Abstract

A quantitative method for measurement of apoptosis in HL-60 cells based on polarization diffraction imaging flow cytometry technique is presented in this paper. Through comparative study with existing methods and the analysis of diffraction images by a gray level co-occurrence matrix algorithm (GLCM), we found 4 GLCM parameters of contrast (CON), cluster shade (CLS), correlation (COR) and dissimilarity (DIS) exhibit high sensitivities as the apoptotic rates. It was further demonstrated that the CLS parameter correlates significantly (R2 = 0.899) with the degree of nuclear fragmentation and other three parameters showed a very good correlations (R2 ranges from 0.69 to 0.90). These results demonstrated that the new method has the capability for rapid and accurate extraction of morphological features to quantify cellular apoptosis without the need for cell staining.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  34. R. W. Conners, M. M. Trivedi, and C. A. Harlow, “Segmentation of a high-resolution urban scene using texture operators,” Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process.25(3), 273–310 (1984).
    [CrossRef]

2013

J. Zhang, Y. Feng, M. S. Moran, J. Q. Lu, L. V. Yang, Y. Sa, N. Zhang, L. Dong, and X. H. Hu, “Analysis of cellular objects through diffraction images acquired by flow cytometry,” Opt. Express21(21), 24819–24828 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mauguen, J. P. Pignon, S. Burdett, C. Domerg, D. Fisher, R. Paulus, S. J. Mandrekar, C. P. Belani, F. A. Shepherd, T. Eisen, H. Pang, L. Collette, W. T. Sause, S. E. Dahlberg, J. Crawford, M. O’Brien, S. E. Schild, M. Parmar, J. F. Tierney, C. Le Pechoux, S. Michiels, and Surrogate Lung Project Collaborative Group, “Surrogate endpoints for overall survival in chemotherapy and radiotherapy trials in operable and locally advanced lung cancer: a re-analysis of meta-analyses of individual patients’ data,” Lancet Oncol.14(7), 619–626 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sa, Y. Feng, K. M. Jacobs, J. Yang, R. Pan, I. Gkigkitzis, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Study of low speed flow cytometry for diffraction imaging with different chamber and nozzle designs,” Cytometry A83(11), 1027–1033 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

S. Yu, J. Zhang, M. S. Moran, J. Q. Lu, Y. Feng, and X. H. Hu, “A novel method of diffraction imaging flow cytometry for sizing microspheres,” Opt. Express20(20), 22245–22251 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. F. Yang, S. Tridandapani, J. J. Beitler, D. S. Yu, E. J. Yoshida, W. J. Curran, and T. Liu, “Ultrasound GLCM texture analysis of radiation-induced parotid-gland injuryin head-and-neck cancer radiotherapy: An in vivo study of late toxicity,” Med. Phys.39, 5732–5739 (2012).

A. Khmaladze, R. L. Matz, T. Epstein, J. Jasensky, M. M. Banaszak Holl, and Z. Chen, “Cell volume changes during apoptosis monitored in real time using digital holographic microscopy,” J. Struct. Biol.178(3), 270–278 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

E. Ulukaya, C. Acilan, F. Ari, E. Ikitimur, and Y. Yilmaz, “A glance at the methods for detection of apoptosis qualitatively and quantitatively,” Turk. J. Bioch36, 261–269 (2011).

K. Dong, Y. Feng, K. M. Jacobs, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, L. V. Yang, F. E. Bertrand, M. A. Farwell, and X. H. Hu, “Label-free classification of cultured cells through diffraction imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1717–1726 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

M. M. Martinez, R. D. Reif, and D. Pappas, “Detection of apoptosis: A review of conventional and novel techniques,” Anal. Methods2(8), 996–1004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

K. M. Jacobs, L. V. Yang, J. Ding, A. E. Ekpenyong, R. Castellone, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Diffraction imaging of spheres and melanoma cells with a microscope objective,” J. Biophotonics2(8-9), 521–527 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Jacobs, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Development of a diffraction imaging flow cytometer,” Opt. Lett.34(19), 2985–2987 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

X. T. Su, K. Singh, C. Capjack, J. Petrácek, C. Backhouse, and W. Rozmus, “Measurements of light scattering in an integrated microfluidic waveguide cytometer,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024024 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Buggenhout, T. Grauwet, A. V. Loey, and M. Hendrickx, “Structure/processing relation of vacuum infused strawberry tissue frozen under different conditions,” Eur. Food Res. Technol.226(3), 437–448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

H. Ding, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, T. J. McConnell, J. F. Ojeda, K. M. Jacobs, and X. H. Hu, “Angle-resolved Mueller matrix study of light scattering by B-cells at three wavelengths of 442, 633, and 850 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

J. Q. Lu, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Simulations of Light scattering from a biconcave red blood cell using the finite-difference time-domain method,” J. Biomed. Opt.10, 024022 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Rello, J. C. Stockert, V. Moreno, A. Gámez, M. Pacheco, A. Juarranz, M. Cañete, and A. Villanueva, “Morphological criteria to distinguish cell death induced by apoptotic and necrotic treatments,” Apoptosis10(1), 201–208 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Brown and L. D. Attardi, “The role of apoptosis in cancer development and treatment response,” Nat. Rev. Cancer5(3), 231–237 (2005).
[PubMed]

2003

2001

Z. Shiffer, N. Zurgil, Y. Shafran, and M. Deutsch, “Analysis of laser scattering pattern as an early measure of apoptosis,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.289(5), 1320–1327 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

B. A. Wagner, G. R. Buettner, L. W. Oberley, C. J. Darby, and C. P. Burns, “Myeloperoxidase is involved in H2O2-induced apoptosis of HL-60 human leukemia Cells,” J. Biol. Chem.275(29), 22461–22469 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

A. N. Shvalov, I. V. Surovtsev, A. V. Chernyshev, J. T. Soini, and V. P. Maltsev, “Particle classification from light scattering with the scanning flow cytometer,” Cytometry37(3), 215–220 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

M. van Engeland, L. J. Nieland, F. C. Ramaekers, B. Schutte, and C. P. Reutelingsperger, “Annexin V-affinity assay: a review on an apoptosis detection system based on phosphatidylserine exposure,” Cytometry31(1), 1–9 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Peus, R. A. Vasa, A. Meves, M. Pott, A. Beyerle, K. Squillace, and M. R. Pittelkow, “H2O2 is an important mediator of UVB-induced EGF-receptor phosphorylation in cultured keratinocytes,” J. Invest. Dermatol.110(6), 966–971 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, J. P. Freyer, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, D. Shen, and T. M. Johnson, “Mechanisms of light scattering from biological cells relevant to noninvasive optical-tissue diagnostics,” Appl. Opt.37(16), 3586–3593 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

C. S. Chen, M. Mrksich, S. Huang, G. M. Whitesides, and D. E. Ingber, “Geometric Control of Cell Life and Death,” Science276(5317), 1425–1428 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

M. G. Ormerod, F. Paul, M. Cheetham, and X. M. Sun, “Discrimination of apoptotic thymocytes by forward light scatter,” Cytometry21(3), 300–304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

G. Koopman, C. P. Reutelingsperger, G. A. Kuijten, R. M. J. Keehnen, S. T. Pals, and M. H. J. van Oers, “Annexin V for flow cytometric detection of phosphatidylserine expression on B cells undergoing apoptosis,” Blood84(5), 1415–1420 (1994).
[PubMed]

1993

Y. A. Lazebnik, S. Cole, C. A. Cooke, W. G. Nelson, and W. C. Earnshaw, “Nuclear events of apoptosis in vitro in cell-free mitotic extracts: a model system for analysis of the active phase of apoptosis,” J. Cell Biol.123(1), 7–22 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

Z. Darzynkiewicz, S. Bruno, G. Del Bino, W. Gorczyca, M. A. Hotz, P. Lassota, and F. Traganos, “Features of apoptotic cells measured by flow cytometry,” Cytometry13(8), 795–808 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984

R. W. Conners, M. M. Trivedi, and C. A. Harlow, “Segmentation of a high-resolution urban scene using texture operators,” Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process.25(3), 273–310 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1979

R. M. Haralick, “Statistical and structural approaches to texture,” Proc. IEEE67(5), 786–804 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1975

G. C. Salzman, J. M. Crowell, C. A. Goad, K. M. Hansen, R. D. Hiebert, P. M. LaBauve, J. C. Martin, M. L. Ingram, and P. F. Mullaney, “A flow-system multiangle light-scattering instrument for cell characterization,” Clin. Chem.21(9), 1297–1304 (1975).
[PubMed]

1972

J. F. Kerr, A. H. Wyllie, and A. R. Currie, “Apoptosis: a basic biological phenomenon with wide-ranging implications in tissue kinetics,” Br. J. Cancer26(4), 239–257 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acilan, C.

E. Ulukaya, C. Acilan, F. Ari, E. Ikitimur, and Y. Yilmaz, “A glance at the methods for detection of apoptosis qualitatively and quantitatively,” Turk. J. Bioch36, 261–269 (2011).

Ari, F.

E. Ulukaya, C. Acilan, F. Ari, E. Ikitimur, and Y. Yilmaz, “A glance at the methods for detection of apoptosis qualitatively and quantitatively,” Turk. J. Bioch36, 261–269 (2011).

Attardi, L. D.

J. M. Brown and L. D. Attardi, “The role of apoptosis in cancer development and treatment response,” Nat. Rev. Cancer5(3), 231–237 (2005).
[PubMed]

Backhouse, C.

X. T. Su, K. Singh, C. Capjack, J. Petrácek, C. Backhouse, and W. Rozmus, “Measurements of light scattering in an integrated microfluidic waveguide cytometer,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024024 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banaszak Holl, M. M.

A. Khmaladze, R. L. Matz, T. Epstein, J. Jasensky, M. M. Banaszak Holl, and Z. Chen, “Cell volume changes during apoptosis monitored in real time using digital holographic microscopy,” J. Struct. Biol.178(3), 270–278 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beitler, J. J.

X. F. Yang, S. Tridandapani, J. J. Beitler, D. S. Yu, E. J. Yoshida, W. J. Curran, and T. Liu, “Ultrasound GLCM texture analysis of radiation-induced parotid-gland injuryin head-and-neck cancer radiotherapy: An in vivo study of late toxicity,” Med. Phys.39, 5732–5739 (2012).

Belani, C. P.

A. Mauguen, J. P. Pignon, S. Burdett, C. Domerg, D. Fisher, R. Paulus, S. J. Mandrekar, C. P. Belani, F. A. Shepherd, T. Eisen, H. Pang, L. Collette, W. T. Sause, S. E. Dahlberg, J. Crawford, M. O’Brien, S. E. Schild, M. Parmar, J. F. Tierney, C. Le Pechoux, S. Michiels, and Surrogate Lung Project Collaborative Group, “Surrogate endpoints for overall survival in chemotherapy and radiotherapy trials in operable and locally advanced lung cancer: a re-analysis of meta-analyses of individual patients’ data,” Lancet Oncol.14(7), 619–626 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertrand, F. E.

Beyerle, A.

D. Peus, R. A. Vasa, A. Meves, M. Pott, A. Beyerle, K. Squillace, and M. R. Pittelkow, “H2O2 is an important mediator of UVB-induced EGF-receptor phosphorylation in cultured keratinocytes,” J. Invest. Dermatol.110(6), 966–971 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brock, R. S.

K. Dong, Y. Feng, K. M. Jacobs, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, L. V. Yang, F. E. Bertrand, M. A. Farwell, and X. H. Hu, “Label-free classification of cultured cells through diffraction imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1717–1726 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ding, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, T. J. McConnell, J. F. Ojeda, K. M. Jacobs, and X. H. Hu, “Angle-resolved Mueller matrix study of light scattering by B-cells at three wavelengths of 442, 633, and 850 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, J. M.

J. M. Brown and L. D. Attardi, “The role of apoptosis in cancer development and treatment response,” Nat. Rev. Cancer5(3), 231–237 (2005).
[PubMed]

Bruno, S.

Z. Darzynkiewicz, S. Bruno, G. Del Bino, W. Gorczyca, M. A. Hotz, P. Lassota, and F. Traganos, “Features of apoptotic cells measured by flow cytometry,” Cytometry13(8), 795–808 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buettner, G. R.

B. A. Wagner, G. R. Buettner, L. W. Oberley, C. J. Darby, and C. P. Burns, “Myeloperoxidase is involved in H2O2-induced apoptosis of HL-60 human leukemia Cells,” J. Biol. Chem.275(29), 22461–22469 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buggenhout, S. V.

S. V. Buggenhout, T. Grauwet, A. V. Loey, and M. Hendrickx, “Structure/processing relation of vacuum infused strawberry tissue frozen under different conditions,” Eur. Food Res. Technol.226(3), 437–448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burdett, S.

A. Mauguen, J. P. Pignon, S. Burdett, C. Domerg, D. Fisher, R. Paulus, S. J. Mandrekar, C. P. Belani, F. A. Shepherd, T. Eisen, H. Pang, L. Collette, W. T. Sause, S. E. Dahlberg, J. Crawford, M. O’Brien, S. E. Schild, M. Parmar, J. F. Tierney, C. Le Pechoux, S. Michiels, and Surrogate Lung Project Collaborative Group, “Surrogate endpoints for overall survival in chemotherapy and radiotherapy trials in operable and locally advanced lung cancer: a re-analysis of meta-analyses of individual patients’ data,” Lancet Oncol.14(7), 619–626 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burns, C. P.

B. A. Wagner, G. R. Buettner, L. W. Oberley, C. J. Darby, and C. P. Burns, “Myeloperoxidase is involved in H2O2-induced apoptosis of HL-60 human leukemia Cells,” J. Biol. Chem.275(29), 22461–22469 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cañete, M.

S. Rello, J. C. Stockert, V. Moreno, A. Gámez, M. Pacheco, A. Juarranz, M. Cañete, and A. Villanueva, “Morphological criteria to distinguish cell death induced by apoptotic and necrotic treatments,” Apoptosis10(1), 201–208 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capjack, C.

X. T. Su, K. Singh, C. Capjack, J. Petrácek, C. Backhouse, and W. Rozmus, “Measurements of light scattering in an integrated microfluidic waveguide cytometer,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024024 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castellone, R.

K. M. Jacobs, L. V. Yang, J. Ding, A. E. Ekpenyong, R. Castellone, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Diffraction imaging of spheres and melanoma cells with a microscope objective,” J. Biophotonics2(8-9), 521–527 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheetham, M.

M. G. Ormerod, F. Paul, M. Cheetham, and X. M. Sun, “Discrimination of apoptotic thymocytes by forward light scatter,” Cytometry21(3), 300–304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. S.

C. S. Chen, M. Mrksich, S. Huang, G. M. Whitesides, and D. E. Ingber, “Geometric Control of Cell Life and Death,” Science276(5317), 1425–1428 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

A. Khmaladze, R. L. Matz, T. Epstein, J. Jasensky, M. M. Banaszak Holl, and Z. Chen, “Cell volume changes during apoptosis monitored in real time using digital holographic microscopy,” J. Struct. Biol.178(3), 270–278 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chernyshev, A. V.

A. N. Shvalov, I. V. Surovtsev, A. V. Chernyshev, J. T. Soini, and V. P. Maltsev, “Particle classification from light scattering with the scanning flow cytometer,” Cytometry37(3), 215–220 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cole, S.

Y. A. Lazebnik, S. Cole, C. A. Cooke, W. G. Nelson, and W. C. Earnshaw, “Nuclear events of apoptosis in vitro in cell-free mitotic extracts: a model system for analysis of the active phase of apoptosis,” J. Cell Biol.123(1), 7–22 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collette, L.

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K. M. Jacobs, L. V. Yang, J. Ding, A. E. Ekpenyong, R. Castellone, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Diffraction imaging of spheres and melanoma cells with a microscope objective,” J. Biophotonics2(8-9), 521–527 (2009).
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Dong, L.

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A. Mauguen, J. P. Pignon, S. Burdett, C. Domerg, D. Fisher, R. Paulus, S. J. Mandrekar, C. P. Belani, F. A. Shepherd, T. Eisen, H. Pang, L. Collette, W. T. Sause, S. E. Dahlberg, J. Crawford, M. O’Brien, S. E. Schild, M. Parmar, J. F. Tierney, C. Le Pechoux, S. Michiels, and Surrogate Lung Project Collaborative Group, “Surrogate endpoints for overall survival in chemotherapy and radiotherapy trials in operable and locally advanced lung cancer: a re-analysis of meta-analyses of individual patients’ data,” Lancet Oncol.14(7), 619–626 (2013).
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Feng, Y.

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Y. Sa, Y. Feng, K. M. Jacobs, J. Yang, R. Pan, I. Gkigkitzis, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Study of low speed flow cytometry for diffraction imaging with different chamber and nozzle designs,” Cytometry A83(11), 1027–1033 (2013).
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K. Dong, Y. Feng, K. M. Jacobs, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, L. V. Yang, F. E. Bertrand, M. A. Farwell, and X. H. Hu, “Label-free classification of cultured cells through diffraction imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1717–1726 (2011).
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K. M. Jacobs, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Development of a diffraction imaging flow cytometer,” Opt. Lett.34(19), 2985–2987 (2009).
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K. M. Jacobs, L. V. Yang, J. Ding, A. E. Ekpenyong, R. Castellone, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Diffraction imaging of spheres and melanoma cells with a microscope objective,” J. Biophotonics2(8-9), 521–527 (2009).
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H. Ding, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, T. J. McConnell, J. F. Ojeda, K. M. Jacobs, and X. H. Hu, “Angle-resolved Mueller matrix study of light scattering by B-cells at three wavelengths of 442, 633, and 850 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034032 (2007).
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A. Khmaladze, R. L. Matz, T. Epstein, J. Jasensky, M. M. Banaszak Holl, and Z. Chen, “Cell volume changes during apoptosis monitored in real time using digital holographic microscopy,” J. Struct. Biol.178(3), 270–278 (2012).
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Juarranz, A.

S. Rello, J. C. Stockert, V. Moreno, A. Gámez, M. Pacheco, A. Juarranz, M. Cañete, and A. Villanueva, “Morphological criteria to distinguish cell death induced by apoptotic and necrotic treatments,” Apoptosis10(1), 201–208 (2005).
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A. Mauguen, J. P. Pignon, S. Burdett, C. Domerg, D. Fisher, R. Paulus, S. J. Mandrekar, C. P. Belani, F. A. Shepherd, T. Eisen, H. Pang, L. Collette, W. T. Sause, S. E. Dahlberg, J. Crawford, M. O’Brien, S. E. Schild, M. Parmar, J. F. Tierney, C. Le Pechoux, S. Michiels, and Surrogate Lung Project Collaborative Group, “Surrogate endpoints for overall survival in chemotherapy and radiotherapy trials in operable and locally advanced lung cancer: a re-analysis of meta-analyses of individual patients’ data,” Lancet Oncol.14(7), 619–626 (2013).
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S. V. Buggenhout, T. Grauwet, A. V. Loey, and M. Hendrickx, “Structure/processing relation of vacuum infused strawberry tissue frozen under different conditions,” Eur. Food Res. Technol.226(3), 437–448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Sa, Y. Feng, K. M. Jacobs, J. Yang, R. Pan, I. Gkigkitzis, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Study of low speed flow cytometry for diffraction imaging with different chamber and nozzle designs,” Cytometry A83(11), 1027–1033 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, Y. Feng, M. S. Moran, J. Q. Lu, L. V. Yang, Y. Sa, N. Zhang, L. Dong, and X. H. Hu, “Analysis of cellular objects through diffraction images acquired by flow cytometry,” Opt. Express21(21), 24819–24828 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Jacobs, L. V. Yang, J. Ding, A. E. Ekpenyong, R. Castellone, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Diffraction imaging of spheres and melanoma cells with a microscope objective,” J. Biophotonics2(8-9), 521–527 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michiels, S.

A. Mauguen, J. P. Pignon, S. Burdett, C. Domerg, D. Fisher, R. Paulus, S. J. Mandrekar, C. P. Belani, F. A. Shepherd, T. Eisen, H. Pang, L. Collette, W. T. Sause, S. E. Dahlberg, J. Crawford, M. O’Brien, S. E. Schild, M. Parmar, J. F. Tierney, C. Le Pechoux, S. Michiels, and Surrogate Lung Project Collaborative Group, “Surrogate endpoints for overall survival in chemotherapy and radiotherapy trials in operable and locally advanced lung cancer: a re-analysis of meta-analyses of individual patients’ data,” Lancet Oncol.14(7), 619–626 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moran, M. S.

Moreno, V.

S. Rello, J. C. Stockert, V. Moreno, A. Gámez, M. Pacheco, A. Juarranz, M. Cañete, and A. Villanueva, “Morphological criteria to distinguish cell death induced by apoptotic and necrotic treatments,” Apoptosis10(1), 201–208 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mourant, J. R.

Mrksich, M.

C. S. Chen, M. Mrksich, S. Huang, G. M. Whitesides, and D. E. Ingber, “Geometric Control of Cell Life and Death,” Science276(5317), 1425–1428 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mullaney, P. F.

G. C. Salzman, J. M. Crowell, C. A. Goad, K. M. Hansen, R. D. Hiebert, P. M. LaBauve, J. C. Martin, M. L. Ingram, and P. F. Mullaney, “A flow-system multiangle light-scattering instrument for cell characterization,” Clin. Chem.21(9), 1297–1304 (1975).
[PubMed]

Nelson, W. G.

Y. A. Lazebnik, S. Cole, C. A. Cooke, W. G. Nelson, and W. C. Earnshaw, “Nuclear events of apoptosis in vitro in cell-free mitotic extracts: a model system for analysis of the active phase of apoptosis,” J. Cell Biol.123(1), 7–22 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neukammer, J.

Nieland, L. J.

M. van Engeland, L. J. Nieland, F. C. Ramaekers, B. Schutte, and C. P. Reutelingsperger, “Annexin V-affinity assay: a review on an apoptosis detection system based on phosphatidylserine exposure,” Cytometry31(1), 1–9 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Brien, M.

A. Mauguen, J. P. Pignon, S. Burdett, C. Domerg, D. Fisher, R. Paulus, S. J. Mandrekar, C. P. Belani, F. A. Shepherd, T. Eisen, H. Pang, L. Collette, W. T. Sause, S. E. Dahlberg, J. Crawford, M. O’Brien, S. E. Schild, M. Parmar, J. F. Tierney, C. Le Pechoux, S. Michiels, and Surrogate Lung Project Collaborative Group, “Surrogate endpoints for overall survival in chemotherapy and radiotherapy trials in operable and locally advanced lung cancer: a re-analysis of meta-analyses of individual patients’ data,” Lancet Oncol.14(7), 619–626 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oberley, L. W.

B. A. Wagner, G. R. Buettner, L. W. Oberley, C. J. Darby, and C. P. Burns, “Myeloperoxidase is involved in H2O2-induced apoptosis of HL-60 human leukemia Cells,” J. Biol. Chem.275(29), 22461–22469 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ojeda, J. F.

H. Ding, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, T. J. McConnell, J. F. Ojeda, K. M. Jacobs, and X. H. Hu, “Angle-resolved Mueller matrix study of light scattering by B-cells at three wavelengths of 442, 633, and 850 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ormerod, M. G.

M. G. Ormerod, F. Paul, M. Cheetham, and X. M. Sun, “Discrimination of apoptotic thymocytes by forward light scatter,” Cytometry21(3), 300–304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Otsuki, Y.

Y. Otsuki, Z. L. Li, and M. A. Shibata, “Apoptotic detection methods--from morphology to gene,” Prog. Histochem. Cytochem.38(3), 275–339 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pacheco, M.

S. Rello, J. C. Stockert, V. Moreno, A. Gámez, M. Pacheco, A. Juarranz, M. Cañete, and A. Villanueva, “Morphological criteria to distinguish cell death induced by apoptotic and necrotic treatments,” Apoptosis10(1), 201–208 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pals, S. T.

G. Koopman, C. P. Reutelingsperger, G. A. Kuijten, R. M. J. Keehnen, S. T. Pals, and M. H. J. van Oers, “Annexin V for flow cytometric detection of phosphatidylserine expression on B cells undergoing apoptosis,” Blood84(5), 1415–1420 (1994).
[PubMed]

Pan, R.

Y. Sa, Y. Feng, K. M. Jacobs, J. Yang, R. Pan, I. Gkigkitzis, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Study of low speed flow cytometry for diffraction imaging with different chamber and nozzle designs,” Cytometry A83(11), 1027–1033 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pang, H.

A. Mauguen, J. P. Pignon, S. Burdett, C. Domerg, D. Fisher, R. Paulus, S. J. Mandrekar, C. P. Belani, F. A. Shepherd, T. Eisen, H. Pang, L. Collette, W. T. Sause, S. E. Dahlberg, J. Crawford, M. O’Brien, S. E. Schild, M. Parmar, J. F. Tierney, C. Le Pechoux, S. Michiels, and Surrogate Lung Project Collaborative Group, “Surrogate endpoints for overall survival in chemotherapy and radiotherapy trials in operable and locally advanced lung cancer: a re-analysis of meta-analyses of individual patients’ data,” Lancet Oncol.14(7), 619–626 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pappas, D.

M. M. Martinez, R. D. Reif, and D. Pappas, “Detection of apoptosis: A review of conventional and novel techniques,” Anal. Methods2(8), 996–1004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Parmar, M.

A. Mauguen, J. P. Pignon, S. Burdett, C. Domerg, D. Fisher, R. Paulus, S. J. Mandrekar, C. P. Belani, F. A. Shepherd, T. Eisen, H. Pang, L. Collette, W. T. Sause, S. E. Dahlberg, J. Crawford, M. O’Brien, S. E. Schild, M. Parmar, J. F. Tierney, C. Le Pechoux, S. Michiels, and Surrogate Lung Project Collaborative Group, “Surrogate endpoints for overall survival in chemotherapy and radiotherapy trials in operable and locally advanced lung cancer: a re-analysis of meta-analyses of individual patients’ data,” Lancet Oncol.14(7), 619–626 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paul, F.

M. G. Ormerod, F. Paul, M. Cheetham, and X. M. Sun, “Discrimination of apoptotic thymocytes by forward light scatter,” Cytometry21(3), 300–304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulus, R.

A. Mauguen, J. P. Pignon, S. Burdett, C. Domerg, D. Fisher, R. Paulus, S. J. Mandrekar, C. P. Belani, F. A. Shepherd, T. Eisen, H. Pang, L. Collette, W. T. Sause, S. E. Dahlberg, J. Crawford, M. O’Brien, S. E. Schild, M. Parmar, J. F. Tierney, C. Le Pechoux, S. Michiels, and Surrogate Lung Project Collaborative Group, “Surrogate endpoints for overall survival in chemotherapy and radiotherapy trials in operable and locally advanced lung cancer: a re-analysis of meta-analyses of individual patients’ data,” Lancet Oncol.14(7), 619–626 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrácek, J.

X. T. Su, K. Singh, C. Capjack, J. Petrácek, C. Backhouse, and W. Rozmus, “Measurements of light scattering in an integrated microfluidic waveguide cytometer,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024024 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peus, D.

D. Peus, R. A. Vasa, A. Meves, M. Pott, A. Beyerle, K. Squillace, and M. R. Pittelkow, “H2O2 is an important mediator of UVB-induced EGF-receptor phosphorylation in cultured keratinocytes,” J. Invest. Dermatol.110(6), 966–971 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pignon, J. P.

A. Mauguen, J. P. Pignon, S. Burdett, C. Domerg, D. Fisher, R. Paulus, S. J. Mandrekar, C. P. Belani, F. A. Shepherd, T. Eisen, H. Pang, L. Collette, W. T. Sause, S. E. Dahlberg, J. Crawford, M. O’Brien, S. E. Schild, M. Parmar, J. F. Tierney, C. Le Pechoux, S. Michiels, and Surrogate Lung Project Collaborative Group, “Surrogate endpoints for overall survival in chemotherapy and radiotherapy trials in operable and locally advanced lung cancer: a re-analysis of meta-analyses of individual patients’ data,” Lancet Oncol.14(7), 619–626 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pittelkow, M. R.

D. Peus, R. A. Vasa, A. Meves, M. Pott, A. Beyerle, K. Squillace, and M. R. Pittelkow, “H2O2 is an important mediator of UVB-induced EGF-receptor phosphorylation in cultured keratinocytes,” J. Invest. Dermatol.110(6), 966–971 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pott, M.

D. Peus, R. A. Vasa, A. Meves, M. Pott, A. Beyerle, K. Squillace, and M. R. Pittelkow, “H2O2 is an important mediator of UVB-induced EGF-receptor phosphorylation in cultured keratinocytes,” J. Invest. Dermatol.110(6), 966–971 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramaekers, F. C.

M. van Engeland, L. J. Nieland, F. C. Ramaekers, B. Schutte, and C. P. Reutelingsperger, “Annexin V-affinity assay: a review on an apoptosis detection system based on phosphatidylserine exposure,” Cytometry31(1), 1–9 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reif, R. D.

M. M. Martinez, R. D. Reif, and D. Pappas, “Detection of apoptosis: A review of conventional and novel techniques,” Anal. Methods2(8), 996–1004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rello, S.

S. Rello, J. C. Stockert, V. Moreno, A. Gámez, M. Pacheco, A. Juarranz, M. Cañete, and A. Villanueva, “Morphological criteria to distinguish cell death induced by apoptotic and necrotic treatments,” Apoptosis10(1), 201–208 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reutelingsperger, C. P.

M. van Engeland, L. J. Nieland, F. C. Ramaekers, B. Schutte, and C. P. Reutelingsperger, “Annexin V-affinity assay: a review on an apoptosis detection system based on phosphatidylserine exposure,” Cytometry31(1), 1–9 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Koopman, C. P. Reutelingsperger, G. A. Kuijten, R. M. J. Keehnen, S. T. Pals, and M. H. J. van Oers, “Annexin V for flow cytometric detection of phosphatidylserine expression on B cells undergoing apoptosis,” Blood84(5), 1415–1420 (1994).
[PubMed]

Rinneberg, H.

Rozmus, W.

X. T. Su, K. Singh, C. Capjack, J. Petrácek, C. Backhouse, and W. Rozmus, “Measurements of light scattering in an integrated microfluidic waveguide cytometer,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024024 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sa, Y.

J. Zhang, Y. Feng, M. S. Moran, J. Q. Lu, L. V. Yang, Y. Sa, N. Zhang, L. Dong, and X. H. Hu, “Analysis of cellular objects through diffraction images acquired by flow cytometry,” Opt. Express21(21), 24819–24828 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sa, Y. Feng, K. M. Jacobs, J. Yang, R. Pan, I. Gkigkitzis, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Study of low speed flow cytometry for diffraction imaging with different chamber and nozzle designs,” Cytometry A83(11), 1027–1033 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salzman, G. C.

G. C. Salzman, J. M. Crowell, C. A. Goad, K. M. Hansen, R. D. Hiebert, P. M. LaBauve, J. C. Martin, M. L. Ingram, and P. F. Mullaney, “A flow-system multiangle light-scattering instrument for cell characterization,” Clin. Chem.21(9), 1297–1304 (1975).
[PubMed]

Sause, W. T.

A. Mauguen, J. P. Pignon, S. Burdett, C. Domerg, D. Fisher, R. Paulus, S. J. Mandrekar, C. P. Belani, F. A. Shepherd, T. Eisen, H. Pang, L. Collette, W. T. Sause, S. E. Dahlberg, J. Crawford, M. O’Brien, S. E. Schild, M. Parmar, J. F. Tierney, C. Le Pechoux, S. Michiels, and Surrogate Lung Project Collaborative Group, “Surrogate endpoints for overall survival in chemotherapy and radiotherapy trials in operable and locally advanced lung cancer: a re-analysis of meta-analyses of individual patients’ data,” Lancet Oncol.14(7), 619–626 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schild, S. E.

A. Mauguen, J. P. Pignon, S. Burdett, C. Domerg, D. Fisher, R. Paulus, S. J. Mandrekar, C. P. Belani, F. A. Shepherd, T. Eisen, H. Pang, L. Collette, W. T. Sause, S. E. Dahlberg, J. Crawford, M. O’Brien, S. E. Schild, M. Parmar, J. F. Tierney, C. Le Pechoux, S. Michiels, and Surrogate Lung Project Collaborative Group, “Surrogate endpoints for overall survival in chemotherapy and radiotherapy trials in operable and locally advanced lung cancer: a re-analysis of meta-analyses of individual patients’ data,” Lancet Oncol.14(7), 619–626 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schutte, B.

M. van Engeland, L. J. Nieland, F. C. Ramaekers, B. Schutte, and C. P. Reutelingsperger, “Annexin V-affinity assay: a review on an apoptosis detection system based on phosphatidylserine exposure,” Cytometry31(1), 1–9 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shafran, Y.

Z. Shiffer, N. Zurgil, Y. Shafran, and M. Deutsch, “Analysis of laser scattering pattern as an early measure of apoptosis,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.289(5), 1320–1327 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, D.

Shepherd, F. A.

A. Mauguen, J. P. Pignon, S. Burdett, C. Domerg, D. Fisher, R. Paulus, S. J. Mandrekar, C. P. Belani, F. A. Shepherd, T. Eisen, H. Pang, L. Collette, W. T. Sause, S. E. Dahlberg, J. Crawford, M. O’Brien, S. E. Schild, M. Parmar, J. F. Tierney, C. Le Pechoux, S. Michiels, and Surrogate Lung Project Collaborative Group, “Surrogate endpoints for overall survival in chemotherapy and radiotherapy trials in operable and locally advanced lung cancer: a re-analysis of meta-analyses of individual patients’ data,” Lancet Oncol.14(7), 619–626 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shibata, M. A.

Y. Otsuki, Z. L. Li, and M. A. Shibata, “Apoptotic detection methods--from morphology to gene,” Prog. Histochem. Cytochem.38(3), 275–339 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shiffer, Z.

Z. Shiffer, N. Zurgil, Y. Shafran, and M. Deutsch, “Analysis of laser scattering pattern as an early measure of apoptosis,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.289(5), 1320–1327 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shvalov, A. N.

A. N. Shvalov, I. V. Surovtsev, A. V. Chernyshev, J. T. Soini, and V. P. Maltsev, “Particle classification from light scattering with the scanning flow cytometer,” Cytometry37(3), 215–220 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, K.

X. T. Su, K. Singh, C. Capjack, J. Petrácek, C. Backhouse, and W. Rozmus, “Measurements of light scattering in an integrated microfluidic waveguide cytometer,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024024 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soini, J. T.

A. N. Shvalov, I. V. Surovtsev, A. V. Chernyshev, J. T. Soini, and V. P. Maltsev, “Particle classification from light scattering with the scanning flow cytometer,” Cytometry37(3), 215–220 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Squillace, K.

D. Peus, R. A. Vasa, A. Meves, M. Pott, A. Beyerle, K. Squillace, and M. R. Pittelkow, “H2O2 is an important mediator of UVB-induced EGF-receptor phosphorylation in cultured keratinocytes,” J. Invest. Dermatol.110(6), 966–971 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stockert, J. C.

S. Rello, J. C. Stockert, V. Moreno, A. Gámez, M. Pacheco, A. Juarranz, M. Cañete, and A. Villanueva, “Morphological criteria to distinguish cell death induced by apoptotic and necrotic treatments,” Apoptosis10(1), 201–208 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, X. T.

X. T. Su, K. Singh, C. Capjack, J. Petrácek, C. Backhouse, and W. Rozmus, “Measurements of light scattering in an integrated microfluidic waveguide cytometer,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024024 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, X. M.

M. G. Ormerod, F. Paul, M. Cheetham, and X. M. Sun, “Discrimination of apoptotic thymocytes by forward light scatter,” Cytometry21(3), 300–304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surovtsev, I. V.

A. N. Shvalov, I. V. Surovtsev, A. V. Chernyshev, J. T. Soini, and V. P. Maltsev, “Particle classification from light scattering with the scanning flow cytometer,” Cytometry37(3), 215–220 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tierney, J. F.

A. Mauguen, J. P. Pignon, S. Burdett, C. Domerg, D. Fisher, R. Paulus, S. J. Mandrekar, C. P. Belani, F. A. Shepherd, T. Eisen, H. Pang, L. Collette, W. T. Sause, S. E. Dahlberg, J. Crawford, M. O’Brien, S. E. Schild, M. Parmar, J. F. Tierney, C. Le Pechoux, S. Michiels, and Surrogate Lung Project Collaborative Group, “Surrogate endpoints for overall survival in chemotherapy and radiotherapy trials in operable and locally advanced lung cancer: a re-analysis of meta-analyses of individual patients’ data,” Lancet Oncol.14(7), 619–626 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Traganos, F.

Z. Darzynkiewicz, S. Bruno, G. Del Bino, W. Gorczyca, M. A. Hotz, P. Lassota, and F. Traganos, “Features of apoptotic cells measured by flow cytometry,” Cytometry13(8), 795–808 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tridandapani, S.

X. F. Yang, S. Tridandapani, J. J. Beitler, D. S. Yu, E. J. Yoshida, W. J. Curran, and T. Liu, “Ultrasound GLCM texture analysis of radiation-induced parotid-gland injuryin head-and-neck cancer radiotherapy: An in vivo study of late toxicity,” Med. Phys.39, 5732–5739 (2012).

Trivedi, M. M.

R. W. Conners, M. M. Trivedi, and C. A. Harlow, “Segmentation of a high-resolution urban scene using texture operators,” Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process.25(3), 273–310 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ulukaya, E.

E. Ulukaya, C. Acilan, F. Ari, E. Ikitimur, and Y. Yilmaz, “A glance at the methods for detection of apoptosis qualitatively and quantitatively,” Turk. J. Bioch36, 261–269 (2011).

van Engeland, M.

M. van Engeland, L. J. Nieland, F. C. Ramaekers, B. Schutte, and C. P. Reutelingsperger, “Annexin V-affinity assay: a review on an apoptosis detection system based on phosphatidylserine exposure,” Cytometry31(1), 1–9 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Oers, M. H. J.

G. Koopman, C. P. Reutelingsperger, G. A. Kuijten, R. M. J. Keehnen, S. T. Pals, and M. H. J. van Oers, “Annexin V for flow cytometric detection of phosphatidylserine expression on B cells undergoing apoptosis,” Blood84(5), 1415–1420 (1994).
[PubMed]

Vasa, R. A.

D. Peus, R. A. Vasa, A. Meves, M. Pott, A. Beyerle, K. Squillace, and M. R. Pittelkow, “H2O2 is an important mediator of UVB-induced EGF-receptor phosphorylation in cultured keratinocytes,” J. Invest. Dermatol.110(6), 966–971 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villanueva, A.

S. Rello, J. C. Stockert, V. Moreno, A. Gámez, M. Pacheco, A. Juarranz, M. Cañete, and A. Villanueva, “Morphological criteria to distinguish cell death induced by apoptotic and necrotic treatments,” Apoptosis10(1), 201–208 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, B. A.

B. A. Wagner, G. R. Buettner, L. W. Oberley, C. J. Darby, and C. P. Burns, “Myeloperoxidase is involved in H2O2-induced apoptosis of HL-60 human leukemia Cells,” J. Biol. Chem.275(29), 22461–22469 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wessel, T.

Whitesides, G. M.

C. S. Chen, M. Mrksich, S. Huang, G. M. Whitesides, and D. E. Ingber, “Geometric Control of Cell Life and Death,” Science276(5317), 1425–1428 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyllie, A. H.

J. F. Kerr, A. H. Wyllie, and A. R. Currie, “Apoptosis: a basic biological phenomenon with wide-ranging implications in tissue kinetics,” Br. J. Cancer26(4), 239–257 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, J.

Y. Sa, Y. Feng, K. M. Jacobs, J. Yang, R. Pan, I. Gkigkitzis, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Study of low speed flow cytometry for diffraction imaging with different chamber and nozzle designs,” Cytometry A83(11), 1027–1033 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, L. V.

Yang, P.

J. Q. Lu, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Simulations of Light scattering from a biconcave red blood cell using the finite-difference time-domain method,” J. Biomed. Opt.10, 024022 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, X. F.

X. F. Yang, S. Tridandapani, J. J. Beitler, D. S. Yu, E. J. Yoshida, W. J. Curran, and T. Liu, “Ultrasound GLCM texture analysis of radiation-induced parotid-gland injuryin head-and-neck cancer radiotherapy: An in vivo study of late toxicity,” Med. Phys.39, 5732–5739 (2012).

Yilmaz, Y.

E. Ulukaya, C. Acilan, F. Ari, E. Ikitimur, and Y. Yilmaz, “A glance at the methods for detection of apoptosis qualitatively and quantitatively,” Turk. J. Bioch36, 261–269 (2011).

Yoshida, E. J.

X. F. Yang, S. Tridandapani, J. J. Beitler, D. S. Yu, E. J. Yoshida, W. J. Curran, and T. Liu, “Ultrasound GLCM texture analysis of radiation-induced parotid-gland injuryin head-and-neck cancer radiotherapy: An in vivo study of late toxicity,” Med. Phys.39, 5732–5739 (2012).

Yu, D. S.

X. F. Yang, S. Tridandapani, J. J. Beitler, D. S. Yu, E. J. Yoshida, W. J. Curran, and T. Liu, “Ultrasound GLCM texture analysis of radiation-induced parotid-gland injuryin head-and-neck cancer radiotherapy: An in vivo study of late toxicity,” Med. Phys.39, 5732–5739 (2012).

Yu, S.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, N.

Zurgil, N.

Z. Shiffer, N. Zurgil, Y. Shafran, and M. Deutsch, “Analysis of laser scattering pattern as an early measure of apoptosis,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.289(5), 1320–1327 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Methods

M. M. Martinez, R. D. Reif, and D. Pappas, “Detection of apoptosis: A review of conventional and novel techniques,” Anal. Methods2(8), 996–1004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Apoptosis

S. Rello, J. C. Stockert, V. Moreno, A. Gámez, M. Pacheco, A. Juarranz, M. Cañete, and A. Villanueva, “Morphological criteria to distinguish cell death induced by apoptotic and necrotic treatments,” Apoptosis10(1), 201–208 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.

Z. Shiffer, N. Zurgil, Y. Shafran, and M. Deutsch, “Analysis of laser scattering pattern as an early measure of apoptosis,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.289(5), 1320–1327 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express

Blood

G. Koopman, C. P. Reutelingsperger, G. A. Kuijten, R. M. J. Keehnen, S. T. Pals, and M. H. J. van Oers, “Annexin V for flow cytometric detection of phosphatidylserine expression on B cells undergoing apoptosis,” Blood84(5), 1415–1420 (1994).
[PubMed]

Br. J. Cancer

J. F. Kerr, A. H. Wyllie, and A. R. Currie, “Apoptosis: a basic biological phenomenon with wide-ranging implications in tissue kinetics,” Br. J. Cancer26(4), 239–257 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Chem.

G. C. Salzman, J. M. Crowell, C. A. Goad, K. M. Hansen, R. D. Hiebert, P. M. LaBauve, J. C. Martin, M. L. Ingram, and P. F. Mullaney, “A flow-system multiangle light-scattering instrument for cell characterization,” Clin. Chem.21(9), 1297–1304 (1975).
[PubMed]

Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process.

R. W. Conners, M. M. Trivedi, and C. A. Harlow, “Segmentation of a high-resolution urban scene using texture operators,” Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process.25(3), 273–310 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cytometry

A. N. Shvalov, I. V. Surovtsev, A. V. Chernyshev, J. T. Soini, and V. P. Maltsev, “Particle classification from light scattering with the scanning flow cytometer,” Cytometry37(3), 215–220 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Darzynkiewicz, S. Bruno, G. Del Bino, W. Gorczyca, M. A. Hotz, P. Lassota, and F. Traganos, “Features of apoptotic cells measured by flow cytometry,” Cytometry13(8), 795–808 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Ormerod, F. Paul, M. Cheetham, and X. M. Sun, “Discrimination of apoptotic thymocytes by forward light scatter,” Cytometry21(3), 300–304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Examples of diffraction image pairs acquired from individual flowing cells with light wavelength of λ = 532nm, exposure time of t = 0.5ms and different post-treatment time tp; (A) tp = 0h; (B) tp = 6h; (C) tp = 24h. The letters of s and p stand for s-polarization and p-polarization of the scattered light respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Microscopic images of the HL-60 cells with morphological changes at different apoptotic stages induced by H2O2. Hoechst 33324 fluorescence shows in blue, Annexin V-FITC fluorescence shows in green and PI fluorescence shows in red: (A) viable cells; (B) early apoptotic cells; (C) late apoptotic and necrotic cells; (D) cells with nuclear fragments; (E) enucleated cells and apoptotic bodies. The bottom row shows bright-field images. Bar = 10μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical scatter plots of FL1 vs FL2 signals from 10,000 HL-60 cells of (A) control and (B) H2O2 treatment with tp = 24 (hours) acquired by the Annexin V-FITC/PI assay of FCM. The cell numbers in the four quadrants of LL, LR, UL and UR were used to obtain the apoptotic rate Pa. Pa and PFN are plotted against the post-treatment time tp in (C) with the diamond, circle and square symbols representing respectively the mean values of Pa with the FCM assay, the microscopy assay and PFN. The error bars represent the standard deviations obtained from three measurements. The lines connecting the symbols are auxiliary for view.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Four GLCM parameters extracted from the diffraction images of HL-60 cells after being treated with 1.5mM H2O2 for 0h, 3h, 6h, 12h and 24h after synchronization through serum deprivation for 6 hours. (A) s-cluster shade (s-CLS); (B) p-correlation (p-COR); (C) p-contrast (p-CON); (D) p-dissimilarity (p-DIS). The lines connecting the symbols are auxiliary for view.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Four s-polarized diffraction images from different cell samples with different values of tp in hours: (A) 0; (B) 12; (C) 24. The number in each image is the value of s-CLS/105.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Morphological parameters measured with the fluorescence microscopy method*

Tables Icon

Table 2 The values of R2 on the correlation between the dependences of GLCM parameters and other parameters on tp

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