu, and M. Fink, “A solution to diffraction biases in sonoelasticity: The acoustic impulse technique,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.105(5), 2941–2950 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frank, G. R.

E. L. Madsen, J. A. Zagzebski, and G. R. Frank, “Oil-in-gelatin dispersions for use as ultrasonically tissue-mimicking materials,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.8(3), 277–287 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fredriksson, S.

M. Evertsson, M. Cinthio, S. Fredriksson, F. Olsson, H. W. Persson, and T. Jansson, “Frequency- and phase-sensitive magnetomotive ultrasound imaging of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control60(3), 481–491 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia, L.

A. Grimwood, L. Garcia, J. Bamber, J. Holmes, P. Woolliams, P. Tomlins, and Q. A. Pankhurst, “Elastographic contrast generation in optical coherence tomography from a localized shear stress,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(18), 5515–5528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gazeau, F.

C. Wilhelm and F. Gazeau, “Magnetic nanoparticles: Internal probes and heaters within living cells,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater.321(7), 671–674 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gennisson, J. L.

T. Deffieux, J. L. Gennisson, J. Bercoff, and M. Tanter, “On the effects of reflected waves in transient shear wave elastography,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control58(10), 2032–2035 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bercoff, S. Chaffai, M. Tanter, L. Sandrin, S. Catheline, M. Fink, J. L. Gennisson, and M. Meunier, “In vivo breast tumor detection using transient elastography,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.29(10), 1387–1396 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Gennisson, S. Catheline, S. Chaffaï, and M. Fink, “Transient elastography in anisotropic medium: application to the measurement of slow and fast shear wave speeds in muscles,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.114(1), 536–541 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Catheline, J. L. Gennisson, and M. Fink, “Measurement of elastic nonlinearity of soft solid with transient elastography,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.114(6), 3087–3091 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graf, B. W.

V. Crecea, B. W. Graf, T. Kim, G. Popescu, and S. A. Boppart, “High resolution phase-sensitive magnetomotive optical coherence microscopy for tracking magnetic microbeads and cellular mechanics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.20(2), 25–31 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Greenleaf, J. F.

M. W. Urban, S. Chen, and J. F. Greenleaf, “Error in estimates of tissue material properties from shear wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control56(4), 748–758 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chen, M. W. Urban, C. Pislaru, R. Kinnick, Y. Zheng, A. Yao, and J. F. Greenleaf, “Shearwave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (SDUV) for measuring tissue elasticity and viscosity,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control56(1), 55–62 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zheng, S. Chen, W. Tan, R. Kinnick, and J. F. Greenleaf, “Detection of tissue harmonic motion induced by ultrasonic radiation force using pulse-echo ultrasound and Kalman filter,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control54(2), 290–300 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chen, M. Fatemi, and J. F. Greenleaf, “Quantifying elasticity and viscosity from measurement of shear wave speed dispersion,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.115(6), 2781–2785 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Greenleaf, M. Fatemi, and M. Insana, “Selected methods for imaging elastic properties of biological tissues,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng.5(1), 57–78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Dutt, R. R. Kinnick, R. Muthupillai, T. E. Oliphant, R. L. Ehman, and J. F. Greenleaf, “Acoustic shear-wave imaging using echo ultrasound compared to magnetic resonance elastography,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.26(3), 397–403 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography by direct visualization of propagating acoustic strain waves,” Science269(5232), 1854–1857 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grimm, R. C.

Q. C. C. Chan, G. Li, R. L. Ehman, R. C. Grimm, R. Li, and E. S. Yang, “Needle shear wave driver for magnetic resonance elastography,” Magn. Reson. Med.55(5), 1175–1179 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grimwood, A.

A. Grimwood, L. Garcia, J. Bamber, J. Holmes, P. Woolliams, P. Tomlins, and Q. A. Pankhurst, “Elastographic contrast generation in optical coherence tomography from a localized shear stress,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(18), 5515–5528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guan, G.

Guméry, P. Y.

M. Benkherourou, C. Rochas, P. Tracqui, L. Tranqui, and P. Y. Guméry, “Standardization of a method for characterizing low-concentration biogels: elastic properties of low-concentration agarose gels,” J. Biomech. Eng.121(2), 184–187 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haldar, J. P.

R. John, R. Rezaeipoor, S. G. Adie, E. J. Chaney, A. L. Oldenburg, M. Marjanovic, J. P. Haldar, B. P. Sutton, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo magnetomotive optical molecular imaging using targeted magnetic nanoprobes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(18), 8085–8090 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holmes, J.

A. Grimwood, L. Garcia, J. Bamber, J. Holmes, P. Woolliams, P. Tomlins, and Q. A. Pankhurst, “Elastographic contrast generation in optical coherence tomography from a localized shear stress,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(18), 5515–5528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Z.

Hubler, Z.

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M. Orescanin and M. Insana, “Shear modulus estimation with vibrating needle stimulation,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control57(6), 1358–1367 (2010).
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Popescu, G.

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Robert, J. L.

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K. J. Parker, M. M. Doyley, and D. J. Rubens, “Imaging the elastic properties of tissue: the 20 year perspective,” Phys. Med. Biol.56(1), R1–R29 (2011).
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B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “A review of optical coherence elastography: fundamentals, techniques and prospects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.20(2), 272–288 (2014).
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M. M. Nguyen, S. Zhou, J. L. Robert, V. Shamdasani, and H. Xie, “Development of oil-in-gelatin phantoms for viscoelasticity measurement in ultrasound shear wave elastography,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.40(1), 168–176 (2014).
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Shubayev, V. I.

V. I. Shubayev, T. R. Pisanic, and S. Jin, “Magnetic nanoparticles for theragnostics,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.61(6), 467–477 (2009).
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Siegler, P.

Song, S.

T.-M. Nguyen, S. Song, B. Arnal, Z. Huang, M. O’Donnell, and R. K. Wang, “Visualizing ultrasonically induced shear wave propagation using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography for dynamic elastography,” Opt. Lett.39(4), 838–841 (2014).
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S. Song, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Tracking mechanical wave propagation within tissue using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography: motion artifact and its compensation,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121505 (2013).
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S. Song, Z. Huang, T.-M. Nguyen, E. Y. Wong, B. Arnal, M. O’Donnell, and R. K. Wang, “Shear modulus imaging by direct visualization of propagating shear waves with phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121509 (2013).
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J. Kim, A. Ahmad, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, J. Li, J. Rasio, Z. Hubler, D. Spillman, K. S. Suslick, and S. A. Boppart, “Magnetomotive optical coherence tomography for the assessment of atherosclerotic lesions using αvβ3 integrin-targeted microspheres,” Mol. Imaging Biol.16(1), 36–43 (2014).
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Suslick, K. S.

J. Kim, A. Ahmad, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, J. Li, J. Rasio, Z. Hubler, D. Spillman, K. S. Suslick, and S. A. Boppart, “Magnetomotive optical coherence tomography for the assessment of atherosclerotic lesions using αvβ3 integrin-targeted microspheres,” Mol. Imaging Biol.16(1), 36–43 (2014).
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A. L. Oldenburg, F. J.-J. Toublan, K. S. Suslick, A. Wei, and S. A. Boppart, “Magnetomotive contrast for in vivo optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express13(17), 6597–6614 (2005).
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R. John, R. Rezaeipoor, S. G. Adie, E. J. Chaney, A. L. Oldenburg, M. Marjanovic, J. P. Haldar, B. P. Sutton, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo magnetomotive optical molecular imaging using targeted magnetic nanoprobes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(18), 8085–8090 (2010).
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Y. Zheng, S. Chen, W. Tan, R. Kinnick, and J. F. Greenleaf, “Detection of tissue harmonic motion induced by ultrasonic radiation force using pulse-echo ultrasound and Kalman filter,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control54(2), 290–300 (2007).
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T. Deffieux, J. L. Gennisson, J. Bercoff, and M. Tanter, “On the effects of reflected waves in transient shear wave elastography,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control58(10), 2032–2035 (2011).
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T. Deffieux, G. Montaldo, M. Tanter, and M. Fink, “Shear wave spectroscopy for in vivo quantification of human soft tissues visco-elasticity,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging28(3), 313–322 (2009).
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J. Bercoff, M. Tanter, M. Muller, and M. Fink, “The role of viscosity in the impulse diffraction field of elastic waves induced by the acoustic radiation force,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control51(11), 1523–1536 (2004).
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A. Grimwood, L. Garcia, J. Bamber, J. Holmes, P. Woolliams, P. Tomlins, and Q. A. Pankhurst, “Elastographic contrast generation in optical coherence tomography from a localized shear stress,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(18), 5515–5528 (2010).
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Toohey, K. S.

Toublan, F. J.-J.

Tracqui, P.

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J. Vappou, C. Maleke, and E. E. Konofagou, “Quantitative viscoelastic parameters measured by harmonic motion imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(11), 3579–3594 (2009).
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S. Chen, M. W. Urban, C. Pislaru, R. Kinnick, Y. Zheng, A. Yao, and J. F. Greenleaf, “Shearwave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (SDUV) for measuring tissue elasticity and viscosity,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control56(1), 55–62 (2009).
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S. Catheline, F. Wu, and M. Fink, “A solution to diffraction biases in sonoelasticity: The acoustic impulse technique,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.105(5), 2941–2950 (1999).
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S. Song, Z. Huang, T.-M. Nguyen, E. Y. Wong, B. Arnal, M. O’Donnell, and R. K. Wang, “Shear modulus imaging by direct visualization of propagating shear waves with phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121509 (2013).
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V. Crecea, A. Ahmad, and S. A. Boppart, “Magnetomotive optical coherence elastography for microrheology of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121504 (2013).
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W. Qi, R. Chen, L. Chou, G. Liu, J. Zhang, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, “Phase-resolved acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(11), 110505 (2012).
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K. Chen, A. Yao, E. E. Zheng, J. Lin, and Y. Zheng, “Shear wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry based on a different mechanical model for soft tissue characterization,” J. Ultrasound Med.31(12), 2001–2011 (2012).
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E. L. Madsen, J. A. Zagzebski, and G. R. Frank, “Oil-in-gelatin dispersions for use as ultrasonically tissue-mimicking materials,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.8(3), 277–287 (1982).
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Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: AVI (9264 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (8949 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (6485 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral domain magnetomotive optical coherence elastography setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Data acquisition and processing (a) M-mode scans are taken radially away from the magnetic inclusion. (b) The timing diagram for the scanning protocol (c) Structural OCT image (z, r) showing the location of the MNP inclusion (d) Depth-averaged space-time (t, r) map showing the sinusoidal response at different radial distances. (e) The linear change in phase as the distance from the excitation source increases.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Shear waves in elastically homogeneous phantoms. The MNP inclusions (not shown) are on the right side of the images (a) Visualization of shear waves with phantoms of different agarose concentrations. A line-scan rate of ~92 kHz and 4000 A-lines per M-mode were collected. A sinusoidal excitation at 500 Hz consisting of 20 cycles was used. An increase in the shear wavelength and speed can be seen as the gel stiffness increases (Media 1). (b) Estimated Young’s moduli at different agarose concentrations. A line-scan rate of ~46 kHz, 2000 A-lines per M-mode and 10 cycles at a excitation frequency of 500 Hz was used for these measurements. The error bars correspond to the standard deviation of the measured values at 3 different spatial locations within the same sample (N = 3). The error bars for 0.3% and 0.5% are too small to see, and the values correspond to 4.14 ± 0.25 kPa and 15 ± 1.47 kPa, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Shear waves in a heterogeneous medium. (a) Structural OCT image. The solid lines delineate the shear wave source boundaries while the dashed line indicates the interface between the stiff and soft regions of the sample. (b) Propagating shear waves (Media 2). (c) Depth-averaged space-time map. (d) Young’s modulus map estimated from the localized measurement of the shear wave speed. The black regions correspond to the MNP source location or where the linear fit R2 values were less than the threshold. A line-scan rate ~92 kHz with an excitation frequency of 500 Hz was used for these measurements.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Shear waves in biological tissues. (a) Rat liver tissue. (b) Chicken muscle. OCT structural images (depth range ~1.5 mm) are shown in the first column while the second column shows single frames from the corresponding propagating shear waves videos of rat liver tissue and chicken muscle (Media 3). The magnetic particle inclusions are on the left side of these images. A line-scan rate of 46 kHz was used with an excitation frequency of 500 Hz consisting of 10 cycles.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dispersion curves for agarose, gelatin phantoms and tissue. (a) Gelatin with no oil and 0.3% agarose gel. (b) Gelatin with 20% oil. (c) Rat liver sample. The solid line in each of the plots corresponds to the best fit to the Kelvin-Voigt model while the estimated parameters are given in the legend.

Equations (1)

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c s (ω)= 2( G 2 + ω 2 η 2 ) ρ(G+ G 2 + ω 2 η 2 )

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