Abstract

Temporal profile distortions reduce excitation efficiency and image quality in temporal focusing-based multiphoton microscopy. In order to compensate the distortions, a wavefront sensorless adaptive optics system (AOS) was integrated into the microscope. The feedback control signal of the AOS was acquired from local image intensity maximization via a hill-climbing algorithm. The control signal was then utilized to drive a deformable mirror in such a way as to eliminate the distortions. With the AOS correction, not only is the axial excitation symmetrically refocused, but the axial resolution with full two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) intensity is also maintained. Hence, the contrast of the TPEF image of a R6G-doped PMMA thin film is enhanced along with a 3.7-fold increase in intensity. Furthermore, the TPEF image quality of 1μm fluorescent beads sealed in agarose gel at different depths is improved.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013

Y.-C. Li, L.-C. Cheng, C.-Y. Chang, C.-Y. Lin, N.-S. Chang, P. J. Campagnola, C. Y. Dong, and S.-J. Chen, “High-throughput fabrication of gray-level bio-microstructures via temporal focusing excitation and laser pulse control,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(7), 075004 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Chang, B.-T. Ke, H.-W. Su, W.-C. Yen, and S.-J. Chen, “Easily implementable field programmable gate array-based adaptive optics system with state-space multichannel control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.84(9), 095112 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Choi, E. Y. S. Yew, B. Hallacoglu, S. Fantini, C. J. R. Sheppard, and P. T. C. So, “Improvement of axial resolution and contrast in temporally focused widefield two-photon microscopy with structured light illumination,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(7), 995–1005 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

2011

O. D. Therrien, B. Aubé, S. Pagès, P. D. Koninck, and D. Côté, “Wide-field multiphoton imaging of cellular dynamics in thick tissue by temporal focusing and patterned illumination,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(3), 696–704 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Straub, M. E. Durst, and C. Xu, “High speed multiphoton axial scanning through an optical fiber in a remotely scanned temporal focusing setup,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(1), 80–88 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Azucena, J. Crest, S. Kotadia, W. Sullivan, X. Tao, M. Reinig, D. Gavel, S. Olivier, and J. Kubby, “Adaptive optics wide-field microscopy using direct wavefront sensing,” Opt. Lett.36(6), 825–827 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, “Focusing and compression of ultrashort pulses through scattering media,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 372–377 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. J. McCabe, A. Tajalli, D. R. Austin, P. Bondareff, I. A. Walmsley, S. Gigan, and B. Chatel, “Spatio-temporal focusing of an ultrafast pulse through a multiply scattering medium,” Nat. Commun.2, 447 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. P. Cumming, A. Jesacher, M. J. Booth, T. Wilson, and M. Gu, “Adaptive aberration compensation for three-dimensional micro-fabrication of photonic crystals in lithium niobate,” Opt. Express19(10), 9419–9425 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dana and S. Shoham, “Numerical evaluation of temporal focusing characteristics in transparent and scattering media,” Opt. Express19(6), 4937–4948 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Aviles-Espinosa, J. Andilla, R. Porcar-Guezenec, O. E. Olarte, M. Nieto, X. Levecq, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Measurement and correction of in vivo sample aberrations employing a nonlinear guide-star in two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(11), 3135–3149 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

P. Kner, J. W. Sedat, D. A. Agard, and Z. Kam, “High-resolution wide-field microscopy with adaptive optics for spherical aberration correction and motionless focusing,” J. Microsc.237(2), 136–147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Azucena, J. Crest, J. Cao, W. Sullivan, P. Kner, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, S. Olivier, and J. Kubby, “Wavefront aberration measurements and corrections through thick tissue using fluorescent microsphere reference beacons,” Opt. Express18(16), 17521–17532 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Papagiakoumou, F. Anselmi, A. Bègue, V. de Sars, J. Glückstad, E. Y. Isacoff, and V. Emiliani, “Scanless two-photon excitation of channelrhodopsin-2,” Nat. Methods7(10), 848–854 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods7(2), 141–147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Lubeigt, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, A. J. Wright, J. M. Girkin, and D. Burns, “Search-based active optic systems for aberration correction in time-independent applications,” Appl. Opt.49(3), 307–314 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

J. M. Girkin, S. Poland, and A. J. Wright, “Adaptive optics for deeper imaging of biological samples,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.20(1), 106–110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Débarre, E. J. Botcherby, T. Watanabe, S. Srinivas, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “Image-based adaptive optics for two-photon microscopy,” Opt. Lett.34(16), 2495–2497 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

2005

G. Zhu, J. van Howe, M. Durst, W. Zipfel, and C. Xu, “Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing of femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express13(6), 2153–2159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Oron, E. Tal, and Y. Silberberg, “Scanningless depth-resolved microscopy,” Opt. Express13(5), 1468–1476 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Wright, D. Burns, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, and J. M. Girkin, “Exploration of the optimisation algorithms used in the implementation of adaptive optics in confocal and Multiphoton microscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech.67(1), 36–44 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.99(9), 5788–5792 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

1986

1974

Agard, D. A.

P. Kner, J. W. Sedat, D. A. Agard, and Z. Kam, “High-resolution wide-field microscopy with adaptive optics for spherical aberration correction and motionless focusing,” J. Microsc.237(2), 136–147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andilla, J.

Anselmi, F.

E. Papagiakoumou, F. Anselmi, A. Bègue, V. de Sars, J. Glückstad, E. Y. Isacoff, and V. Emiliani, “Scanless two-photon excitation of channelrhodopsin-2,” Nat. Methods7(10), 848–854 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Artigas, D.

Aubé, B.

Austin, D. R.

D. J. McCabe, A. Tajalli, D. R. Austin, P. Bondareff, I. A. Walmsley, S. Gigan, and B. Chatel, “Spatio-temporal focusing of an ultrafast pulse through a multiply scattering medium,” Nat. Commun.2, 447 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aviles-Espinosa, R.

Azucena, O.

Beaurepaire, E.

Bègue, A.

E. Papagiakoumou, F. Anselmi, A. Bègue, V. de Sars, J. Glückstad, E. Y. Isacoff, and V. Emiliani, “Scanless two-photon excitation of channelrhodopsin-2,” Nat. Methods7(10), 848–854 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Betzig, E.

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods7(2), 141–147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bondareff, P.

D. J. McCabe, A. Tajalli, D. R. Austin, P. Bondareff, I. A. Walmsley, S. Gigan, and B. Chatel, “Spatio-temporal focusing of an ultrafast pulse through a multiply scattering medium,” Nat. Commun.2, 447 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Booth, M. J.

Botcherby, E. J.

Bromberg, Y.

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, “Focusing and compression of ultrashort pulses through scattering media,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 372–377 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Buffington, A.

Burns, D.

W. Lubeigt, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, A. J. Wright, J. M. Girkin, and D. Burns, “Search-based active optic systems for aberration correction in time-independent applications,” Appl. Opt.49(3), 307–314 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Wright, D. Burns, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, and J. M. Girkin, “Exploration of the optimisation algorithms used in the implementation of adaptive optics in confocal and Multiphoton microscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech.67(1), 36–44 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campagnola, P. J.

Y.-C. Li, L.-C. Cheng, C.-Y. Chang, C.-Y. Lin, N.-S. Chang, P. J. Campagnola, C. Y. Dong, and S.-J. Chen, “High-throughput fabrication of gray-level bio-microstructures via temporal focusing excitation and laser pulse control,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(7), 075004 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Li, L.-C. Cheng, C.-Y. Chang, C.-H. Lien, P. J. Campagnola, and S.-J. Chen, “Fast multiphoton microfabrication of freeform polymer microstructures by spatiotemporal focusing and patterned excitation,” Opt. Express20(17), 19030–19038 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, J.

Chang, C.-C.

Chang, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Chang, B.-T. Ke, H.-W. Su, W.-C. Yen, and S.-J. Chen, “Easily implementable field programmable gate array-based adaptive optics system with state-space multichannel control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.84(9), 095112 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Li, L.-C. Cheng, C.-Y. Chang, C.-Y. Lin, N.-S. Chang, P. J. Campagnola, C. Y. Dong, and S.-J. Chen, “High-throughput fabrication of gray-level bio-microstructures via temporal focusing excitation and laser pulse control,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(7), 075004 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L.-C. Cheng, C.-Y. Chang, C.-Y. Lin, K.-C. Cho, W.-C. Yen, N.-S. Chang, C. Xu, C. Y. Dong, and S.-J. Chen, “Spatiotemporal focusing-based widefield multiphoton microscopy for fast optical sectioning,” Opt. Express20(8), 8939–8948 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Li, L.-C. Cheng, C.-Y. Chang, C.-H. Lien, P. J. Campagnola, and S.-J. Chen, “Fast multiphoton microfabrication of freeform polymer microstructures by spatiotemporal focusing and patterned excitation,” Opt. Express20(17), 19030–19038 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, N.-S.

Y.-C. Li, L.-C. Cheng, C.-Y. Chang, C.-Y. Lin, N.-S. Chang, P. J. Campagnola, C. Y. Dong, and S.-J. Chen, “High-throughput fabrication of gray-level bio-microstructures via temporal focusing excitation and laser pulse control,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(7), 075004 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L.-C. Cheng, C.-Y. Chang, C.-Y. Lin, K.-C. Cho, W.-C. Yen, N.-S. Chang, C. Xu, C. Y. Dong, and S.-J. Chen, “Spatiotemporal focusing-based widefield multiphoton microscopy for fast optical sectioning,” Opt. Express20(8), 8939–8948 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chatel, B.

D. J. McCabe, A. Tajalli, D. R. Austin, P. Bondareff, I. A. Walmsley, S. Gigan, and B. Chatel, “Spatio-temporal focusing of an ultrafast pulse through a multiply scattering medium,” Nat. Commun.2, 447 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S. J.

Chen, S.-J.

C.-Y. Chang, B.-T. Ke, H.-W. Su, W.-C. Yen, and S.-J. Chen, “Easily implementable field programmable gate array-based adaptive optics system with state-space multichannel control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.84(9), 095112 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Li, L.-C. Cheng, C.-Y. Chang, C.-Y. Lin, N.-S. Chang, P. J. Campagnola, C. Y. Dong, and S.-J. Chen, “High-throughput fabrication of gray-level bio-microstructures via temporal focusing excitation and laser pulse control,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(7), 075004 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L.-C. Cheng, C.-Y. Chang, C.-Y. Lin, K.-C. Cho, W.-C. Yen, N.-S. Chang, C. Xu, C. Y. Dong, and S.-J. Chen, “Spatiotemporal focusing-based widefield multiphoton microscopy for fast optical sectioning,” Opt. Express20(8), 8939–8948 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Li, L.-C. Cheng, C.-Y. Chang, C.-H. Lien, P. J. Campagnola, and S.-J. Chen, “Fast multiphoton microfabrication of freeform polymer microstructures by spatiotemporal focusing and patterned excitation,” Opt. Express20(17), 19030–19038 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, L.-C.

Cho, K.-C.

Choi, H.

Chung, C.-Y.

Côté, D.

Crest, J.

Cumming, B. P.

Dana, H.

de Sars, V.

E. Papagiakoumou, F. Anselmi, A. Bègue, V. de Sars, J. Glückstad, E. Y. Isacoff, and V. Emiliani, “Scanless two-photon excitation of channelrhodopsin-2,” Nat. Methods7(10), 848–854 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Débarre, D.

Denk, W.

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, “Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(46), 17137–17142 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deutsch, M.

Dillon, D.

Dong, C. Y.

Y.-C. Li, L.-C. Cheng, C.-Y. Chang, C.-Y. Lin, N.-S. Chang, P. J. Campagnola, C. Y. Dong, and S.-J. Chen, “High-throughput fabrication of gray-level bio-microstructures via temporal focusing excitation and laser pulse control,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(7), 075004 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L.-C. Cheng, C.-Y. Chang, C.-Y. Lin, K.-C. Cho, W.-C. Yen, N.-S. Chang, C. Xu, C. Y. Dong, and S.-J. Chen, “Spatiotemporal focusing-based widefield multiphoton microscopy for fast optical sectioning,” Opt. Express20(8), 8939–8948 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durst, M.

Durst, M. E.

Emiliani, V.

E. Papagiakoumou, F. Anselmi, A. Bègue, V. de Sars, J. Glückstad, E. Y. Isacoff, and V. Emiliani, “Scanless two-photon excitation of channelrhodopsin-2,” Nat. Methods7(10), 848–854 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, C. L.

Facomprez, A.

Fantini, S.

Freudiger, C. W.

Freund, I.

Gavel, D.

Gigan, S.

D. J. McCabe, A. Tajalli, D. R. Austin, P. Bondareff, I. A. Walmsley, S. Gigan, and B. Chatel, “Spatio-temporal focusing of an ultrafast pulse through a multiply scattering medium,” Nat. Commun.2, 447 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girkin, J. M.

W. Lubeigt, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, A. J. Wright, J. M. Girkin, and D. Burns, “Search-based active optic systems for aberration correction in time-independent applications,” Appl. Opt.49(3), 307–314 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Girkin, S. Poland, and A. J. Wright, “Adaptive optics for deeper imaging of biological samples,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.20(1), 106–110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Wright, S. P. Poland, J. M. Girkin, C. W. Freudiger, C. L. Evans, and X. S. Xie, “Adaptive optics for enhanced signal in CARS microscopy,” Opt. Express15(26), 18209–18219 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Wright, D. Burns, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, and J. M. Girkin, “Exploration of the optimisation algorithms used in the implementation of adaptive optics in confocal and Multiphoton microscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech.67(1), 36–44 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glückstad, J.

E. Papagiakoumou, F. Anselmi, A. Bègue, V. de Sars, J. Glückstad, E. Y. Isacoff, and V. Emiliani, “Scanless two-photon excitation of channelrhodopsin-2,” Nat. Methods7(10), 848–854 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

Hallacoglu, B.

Isacoff, E. Y.

E. Papagiakoumou, F. Anselmi, A. Bègue, V. de Sars, J. Glückstad, E. Y. Isacoff, and V. Emiliani, “Scanless two-photon excitation of channelrhodopsin-2,” Nat. Methods7(10), 848–854 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jesacher, A.

Ji, N.

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods7(2), 141–147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juškaitis, R.

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.99(9), 5788–5792 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kam, Z.

P. Kner, J. W. Sedat, D. A. Agard, and Z. Kam, “High-resolution wide-field microscopy with adaptive optics for spherical aberration correction and motionless focusing,” J. Microsc.237(2), 136–147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katz, O.

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, “Focusing and compression of ultrashort pulses through scattering media,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 372–377 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ke, B.-T.

C.-Y. Chang, B.-T. Ke, H.-W. Su, W.-C. Yen, and S.-J. Chen, “Easily implementable field programmable gate array-based adaptive optics system with state-space multichannel control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.84(9), 095112 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kner, P.

P. Kner, J. W. Sedat, D. A. Agard, and Z. Kam, “High-resolution wide-field microscopy with adaptive optics for spherical aberration correction and motionless focusing,” J. Microsc.237(2), 136–147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Azucena, J. Crest, J. Cao, W. Sullivan, P. Kner, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, S. Olivier, and J. Kubby, “Wavefront aberration measurements and corrections through thick tissue using fluorescent microsphere reference beacons,” Opt. Express18(16), 17521–17532 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koninck, P. D.

Kotadia, S.

Kubby, J.

Levecq, X.

Li, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Li, L.-C. Cheng, C.-Y. Chang, C.-Y. Lin, N.-S. Chang, P. J. Campagnola, C. Y. Dong, and S.-J. Chen, “High-throughput fabrication of gray-level bio-microstructures via temporal focusing excitation and laser pulse control,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(7), 075004 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Li, L.-C. Cheng, C.-Y. Chang, C.-H. Lien, P. J. Campagnola, and S.-J. Chen, “Fast multiphoton microfabrication of freeform polymer microstructures by spatiotemporal focusing and patterned excitation,” Opt. Express20(17), 19030–19038 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lien, C.-H.

Lin, C. H.

Lin, C.-Y.

Y.-C. Li, L.-C. Cheng, C.-Y. Chang, C.-Y. Lin, N.-S. Chang, P. J. Campagnola, C. Y. Dong, and S.-J. Chen, “High-throughput fabrication of gray-level bio-microstructures via temporal focusing excitation and laser pulse control,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(7), 075004 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L.-C. Cheng, C.-Y. Chang, C.-Y. Lin, K.-C. Cho, W.-C. Yen, N.-S. Chang, C. Xu, C. Y. Dong, and S.-J. Chen, “Spatiotemporal focusing-based widefield multiphoton microscopy for fast optical sectioning,” Opt. Express20(8), 8939–8948 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loza-Alvarez, P.

Lubeigt, W.

Mack-Bucher, J. A.

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, “Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(46), 17137–17142 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCabe, D. J.

D. J. McCabe, A. Tajalli, D. R. Austin, P. Bondareff, I. A. Walmsley, S. Gigan, and B. Chatel, “Spatio-temporal focusing of an ultrafast pulse through a multiply scattering medium,” Nat. Commun.2, 447 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meshulach, D.

Milkie, D. E.

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods7(2), 141–147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, R. A.

Neil, M. A. A.

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.99(9), 5788–5792 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nieto, M.

Olarte, O. E.

Olivier, S.

Oron, D.

Pagès, S.

Papagiakoumou, E.

E. Papagiakoumou, F. Anselmi, A. Bègue, V. de Sars, J. Glückstad, E. Y. Isacoff, and V. Emiliani, “Scanless two-photon excitation of channelrhodopsin-2,” Nat. Methods7(10), 848–854 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, B. A.

A. J. Wright, D. Burns, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, and J. M. Girkin, “Exploration of the optimisation algorithms used in the implementation of adaptive optics in confocal and Multiphoton microscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech.67(1), 36–44 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poland, S.

J. M. Girkin, S. Poland, and A. J. Wright, “Adaptive optics for deeper imaging of biological samples,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.20(1), 106–110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poland, S. P.

Porcar-Guezenec, R.

Reinig, M.

Rueckel, M.

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, “Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(46), 17137–17142 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sedat, J. W.

P. Kner, J. W. Sedat, D. A. Agard, and Z. Kam, “High-resolution wide-field microscopy with adaptive optics for spherical aberration correction and motionless focusing,” J. Microsc.237(2), 136–147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

Shoham, S.

Silberberg, Y.

Small, E.

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, “Focusing and compression of ultrashort pulses through scattering media,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 372–377 (2011).
[CrossRef]

So, P. T. C.

Srinivas, S.

Straub, A.

Su, H.-W.

C.-Y. Chang, B.-T. Ke, H.-W. Su, W.-C. Yen, and S.-J. Chen, “Easily implementable field programmable gate array-based adaptive optics system with state-space multichannel control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.84(9), 095112 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sullivan, W.

Tajalli, A.

D. J. McCabe, A. Tajalli, D. R. Austin, P. Bondareff, I. A. Walmsley, S. Gigan, and B. Chatel, “Spatio-temporal focusing of an ultrafast pulse through a multiply scattering medium,” Nat. Commun.2, 447 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tal, E.

Tao, X.

Therrien, O. D.

Valentine, G. J.

W. Lubeigt, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, A. J. Wright, J. M. Girkin, and D. Burns, “Search-based active optic systems for aberration correction in time-independent applications,” Appl. Opt.49(3), 307–314 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Wright, D. Burns, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, and J. M. Girkin, “Exploration of the optimisation algorithms used in the implementation of adaptive optics in confocal and Multiphoton microscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech.67(1), 36–44 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Howe, J.

Walmsley, I. A.

D. J. McCabe, A. Tajalli, D. R. Austin, P. Bondareff, I. A. Walmsley, S. Gigan, and B. Chatel, “Spatio-temporal focusing of an ultrafast pulse through a multiply scattering medium,” Nat. Commun.2, 447 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, T.

Webb, W. W.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, R. M.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, T.

Wright, A. J.

W. Lubeigt, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, A. J. Wright, J. M. Girkin, and D. Burns, “Search-based active optic systems for aberration correction in time-independent applications,” Appl. Opt.49(3), 307–314 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Girkin, S. Poland, and A. J. Wright, “Adaptive optics for deeper imaging of biological samples,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.20(1), 106–110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Wright, S. P. Poland, J. M. Girkin, C. W. Freudiger, C. L. Evans, and X. S. Xie, “Adaptive optics for enhanced signal in CARS microscopy,” Opt. Express15(26), 18209–18219 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Wright, D. Burns, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, and J. M. Girkin, “Exploration of the optimisation algorithms used in the implementation of adaptive optics in confocal and Multiphoton microscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech.67(1), 36–44 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, X. S.

Xu, C.

Yelin, D.

Yen, W. C.

Yen, W.-C.

C.-Y. Chang, B.-T. Ke, H.-W. Su, W.-C. Yen, and S.-J. Chen, “Easily implementable field programmable gate array-based adaptive optics system with state-space multichannel control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.84(9), 095112 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-C. Cheng, C.-Y. Chang, C.-Y. Lin, K.-C. Cho, W.-C. Yen, N.-S. Chang, C. Xu, C. Y. Dong, and S.-J. Chen, “Spatiotemporal focusing-based widefield multiphoton microscopy for fast optical sectioning,” Opt. Express20(8), 8939–8948 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yew, E. Y. S.

Zhu, G.

Zipfel, W.

Zipfel, W. R.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Biomed. Opt. Express

Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.

J. M. Girkin, S. Poland, and A. J. Wright, “Adaptive optics for deeper imaging of biological samples,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.20(1), 106–110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

Y.-C. Li, L.-C. Cheng, C.-Y. Chang, C.-Y. Lin, N.-S. Chang, P. J. Campagnola, C. Y. Dong, and S.-J. Chen, “High-throughput fabrication of gray-level bio-microstructures via temporal focusing excitation and laser pulse control,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(7), 075004 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc.

P. Kner, J. W. Sedat, D. A. Agard, and Z. Kam, “High-resolution wide-field microscopy with adaptive optics for spherical aberration correction and motionless focusing,” J. Microsc.237(2), 136–147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Microsc. Res. Tech.

A. J. Wright, D. Burns, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, and J. M. Girkin, “Exploration of the optimisation algorithms used in the implementation of adaptive optics in confocal and Multiphoton microscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech.67(1), 36–44 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun.

D. J. McCabe, A. Tajalli, D. R. Austin, P. Bondareff, I. A. Walmsley, S. Gigan, and B. Chatel, “Spatio-temporal focusing of an ultrafast pulse through a multiply scattering medium,” Nat. Commun.2, 447 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods

E. Papagiakoumou, F. Anselmi, A. Bègue, V. de Sars, J. Glückstad, E. Y. Isacoff, and V. Emiliani, “Scanless two-photon excitation of channelrhodopsin-2,” Nat. Methods7(10), 848–854 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods7(2), 141–147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, “Focusing and compression of ultrashort pulses through scattering media,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 372–377 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

A. Facomprez, E. Beaurepaire, and D. Débarre, “Accuracy of correction in modal sensorless adaptive optics,” Opt. Express20(3), 2598–2612 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Azucena, J. Crest, J. Cao, W. Sullivan, P. Kner, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, S. Olivier, and J. Kubby, “Wavefront aberration measurements and corrections through thick tissue using fluorescent microsphere reference beacons,” Opt. Express18(16), 17521–17532 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Wright, S. P. Poland, J. M. Girkin, C. W. Freudiger, C. L. Evans, and X. S. Xie, “Adaptive optics for enhanced signal in CARS microscopy,” Opt. Express15(26), 18209–18219 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. P. Cumming, A. Jesacher, M. J. Booth, T. Wilson, and M. Gu, “Adaptive aberration compensation for three-dimensional micro-fabrication of photonic crystals in lithium niobate,” Opt. Express19(10), 9419–9425 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dana and S. Shoham, “Numerical evaluation of temporal focusing characteristics in transparent and scattering media,” Opt. Express19(6), 4937–4948 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-C. Cheng, C.-Y. Chang, C.-Y. Lin, K.-C. Cho, W.-C. Yen, N.-S. Chang, C. Xu, C. Y. Dong, and S.-J. Chen, “Spatiotemporal focusing-based widefield multiphoton microscopy for fast optical sectioning,” Opt. Express20(8), 8939–8948 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Li, L.-C. Cheng, C.-Y. Chang, C.-H. Lien, P. J. Campagnola, and S.-J. Chen, “Fast multiphoton microfabrication of freeform polymer microstructures by spatiotemporal focusing and patterned excitation,” Opt. Express20(17), 19030–19038 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zhu, J. van Howe, M. Durst, W. Zipfel, and C. Xu, “Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing of femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express13(6), 2153–2159 (2005).
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D. Oron, E. Tal, and Y. Silberberg, “Scanningless depth-resolved microscopy,” Opt. Express13(5), 1468–1476 (2005).
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M. E. Durst, G. Zhu, and C. Xu, “Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing for axial scanning,” Opt. Express14(25), 12243–12254 (2006).
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M. J. Booth, “Adaptive optics in microscopy,” Philos. Trans. A Math Phys. Eng. Sci.365(1861), 2829–2843 (2007).
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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.99(9), 5788–5792 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, “Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(46), 17137–17142 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

C.-Y. Chang, B.-T. Ke, H.-W. Su, W.-C. Yen, and S.-J. Chen, “Easily implementable field programmable gate array-based adaptive optics system with state-space multichannel control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.84(9), 095112 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

R. K. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 1998).

B. R. Masters and P. T. So, eds., Handbook of Biomedical Nonlinear Optical Microscopy (Oxford, 2008).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical setup of the temporal focusing-based multiphoton microscope with a wavefront sensorless AOS.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) DM geometry and the six segments corresponding to individual elements. (b) Flow chart of the feedback control mechanism via the modified hill-climbing algorithm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Axial TPEF fluorescence intensity profiles of the thin film without distortion (green), with distortion (red), and after wavefront sensorless AOS compensation (blue), separately. Estimated axial resolutions for the three profiles are 3.6 μm, ~5.4 μm, and 3.8 μm, respectively, in FWHM.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

TPEF image of PMMA R6G-doped thin film: (a) without distortion, (b) with distortion, and (c) after wavefront sensorless image-based AOS compensation. (d) Intensity profiles of the red dashed line of Figs. 4(a)-4(c). Green line: without distortion; red line: with distortion; blue line: after AOS correction. Relative intensity changes of locations 1 to 5 are 2.8-fold, 3.7-fold, 2.2-fold, 5.3-fold, and 2.9-fold, respectively. (e) The square of the applied voltages at the six DM segments.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

TPEF images of 1 μm fluorescent beads in agarose gel at the depth of −19 μm: (a) with distortion and (b) after AOS correction. (c) TPEF intensity profiles of the red dashed line in Figs. 5(a) and 5(b) and the intensity enhancements of 2.1-fold, 2.0-fold, and 2.1-fold for the three main peaks from left to right, respectively. TPEF images of fluorescent beads at the depth of −60 μm: (d) with distortion and (e) after AOS correction. (f) TPEF intensity profiles of the red dashed line in Figs. 5(d) and 5(e) and the intensity enhancements of 1.7-fold and 1.8-fold for the two main peaks for the left and right, respectively. Red line: with distortion; blue line: after AOS compensation.

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