Abstract

Focused ultrasound (FUS) can be used to locally and temporally enhance vascular permeability, improving the efficiency of drug delivery from the blood vessels into the surrounding tissue. However, it is difficult to evaluate in real time the effect induced by FUS and to noninvasively observe the permeability enhancement. In this study, speckle-variance optical coherence tomography (SVOCT) was implemented for the investigation of temporal effects on vessels induced by FUS treatment. With OCT scanning, the dynamic change in vessels during FUS exposure can be observed and studied. Moreover, the vascular effects induced by FUS treatment with and without the presence of microbubbles were investigated and quantitatively compared. Additionally, 2D and 3D speckle-variance images were used for quantitative observation of blood leakage from vessels due to the permeability enhancement caused by FUS, which could be an indicator that can be used to determine the influence of FUS power exposure. In conclusion, SVOCT can be a useful tool for monitoring FUS treatment in real time, facilitating the dynamic observation of temporal effects and helping to determine the optimal FUS power.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (3)

2013 (7)

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. E. Cable, “High-precision, high-accuracy ultralong-range swept-source optical coherence tomography using vertical cavity surface emitting laser light source,” Opt. Lett.38(5), 673–675 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Tsai, C. K. Lee, K. M. Lin, Y. X. Lin, T. H. Lin, T. C. Chang, J. D. Lee, and H. L. Liu, “Quantitative observation of focused-ultrasound-induced vascular leakage and deformation via fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(10), 101307 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. H. Hsu, K. C. Wei, C. Y. Huang, C. J. Wen, T. C. Yen, C. L. Liu, Y. T. Lin, J. C. Chen, C. R. Shen, and H. L. Liu, “Noninvasive and Targeted Gene Delivery into the Brain Using Microbubble-Facilitated Focused Ultrasound,” PLoS ONE8(2), e57682 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Hendargo, R. Estrada, S. J. Chiu, C. Tomasi, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “Automated non-rigid registration and mosaicing for robust imaging of distinct retinal capillary beds using speckle variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(6), 803–821 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yousefi, J. Qin, and R. K. Wang, “Super-resolution spectral estimation of optical micro-angiography for quantifying blood flow within microcirculatory tissue beds in vivo,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(7), 1214–1228 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Fleming, J. Eckert, E. F. Halpern, J. A. Gardecki, and G. J. Tearney, “Depth resolved detection of lipid using spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(8), 1269–1284 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Tsai, C. H. Yang, S. C. Shen, Y. J. Lee, F. Y. Chang, and C. S. Feng, “Monitoring of wound healing process of human skin after fractional laser treatments with optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(11), 2362–2375 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

B. Baumann, S. O. Baumann, T. Konegger, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, F. Schlanitz, C. Schütze, H. Sattmann, M. Litschauer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of melanin provides intrinsic contrast based on depolarization,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(7), 1670–1683 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Cadotte, A. Mariampillai, A. Cadotte, K. K. C. Lee, T. R. Kiehl, B. C. Wilson, M. G. Fehlings, and V. X. D. Yang, “Speckle variance optical coherence tomography of the rodent spinal cord: in vivo feasibility,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(5), 911–919 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Conroy, R. S. DaCosta, and I. A. Vitkin, “Quantifying tissue microvasculature with speckle variance optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.37(15), 3180–3182 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.-H. Liao, H.-L. Liu, C.-H. Su, M.-Y. Hua, H.-W. Yang, Y.-T. Weng, P.-H. Hsu, S.-M. Huang, S.-Y. Wu, H. E. Wang, T. C. Yen, and P. C. Li, “Paramagnetic perfluorocarbon-filled albumin-(Gd-DTPA) microbubbles for the induction of focused-ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening and concurrent MR and ultrasound imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.57(9), 2787–2802 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wiedemair, Ž. Tuković, H. Jasak, D. Poulikakos, and V. Kurtcuoglu, “On ultrasound-induced microbubble oscillation in a capillary blood vessel and its implications for the blood-brain barrier,” Phys. Med. Biol.57(4), 1019–1045 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (7)

L. An, P. Li, T. T. Shen, and R. K. Wang, “High speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging at 500,000 A‑lines per second,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(10), 2770–2783 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Murari, J. Mavadia, J. F. Xi, and X. D. Li, “Self-starting, self-regulating Fourier domain mode locked fiber laser for OCT imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(7), 2005–2011 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1539–1552 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Liu, L. Chou, W. C. Jia, W. J. Qi, B. Choi, and Z. P. Chen, “Intensity-based modified Doppler variance algorithm: application to phase instable and phase stable optical coherence tomography systems,” Opt. Express19(12), 11429–11440 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Enfield, E. Jonathan, and M. Leahy, “In vivo imaging of the microcirculation of the volar forearm using correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cmOCT),” Biomed. Opt. Express2(5), 1184–1193 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Jonathan, J. Enfield, and M. J. Leahy, “Correlation mapping method for generating microcirculation morphology from optical coherence tomography (OCT) intensity images,” J. Biophotonics4(9), 583–587 (2011).
[PubMed]

S. Sakai, M. Yamanari, Y. Lim, N. Nakagawa, and Y. Yasuno, “In vivo evaluation of human skin anisotropy by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(9), 2623–2631 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

A. Alex, B. Povazay, B. Hofer, S. Popov, C. Glittenberg, S. Binder, and W. Drexler, “Multispectral in vivo three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 026025 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Prati, E. Regar, G. S. Mintz, E. Arbustini, C. Di Mario, I. K. Jang, T. Akasaka, M. Costa, G. Guagliumi, E. Grube, Y. Ozaki, F. Pinto, P. W. J. Serruys, E. O. R. Document, and Expert’s OCT Review Document, “Expert review document on methodology, terminology, and clinical applications of optical coherence tomography: physical principles, methodology of image acquisition, and clinical application for assessment of coronary arteries and atherosclerosis,” Eur. Heart J.31(4), 401–415 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Lee, H. Y. Tseng, C. Y. Lee, S. Y. Wu, T. T. Chi, K. M. Yang, H. Y. E. Chou, M. T. Tsai, J. Y. Wang, Y. W. Kiang, C. P. Chiang, and C. C. Yang, “Characterizing the localized surface plasmon resonance behaviors of Au nanorings and tracking their diffusion in bio-tissue with optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(4), 1060–1073 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Liu, M. Y. Hua, H. W. Yang, C. Y. Huang, P. C. Chu, J. S. Wu, I. C. Tseng, J. J. Wang, T. C. Yen, P. Y. Chen, and K. C. Wei, “Magnetic resonance monitoring of focused ultrasound/magnetic nanoparticle targeting delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(34), 15205–15210 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Liu, M. Y. Hua, P. Y. Chen, P. C. Chu, C. H. Pan, H. W. Yang, C. Y. Huang, J. J. Wang, T. C. Yen, and K. C. Wei, “Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption with Focused Ultrasound Enhances Delivery of Chemotherapeutic Drugs for Glioblastoma Treatment,” Radiology255(2), 415–425 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Lin, Y. L. Huang, J. R. Li, F. H. Chang, and W. L. Lin, “Effects of focused ultrasound and microbubbles on the vascular permeability of nanoparticles delivered into mouse tumors,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.36(9), 1460–1469 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

2007 (4)

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yasuno, Y. J. Hong, S. Makita, M. Yamanari, M. Akiba, M. Miura, and T. Yatagai, “In vivo high-contrast imaging of deep posterior eye by 1-microm swept source optical coherence tomography and scattering optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express15(10), 6121–6139 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hong, S. Makita, M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Kim, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Three-dimensional visualization of choroidal vessels by using standard and ultra-high resolution scattering optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express15(12), 7538–7550 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. H. Treat, N. McDannold, N. Vykhodtseva, Y. Z. Zhang, K. Tam, and K. Hynynen, “Targeted delivery of doxorubicin to the rat brain at therapeutic levels using MRI-guided focused ultrasound,” Int. J. Cancer121(4), 901–907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

M. Kinoshita, N. McDannold, F. A. Jolesz, and K. Hynynen, “Noninvasive localized delivery of Herceptin to the mouse brain by MRI-guided focused ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier disruption,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(31), 11719–11723 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

C. X. Deng, F. J. Qu, V. P. Nikolski, Y. Zhou, and I. R. Efimov, “Fluorescence imaging for real-time monitoring of high-intensity focused ultrasound cardiac ablation,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.33(10), 1352–1359 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. McDannold, N. Vykhodtseva, S. Raymond, F. A. Jolesz, and K. Hynynen, “MRI-guided targeted blood-brain barrier disruption with focused ultrasound: Histological findings in rabbits,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.31(11), 1527–1537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

P. E. Huber, M. J. Mann, L. G. Melo, A. Ehsan, D. Kong, L. Zhang, M. Rezvani, P. Peschke, F. Jolesz, V. J. Dzau, and K. Hynynen, “Focused ultrasound (HIFU) induces localized enhancement of reporter gene expression in rabbit carotid artery,” Gene Ther.10(18), 1600–1607 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(18), 2183–2189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Patel, X. D. Li, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Guidance of aortic ablation using optical coherence tomography,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging19(2), 171–178 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

Z. H. Ding, Y. H. Zhao, H. W. Ren, J. S. Nelson, and Z. P. Chen, “Real-time phase-resolved optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Express10(5), 236–245 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Taniyama, K. Tachibana, K. Hiraoka, T. Namba, K. Yamasaki, N. Hashiya, M. Aoki, T. Ogihara, K. Yasufumi, and R. Morishita, “Local delivery of plasmid DNA into rat carotid artery using ultrasound,” Circulation105(10), 1233–1239 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

K. Hynynen, N. McDannold, N. Vykhodtseva, and F. A. Jolesz, “Noninvasive MR imaging-guided focal opening of the blood-brain barrier in rabbits,” Radiology220(3), 640–646 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

1998 (1)

D. B. Cines, E. S. Pollak, C. A. Buck, J. Loscalzo, G. A. Zimmerman, R. P. McEver, J. S. Pober, T. M. Wick, B. A. Konkle, B. S. Schwartz, E. S. Barnathan, K. R. McCrae, B. A. Hug, A. M. Schmidt, and D. M. Stern, “Endothelial cells in physiology and in the pathophysiology of vascular disorders,” Blood91(10), 3527–3561 (1998).
[PubMed]

1995 (1)

K. Tachibana and S. Tachibana, “Albumin Microbubble Echo-Contrast Material as an Enhancer for Ultrasound Accelerated Thrombolysis,” Circulation92(5), 1148–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adler, D. C.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Akasaka, T.

F. Prati, E. Regar, G. S. Mintz, E. Arbustini, C. Di Mario, I. K. Jang, T. Akasaka, M. Costa, G. Guagliumi, E. Grube, Y. Ozaki, F. Pinto, P. W. J. Serruys, E. O. R. Document, and Expert’s OCT Review Document, “Expert review document on methodology, terminology, and clinical applications of optical coherence tomography: physical principles, methodology of image acquisition, and clinical application for assessment of coronary arteries and atherosclerosis,” Eur. Heart J.31(4), 401–415 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akiba, M.

Alex, A.

A. Alex, B. Povazay, B. Hofer, S. Popov, C. Glittenberg, S. Binder, and W. Drexler, “Multispectral in vivo three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 026025 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

An, L.

Aoki, M.

Y. Taniyama, K. Tachibana, K. Hiraoka, T. Namba, K. Yamasaki, N. Hashiya, M. Aoki, T. Ogihara, K. Yasufumi, and R. Morishita, “Local delivery of plasmid DNA into rat carotid artery using ultrasound,” Circulation105(10), 1233–1239 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arbustini, E.

F. Prati, E. Regar, G. S. Mintz, E. Arbustini, C. Di Mario, I. K. Jang, T. Akasaka, M. Costa, G. Guagliumi, E. Grube, Y. Ozaki, F. Pinto, P. W. J. Serruys, E. O. R. Document, and Expert’s OCT Review Document, “Expert review document on methodology, terminology, and clinical applications of optical coherence tomography: physical principles, methodology of image acquisition, and clinical application for assessment of coronary arteries and atherosclerosis,” Eur. Heart J.31(4), 401–415 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnathan, E. S.

D. B. Cines, E. S. Pollak, C. A. Buck, J. Loscalzo, G. A. Zimmerman, R. P. McEver, J. S. Pober, T. M. Wick, B. A. Konkle, B. S. Schwartz, E. S. Barnathan, K. R. McCrae, B. A. Hug, A. M. Schmidt, and D. M. Stern, “Endothelial cells in physiology and in the pathophysiology of vascular disorders,” Blood91(10), 3527–3561 (1998).
[PubMed]

Baumann, B.

Baumann, S. O.

Binder, S.

A. Alex, B. Povazay, B. Hofer, S. Popov, C. Glittenberg, S. Binder, and W. Drexler, “Multispectral in vivo three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 026025 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

Bouley, D.

L. Chen, D. Bouley, E. Yuh, H. D’Arceuil, and K. Butts, “Study of focused ultrasound tissue damage using MRI and histology,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging10(2), 146–153 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

N. A. Patel, X. D. Li, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Guidance of aortic ablation using optical coherence tomography,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging19(2), 171–178 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buck, C. A.

D. B. Cines, E. S. Pollak, C. A. Buck, J. Loscalzo, G. A. Zimmerman, R. P. McEver, J. S. Pober, T. M. Wick, B. A. Konkle, B. S. Schwartz, E. S. Barnathan, K. R. McCrae, B. A. Hug, A. M. Schmidt, and D. M. Stern, “Endothelial cells in physiology and in the pathophysiology of vascular disorders,” Blood91(10), 3527–3561 (1998).
[PubMed]

Butts, K.

L. Chen, D. Bouley, E. Yuh, H. D’Arceuil, and K. Butts, “Study of focused ultrasound tissue damage using MRI and histology,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging10(2), 146–153 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

Cable, A. E.

Cadotte, A.

Cadotte, D. W.

Chan, M. C.

Chang, F. H.

C. Y. Lin, Y. L. Huang, J. R. Li, F. H. Chang, and W. L. Lin, “Effects of focused ultrasound and microbubbles on the vascular permeability of nanoparticles delivered into mouse tumors,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.36(9), 1460–1469 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, F. Y.

Chang, T. C.

M. T. Tsai, C. K. Lee, K. M. Lin, Y. X. Lin, T. H. Lin, T. C. Chang, J. D. Lee, and H. L. Liu, “Quantitative observation of focused-ultrasound-induced vascular leakage and deformation via fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(10), 101307 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J. C.

P. H. Hsu, K. C. Wei, C. Y. Huang, C. J. Wen, T. C. Yen, C. L. Liu, Y. T. Lin, J. C. Chen, C. R. Shen, and H. L. Liu, “Noninvasive and Targeted Gene Delivery into the Brain Using Microbubble-Facilitated Focused Ultrasound,” PLoS ONE8(2), e57682 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

L. Chen, D. Bouley, E. Yuh, H. D’Arceuil, and K. Butts, “Study of focused ultrasound tissue damage using MRI and histology,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging10(2), 146–153 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, P. Y.

H. L. Liu, M. Y. Hua, P. Y. Chen, P. C. Chu, C. H. Pan, H. W. Yang, C. Y. Huang, J. J. Wang, T. C. Yen, and K. C. Wei, “Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption with Focused Ultrasound Enhances Delivery of Chemotherapeutic Drugs for Glioblastoma Treatment,” Radiology255(2), 415–425 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Liu, M. Y. Hua, H. W. Yang, C. Y. Huang, P. C. Chu, J. S. Wu, I. C. Tseng, J. J. Wang, T. C. Yen, P. Y. Chen, and K. C. Wei, “Magnetic resonance monitoring of focused ultrasound/magnetic nanoparticle targeting delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(34), 15205–15210 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. L.

Chen, Z. P.

Chi, T. T.

Chiang, C. P.

Chiu, S. J.

Choi, B.

Choi, W.

Choma, M. A.

Chou, H. Y. E.

Chou, L.

Chu, P. C.

H. L. Liu, M. Y. Hua, H. W. Yang, C. Y. Huang, P. C. Chu, J. S. Wu, I. C. Tseng, J. J. Wang, T. C. Yen, P. Y. Chen, and K. C. Wei, “Magnetic resonance monitoring of focused ultrasound/magnetic nanoparticle targeting delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(34), 15205–15210 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Liu, M. Y. Hua, P. Y. Chen, P. C. Chu, C. H. Pan, H. W. Yang, C. Y. Huang, J. J. Wang, T. C. Yen, and K. C. Wei, “Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption with Focused Ultrasound Enhances Delivery of Chemotherapeutic Drugs for Glioblastoma Treatment,” Radiology255(2), 415–425 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cines, D. B.

D. B. Cines, E. S. Pollak, C. A. Buck, J. Loscalzo, G. A. Zimmerman, R. P. McEver, J. S. Pober, T. M. Wick, B. A. Konkle, B. S. Schwartz, E. S. Barnathan, K. R. McCrae, B. A. Hug, A. M. Schmidt, and D. M. Stern, “Endothelial cells in physiology and in the pathophysiology of vascular disorders,” Blood91(10), 3527–3561 (1998).
[PubMed]

Connolly, J.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Conroy, L.

Costa, M.

F. Prati, E. Regar, G. S. Mintz, E. Arbustini, C. Di Mario, I. K. Jang, T. Akasaka, M. Costa, G. Guagliumi, E. Grube, Y. Ozaki, F. Pinto, P. W. J. Serruys, E. O. R. Document, and Expert’s OCT Review Document, “Expert review document on methodology, terminology, and clinical applications of optical coherence tomography: physical principles, methodology of image acquisition, and clinical application for assessment of coronary arteries and atherosclerosis,” Eur. Heart J.31(4), 401–415 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D’Arceuil, H.

L. Chen, D. Bouley, E. Yuh, H. D’Arceuil, and K. Butts, “Study of focused ultrasound tissue damage using MRI and histology,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging10(2), 146–153 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DaCosta, R. S.

Deng, C. X.

C. X. Deng, F. J. Qu, V. P. Nikolski, Y. Zhou, and I. R. Efimov, “Fluorescence imaging for real-time monitoring of high-intensity focused ultrasound cardiac ablation,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.33(10), 1352–1359 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Di Mario, C.

F. Prati, E. Regar, G. S. Mintz, E. Arbustini, C. Di Mario, I. K. Jang, T. Akasaka, M. Costa, G. Guagliumi, E. Grube, Y. Ozaki, F. Pinto, P. W. J. Serruys, E. O. R. Document, and Expert’s OCT Review Document, “Expert review document on methodology, terminology, and clinical applications of optical coherence tomography: physical principles, methodology of image acquisition, and clinical application for assessment of coronary arteries and atherosclerosis,” Eur. Heart J.31(4), 401–415 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, Z. H.

Document, E. O. R.

F. Prati, E. Regar, G. S. Mintz, E. Arbustini, C. Di Mario, I. K. Jang, T. Akasaka, M. Costa, G. Guagliumi, E. Grube, Y. Ozaki, F. Pinto, P. W. J. Serruys, E. O. R. Document, and Expert’s OCT Review Document, “Expert review document on methodology, terminology, and clinical applications of optical coherence tomography: physical principles, methodology of image acquisition, and clinical application for assessment of coronary arteries and atherosclerosis,” Eur. Heart J.31(4), 401–415 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

A. Alex, B. Povazay, B. Hofer, S. Popov, C. Glittenberg, S. Binder, and W. Drexler, “Multispectral in vivo three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 026025 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.24(17), 1221–1223 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duker, J. S.

Dzau, V. J.

P. E. Huber, M. J. Mann, L. G. Melo, A. Ehsan, D. Kong, L. Zhang, M. Rezvani, P. Peschke, F. Jolesz, V. J. Dzau, and K. Hynynen, “Focused ultrasound (HIFU) induces localized enhancement of reporter gene expression in rabbit carotid artery,” Gene Ther.10(18), 1600–1607 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eckert, J.

Efimov, I. R.

C. X. Deng, F. J. Qu, V. P. Nikolski, Y. Zhou, and I. R. Efimov, “Fluorescence imaging for real-time monitoring of high-intensity focused ultrasound cardiac ablation,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.33(10), 1352–1359 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ehsan, A.

P. E. Huber, M. J. Mann, L. G. Melo, A. Ehsan, D. Kong, L. Zhang, M. Rezvani, P. Peschke, F. Jolesz, V. J. Dzau, and K. Hynynen, “Focused ultrasound (HIFU) induces localized enhancement of reporter gene expression in rabbit carotid artery,” Gene Ther.10(18), 1600–1607 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enfield, J.

J. Enfield, E. Jonathan, and M. Leahy, “In vivo imaging of the microcirculation of the volar forearm using correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cmOCT),” Biomed. Opt. Express2(5), 1184–1193 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Jonathan, J. Enfield, and M. J. Leahy, “Correlation mapping method for generating microcirculation morphology from optical coherence tomography (OCT) intensity images,” J. Biophotonics4(9), 583–587 (2011).
[PubMed]

Estrada, R.

Farsiu, S.

Fehlings, M. G.

Feng, C. S.

Fercher, A. F.

Fleming, C. P.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, W. Choi, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. Hornegger, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Handheld ultrahigh speed swept source optical coherence tomography instrument using a MEMS scanning mirror,” Biomed. Opt. Express5(1), 293–311 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. E. Cable, “High-precision, high-accuracy ultralong-range swept-source optical coherence tomography using vertical cavity surface emitting laser light source,” Opt. Lett.38(5), 673–675 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1539–1552 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. L. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed Spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Patel, X. D. Li, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Guidance of aortic ablation using optical coherence tomography,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging19(2), 171–178 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.24(17), 1221–1223 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gardecki, J. A.

Glittenberg, C.

A. Alex, B. Povazay, B. Hofer, S. Popov, C. Glittenberg, S. Binder, and W. Drexler, “Multispectral in vivo three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 026025 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorczynska, I.

Götzinger, E.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grube, E.

F. Prati, E. Regar, G. S. Mintz, E. Arbustini, C. Di Mario, I. K. Jang, T. Akasaka, M. Costa, G. Guagliumi, E. Grube, Y. Ozaki, F. Pinto, P. W. J. Serruys, E. O. R. Document, and Expert’s OCT Review Document, “Expert review document on methodology, terminology, and clinical applications of optical coherence tomography: physical principles, methodology of image acquisition, and clinical application for assessment of coronary arteries and atherosclerosis,” Eur. Heart J.31(4), 401–415 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grulkowski, I.

Guagliumi, G.

F. Prati, E. Regar, G. S. Mintz, E. Arbustini, C. Di Mario, I. K. Jang, T. Akasaka, M. Costa, G. Guagliumi, E. Grube, Y. Ozaki, F. Pinto, P. W. J. Serruys, E. O. R. Document, and Expert’s OCT Review Document, “Expert review document on methodology, terminology, and clinical applications of optical coherence tomography: physical principles, methodology of image acquisition, and clinical application for assessment of coronary arteries and atherosclerosis,” Eur. Heart J.31(4), 401–415 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halpern, E. F.

Hashiya, N.

Y. Taniyama, K. Tachibana, K. Hiraoka, T. Namba, K. Yamasaki, N. Hashiya, M. Aoki, T. Ogihara, K. Yasufumi, and R. Morishita, “Local delivery of plasmid DNA into rat carotid artery using ultrasound,” Circulation105(10), 1233–1239 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendargo, H. C.

Hiraoka, K.

Y. Taniyama, K. Tachibana, K. Hiraoka, T. Namba, K. Yamasaki, N. Hashiya, M. Aoki, T. Ogihara, K. Yasufumi, and R. Morishita, “Local delivery of plasmid DNA into rat carotid artery using ultrasound,” Circulation105(10), 1233–1239 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hofer, B.

A. Alex, B. Povazay, B. Hofer, S. Popov, C. Glittenberg, S. Binder, and W. Drexler, “Multispectral in vivo three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 026025 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, Y.

Hong, Y. J.

Hornegger, J.

Hsu, P. H.

P. H. Hsu, K. C. Wei, C. Y. Huang, C. J. Wen, T. C. Yen, C. L. Liu, Y. T. Lin, J. C. Chen, C. R. Shen, and H. L. Liu, “Noninvasive and Targeted Gene Delivery into the Brain Using Microbubble-Facilitated Focused Ultrasound,” PLoS ONE8(2), e57682 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, P.-H.

A.-H. Liao, H.-L. Liu, C.-H. Su, M.-Y. Hua, H.-W. Yang, Y.-T. Weng, P.-H. Hsu, S.-M. Huang, S.-Y. Wu, H. E. Wang, T. C. Yen, and P. C. Li, “Paramagnetic perfluorocarbon-filled albumin-(Gd-DTPA) microbubbles for the induction of focused-ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening and concurrent MR and ultrasound imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.57(9), 2787–2802 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hua, M. Y.

H. L. Liu, M. Y. Hua, P. Y. Chen, P. C. Chu, C. H. Pan, H. W. Yang, C. Y. Huang, J. J. Wang, T. C. Yen, and K. C. Wei, “Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption with Focused Ultrasound Enhances Delivery of Chemotherapeutic Drugs for Glioblastoma Treatment,” Radiology255(2), 415–425 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Liu, M. Y. Hua, H. W. Yang, C. Y. Huang, P. C. Chu, J. S. Wu, I. C. Tseng, J. J. Wang, T. C. Yen, P. Y. Chen, and K. C. Wei, “Magnetic resonance monitoring of focused ultrasound/magnetic nanoparticle targeting delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(34), 15205–15210 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hua, M.-Y.

A.-H. Liao, H.-L. Liu, C.-H. Su, M.-Y. Hua, H.-W. Yang, Y.-T. Weng, P.-H. Hsu, S.-M. Huang, S.-Y. Wu, H. E. Wang, T. C. Yen, and P. C. Li, “Paramagnetic perfluorocarbon-filled albumin-(Gd-DTPA) microbubbles for the induction of focused-ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening and concurrent MR and ultrasound imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.57(9), 2787–2802 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, C. Y.

P. H. Hsu, K. C. Wei, C. Y. Huang, C. J. Wen, T. C. Yen, C. L. Liu, Y. T. Lin, J. C. Chen, C. R. Shen, and H. L. Liu, “Noninvasive and Targeted Gene Delivery into the Brain Using Microbubble-Facilitated Focused Ultrasound,” PLoS ONE8(2), e57682 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Liu, M. Y. Hua, H. W. Yang, C. Y. Huang, P. C. Chu, J. S. Wu, I. C. Tseng, J. J. Wang, T. C. Yen, P. Y. Chen, and K. C. Wei, “Magnetic resonance monitoring of focused ultrasound/magnetic nanoparticle targeting delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(34), 15205–15210 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Y. Lin, Y. L. Huang, J. R. Li, F. H. Chang, and W. L. Lin, “Effects of focused ultrasound and microbubbles on the vascular permeability of nanoparticles delivered into mouse tumors,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.36(9), 1460–1469 (2010).
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L. H. Treat, N. McDannold, N. Vykhodtseva, Y. Z. Zhang, K. Tam, and K. Hynynen, “Targeted delivery of doxorubicin to the rat brain at therapeutic levels using MRI-guided focused ultrasound,” Int. J. Cancer121(4), 901–907 (2007).
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M. Kinoshita, N. McDannold, F. A. Jolesz, and K. Hynynen, “Noninvasive localized delivery of Herceptin to the mouse brain by MRI-guided focused ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier disruption,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(31), 11719–11723 (2006).
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Poulikakos, D.

W. Wiedemair, Ž. Tuković, H. Jasak, D. Poulikakos, and V. Kurtcuoglu, “On ultrasound-induced microbubble oscillation in a capillary blood vessel and its implications for the blood-brain barrier,” Phys. Med. Biol.57(4), 1019–1045 (2012).
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Povazay, B.

A. Alex, B. Povazay, B. Hofer, S. Popov, C. Glittenberg, S. Binder, and W. Drexler, “Multispectral in vivo three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 026025 (2010).
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F. Prati, E. Regar, G. S. Mintz, E. Arbustini, C. Di Mario, I. K. Jang, T. Akasaka, M. Costa, G. Guagliumi, E. Grube, Y. Ozaki, F. Pinto, P. W. J. Serruys, E. O. R. Document, and Expert’s OCT Review Document, “Expert review document on methodology, terminology, and clinical applications of optical coherence tomography: physical principles, methodology of image acquisition, and clinical application for assessment of coronary arteries and atherosclerosis,” Eur. Heart J.31(4), 401–415 (2010).
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Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Qi, W. J.

Qin, J.

Qu, F. J.

C. X. Deng, F. J. Qu, V. P. Nikolski, Y. Zhou, and I. R. Efimov, “Fluorescence imaging for real-time monitoring of high-intensity focused ultrasound cardiac ablation,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.33(10), 1352–1359 (2005).
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Raymond, S.

N. McDannold, N. Vykhodtseva, S. Raymond, F. A. Jolesz, and K. Hynynen, “MRI-guided targeted blood-brain barrier disruption with focused ultrasound: Histological findings in rabbits,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.31(11), 1527–1537 (2005).
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Regar, E.

F. Prati, E. Regar, G. S. Mintz, E. Arbustini, C. Di Mario, I. K. Jang, T. Akasaka, M. Costa, G. Guagliumi, E. Grube, Y. Ozaki, F. Pinto, P. W. J. Serruys, E. O. R. Document, and Expert’s OCT Review Document, “Expert review document on methodology, terminology, and clinical applications of optical coherence tomography: physical principles, methodology of image acquisition, and clinical application for assessment of coronary arteries and atherosclerosis,” Eur. Heart J.31(4), 401–415 (2010).
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Ren, H. W.

Rezvani, M.

P. E. Huber, M. J. Mann, L. G. Melo, A. Ehsan, D. Kong, L. Zhang, M. Rezvani, P. Peschke, F. Jolesz, V. J. Dzau, and K. Hynynen, “Focused ultrasound (HIFU) induces localized enhancement of reporter gene expression in rabbit carotid artery,” Gene Ther.10(18), 1600–1607 (2003).
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Rollins, A. M.

Sakai, S.

Sarunic, M. V.

Sattmann, H.

Schlanitz, F.

Schmidt, A. M.

D. B. Cines, E. S. Pollak, C. A. Buck, J. Loscalzo, G. A. Zimmerman, R. P. McEver, J. S. Pober, T. M. Wick, B. A. Konkle, B. S. Schwartz, E. S. Barnathan, K. R. McCrae, B. A. Hug, A. M. Schmidt, and D. M. Stern, “Endothelial cells in physiology and in the pathophysiology of vascular disorders,” Blood91(10), 3527–3561 (1998).
[PubMed]

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Schmitt, J.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics1(12), 709–716 (2007).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Schütze, C.

Schwartz, B. S.

D. B. Cines, E. S. Pollak, C. A. Buck, J. Loscalzo, G. A. Zimmerman, R. P. McEver, J. S. Pober, T. M. Wick, B. A. Konkle, B. S. Schwartz, E. S. Barnathan, K. R. McCrae, B. A. Hug, A. M. Schmidt, and D. M. Stern, “Endothelial cells in physiology and in the pathophysiology of vascular disorders,” Blood91(10), 3527–3561 (1998).
[PubMed]

Serruys, P. W. J.

F. Prati, E. Regar, G. S. Mintz, E. Arbustini, C. Di Mario, I. K. Jang, T. Akasaka, M. Costa, G. Guagliumi, E. Grube, Y. Ozaki, F. Pinto, P. W. J. Serruys, E. O. R. Document, and Expert’s OCT Review Document, “Expert review document on methodology, terminology, and clinical applications of optical coherence tomography: physical principles, methodology of image acquisition, and clinical application for assessment of coronary arteries and atherosclerosis,” Eur. Heart J.31(4), 401–415 (2010).
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P. H. Hsu, K. C. Wei, C. Y. Huang, C. J. Wen, T. C. Yen, C. L. Liu, Y. T. Lin, J. C. Chen, C. R. Shen, and H. L. Liu, “Noninvasive and Targeted Gene Delivery into the Brain Using Microbubble-Facilitated Focused Ultrasound,” PLoS ONE8(2), e57682 (2013).
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Shen, T. T.

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D. B. Cines, E. S. Pollak, C. A. Buck, J. Loscalzo, G. A. Zimmerman, R. P. McEver, J. S. Pober, T. M. Wick, B. A. Konkle, B. S. Schwartz, E. S. Barnathan, K. R. McCrae, B. A. Hug, A. M. Schmidt, and D. M. Stern, “Endothelial cells in physiology and in the pathophysiology of vascular disorders,” Blood91(10), 3527–3561 (1998).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Y. Taniyama, K. Tachibana, K. Hiraoka, T. Namba, K. Yamasaki, N. Hashiya, M. Aoki, T. Ogihara, K. Yasufumi, and R. Morishita, “Local delivery of plasmid DNA into rat carotid artery using ultrasound,” Circulation105(10), 1233–1239 (2002).
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K. Tachibana and S. Tachibana, “Albumin Microbubble Echo-Contrast Material as an Enhancer for Ultrasound Accelerated Thrombolysis,” Circulation92(5), 1148–1150 (1995).
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L. H. Treat, N. McDannold, N. Vykhodtseva, Y. Z. Zhang, K. Tam, and K. Hynynen, “Targeted delivery of doxorubicin to the rat brain at therapeutic levels using MRI-guided focused ultrasound,” Int. J. Cancer121(4), 901–907 (2007).
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Y. Taniyama, K. Tachibana, K. Hiraoka, T. Namba, K. Yamasaki, N. Hashiya, M. Aoki, T. Ogihara, K. Yasufumi, and R. Morishita, “Local delivery of plasmid DNA into rat carotid artery using ultrasound,” Circulation105(10), 1233–1239 (2002).
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Tomasi, C.

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L. H. Treat, N. McDannold, N. Vykhodtseva, Y. Z. Zhang, K. Tam, and K. Hynynen, “Targeted delivery of doxorubicin to the rat brain at therapeutic levels using MRI-guided focused ultrasound,” Int. J. Cancer121(4), 901–907 (2007).
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Tseng, H. Y.

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H. L. Liu, M. Y. Hua, H. W. Yang, C. Y. Huang, P. C. Chu, J. S. Wu, I. C. Tseng, J. J. Wang, T. C. Yen, P. Y. Chen, and K. C. Wei, “Magnetic resonance monitoring of focused ultrasound/magnetic nanoparticle targeting delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(34), 15205–15210 (2010).
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W. Wiedemair, Ž. Tuković, H. Jasak, D. Poulikakos, and V. Kurtcuoglu, “On ultrasound-induced microbubble oscillation in a capillary blood vessel and its implications for the blood-brain barrier,” Phys. Med. Biol.57(4), 1019–1045 (2012).
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Vykhodtseva, N.

L. H. Treat, N. McDannold, N. Vykhodtseva, Y. Z. Zhang, K. Tam, and K. Hynynen, “Targeted delivery of doxorubicin to the rat brain at therapeutic levels using MRI-guided focused ultrasound,” Int. J. Cancer121(4), 901–907 (2007).
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H. L. Liu, M. Y. Hua, H. W. Yang, C. Y. Huang, P. C. Chu, J. S. Wu, I. C. Tseng, J. J. Wang, T. C. Yen, P. Y. Chen, and K. C. Wei, “Magnetic resonance monitoring of focused ultrasound/magnetic nanoparticle targeting delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(34), 15205–15210 (2010).
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H. L. Liu, M. Y. Hua, P. Y. Chen, P. C. Chu, C. H. Pan, H. W. Yang, C. Y. Huang, J. J. Wang, T. C. Yen, and K. C. Wei, “Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption with Focused Ultrasound Enhances Delivery of Chemotherapeutic Drugs for Glioblastoma Treatment,” Radiology255(2), 415–425 (2010).
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Wang, R. K.

Wang, R. K. K.

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H. L. Liu, M. Y. Hua, P. Y. Chen, P. C. Chu, C. H. Pan, H. W. Yang, C. Y. Huang, J. J. Wang, T. C. Yen, and K. C. Wei, “Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption with Focused Ultrasound Enhances Delivery of Chemotherapeutic Drugs for Glioblastoma Treatment,” Radiology255(2), 415–425 (2010).
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H. L. Liu, M. Y. Hua, H. W. Yang, C. Y. Huang, P. C. Chu, J. S. Wu, I. C. Tseng, J. J. Wang, T. C. Yen, P. Y. Chen, and K. C. Wei, “Magnetic resonance monitoring of focused ultrasound/magnetic nanoparticle targeting delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(34), 15205–15210 (2010).
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P. H. Hsu, K. C. Wei, C. Y. Huang, C. J. Wen, T. C. Yen, C. L. Liu, Y. T. Lin, J. C. Chen, C. R. Shen, and H. L. Liu, “Noninvasive and Targeted Gene Delivery into the Brain Using Microbubble-Facilitated Focused Ultrasound,” PLoS ONE8(2), e57682 (2013).
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D. B. Cines, E. S. Pollak, C. A. Buck, J. Loscalzo, G. A. Zimmerman, R. P. McEver, J. S. Pober, T. M. Wick, B. A. Konkle, B. S. Schwartz, E. S. Barnathan, K. R. McCrae, B. A. Hug, A. M. Schmidt, and D. M. Stern, “Endothelial cells in physiology and in the pathophysiology of vascular disorders,” Blood91(10), 3527–3561 (1998).
[PubMed]

Wiedemair, W.

W. Wiedemair, Ž. Tuković, H. Jasak, D. Poulikakos, and V. Kurtcuoglu, “On ultrasound-induced microbubble oscillation in a capillary blood vessel and its implications for the blood-brain barrier,” Phys. Med. Biol.57(4), 1019–1045 (2012).
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Wilson, B. C.

Wu, J. S.

H. L. Liu, M. Y. Hua, H. W. Yang, C. Y. Huang, P. C. Chu, J. S. Wu, I. C. Tseng, J. J. Wang, T. C. Yen, P. Y. Chen, and K. C. Wei, “Magnetic resonance monitoring of focused ultrasound/magnetic nanoparticle targeting delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(34), 15205–15210 (2010).
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Wu, S. Y.

Wu, S.-Y.

A.-H. Liao, H.-L. Liu, C.-H. Su, M.-Y. Hua, H.-W. Yang, Y.-T. Weng, P.-H. Hsu, S.-M. Huang, S.-Y. Wu, H. E. Wang, T. C. Yen, and P. C. Li, “Paramagnetic perfluorocarbon-filled albumin-(Gd-DTPA) microbubbles for the induction of focused-ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening and concurrent MR and ultrasound imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.57(9), 2787–2802 (2012).
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Yamanari, M.

Yamasaki, K.

Y. Taniyama, K. Tachibana, K. Hiraoka, T. Namba, K. Yamasaki, N. Hashiya, M. Aoki, T. Ogihara, K. Yasufumi, and R. Morishita, “Local delivery of plasmid DNA into rat carotid artery using ultrasound,” Circulation105(10), 1233–1239 (2002).
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Yang, C. C.

Yang, C. H.

Yang, H. W.

H. L. Liu, M. Y. Hua, H. W. Yang, C. Y. Huang, P. C. Chu, J. S. Wu, I. C. Tseng, J. J. Wang, T. C. Yen, P. Y. Chen, and K. C. Wei, “Magnetic resonance monitoring of focused ultrasound/magnetic nanoparticle targeting delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(34), 15205–15210 (2010).
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H. L. Liu, M. Y. Hua, P. Y. Chen, P. C. Chu, C. H. Pan, H. W. Yang, C. Y. Huang, J. J. Wang, T. C. Yen, and K. C. Wei, “Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption with Focused Ultrasound Enhances Delivery of Chemotherapeutic Drugs for Glioblastoma Treatment,” Radiology255(2), 415–425 (2010).
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A.-H. Liao, H.-L. Liu, C.-H. Su, M.-Y. Hua, H.-W. Yang, Y.-T. Weng, P.-H. Hsu, S.-M. Huang, S.-Y. Wu, H. E. Wang, T. C. Yen, and P. C. Li, “Paramagnetic perfluorocarbon-filled albumin-(Gd-DTPA) microbubbles for the induction of focused-ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening and concurrent MR and ultrasound imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.57(9), 2787–2802 (2012).
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Yang, V. X. D.

Yasufumi, K.

Y. Taniyama, K. Tachibana, K. Hiraoka, T. Namba, K. Yamasaki, N. Hashiya, M. Aoki, T. Ogihara, K. Yasufumi, and R. Morishita, “Local delivery of plasmid DNA into rat carotid artery using ultrasound,” Circulation105(10), 1233–1239 (2002).
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Yatagai, T.

Yen, T. C.

P. H. Hsu, K. C. Wei, C. Y. Huang, C. J. Wen, T. C. Yen, C. L. Liu, Y. T. Lin, J. C. Chen, C. R. Shen, and H. L. Liu, “Noninvasive and Targeted Gene Delivery into the Brain Using Microbubble-Facilitated Focused Ultrasound,” PLoS ONE8(2), e57682 (2013).
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A.-H. Liao, H.-L. Liu, C.-H. Su, M.-Y. Hua, H.-W. Yang, Y.-T. Weng, P.-H. Hsu, S.-M. Huang, S.-Y. Wu, H. E. Wang, T. C. Yen, and P. C. Li, “Paramagnetic perfluorocarbon-filled albumin-(Gd-DTPA) microbubbles for the induction of focused-ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening and concurrent MR and ultrasound imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.57(9), 2787–2802 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Liu, M. Y. Hua, P. Y. Chen, P. C. Chu, C. H. Pan, H. W. Yang, C. Y. Huang, J. J. Wang, T. C. Yen, and K. C. Wei, “Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption with Focused Ultrasound Enhances Delivery of Chemotherapeutic Drugs for Glioblastoma Treatment,” Radiology255(2), 415–425 (2010).
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H. L. Liu, M. Y. Hua, H. W. Yang, C. Y. Huang, P. C. Chu, J. S. Wu, I. C. Tseng, J. J. Wang, T. C. Yen, P. Y. Chen, and K. C. Wei, “Magnetic resonance monitoring of focused ultrasound/magnetic nanoparticle targeting delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(34), 15205–15210 (2010).
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P. E. Huber, M. J. Mann, L. G. Melo, A. Ehsan, D. Kong, L. Zhang, M. Rezvani, P. Peschke, F. Jolesz, V. J. Dzau, and K. Hynynen, “Focused ultrasound (HIFU) induces localized enhancement of reporter gene expression in rabbit carotid artery,” Gene Ther.10(18), 1600–1607 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y. Z.

L. H. Treat, N. McDannold, N. Vykhodtseva, Y. Z. Zhang, K. Tam, and K. Hynynen, “Targeted delivery of doxorubicin to the rat brain at therapeutic levels using MRI-guided focused ultrasound,” Int. J. Cancer121(4), 901–907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y. H.

Zhou, Y.

C. X. Deng, F. J. Qu, V. P. Nikolski, Y. Zhou, and I. R. Efimov, “Fluorescence imaging for real-time monitoring of high-intensity focused ultrasound cardiac ablation,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.33(10), 1352–1359 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. B. Cines, E. S. Pollak, C. A. Buck, J. Loscalzo, G. A. Zimmerman, R. P. McEver, J. S. Pober, T. M. Wick, B. A. Konkle, B. S. Schwartz, E. S. Barnathan, K. R. McCrae, B. A. Hug, A. M. Schmidt, and D. M. Stern, “Endothelial cells in physiology and in the pathophysiology of vascular disorders,” Blood91(10), 3527–3561 (1998).
[PubMed]

Ann. Biomed. Eng. (1)

C. X. Deng, F. J. Qu, V. P. Nikolski, Y. Zhou, and I. R. Efimov, “Fluorescence imaging for real-time monitoring of high-intensity focused ultrasound cardiac ablation,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.33(10), 1352–1359 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (13)

B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1539–1552 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, W. Choi, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. Hornegger, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Handheld ultrahigh speed swept source optical coherence tomography instrument using a MEMS scanning mirror,” Biomed. Opt. Express5(1), 293–311 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An, P. Li, T. T. Shen, and R. K. Wang, “High speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging at 500,000 A‑lines per second,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(10), 2770–2783 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Murari, J. Mavadia, J. F. Xi, and X. D. Li, “Self-starting, self-regulating Fourier domain mode locked fiber laser for OCT imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(7), 2005–2011 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Lee, H. Y. Tseng, C. Y. Lee, S. Y. Wu, T. T. Chi, K. M. Yang, H. Y. E. Chou, M. T. Tsai, J. Y. Wang, Y. W. Kiang, C. P. Chiang, and C. C. Yang, “Characterizing the localized surface plasmon resonance behaviors of Au nanorings and tracking their diffusion in bio-tissue with optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(4), 1060–1073 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Cadotte, A. Mariampillai, A. Cadotte, K. K. C. Lee, T. R. Kiehl, B. C. Wilson, M. G. Fehlings, and V. X. D. Yang, “Speckle variance optical coherence tomography of the rodent spinal cord: in vivo feasibility,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(5), 911–919 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Hendargo, R. Estrada, S. J. Chiu, C. Tomasi, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “Automated non-rigid registration and mosaicing for robust imaging of distinct retinal capillary beds using speckle variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(6), 803–821 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yousefi, J. Qin, and R. K. Wang, “Super-resolution spectral estimation of optical micro-angiography for quantifying blood flow within microcirculatory tissue beds in vivo,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(7), 1214–1228 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Enfield, E. Jonathan, and M. Leahy, “In vivo imaging of the microcirculation of the volar forearm using correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cmOCT),” Biomed. Opt. Express2(5), 1184–1193 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sakai, M. Yamanari, Y. Lim, N. Nakagawa, and Y. Yasuno, “In vivo evaluation of human skin anisotropy by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(9), 2623–2631 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, S. O. Baumann, T. Konegger, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, F. Schlanitz, C. Schütze, H. Sattmann, M. Litschauer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of melanin provides intrinsic contrast based on depolarization,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(7), 1670–1683 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Platform setup for OCT scanning and FUS exposure. (a) Schematic diagram of the SS-OCT system. (b) Setup for FUS exposure. FC: fiber coupler; CIR: circulator; G: galvanometer; M: mirror, and SL: scan lens. The cone was filled with deionized and degassed water to facilitate the transmission of acoustic waves. The acoustic wave was focused on the bottom surface of the sample, and the optical beam was incident on the top surface of the sample. The physical area of OCT imaging is approximately 2 × 2 × 3 mm3.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sequential B-scan OCT images of the mouse ear without microbubbles, which were acquired before the FUS exposure ((a)–(d)) and during the exposures to FUS with the various powers of 1 W ((e)–(h)), 5 W ((i)–(l)), 10 W ((m)–(p)), and 15 W ((q)–(t)). The vascular area within the rectangular region bounded by the white dashed lines in (a) was magnified by a factor of 3; the magnified version of each vascular area is shown in the lower right corner of each panel in the figure. The four sequential images in each row were taken with a temporal interval of 10 ms. The white arrows in the magnified images represent the interwall separation of the vessel, the value of which can be estimated from the OCT images, as shown in the figure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sequential B-scan OCT images of another mouse ear, which were acquired before the FUS exposure ((a)–(d)) and during the FUS exposures in the presence of microbubbles at powers of 1 W ((e)–(h)), 5 W ((i)–(l)), 10 W ((m)–(p)), and 15 W ((q)–(t)). The area bounded by the box drawn in dashed lines in (a) is magnified by a factor of 3 and shown in the lower right corner for each panel. The black region represents the vessel structure. The four sequential images in each row were taken with a time interval of 10 ms.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a)–(e) Photographs taken of the mouse ear before and after being exposed to each power level in the experiment of Fig. 2. (f)–(j) Photographs taken before and after being exposed to each power level in the experiment of Fig. 3. The red lines indicate the corresponding scanning locations of Figs. 2 and 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Statistical results for the R and Ad values from Figs. 2 and 3. (a) The means and standard deviations of R values at various FUS powers. (b) The means and standard deviations of Ad values at various FUS powers.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Speckle variance estimated from Figs. 2 and 3. Speckle-variance images, which were estimated from the OCT images obtained (a) before FUS exposure and during exposure to various FUS powers of (b) 1 W, (c) 5 W, (d) 10 W, and (e) 15 W in the absence of microbubbles. Speckle-variance images, which were estimated from the OCT images obtained (f) before FUS exposure and during exposure to various FUS powers of (g) 1 W, (h) 5 W, (i) 10 W, and (j) 15 W in the presence of microbubbles.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Estimation of the vascular areas of Fig. 6. Curves I and II plot the relationship between the estimated vascular area and the FUS power, estimated from Figs. 6(a)6(e). Curves III and IV show the relationship between the estimated vascular area and the FUS power, estimated from Figs. 6(f)6(j).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Projection view of SVOCT images of the mouse ear, which were obtained (a) before FUS exposure and after FUS exposures of (b) 1 W, (c) 5 W, (d) 10 W, and (e) 15 W in the presence of microbubbles. Media 1 demonstrate the 3D animation of SVOCT images before and after FUS exposure of 15 W.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Estimation of the distribution of the speckle variance in Fig. 8. The estimated regions, I, II, and III, are indicated by the rectangular regions bounded by dashed lines in Fig. 8.

Equations (2)

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A d = 1 N i=1 N ( A i A m ) 2 / A o
S V ijk = 1 N k=1 N ( I ijk 1 N k=1 N I ijk ) 2

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