Abstract

Combining two or more imaging modalities to provide complementary information has become commonplace in clinical practice and in preclinical and basic biomedical research. By incorporating the structural information provided by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the ill poseness nature of bioluminescence tomography (BLT) can be reduced significantly, thus improve the accuracies of reconstruction and in vivo quantification. In this paper, we present a small animal imaging system combining multi-view and multi-spectral BLT with MRI. The independent MRI-compatible optical device is placed at the end of the clinical MRI scanner. The small animal is transferred between the light tight chamber of the optical device and the animal coil of MRI via a guide rail during the experiment. After the optical imaging and MRI scanning procedures are finished, the optical images are mapped onto the MRI surface by interactive registration between boundary of optical images and silhouette of MRI. Then, incorporating the MRI structural information, a heterogeneous reconstruction algorithm based on finite element method (FEM) with L1 normalization is used to reconstruct the position, power and region of the light source. In order to validate the feasibility of the system, we conducted experiments of nude mice model implanted with artificial light source and quantitative analysis of tumor inoculation model with MDA-231-GFP-luc. Preliminary results suggest the feasibility and effectiveness of the prototype system.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (3)

H. S. Choi, S. L. Gibbs, J. H. Lee, S. H. Kim, Y. Ashitate, F. Liu, H. Hyun, G. Park, Y. Xie, S. Bae, M. Henary, and J. V. Frangioni, “Targeted zwitterionic near-infrared fluorophores for improved optical imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol.31, 148–153 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Davis, K. S. Samkoe, K. M. Tichauer, K. J. Sexton, J. R. Gunn, S. J. Deharvengt, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “Dynamic dual-tracer mri-guided fluorescence tomography to quantify receptor density in vivo,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA110, 9025–9030 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ren, X. Chen, H. Wang, X. Qu, G. Wang, J. Liang, and J. Tian, “Molecular optical simulation environment (mose): A platform for the simulation of light propagation in turbid media,” PloS one8, e61304 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

J. Feng, C. Qin, K. Jia, S. Zhu, X. Yang, and J. Tian, “Bioluminescence tomography imaging in vivo: recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18, 1394–1402 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, X. Chen, X. Qu, J. Liang, and J. Tian, “Comparative studies of lp-regularization-based reconstruction algorithms for bioluminescence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3, 2916–2936 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Cho, S. Kim, Y. Kim, and Y. Park, “Optical imaging techniques for the study of malaria,” Trends Biotechnol.30, 71–79 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Ale, V. Ermolayev, E. Herzog, C. Cohrs, M. H. de Angelis, and V. Ntziachristos, “Fmt-xct: in vivo animal studies with hybrid fluorescence molecular tomography-x-ray computed tomography,” Nat. Meth.9, 615–620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

J. Zhong, J. Tian, X. Yang, and C. Qin, “Whole-body cerenkov luminescence tomography with the finite element sp3 method,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.39, 1728–1735 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Stuker, C. Baltes, K. Dikaiou, D. Vats, L. Carrara, E. Charbon, J. Ripoll, and M. Rudin, “Hybrid small animal imaging system combining magnetic resonance imaging with fluorescence tomography using single photon avalanche diode detectors,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging30, 1265–1273 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Ratib and T. Beyer, “Whole-body hybrid pet/mri: ready for clinical use?” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging38, 992–995 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Naser and M. S. Patterson, “Bioluminescence tomography using eigenvectors expansion and iterative solution for the optimized permissible source region,” Biomed. Opt. Express2, 3179–3193 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Arbelaez, M. Maire, C. Fowlkes, and J. Malik, “Contour detection and hierarchical image segmentation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence33, 898–916 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (7)

B. Zhang, X. Yang, C. Qin, D. Liu, S. Zhu, J. Feng, L. Sun, K. Liu, D. Han, X. Ma, and , “A trust region method in adaptive finite element framework for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express18, 6477–6491 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, Y. Wang, X. Qu, X. Li, X. Ma, R. Han, Z. Hu, X. Chen, D. Sun, R. Zhang, and , “In vivo quantitative bioluminescence tomography using heterogeneous and homogeneous mouse models,” Opt. Express18, 13102 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tian, K. Liu, Y. Lu, C. Qin, X. Yang, S. Zhu, D. Han, J. Feng, X. Ma, and Z. Chang, “Evaluation of the simplified spherical harmonics approximation in bioluminescence tomography through heterogeneous mouse models,” Opt. Express18, 20988–21002 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Pichler, A. Kolb, T. Nägele, and H.-P. Schlemmer, “Pet/mri: paving the way for the next generation of clinical multimodality imaging applications,” J. Nucl. Med51, 333–336 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Baker, “Whole-animal imaging: The whole picture,” Nature463, 977–980 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jiang, M. K. Gnanasammandhan, and Y. Zhang, “Optical imaging-guided cancer therapy with fluorescent nanoparticles,” J. R. Soc., Interface7, 3–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Gong, G. Wang, X. Cheng, and W. Han, “A novel approach for studies of multispectral bioluminescence tomography,” Numerische Mathematik115, 553–583 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (6)

S. Ahn, A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, C. A. Bouman, and R. M. Leahy, “Fast iterative image reconstruction methods for fully 3d multispectral bioluminescence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol.53, 3921 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Unlu, Y. Lin, O. Birgul, O. Nalcioglu, and G. Gulsen, “Simultaneous in vivo dynamic magnetic resonance-diffuse optical tomography for small animal imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.13, 060501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Davis, B. W. Pogue, R. Springett, C. Leussler, P. Mazurkewitz, S. B. Tuttle, S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, S. S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, “Magnetic resonance–coupled fluorescence tomography scanner for molecular imaging of tissue,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79, 064302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Willmann, N. van Bruggen, L. M. Dinkelborg, and S. S. Gambhir, “Molecular imaging in drug development,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discovery7, 591–607 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Brindle, “New approaches for imaging tumour responses to treatment,” Nat. Rev. Cancer8, 94–107 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Judenhofer, H. F. Wehrl, D. F. Newport, C. Catana, S. B. Siegel, M. Becker, A. Thielscher, M. Kneilling, M. P. Lichy, M. Eichner, K. Klingel, G. Reischl, S. Widmaier, M. Rocken, R. Nutt, H. J. Machulla, K. Uludag, S. R. Cherry, C. D. Claussen, and B. J. Pichler, “Simultaneous pet-mri: a new approach for functional and morphological imaging,” Nat. Med.14, 459–465 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

O. Gaemperli, T. Schepis, I. Valenta, L. Husmann, H. Scheffel, V. Duerst, F. R. Eberli, T. F. Luscher, H. Alkadhi, and P. A. Kaufmann, “Cardiac image fusion from stand-alone spect and ct: clinical experience,” J. Nucl. Med.48, 696–703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Allard, D. Côté, L. Davidson, J. Dazai, and R. M. Henkelman, “Combined magnetic resonance and bioluminescence imaging of live mice,” J. Biomed. Opt.12, 034018 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lv, J. Tian, W. Cong, G. Wang, W. Yang, C. Qin, and M. Xu, “Spectrally resolved bioluminescence tomography with adaptive finite element analysis: methodology and simulation,” Phys. Med. Biol.52, 4497 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Hillman and A. Moore, “All-optical anatomical co-registration for molecular imaging of small animals using dynamic contrast,” Nat. Photonics1, 526–530 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (7)

T. Tarvainen, M. Vauhkonen, V. Kolehmainen, and J. Kaipio, “Finite element model for the coupled radiative transfer equation and diffusion approximation,” Int. J. Numerical Methods Engineering65, 383–405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Klose and E. W. Larsen, “Light transport in biological tissue based on the simplified spherical harmonics equations,” J. Comput. Phys.220, 441–470 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Wang, H. Shen, K. Durairaj, X. Qian, and W. Cong, “The first bioluminescence tomography system for simultaneous acquisition of multiview and multispectral data,” Int. J. Biomed. Imaging2006, 58601 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Brooksby, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, C. Kogel, T. D. Tosteson, J. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Imaging breast adipose and fibroglandular tissue molecular signatures by using hybrid mri-guided near-infrared spectral tomography,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA103, 8828–8833 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. X. Cong and G. Wang, “Multispectral bioluminescence tomography: methodology and simulation,” Int. J. Biomed. Imaging2006, 57614 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wang, W. Cong, K. Durairaj, X. Qian, H. Shen, P. Sinn, E. Hoffman, G. McLennan, and M. Henry, “In vivo mouse studies with bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express14, 7801–7809 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lv, J. Tian, W. Cong, G. Wang, J. Luo, W. Yang, and H. Li, “A multilevel adaptive finite element algorithm for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express14, 8211–8223 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

W. Cong, G. Wang, D. Kumar, Y. Liu, M. Jiang, L. V. Wang, E. A. Hoffman, G. McLennan, P. B. McCray, J. Zabner, and , “Practical reconstruction method for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express13, 6756–6771 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Alexandrakis, F. R. Rannou, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-pet (opet) system: a computer simulation feasibility study,” Phys. Med. Biol.50, 4225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, “Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.50, 5421 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to mri,” Med. Phys.32, 1128 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Licha and C. Olbrich, “Optical imaging in drug discovery and diagnostic applications,” Adv. Drug Delivery Rev.57, 1087–1108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, “Experimental fluorescence tomography of tissues with noncontact measurements,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging23, 492–500 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wang, Y. Li, and M. Jiang, “Uniqueness theorems in bioluminescence tomography,” Med. Phys.31, 2289 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

D. E. Jenkins, Y. Oei, Y. S. Hornig, S.-F. Yu, J. Dusich, T. Purchio, and P. R. Contag, “Bioluminescent imaging (bli) to improve and refine traditional murine models of tumor growth and metastasis,” Clin. Exp. Metastasis20, 733–744 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Abdoulaev and A. H. Hielscher, “Three-dimensional optical tomography with the equation of radiative transfer,” J. Electron. Imaging12, 594–601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Brooksby, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared (nir) tomography breast image reconstruction with a priori structural information from mri: algorithm development for reconstructing heterogeneities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9, 199–209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

V. Ntziachristos, C.-H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, “Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo,” Nat. Med.8, 757–761 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

V. Ntziachristos, A. Yodh, M. Schnall, and B. Chance, “Concurrent mri and diffuse optical tomography of breast after indocyanine green enhancement,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA97, 2767–2772 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Beyer, D. W. Townsend, T. Brun, P. E. Kinahan, M. Charron, R. Roddy, J. Jerin, J. Young, L. Byars, R. Nutt, and , “A combined pet/ct scanner for clinical oncology,” J. Nucl. Med.41, 1369–1379 (2000).
[PubMed]

1999 (1)

S. R. Arridge, “Optical tomography in medical imaging,” Inverse Probl.15, R41 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Schweiger, S. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. Delpy, “The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys.22, 1779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

S. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, and D. Delpy, “A finite element approach for modeling photon transport in tissue,” Med. Phys.20, 299 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abdoulaev, G. S.

G. S. Abdoulaev and A. H. Hielscher, “Three-dimensional optical tomography with the equation of radiative transfer,” J. Electron. Imaging12, 594–601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, S.

S. Ahn, A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, C. A. Bouman, and R. M. Leahy, “Fast iterative image reconstruction methods for fully 3d multispectral bioluminescence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol.53, 3921 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ale, A.

A. Ale, V. Ermolayev, E. Herzog, C. Cohrs, M. H. de Angelis, and V. Ntziachristos, “Fmt-xct: in vivo animal studies with hybrid fluorescence molecular tomography-x-ray computed tomography,” Nat. Meth.9, 615–620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Alexandrakis, G.

G. Alexandrakis, F. R. Rannou, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-pet (opet) system: a computer simulation feasibility study,” Phys. Med. Biol.50, 4225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alkadhi, H.

O. Gaemperli, T. Schepis, I. Valenta, L. Husmann, H. Scheffel, V. Duerst, F. R. Eberli, T. F. Luscher, H. Alkadhi, and P. A. Kaufmann, “Cardiac image fusion from stand-alone spect and ct: clinical experience,” J. Nucl. Med.48, 696–703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allard, M.

M. Allard, D. Côté, L. Davidson, J. Dazai, and R. M. Henkelman, “Combined magnetic resonance and bioluminescence imaging of live mice,” J. Biomed. Opt.12, 034018 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arbelaez, P.

P. Arbelaez, M. Maire, C. Fowlkes, and J. Malik, “Contour detection and hierarchical image segmentation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence33, 898–916 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Arridge, S.

M. Schweiger, S. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. Delpy, “The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys.22, 1779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, and D. Delpy, “A finite element approach for modeling photon transport in tissue,” Med. Phys.20, 299 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to mri,” Med. Phys.32, 1128 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, “Optical tomography in medical imaging,” Inverse Probl.15, R41 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ashitate, Y.

H. S. Choi, S. L. Gibbs, J. H. Lee, S. H. Kim, Y. Ashitate, F. Liu, H. Hyun, G. Park, Y. Xie, S. Bae, M. Henary, and J. V. Frangioni, “Targeted zwitterionic near-infrared fluorophores for improved optical imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol.31, 148–153 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bading, J. R.

A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, “Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.50, 5421 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bae, S.

H. S. Choi, S. L. Gibbs, J. H. Lee, S. H. Kim, Y. Ashitate, F. Liu, H. Hyun, G. Park, Y. Xie, S. Bae, M. Henary, and J. V. Frangioni, “Targeted zwitterionic near-infrared fluorophores for improved optical imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol.31, 148–153 (2013).
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M. Baker, “Whole-animal imaging: The whole picture,” Nature463, 977–980 (2010).
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Baltes, C.

F. Stuker, C. Baltes, K. Dikaiou, D. Vats, L. Carrara, E. Charbon, J. Ripoll, and M. Rudin, “Hybrid small animal imaging system combining magnetic resonance imaging with fluorescence tomography using single photon avalanche diode detectors,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging30, 1265–1273 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, M.

M. S. Judenhofer, H. F. Wehrl, D. F. Newport, C. Catana, S. B. Siegel, M. Becker, A. Thielscher, M. Kneilling, M. P. Lichy, M. Eichner, K. Klingel, G. Reischl, S. Widmaier, M. Rocken, R. Nutt, H. J. Machulla, K. Uludag, S. R. Cherry, C. D. Claussen, and B. J. Pichler, “Simultaneous pet-mri: a new approach for functional and morphological imaging,” Nat. Med.14, 459–465 (2008).
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Beyer, T.

O. Ratib and T. Beyer, “Whole-body hybrid pet/mri: ready for clinical use?” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging38, 992–995 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Beyer, D. W. Townsend, T. Brun, P. E. Kinahan, M. Charron, R. Roddy, J. Jerin, J. Young, L. Byars, R. Nutt, and , “A combined pet/ct scanner for clinical oncology,” J. Nucl. Med.41, 1369–1379 (2000).
[PubMed]

Birgul, O.

M. B. Unlu, Y. Lin, O. Birgul, O. Nalcioglu, and G. Gulsen, “Simultaneous in vivo dynamic magnetic resonance-diffuse optical tomography for small animal imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.13, 060501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bouman, C. A.

S. Ahn, A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, C. A. Bouman, and R. M. Leahy, “Fast iterative image reconstruction methods for fully 3d multispectral bioluminescence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol.53, 3921 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bremer, C.

V. Ntziachristos, C.-H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, “Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo,” Nat. Med.8, 757–761 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brindle, K.

K. Brindle, “New approaches for imaging tumour responses to treatment,” Nat. Rev. Cancer8, 94–107 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brooksby, B.

B. Brooksby, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, C. Kogel, T. D. Tosteson, J. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Imaging breast adipose and fibroglandular tissue molecular signatures by using hybrid mri-guided near-infrared spectral tomography,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA103, 8828–8833 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brooksby, B. A.

B. A. Brooksby, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared (nir) tomography breast image reconstruction with a priori structural information from mri: algorithm development for reconstructing heterogeneities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9, 199–209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brun, T.

T. Beyer, D. W. Townsend, T. Brun, P. E. Kinahan, M. Charron, R. Roddy, J. Jerin, J. Young, L. Byars, R. Nutt, and , “A combined pet/ct scanner for clinical oncology,” J. Nucl. Med.41, 1369–1379 (2000).
[PubMed]

Byars, L.

T. Beyer, D. W. Townsend, T. Brun, P. E. Kinahan, M. Charron, R. Roddy, J. Jerin, J. Young, L. Byars, R. Nutt, and , “A combined pet/ct scanner for clinical oncology,” J. Nucl. Med.41, 1369–1379 (2000).
[PubMed]

Carrara, L.

F. Stuker, C. Baltes, K. Dikaiou, D. Vats, L. Carrara, E. Charbon, J. Ripoll, and M. Rudin, “Hybrid small animal imaging system combining magnetic resonance imaging with fluorescence tomography using single photon avalanche diode detectors,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging30, 1265–1273 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Catana, C.

M. S. Judenhofer, H. F. Wehrl, D. F. Newport, C. Catana, S. B. Siegel, M. Becker, A. Thielscher, M. Kneilling, M. P. Lichy, M. Eichner, K. Klingel, G. Reischl, S. Widmaier, M. Rocken, R. Nutt, H. J. Machulla, K. Uludag, S. R. Cherry, C. D. Claussen, and B. J. Pichler, “Simultaneous pet-mri: a new approach for functional and morphological imaging,” Nat. Med.14, 459–465 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to mri,” Med. Phys.32, 1128 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, A. Yodh, M. Schnall, and B. Chance, “Concurrent mri and diffuse optical tomography of breast after indocyanine green enhancement,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA97, 2767–2772 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, Z.

Charbon, E.

F. Stuker, C. Baltes, K. Dikaiou, D. Vats, L. Carrara, E. Charbon, J. Ripoll, and M. Rudin, “Hybrid small animal imaging system combining magnetic resonance imaging with fluorescence tomography using single photon avalanche diode detectors,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging30, 1265–1273 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charron, M.

T. Beyer, D. W. Townsend, T. Brun, P. E. Kinahan, M. Charron, R. Roddy, J. Jerin, J. Young, L. Byars, R. Nutt, and , “A combined pet/ct scanner for clinical oncology,” J. Nucl. Med.41, 1369–1379 (2000).
[PubMed]

Chatziioannou, A. F.

G. Alexandrakis, F. R. Rannou, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-pet (opet) system: a computer simulation feasibility study,” Phys. Med. Biol.50, 4225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaudhari, A. J.

S. Ahn, A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, C. A. Bouman, and R. M. Leahy, “Fast iterative image reconstruction methods for fully 3d multispectral bioluminescence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol.53, 3921 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, “Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.50, 5421 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

Cheng, X.

R. Gong, G. Wang, X. Cheng, and W. Han, “A novel approach for studies of multispectral bioluminescence tomography,” Numerische Mathematik115, 553–583 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cherry, S. R.

M. S. Judenhofer, H. F. Wehrl, D. F. Newport, C. Catana, S. B. Siegel, M. Becker, A. Thielscher, M. Kneilling, M. P. Lichy, M. Eichner, K. Klingel, G. Reischl, S. Widmaier, M. Rocken, R. Nutt, H. J. Machulla, K. Uludag, S. R. Cherry, C. D. Claussen, and B. J. Pichler, “Simultaneous pet-mri: a new approach for functional and morphological imaging,” Nat. Med.14, 459–465 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, “Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.50, 5421 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Cherry, “Multimodality imaging: Beyond pet/ct and spect/ct,” in Seminars in Nuclear Medicine,, vol. 39 (Elsevier, 2009), vol. 39, pp. 348–353.
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.

S. Cho, S. Kim, Y. Kim, and Y. Park, “Optical imaging techniques for the study of malaria,” Trends Biotechnol.30, 71–79 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Choe, R.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to mri,” Med. Phys.32, 1128 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, H. S.

H. S. Choi, S. L. Gibbs, J. H. Lee, S. H. Kim, Y. Ashitate, F. Liu, H. Hyun, G. Park, Y. Xie, S. Bae, M. Henary, and J. V. Frangioni, “Targeted zwitterionic near-infrared fluorophores for improved optical imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol.31, 148–153 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Claussen, C. D.

M. S. Judenhofer, H. F. Wehrl, D. F. Newport, C. Catana, S. B. Siegel, M. Becker, A. Thielscher, M. Kneilling, M. P. Lichy, M. Eichner, K. Klingel, G. Reischl, S. Widmaier, M. Rocken, R. Nutt, H. J. Machulla, K. Uludag, S. R. Cherry, C. D. Claussen, and B. J. Pichler, “Simultaneous pet-mri: a new approach for functional and morphological imaging,” Nat. Med.14, 459–465 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohrs, C.

A. Ale, V. Ermolayev, E. Herzog, C. Cohrs, M. H. de Angelis, and V. Ntziachristos, “Fmt-xct: in vivo animal studies with hybrid fluorescence molecular tomography-x-ray computed tomography,” Nat. Meth.9, 615–620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cong, A. X.

A. X. Cong and G. Wang, “Multispectral bioluminescence tomography: methodology and simulation,” Int. J. Biomed. Imaging2006, 57614 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cong, W.

Contag, P. R.

D. E. Jenkins, Y. Oei, Y. S. Hornig, S.-F. Yu, J. Dusich, T. Purchio, and P. R. Contag, “Bioluminescent imaging (bli) to improve and refine traditional murine models of tumor growth and metastasis,” Clin. Exp. Metastasis20, 733–744 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Conti, P. S.

A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, “Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.50, 5421 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corlu, A.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to mri,” Med. Phys.32, 1128 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Côté, D.

M. Allard, D. Côté, L. Davidson, J. Dazai, and R. M. Henkelman, “Combined magnetic resonance and bioluminescence imaging of live mice,” J. Biomed. Opt.12, 034018 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Czerniecki, B. J.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to mri,” Med. Phys.32, 1128 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Darvas, F.

S. Ahn, A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, C. A. Bouman, and R. M. Leahy, “Fast iterative image reconstruction methods for fully 3d multispectral bioluminescence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol.53, 3921 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, “Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.50, 5421 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davidson, L.

M. Allard, D. Côté, L. Davidson, J. Dazai, and R. M. Henkelman, “Combined magnetic resonance and bioluminescence imaging of live mice,” J. Biomed. Opt.12, 034018 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, S. C.

S. C. Davis, K. S. Samkoe, K. M. Tichauer, K. J. Sexton, J. R. Gunn, S. J. Deharvengt, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “Dynamic dual-tracer mri-guided fluorescence tomography to quantify receptor density in vivo,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA110, 9025–9030 (2013).
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S. C. Davis, B. W. Pogue, R. Springett, C. Leussler, P. Mazurkewitz, S. B. Tuttle, S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, S. S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, “Magnetic resonance–coupled fluorescence tomography scanner for molecular imaging of tissue,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79, 064302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dazai, J.

M. Allard, D. Côté, L. Davidson, J. Dazai, and R. M. Henkelman, “Combined magnetic resonance and bioluminescence imaging of live mice,” J. Biomed. Opt.12, 034018 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Angelis, M. H.

A. Ale, V. Ermolayev, E. Herzog, C. Cohrs, M. H. de Angelis, and V. Ntziachristos, “Fmt-xct: in vivo animal studies with hybrid fluorescence molecular tomography-x-ray computed tomography,” Nat. Meth.9, 615–620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Deharvengt, S. J.

S. C. Davis, K. S. Samkoe, K. M. Tichauer, K. J. Sexton, J. R. Gunn, S. J. Deharvengt, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “Dynamic dual-tracer mri-guided fluorescence tomography to quantify receptor density in vivo,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA110, 9025–9030 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dehghani, H.

S. C. Davis, B. W. Pogue, R. Springett, C. Leussler, P. Mazurkewitz, S. B. Tuttle, S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, S. S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, “Magnetic resonance–coupled fluorescence tomography scanner for molecular imaging of tissue,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79, 064302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Brooksby, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, C. Kogel, T. D. Tosteson, J. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Imaging breast adipose and fibroglandular tissue molecular signatures by using hybrid mri-guided near-infrared spectral tomography,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA103, 8828–8833 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Brooksby, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared (nir) tomography breast image reconstruction with a priori structural information from mri: algorithm development for reconstructing heterogeneities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9, 199–209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Delpy, D.

M. Schweiger, S. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. Delpy, “The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys.22, 1779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, and D. Delpy, “A finite element approach for modeling photon transport in tissue,” Med. Phys.20, 299 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeMichele, A.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to mri,” Med. Phys.32, 1128 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dikaiou, K.

F. Stuker, C. Baltes, K. Dikaiou, D. Vats, L. Carrara, E. Charbon, J. Ripoll, and M. Rudin, “Hybrid small animal imaging system combining magnetic resonance imaging with fluorescence tomography using single photon avalanche diode detectors,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging30, 1265–1273 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dinkelborg, L. M.

J. K. Willmann, N. van Bruggen, L. M. Dinkelborg, and S. S. Gambhir, “Molecular imaging in drug development,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discovery7, 591–607 (2008).
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J. J. Duderstadt and L. J. Hamilton, “Nuclear reactor analysis,” (1976).

Duerst, V.

O. Gaemperli, T. Schepis, I. Valenta, L. Husmann, H. Scheffel, V. Duerst, F. R. Eberli, T. F. Luscher, H. Alkadhi, and P. A. Kaufmann, “Cardiac image fusion from stand-alone spect and ct: clinical experience,” J. Nucl. Med.48, 696–703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durairaj, K.

G. Wang, W. Cong, K. Durairaj, X. Qian, H. Shen, P. Sinn, E. Hoffman, G. McLennan, and M. Henry, “In vivo mouse studies with bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express14, 7801–7809 (2006).
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G. Wang, H. Shen, K. Durairaj, X. Qian, and W. Cong, “The first bioluminescence tomography system for simultaneous acquisition of multiview and multispectral data,” Int. J. Biomed. Imaging2006, 58601 (2006).
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Durduran, T.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to mri,” Med. Phys.32, 1128 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dusich, J.

D. E. Jenkins, Y. Oei, Y. S. Hornig, S.-F. Yu, J. Dusich, T. Purchio, and P. R. Contag, “Bioluminescent imaging (bli) to improve and refine traditional murine models of tumor growth and metastasis,” Clin. Exp. Metastasis20, 733–744 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eberli, F. R.

O. Gaemperli, T. Schepis, I. Valenta, L. Husmann, H. Scheffel, V. Duerst, F. R. Eberli, T. F. Luscher, H. Alkadhi, and P. A. Kaufmann, “Cardiac image fusion from stand-alone spect and ct: clinical experience,” J. Nucl. Med.48, 696–703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eichner, M.

M. S. Judenhofer, H. F. Wehrl, D. F. Newport, C. Catana, S. B. Siegel, M. Becker, A. Thielscher, M. Kneilling, M. P. Lichy, M. Eichner, K. Klingel, G. Reischl, S. Widmaier, M. Rocken, R. Nutt, H. J. Machulla, K. Uludag, S. R. Cherry, C. D. Claussen, and B. J. Pichler, “Simultaneous pet-mri: a new approach for functional and morphological imaging,” Nat. Med.14, 459–465 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ermolayev, V.

A. Ale, V. Ermolayev, E. Herzog, C. Cohrs, M. H. de Angelis, and V. Ntziachristos, “Fmt-xct: in vivo animal studies with hybrid fluorescence molecular tomography-x-ray computed tomography,” Nat. Meth.9, 615–620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Feng, J.

Fowlkes, C.

P. Arbelaez, M. Maire, C. Fowlkes, and J. Malik, “Contour detection and hierarchical image segmentation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence33, 898–916 (2011).
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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Magnetic field distribution (offered by GE Healthcare, China).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Integrated BLT and MRI system. (a) Placement of the optical and MRI devices. (b) Animal holder. (c) Small animal coil of MRI.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Structure inside the light tight chamber of the optical device.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Heterogeneous cylindrical phantom with different ellipsoidal organs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Surface data from different view angles.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Reconstruction results at different view angles. Regions in green are the true light sources. Regions in red are the reconstructed light sources.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Overlay images of photographs and bioluminescence images.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Reconstructions of artificial light source. The green regions are the real light sources, the red regions are the reconstructed sources

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Relationship between the total power and tumor cell, x-axis is the number of cells and y-axis is the power measured by intensity value. (a) is the result of in vitro experiment, (b) is the result of BLI and (c) is the result of BLT.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Overlay images of photographs and bioluminescence images.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Reconstructions of nude mice with tumors. The red regions are the reconstruction sources.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical parameters (mm−1) for regions of the phantom

Tables Icon

Table 2 Benchmarks for the reconstructions at different view angles

Tables Icon

Table 3 Optical parameters (mm−1) for in vivo experiment

Tables Icon

Table 4 Benchmarks for the reconstruction of the implanted mouse models

Tables Icon

Table 5 The benchmarks for the reconstructions of tumor inoculation models

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( D λ ( x ) Φ λ ( x ) ) + μ λ α ( x ) Φ λ ( x ) = S λ ( x ) ( x Ω ) ,
Φ λ ( x ) + 2 A ( x ; n , n ) D λ ( x ) ( v ( x ) Φ λ ( x ) ) = 0 ( x Ω ) ,
Q λ ( x ) = D λ ( x ) ( v ( x ) Φ λ ( x ) ) = Φ λ ( x ) 2 A ( x ; n , n ) ( x Ω ) .
M λ Φ λ = F λ S λ ,
Φ λ = M λ 1 F λ S λ .
A λ S λ p = Φ λ meas ,
AS t = Φ meas ,
A [ ω λ 1 A λ 1 ω λ 2 A λ 2 ω λ n A λ N ] ,
Φ meas [ Φ λ 1 meas Φ λ 2 meas Φ λ N meas ] ,
min 0 S λ i p S sup t { AS t Φ meas 2 2 + α S t 1 } ,
𝒫 = ( x r x 0 ) 2 + ( y r y 0 ) 2 + ( z r z 0 ) 2 ,
= | S r S 0 | S 0 ,
𝒪 = | R r R 0 | | R r R 0 | .

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