Abstract

Confocal Raman microspectroscopy is a valuable analytical tool in biological and medical research, allowing the detection of sample variations without external labels or extensive preparation. To determine whether this method can assess the effect of maleic acid on sperm, we prepared human sperm samples incubated in different concentrations of maleic acid, after which Raman spectra from the various regions of sperm cells were recorded. Following the maleic acid treatment, Raman spectra indicated significant changes. Combined with other means, we found that the structures and chemical compositions of sperm membranes were damaged, and even the sperm DNA was damaged by the incorporation of maleic acid. Thus, this technique can be used for detection and identification of maleic acid-induced changes in human sperm at a molecular level. Although this particular application of Raman microspectroscopy still requires further validation, it has potentially promise as a diagnostic tool for reproductive medicine.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. P. Devroey and A. Van Steirteghem, “A review of ten years experience of ICSI,” Hum. Reprod. Update 10(1), 19–28 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. Z. Pandian, A. Templeton, G. Serour, and S. Bhattacharya, “Number of embryos for transfer after IVF and ICSI: a Cochrane review,” Hum. Reprod. 20(10), 2681–2687 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. D. P. Evenson, L. K. Jost, D. Marshall, M. J. Zinaman, E. Clegg, K. Purvis, P. de Angelis, and O. P. Claussen, “Utility of the sperm chromatin structure assay as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in the human fertility clinic,” Hum. Reprod. 14(4), 1039–1049 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. C. Kennedy, P. Ahlering, H. Rodriguez, S. Levy, and P. Sutovsky, “Sperm chromatin structure correlates with spontaneous abortion and multiple pregnancy rates in assisted reproduction,” Reprod. Biomed. Online 22(3), 272–276 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. V. M. Brugh and L. I. Lipshultz, “Male factor infertility,” Med. Clin. North Am. 88(2), 367–385 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. A. E. Willets, J. M. Corbo, and J. N. Brown, “Clomiphene for the treatment of male infertility,” Reprod. Sci. 20(7), 739–744 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. D. S. Guzick, J. W. Overstreet, P. Factor-Litvak, C. K. Brazil, S. T. Nakajima, C. Coutifaris, S. A. Carson, P. Cisneros, M. P. Steinkampf, J. A. Hill, D. Xu, D. L. Vogel, and National Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network, “Sperm morphology, motility, and concentration in fertile and infertile men,” N. Engl. J. Med. 345(19), 1388–1393 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. A. Zaini, M. G. Jennings, and H. W. Baker, “Are conventional sperm morphology and motility assessments of predictive value in subfertile men?” Int. J. Androl. 8(6), 427–435 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. C. Avendaño, A. Franchi, S. Taylor, M. Morshedi, S. Bocca, and S. Oehninger, “Fragmentation of DNA in morphologically normal human spermatozoa,” Fertil. Steril. 91(4), 1077–1084 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. K. Meister, D. A. Schmidt, E. Bründermann, and M. Havenith, “Confocal Raman microspectroscopy as an analytical tool to assess the mitochondrial status in human spermatozoa,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(6), 1370–1374 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. J. L. Fernández, L. Muriel, V. Goyanes, E. Segrelles, J. Gosálvez, M. Enciso, M. LaFromboise, and C. De Jonge, “Simple determination of human sperm DNA fragmentation with an improved sperm chromatin dispersion test,” Fertil. Steril. 84(4), 833–842 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  16. C. Krafft, T. Knetschke, R. H. W. Funk, and R. Salzer, “Identification of organelles and vesicles in single cells by Raman microspectroscopic mapping,” Vib. Spectrosc. 38(1-2), 85–93 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  17. C. Matthäus, T. Chernenko, J. A. Newmark, C. M. Warner, and M. Diem, “Label-free detection of mitochondrial distribution in cells by nonresonant Raman microspectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 93(2), 668–673 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. C. M. Krishna, G. D. Sockalingum, J. Kurien, L. Rao, L. Venteo, M. Pluot, M. Manfait, and V. B. Kartha, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy for optical pathology of oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Appl. Spectrosc. 58(9), 1128–1135 (2004).
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  19. M. V. Chowdary, K. K. Kumar, J. Kurien, S. Mathew, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, benign, and malignant breast tissues by Raman spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 83(5), 556–569 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. M. S. Vidyasagar, K. Maheedhar, B. M. Vadhiraja, D. J. Fernendes, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Prediction of radiotherapy response in cervix cancer by Raman spectroscopy: A pilot study,” Biopolymers 89(6), 530–537 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. K. C. Schuster, I. Reese, E. Urlaub, J. R. Gapes, and B. Lendl, “Multidimensional information on the chemical composition of single bacterial cells by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 72(22), 5529–5534 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. G. B. Jung, Y. J. Lee, G. Lee, and H. K. Park, “A simple and rapid detection of tissue adhesive-induced biochemical changes in cells and DNA using Raman spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(11), 2673–2682 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. A. Downes, R. Mouras, and A. Elfick, “Optical spectroscopy for noninvasive monitoring of stem cell differentiation,” J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 2010, 101864 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. T. Huser, C. A. Orme, C. W. Hollars, M. H. Corzett, and R. Balhorn, “Raman spectroscopy of DNA packaging in individual human sperm cells distinguishes normal from abnormal cells,” J Biophotonics 2(5), 322–332 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. C. Mallidis, J. Wistuba, B. Bleisteiner, O. S. Damm, P. Gross, F. Wübbeling, C. Fallnich, M. Burger, and S. Schlatt, “In situ visualization of damaged DNA in human sperm by Raman microspectroscopy,” Hum. Reprod. 26(7), 1641–1649 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  27. F. Liu, Y. Zhu, Y. Liu, X. Wang, P. Ping, X. Zhu, H. Hu, Z. Li, and L. He, “Real-time Raman microspectroscopy scanning of the single live sperm bound to human zona pellucida,” Fertil. Steril. 99, 684–689.e684 (2013).
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    [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  31. H. Singh, M. S. Jabbal, A. R. Ray, and P. Vasudevan, “Effect of anionic polymeric hydrogels on spermatozoa motility,” Biomaterials 5(5), 307–309 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. R. Sanchez, E. Toepfer-Petersen, R. J. Aitken, and W. B. Schill, “A new method for evaluation of the acrosome reaction in viable human spermatozoa,” Andrologia 23(3), 197–203 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. J. M. Benevides and G. J. Thomas., “Characterization of DNA structures by Raman spectroscopy: high-salt and low-salt forms of double helical poly(dG-dC) in H2O and D2O solutions and application to B, Z and A-DNA,” Nucleic Acids Res. 11(16), 5747–5761 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. S. C. Erfurth and W. L. Peticolas, “Melting and premelting phenomenon in DNA by laser Raman scattering,” Biopolymers 14(2), 247–264 (1975).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. H. Deng, V. A. Bloomfield, J. M. Benevides, and G. J. Thomas., “Structural basis of polyamine-DNA recognition: spermidine and spermine interactions with genomic B-DNAs of different GC content probed by Raman spectroscopy,” Nucleic Acids Res. 28(17), 3379–3385 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. S. Krimm and J. Bandekar, “Vibrational analysis of peptides, polypeptides, and proteins. V. Normal vibrations of beta-turns,” Biopolymers 19(1), 1–29 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  41. Y. Xu, Z. Zhou, H. Yang, Y. Xu, and Z. Zhang, “Raman spectroscopic study of microcosmic photodamage of the space structure of DNA sensitized by Yangzhou haematoporphyrin derivative and Photofrin II,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 52(1-3), 30–34 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  42. J. Mo, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Fiber-optic Raman probe couples ball lens for depth-selected Raman measurements of epithelial tissue,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(1), 17–30 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  43. Z. Zhuang, N. Li, Z. Guo, M. Zhu, K. Xiong, and S. Chen, “Study of molecule variations in renal tumor based on confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 031103 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  44. B. P. Gaber and W. L. Peticolas, “On the quantitative interpretation of biomembrane structure by Raman spectroscopy,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 465(2), 260–274 (1977).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  45. N. Li, S. X. Li, Z. Y. Guo, Z. F. Zhuang, R. Li, K. Xiong, S. J. Chen, and S. H. Liu, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy study of the effect of mid-ultraviolet radiation on erythrocyte membrane,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 112, 37–42 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  46. R. S. Jeyendran, H. H. Van der Ven, M. Perez-Pelaez, B. G. Crabo, and L. J. D. Zaneveld, “Development of an assay to assess the functional integrity of the human sperm membrane and its relationship to other semen characteristics,” J. Reprod. Fertil. 70(1), 219–228 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  47. D. Lechniak, A. Kedzierski, and D. Stanislawski, “The use of HOS test to evaluate membrane functionality of boar sperm capacitated in vitro,” Reprod. Domest. Anim. 37(6), 379–380 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  48. H. N. Sallam, A. Farrag, A.-F. Agameya, Y. El-Garem, and F. Ezzeldin, “The use of the modified hypo-osmotic swelling test for the selection of immotile testicular spermatozoa in patients treated with ICSI: a randomized controlled study,” Hum. Reprod. 20(12), 3435–3440 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

A. E. Willets, J. M. Corbo, and J. N. Brown, “Clomiphene for the treatment of male infertility,” Reprod. Sci. 20(7), 739–744 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Liu, Y. Zhu, Y. Liu, X. Wang, P. Ping, X. Zhu, H. Hu, Z. Li, and L. He, “Real-time Raman microspectroscopy scanning of the single live sperm bound to human zona pellucida,” Fertil. Steril. 99, 684–689.e684 (2013).

Z. Zhuang, N. Li, Z. Guo, M. Zhu, K. Xiong, and S. Chen, “Study of molecule variations in renal tumor based on confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 031103 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. B. Jung, Y. J. Lee, G. Lee, and H. K. Park, “A simple and rapid detection of tissue adhesive-induced biochemical changes in cells and DNA using Raman spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(11), 2673–2682 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

N. Li, S. X. Li, Z. Y. Guo, Z. F. Zhuang, R. Li, K. Xiong, S. J. Chen, and S. H. Liu, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy study of the effect of mid-ultraviolet radiation on erythrocyte membrane,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 112, 37–42 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Sánchez, K. Redmann, J. Wistuba, F. Wübbeling, M. Burger, H. Oldenhof, W. F. Wolkers, S. Kliesch, S. Schlatt, and C. Mallidis, “Oxidative DNA damage in human sperm can be detected by Raman microspectroscopy,” Fertil. Steril. 98, 1124–1129.e1123 (2012).

2011 (3)

C. Mallidis, J. Wistuba, B. Bleisteiner, O. S. Damm, P. Gross, F. Wübbeling, C. Fallnich, M. Burger, and S. Schlatt, “In situ visualization of damaged DNA in human sperm by Raman microspectroscopy,” Hum. Reprod. 26(7), 1641–1649 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kennedy, P. Ahlering, H. Rodriguez, S. Levy, and P. Sutovsky, “Sperm chromatin structure correlates with spontaneous abortion and multiple pregnancy rates in assisted reproduction,” Reprod. Biomed. Online 22(3), 272–276 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Bungum, L. Bungum, and A. Giwercman, “Sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA): a tool in diagnosis and treatment of infertility,” Asian J. Androl. 13(1), 69–75 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

M. Muratori, L. Tamburrino, V. Tocci, A. Costantino, S. Marchiani, C. Giachini, I. Laface, C. Krausz, M. C. Meriggiola, G. Forti, and E. Baldi, “Small variations in crucial steps of TUNEL assay coupled to flow cytometry greatly affect measures of sperm DNA fragmentation,” J. Androl. 31(4), 336–345 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Meister, D. A. Schmidt, E. Bründermann, and M. Havenith, “Confocal Raman microspectroscopy as an analytical tool to assess the mitochondrial status in human spermatozoa,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(6), 1370–1374 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Downes, R. Mouras, and A. Elfick, “Optical spectroscopy for noninvasive monitoring of stem cell differentiation,” J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 2010, 101864 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mo, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Fiber-optic Raman probe couples ball lens for depth-selected Raman measurements of epithelial tissue,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(1), 17–30 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

T. Huser, C. A. Orme, C. W. Hollars, M. H. Corzett, and R. Balhorn, “Raman spectroscopy of DNA packaging in individual human sperm cells distinguishes normal from abnormal cells,” J Biophotonics 2(5), 322–332 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Avendaño, A. Franchi, S. Taylor, M. Morshedi, S. Bocca, and S. Oehninger, “Fragmentation of DNA in morphologically normal human spermatozoa,” Fertil. Steril. 91(4), 1077–1084 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

M. S. Vidyasagar, K. Maheedhar, B. M. Vadhiraja, D. J. Fernendes, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Prediction of radiotherapy response in cervix cancer by Raman spectroscopy: A pilot study,” Biopolymers 89(6), 530–537 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

C. Matthäus, T. Chernenko, J. A. Newmark, C. M. Warner, and M. Diem, “Label-free detection of mitochondrial distribution in cells by nonresonant Raman microspectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 93(2), 668–673 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

P. L. Olive and J. P. Banáth, “The comet assay: a method to measure DNA damage in individual cells,” Nat. Protoc. 1(1), 23–29 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Nishimune and H. Tanaka, “Infertility caused by polymorphisms or mutations in spermatogenesis-specific genes,” J. Androl. 27(3), 326–334 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. V. Chowdary, K. K. Kumar, J. Kurien, S. Mathew, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, benign, and malignant breast tissues by Raman spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 83(5), 556–569 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

H. N. Sallam, A. Farrag, A.-F. Agameya, Y. El-Garem, and F. Ezzeldin, “The use of the modified hypo-osmotic swelling test for the selection of immotile testicular spermatozoa in patients treated with ICSI: a randomized controlled study,” Hum. Reprod. 20(12), 3435–3440 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Pandian, A. Templeton, G. Serour, and S. Bhattacharya, “Number of embryos for transfer after IVF and ICSI: a Cochrane review,” Hum. Reprod. 20(10), 2681–2687 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Fernández, L. Muriel, V. Goyanes, E. Segrelles, J. Gosálvez, M. Enciso, M. LaFromboise, and C. De Jonge, “Simple determination of human sperm DNA fragmentation with an improved sperm chromatin dispersion test,” Fertil. Steril. 84(4), 833–842 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Krafft, T. Knetschke, R. H. W. Funk, and R. Salzer, “Identification of organelles and vesicles in single cells by Raman microspectroscopic mapping,” Vib. Spectrosc. 38(1-2), 85–93 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

P. Devroey and A. Van Steirteghem, “A review of ten years experience of ICSI,” Hum. Reprod. Update 10(1), 19–28 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. M. Brugh and L. I. Lipshultz, “Male factor infertility,” Med. Clin. North Am. 88(2), 367–385 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Krishna, G. D. Sockalingum, J. Kurien, L. Rao, L. Venteo, M. Pluot, M. Manfait, and V. B. Kartha, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy for optical pathology of oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Appl. Spectrosc. 58(9), 1128–1135 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

D. Lechniak, A. Kedzierski, and D. Stanislawski, “The use of HOS test to evaluate membrane functionality of boar sperm capacitated in vitro,” Reprod. Domest. Anim. 37(6), 379–380 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

D. S. Guzick, J. W. Overstreet, P. Factor-Litvak, C. K. Brazil, S. T. Nakajima, C. Coutifaris, S. A. Carson, P. Cisneros, M. P. Steinkampf, J. A. Hill, D. Xu, D. L. Vogel, and National Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network, “Sperm morphology, motility, and concentration in fertile and infertile men,” N. Engl. J. Med. 345(19), 1388–1393 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

K. C. Schuster, I. Reese, E. Urlaub, J. R. Gapes, and B. Lendl, “Multidimensional information on the chemical composition of single bacterial cells by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 72(22), 5529–5534 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Deng, V. A. Bloomfield, J. M. Benevides, and G. J. Thomas., “Structural basis of polyamine-DNA recognition: spermidine and spermine interactions with genomic B-DNAs of different GC content probed by Raman spectroscopy,” Nucleic Acids Res. 28(17), 3379–3385 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

H. Deng, V. A. Bloomfield, J. M. Benevides, and G. J. Thomas., “Dependence of the Raman signature of genomic B-DNA on nucleotide base sequence,” Biopolymers 50(6), 656–666 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, Z. Zhou, H. Yang, Y. Xu, and Z. Zhang, “Raman spectroscopic study of microcosmic photodamage of the space structure of DNA sensitized by Yangzhou haematoporphyrin derivative and Photofrin II,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 52(1-3), 30–34 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Evenson, L. K. Jost, D. Marshall, M. J. Zinaman, E. Clegg, K. Purvis, P. de Angelis, and O. P. Claussen, “Utility of the sperm chromatin structure assay as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in the human fertility clinic,” Hum. Reprod. 14(4), 1039–1049 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

R. Sanchez, E. Toepfer-Petersen, R. J. Aitken, and W. B. Schill, “A new method for evaluation of the acrosome reaction in viable human spermatozoa,” Andrologia 23(3), 197–203 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, “Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Nature 347(6290), 301–303 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

P. D. Brown-Woodman, E. J. Post, P. Y. Chow, and I. G. White, “Effects of malonic, maleic, citric and caffeic acids on the motility of human sperm and penetration of cervical mucus,” Int. J. Fertil. 30(3), 38–44 (1985).
[PubMed]

A. Zaini, M. G. Jennings, and H. W. Baker, “Are conventional sperm morphology and motility assessments of predictive value in subfertile men?” Int. J. Androl. 8(6), 427–435 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (2)

H. Singh, M. S. Jabbal, A. R. Ray, and P. Vasudevan, “Effect of anionic polymeric hydrogels on spermatozoa motility,” Biomaterials 5(5), 307–309 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Jeyendran, H. H. Van der Ven, M. Perez-Pelaez, B. G. Crabo, and L. J. D. Zaneveld, “Development of an assay to assess the functional integrity of the human sperm membrane and its relationship to other semen characteristics,” J. Reprod. Fertil. 70(1), 219–228 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (2)

J. M. Benevides and G. J. Thomas., “Characterization of DNA structures by Raman spectroscopy: high-salt and low-salt forms of double helical poly(dG-dC) in H2O and D2O solutions and application to B, Z and A-DNA,” Nucleic Acids Res. 11(16), 5747–5761 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Stein and H. Schnieden, “Effect of antidepressant drugs on the in-vitro eggpenetrating ability of golden hamster epididymal spermatozoa,” Reprod. Fertil. 68(1), 227–233 (1983).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

S. Krimm and J. Bandekar, “Vibrational analysis of peptides, polypeptides, and proteins. V. Normal vibrations of beta-turns,” Biopolymers 19(1), 1–29 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

B. P. Gaber and W. L. Peticolas, “On the quantitative interpretation of biomembrane structure by Raman spectroscopy,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 465(2), 260–274 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

S. C. Erfurth and W. L. Peticolas, “Melting and premelting phenomenon in DNA by laser Raman scattering,” Biopolymers 14(2), 247–264 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agameya, A.-F.

H. N. Sallam, A. Farrag, A.-F. Agameya, Y. El-Garem, and F. Ezzeldin, “The use of the modified hypo-osmotic swelling test for the selection of immotile testicular spermatozoa in patients treated with ICSI: a randomized controlled study,” Hum. Reprod. 20(12), 3435–3440 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahlering, P.

C. Kennedy, P. Ahlering, H. Rodriguez, S. Levy, and P. Sutovsky, “Sperm chromatin structure correlates with spontaneous abortion and multiple pregnancy rates in assisted reproduction,” Reprod. Biomed. Online 22(3), 272–276 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aitken, R. J.

R. Sanchez, E. Toepfer-Petersen, R. J. Aitken, and W. B. Schill, “A new method for evaluation of the acrosome reaction in viable human spermatozoa,” Andrologia 23(3), 197–203 (1991).
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C. Avendaño, A. Franchi, S. Taylor, M. Morshedi, S. Bocca, and S. Oehninger, “Fragmentation of DNA in morphologically normal human spermatozoa,” Fertil. Steril. 91(4), 1077–1084 (2009).
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Chen, J.

Z. Huang, G. Chen, X. Chen, J. Wang, J. Chen, P. Lu, and R. Chen, “Rapid and label-free identification of normal spermatozoa based on image analysis and micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J Biophotonics1–5 (2013).

Chen, R.

Z. Huang, G. Chen, X. Chen, J. Wang, J. Chen, P. Lu, and R. Chen, “Rapid and label-free identification of normal spermatozoa based on image analysis and micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J Biophotonics1–5 (2013).

Chen, S.

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Chen, X.

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A. E. Willets, J. M. Corbo, and J. N. Brown, “Clomiphene for the treatment of male infertility,” Reprod. Sci. 20(7), 739–744 (2013).
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T. Huser, C. A. Orme, C. W. Hollars, M. H. Corzett, and R. Balhorn, “Raman spectroscopy of DNA packaging in individual human sperm cells distinguishes normal from abnormal cells,” J Biophotonics 2(5), 322–332 (2009).
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J. L. Fernández, L. Muriel, V. Goyanes, E. Segrelles, J. Gosálvez, M. Enciso, M. LaFromboise, and C. De Jonge, “Simple determination of human sperm DNA fragmentation with an improved sperm chromatin dispersion test,” Fertil. Steril. 84(4), 833–842 (2005).
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G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, “Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Nature 347(6290), 301–303 (1990).
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H. Deng, V. A. Bloomfield, J. M. Benevides, and G. J. Thomas., “Structural basis of polyamine-DNA recognition: spermidine and spermine interactions with genomic B-DNAs of different GC content probed by Raman spectroscopy,” Nucleic Acids Res. 28(17), 3379–3385 (2000).
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H. Deng, V. A. Bloomfield, J. M. Benevides, and G. J. Thomas., “Dependence of the Raman signature of genomic B-DNA on nucleotide base sequence,” Biopolymers 50(6), 656–666 (1999).
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D. P. Evenson, L. K. Jost, D. Marshall, M. J. Zinaman, E. Clegg, K. Purvis, P. de Angelis, and O. P. Claussen, “Utility of the sperm chromatin structure assay as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in the human fertility clinic,” Hum. Reprod. 14(4), 1039–1049 (1999).
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Ezzeldin, F.

H. N. Sallam, A. Farrag, A.-F. Agameya, Y. El-Garem, and F. Ezzeldin, “The use of the modified hypo-osmotic swelling test for the selection of immotile testicular spermatozoa in patients treated with ICSI: a randomized controlled study,” Hum. Reprod. 20(12), 3435–3440 (2005).
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D. S. Guzick, J. W. Overstreet, P. Factor-Litvak, C. K. Brazil, S. T. Nakajima, C. Coutifaris, S. A. Carson, P. Cisneros, M. P. Steinkampf, J. A. Hill, D. Xu, D. L. Vogel, and National Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network, “Sperm morphology, motility, and concentration in fertile and infertile men,” N. Engl. J. Med. 345(19), 1388–1393 (2001).
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Fallnich, C.

C. Mallidis, J. Wistuba, B. Bleisteiner, O. S. Damm, P. Gross, F. Wübbeling, C. Fallnich, M. Burger, and S. Schlatt, “In situ visualization of damaged DNA in human sperm by Raman microspectroscopy,” Hum. Reprod. 26(7), 1641–1649 (2011).
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H. N. Sallam, A. Farrag, A.-F. Agameya, Y. El-Garem, and F. Ezzeldin, “The use of the modified hypo-osmotic swelling test for the selection of immotile testicular spermatozoa in patients treated with ICSI: a randomized controlled study,” Hum. Reprod. 20(12), 3435–3440 (2005).
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J. L. Fernández, L. Muriel, V. Goyanes, E. Segrelles, J. Gosálvez, M. Enciso, M. LaFromboise, and C. De Jonge, “Simple determination of human sperm DNA fragmentation with an improved sperm chromatin dispersion test,” Fertil. Steril. 84(4), 833–842 (2005).
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Franchi, A.

C. Avendaño, A. Franchi, S. Taylor, M. Morshedi, S. Bocca, and S. Oehninger, “Fragmentation of DNA in morphologically normal human spermatozoa,” Fertil. Steril. 91(4), 1077–1084 (2009).
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C. Krafft, T. Knetschke, R. H. W. Funk, and R. Salzer, “Identification of organelles and vesicles in single cells by Raman microspectroscopic mapping,” Vib. Spectrosc. 38(1-2), 85–93 (2005).
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K. C. Schuster, I. Reese, E. Urlaub, J. R. Gapes, and B. Lendl, “Multidimensional information on the chemical composition of single bacterial cells by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 72(22), 5529–5534 (2000).
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Giachini, C.

M. Muratori, L. Tamburrino, V. Tocci, A. Costantino, S. Marchiani, C. Giachini, I. Laface, C. Krausz, M. C. Meriggiola, G. Forti, and E. Baldi, “Small variations in crucial steps of TUNEL assay coupled to flow cytometry greatly affect measures of sperm DNA fragmentation,” J. Androl. 31(4), 336–345 (2010).
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Giwercman, A.

M. Bungum, L. Bungum, and A. Giwercman, “Sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA): a tool in diagnosis and treatment of infertility,” Asian J. Androl. 13(1), 69–75 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gosálvez, J.

J. L. Fernández, L. Muriel, V. Goyanes, E. Segrelles, J. Gosálvez, M. Enciso, M. LaFromboise, and C. De Jonge, “Simple determination of human sperm DNA fragmentation with an improved sperm chromatin dispersion test,” Fertil. Steril. 84(4), 833–842 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goyanes, V.

J. L. Fernández, L. Muriel, V. Goyanes, E. Segrelles, J. Gosálvez, M. Enciso, M. LaFromboise, and C. De Jonge, “Simple determination of human sperm DNA fragmentation with an improved sperm chromatin dispersion test,” Fertil. Steril. 84(4), 833–842 (2005).
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Greve, J.

G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, “Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Nature 347(6290), 301–303 (1990).
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Gross, P.

C. Mallidis, J. Wistuba, B. Bleisteiner, O. S. Damm, P. Gross, F. Wübbeling, C. Fallnich, M. Burger, and S. Schlatt, “In situ visualization of damaged DNA in human sperm by Raman microspectroscopy,” Hum. Reprod. 26(7), 1641–1649 (2011).
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Guo, Z.

Z. Zhuang, N. Li, Z. Guo, M. Zhu, K. Xiong, and S. Chen, “Study of molecule variations in renal tumor based on confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 031103 (2013).
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Guo, Z. Y.

N. Li, S. X. Li, Z. Y. Guo, Z. F. Zhuang, R. Li, K. Xiong, S. J. Chen, and S. H. Liu, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy study of the effect of mid-ultraviolet radiation on erythrocyte membrane,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 112, 37–42 (2012).
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Guzick, D. S.

D. S. Guzick, J. W. Overstreet, P. Factor-Litvak, C. K. Brazil, S. T. Nakajima, C. Coutifaris, S. A. Carson, P. Cisneros, M. P. Steinkampf, J. A. Hill, D. Xu, D. L. Vogel, and National Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network, “Sperm morphology, motility, and concentration in fertile and infertile men,” N. Engl. J. Med. 345(19), 1388–1393 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Havenith, M.

K. Meister, D. A. Schmidt, E. Bründermann, and M. Havenith, “Confocal Raman microspectroscopy as an analytical tool to assess the mitochondrial status in human spermatozoa,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(6), 1370–1374 (2010).
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He, L.

F. Liu, Y. Zhu, Y. Liu, X. Wang, P. Ping, X. Zhu, H. Hu, Z. Li, and L. He, “Real-time Raman microspectroscopy scanning of the single live sperm bound to human zona pellucida,” Fertil. Steril. 99, 684–689.e684 (2013).

Hill, J. A.

D. S. Guzick, J. W. Overstreet, P. Factor-Litvak, C. K. Brazil, S. T. Nakajima, C. Coutifaris, S. A. Carson, P. Cisneros, M. P. Steinkampf, J. A. Hill, D. Xu, D. L. Vogel, and National Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network, “Sperm morphology, motility, and concentration in fertile and infertile men,” N. Engl. J. Med. 345(19), 1388–1393 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hollars, C. W.

T. Huser, C. A. Orme, C. W. Hollars, M. H. Corzett, and R. Balhorn, “Raman spectroscopy of DNA packaging in individual human sperm cells distinguishes normal from abnormal cells,” J Biophotonics 2(5), 322–332 (2009).
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Hu, H.

F. Liu, Y. Zhu, Y. Liu, X. Wang, P. Ping, X. Zhu, H. Hu, Z. Li, and L. He, “Real-time Raman microspectroscopy scanning of the single live sperm bound to human zona pellucida,” Fertil. Steril. 99, 684–689.e684 (2013).

Huang, Z.

J. Mo, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Fiber-optic Raman probe couples ball lens for depth-selected Raman measurements of epithelial tissue,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(1), 17–30 (2010).
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Z. Huang, G. Chen, X. Chen, J. Wang, J. Chen, P. Lu, and R. Chen, “Rapid and label-free identification of normal spermatozoa based on image analysis and micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J Biophotonics1–5 (2013).

Huser, T.

T. Huser, C. A. Orme, C. W. Hollars, M. H. Corzett, and R. Balhorn, “Raman spectroscopy of DNA packaging in individual human sperm cells distinguishes normal from abnormal cells,” J Biophotonics 2(5), 322–332 (2009).
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H. Singh, M. S. Jabbal, A. R. Ray, and P. Vasudevan, “Effect of anionic polymeric hydrogels on spermatozoa motility,” Biomaterials 5(5), 307–309 (1984).
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A. Zaini, M. G. Jennings, and H. W. Baker, “Are conventional sperm morphology and motility assessments of predictive value in subfertile men?” Int. J. Androl. 8(6), 427–435 (1985).
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R. S. Jeyendran, H. H. Van der Ven, M. Perez-Pelaez, B. G. Crabo, and L. J. D. Zaneveld, “Development of an assay to assess the functional integrity of the human sperm membrane and its relationship to other semen characteristics,” J. Reprod. Fertil. 70(1), 219–228 (1984).
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Jost, L. K.

D. P. Evenson, L. K. Jost, D. Marshall, M. J. Zinaman, E. Clegg, K. Purvis, P. de Angelis, and O. P. Claussen, “Utility of the sperm chromatin structure assay as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in the human fertility clinic,” Hum. Reprod. 14(4), 1039–1049 (1999).
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Jovin, T. M.

G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, “Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Nature 347(6290), 301–303 (1990).
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Jung, G. B.

Kartha, V. B.

M. S. Vidyasagar, K. Maheedhar, B. M. Vadhiraja, D. J. Fernendes, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Prediction of radiotherapy response in cervix cancer by Raman spectroscopy: A pilot study,” Biopolymers 89(6), 530–537 (2008).
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C. M. Krishna, G. D. Sockalingum, J. Kurien, L. Rao, L. Venteo, M. Pluot, M. Manfait, and V. B. Kartha, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy for optical pathology of oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Appl. Spectrosc. 58(9), 1128–1135 (2004).
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D. Lechniak, A. Kedzierski, and D. Stanislawski, “The use of HOS test to evaluate membrane functionality of boar sperm capacitated in vitro,” Reprod. Domest. Anim. 37(6), 379–380 (2002).
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C. Kennedy, P. Ahlering, H. Rodriguez, S. Levy, and P. Sutovsky, “Sperm chromatin structure correlates with spontaneous abortion and multiple pregnancy rates in assisted reproduction,” Reprod. Biomed. Online 22(3), 272–276 (2011).
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Kliesch, S.

V. Sánchez, K. Redmann, J. Wistuba, F. Wübbeling, M. Burger, H. Oldenhof, W. F. Wolkers, S. Kliesch, S. Schlatt, and C. Mallidis, “Oxidative DNA damage in human sperm can be detected by Raman microspectroscopy,” Fertil. Steril. 98, 1124–1129.e1123 (2012).

Knetschke, T.

C. Krafft, T. Knetschke, R. H. W. Funk, and R. Salzer, “Identification of organelles and vesicles in single cells by Raman microspectroscopic mapping,” Vib. Spectrosc. 38(1-2), 85–93 (2005).
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C. Krafft, T. Knetschke, R. H. W. Funk, and R. Salzer, “Identification of organelles and vesicles in single cells by Raman microspectroscopic mapping,” Vib. Spectrosc. 38(1-2), 85–93 (2005).
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M. Muratori, L. Tamburrino, V. Tocci, A. Costantino, S. Marchiani, C. Giachini, I. Laface, C. Krausz, M. C. Meriggiola, G. Forti, and E. Baldi, “Small variations in crucial steps of TUNEL assay coupled to flow cytometry greatly affect measures of sperm DNA fragmentation,” J. Androl. 31(4), 336–345 (2010).
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M. S. Vidyasagar, K. Maheedhar, B. M. Vadhiraja, D. J. Fernendes, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Prediction of radiotherapy response in cervix cancer by Raman spectroscopy: A pilot study,” Biopolymers 89(6), 530–537 (2008).
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M. V. Chowdary, K. K. Kumar, J. Kurien, S. Mathew, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, benign, and malignant breast tissues by Raman spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 83(5), 556–569 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Krishna, G. D. Sockalingum, J. Kurien, L. Rao, L. Venteo, M. Pluot, M. Manfait, and V. B. Kartha, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy for optical pathology of oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Appl. Spectrosc. 58(9), 1128–1135 (2004).
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Kumar, K. K.

M. V. Chowdary, K. K. Kumar, J. Kurien, S. Mathew, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, benign, and malignant breast tissues by Raman spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 83(5), 556–569 (2006).
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Kurien, J.

M. V. Chowdary, K. K. Kumar, J. Kurien, S. Mathew, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, benign, and malignant breast tissues by Raman spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 83(5), 556–569 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Krishna, G. D. Sockalingum, J. Kurien, L. Rao, L. Venteo, M. Pluot, M. Manfait, and V. B. Kartha, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy for optical pathology of oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Appl. Spectrosc. 58(9), 1128–1135 (2004).
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Laface, I.

M. Muratori, L. Tamburrino, V. Tocci, A. Costantino, S. Marchiani, C. Giachini, I. Laface, C. Krausz, M. C. Meriggiola, G. Forti, and E. Baldi, “Small variations in crucial steps of TUNEL assay coupled to flow cytometry greatly affect measures of sperm DNA fragmentation,” J. Androl. 31(4), 336–345 (2010).
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J. L. Fernández, L. Muriel, V. Goyanes, E. Segrelles, J. Gosálvez, M. Enciso, M. LaFromboise, and C. De Jonge, “Simple determination of human sperm DNA fragmentation with an improved sperm chromatin dispersion test,” Fertil. Steril. 84(4), 833–842 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lechniak, D.

D. Lechniak, A. Kedzierski, and D. Stanislawski, “The use of HOS test to evaluate membrane functionality of boar sperm capacitated in vitro,” Reprod. Domest. Anim. 37(6), 379–380 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, G.

Lee, Y. J.

Lendl, B.

K. C. Schuster, I. Reese, E. Urlaub, J. R. Gapes, and B. Lendl, “Multidimensional information on the chemical composition of single bacterial cells by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 72(22), 5529–5534 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levy, S.

C. Kennedy, P. Ahlering, H. Rodriguez, S. Levy, and P. Sutovsky, “Sperm chromatin structure correlates with spontaneous abortion and multiple pregnancy rates in assisted reproduction,” Reprod. Biomed. Online 22(3), 272–276 (2011).
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Li, N.

Z. Zhuang, N. Li, Z. Guo, M. Zhu, K. Xiong, and S. Chen, “Study of molecule variations in renal tumor based on confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 031103 (2013).
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Li, R.

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Li, Z.

F. Liu, Y. Zhu, Y. Liu, X. Wang, P. Ping, X. Zhu, H. Hu, Z. Li, and L. He, “Real-time Raman microspectroscopy scanning of the single live sperm bound to human zona pellucida,” Fertil. Steril. 99, 684–689.e684 (2013).

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F. Liu, Y. Zhu, Y. Liu, X. Wang, P. Ping, X. Zhu, H. Hu, Z. Li, and L. He, “Real-time Raman microspectroscopy scanning of the single live sperm bound to human zona pellucida,” Fertil. Steril. 99, 684–689.e684 (2013).

Liu, S. H.

N. Li, S. X. Li, Z. Y. Guo, Z. F. Zhuang, R. Li, K. Xiong, S. J. Chen, and S. H. Liu, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy study of the effect of mid-ultraviolet radiation on erythrocyte membrane,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 112, 37–42 (2012).
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Liu, Y.

F. Liu, Y. Zhu, Y. Liu, X. Wang, P. Ping, X. Zhu, H. Hu, Z. Li, and L. He, “Real-time Raman microspectroscopy scanning of the single live sperm bound to human zona pellucida,” Fertil. Steril. 99, 684–689.e684 (2013).

Lu, P.

Z. Huang, G. Chen, X. Chen, J. Wang, J. Chen, P. Lu, and R. Chen, “Rapid and label-free identification of normal spermatozoa based on image analysis and micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J Biophotonics1–5 (2013).

Maheedhar, K.

M. S. Vidyasagar, K. Maheedhar, B. M. Vadhiraja, D. J. Fernendes, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Prediction of radiotherapy response in cervix cancer by Raman spectroscopy: A pilot study,” Biopolymers 89(6), 530–537 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mallidis, C.

V. Sánchez, K. Redmann, J. Wistuba, F. Wübbeling, M. Burger, H. Oldenhof, W. F. Wolkers, S. Kliesch, S. Schlatt, and C. Mallidis, “Oxidative DNA damage in human sperm can be detected by Raman microspectroscopy,” Fertil. Steril. 98, 1124–1129.e1123 (2012).

C. Mallidis, J. Wistuba, B. Bleisteiner, O. S. Damm, P. Gross, F. Wübbeling, C. Fallnich, M. Burger, and S. Schlatt, “In situ visualization of damaged DNA in human sperm by Raman microspectroscopy,” Hum. Reprod. 26(7), 1641–1649 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manfait, M.

Marchiani, S.

M. Muratori, L. Tamburrino, V. Tocci, A. Costantino, S. Marchiani, C. Giachini, I. Laface, C. Krausz, M. C. Meriggiola, G. Forti, and E. Baldi, “Small variations in crucial steps of TUNEL assay coupled to flow cytometry greatly affect measures of sperm DNA fragmentation,” J. Androl. 31(4), 336–345 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marshall, D.

D. P. Evenson, L. K. Jost, D. Marshall, M. J. Zinaman, E. Clegg, K. Purvis, P. de Angelis, and O. P. Claussen, “Utility of the sperm chromatin structure assay as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in the human fertility clinic,” Hum. Reprod. 14(4), 1039–1049 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mathew, S.

M. V. Chowdary, K. K. Kumar, J. Kurien, S. Mathew, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, benign, and malignant breast tissues by Raman spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 83(5), 556–569 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matthäus, C.

C. Matthäus, T. Chernenko, J. A. Newmark, C. M. Warner, and M. Diem, “Label-free detection of mitochondrial distribution in cells by nonresonant Raman microspectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 93(2), 668–673 (2007).
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Meister, K.

K. Meister, D. A. Schmidt, E. Bründermann, and M. Havenith, “Confocal Raman microspectroscopy as an analytical tool to assess the mitochondrial status in human spermatozoa,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(6), 1370–1374 (2010).
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Meriggiola, M. C.

M. Muratori, L. Tamburrino, V. Tocci, A. Costantino, S. Marchiani, C. Giachini, I. Laface, C. Krausz, M. C. Meriggiola, G. Forti, and E. Baldi, “Small variations in crucial steps of TUNEL assay coupled to flow cytometry greatly affect measures of sperm DNA fragmentation,” J. Androl. 31(4), 336–345 (2010).
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Mo, J.

Morshedi, M.

C. Avendaño, A. Franchi, S. Taylor, M. Morshedi, S. Bocca, and S. Oehninger, “Fragmentation of DNA in morphologically normal human spermatozoa,” Fertil. Steril. 91(4), 1077–1084 (2009).
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A. Downes, R. Mouras, and A. Elfick, “Optical spectroscopy for noninvasive monitoring of stem cell differentiation,” J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 2010, 101864 (2010).
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Muratori, M.

M. Muratori, L. Tamburrino, V. Tocci, A. Costantino, S. Marchiani, C. Giachini, I. Laface, C. Krausz, M. C. Meriggiola, G. Forti, and E. Baldi, “Small variations in crucial steps of TUNEL assay coupled to flow cytometry greatly affect measures of sperm DNA fragmentation,” J. Androl. 31(4), 336–345 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muriel, L.

J. L. Fernández, L. Muriel, V. Goyanes, E. Segrelles, J. Gosálvez, M. Enciso, M. LaFromboise, and C. De Jonge, “Simple determination of human sperm DNA fragmentation with an improved sperm chromatin dispersion test,” Fertil. Steril. 84(4), 833–842 (2005).
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Nakajima, S. T.

D. S. Guzick, J. W. Overstreet, P. Factor-Litvak, C. K. Brazil, S. T. Nakajima, C. Coutifaris, S. A. Carson, P. Cisneros, M. P. Steinkampf, J. A. Hill, D. Xu, D. L. Vogel, and National Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network, “Sperm morphology, motility, and concentration in fertile and infertile men,” N. Engl. J. Med. 345(19), 1388–1393 (2001).
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Newmark, J. A.

C. Matthäus, T. Chernenko, J. A. Newmark, C. M. Warner, and M. Diem, “Label-free detection of mitochondrial distribution in cells by nonresonant Raman microspectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 93(2), 668–673 (2007).
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Nishimune, Y.

Y. Nishimune and H. Tanaka, “Infertility caused by polymorphisms or mutations in spermatogenesis-specific genes,” J. Androl. 27(3), 326–334 (2006).
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Oehninger, S.

C. Avendaño, A. Franchi, S. Taylor, M. Morshedi, S. Bocca, and S. Oehninger, “Fragmentation of DNA in morphologically normal human spermatozoa,” Fertil. Steril. 91(4), 1077–1084 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oldenhof, H.

V. Sánchez, K. Redmann, J. Wistuba, F. Wübbeling, M. Burger, H. Oldenhof, W. F. Wolkers, S. Kliesch, S. Schlatt, and C. Mallidis, “Oxidative DNA damage in human sperm can be detected by Raman microspectroscopy,” Fertil. Steril. 98, 1124–1129.e1123 (2012).

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P. L. Olive and J. P. Banáth, “The comet assay: a method to measure DNA damage in individual cells,” Nat. Protoc. 1(1), 23–29 (2006).
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Orme, C. A.

T. Huser, C. A. Orme, C. W. Hollars, M. H. Corzett, and R. Balhorn, “Raman spectroscopy of DNA packaging in individual human sperm cells distinguishes normal from abnormal cells,” J Biophotonics 2(5), 322–332 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Otto, C.

G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, “Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Nature 347(6290), 301–303 (1990).
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D. S. Guzick, J. W. Overstreet, P. Factor-Litvak, C. K. Brazil, S. T. Nakajima, C. Coutifaris, S. A. Carson, P. Cisneros, M. P. Steinkampf, J. A. Hill, D. Xu, D. L. Vogel, and National Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network, “Sperm morphology, motility, and concentration in fertile and infertile men,” N. Engl. J. Med. 345(19), 1388–1393 (2001).
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Pandian, Z.

Z. Pandian, A. Templeton, G. Serour, and S. Bhattacharya, “Number of embryos for transfer after IVF and ICSI: a Cochrane review,” Hum. Reprod. 20(10), 2681–2687 (2005).
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Park, H. K.

Perez-Pelaez, M.

R. S. Jeyendran, H. H. Van der Ven, M. Perez-Pelaez, B. G. Crabo, and L. J. D. Zaneveld, “Development of an assay to assess the functional integrity of the human sperm membrane and its relationship to other semen characteristics,” J. Reprod. Fertil. 70(1), 219–228 (1984).
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B. P. Gaber and W. L. Peticolas, “On the quantitative interpretation of biomembrane structure by Raman spectroscopy,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 465(2), 260–274 (1977).
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S. C. Erfurth and W. L. Peticolas, “Melting and premelting phenomenon in DNA by laser Raman scattering,” Biopolymers 14(2), 247–264 (1975).
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Ping, P.

F. Liu, Y. Zhu, Y. Liu, X. Wang, P. Ping, X. Zhu, H. Hu, Z. Li, and L. He, “Real-time Raman microspectroscopy scanning of the single live sperm bound to human zona pellucida,” Fertil. Steril. 99, 684–689.e684 (2013).

Pluot, M.

Post, E. J.

P. D. Brown-Woodman, E. J. Post, P. Y. Chow, and I. G. White, “Effects of malonic, maleic, citric and caffeic acids on the motility of human sperm and penetration of cervical mucus,” Int. J. Fertil. 30(3), 38–44 (1985).
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Puppels, G. J.

G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, “Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Nature 347(6290), 301–303 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Purvis, K.

D. P. Evenson, L. K. Jost, D. Marshall, M. J. Zinaman, E. Clegg, K. Purvis, P. de Angelis, and O. P. Claussen, “Utility of the sperm chromatin structure assay as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in the human fertility clinic,” Hum. Reprod. 14(4), 1039–1049 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rao, L.

Ray, A. R.

H. Singh, M. S. Jabbal, A. R. Ray, and P. Vasudevan, “Effect of anionic polymeric hydrogels on spermatozoa motility,” Biomaterials 5(5), 307–309 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Redmann, K.

V. Sánchez, K. Redmann, J. Wistuba, F. Wübbeling, M. Burger, H. Oldenhof, W. F. Wolkers, S. Kliesch, S. Schlatt, and C. Mallidis, “Oxidative DNA damage in human sperm can be detected by Raman microspectroscopy,” Fertil. Steril. 98, 1124–1129.e1123 (2012).

Reese, I.

K. C. Schuster, I. Reese, E. Urlaub, J. R. Gapes, and B. Lendl, “Multidimensional information on the chemical composition of single bacterial cells by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 72(22), 5529–5534 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robert-Nicoud, M.

G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, “Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Nature 347(6290), 301–303 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodriguez, H.

C. Kennedy, P. Ahlering, H. Rodriguez, S. Levy, and P. Sutovsky, “Sperm chromatin structure correlates with spontaneous abortion and multiple pregnancy rates in assisted reproduction,” Reprod. Biomed. Online 22(3), 272–276 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sallam, H. N.

H. N. Sallam, A. Farrag, A.-F. Agameya, Y. El-Garem, and F. Ezzeldin, “The use of the modified hypo-osmotic swelling test for the selection of immotile testicular spermatozoa in patients treated with ICSI: a randomized controlled study,” Hum. Reprod. 20(12), 3435–3440 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salzer, R.

C. Krafft, T. Knetschke, R. H. W. Funk, and R. Salzer, “Identification of organelles and vesicles in single cells by Raman microspectroscopic mapping,” Vib. Spectrosc. 38(1-2), 85–93 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sanchez, R.

R. Sanchez, E. Toepfer-Petersen, R. J. Aitken, and W. B. Schill, “A new method for evaluation of the acrosome reaction in viable human spermatozoa,” Andrologia 23(3), 197–203 (1991).
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Sánchez, V.

V. Sánchez, K. Redmann, J. Wistuba, F. Wübbeling, M. Burger, H. Oldenhof, W. F. Wolkers, S. Kliesch, S. Schlatt, and C. Mallidis, “Oxidative DNA damage in human sperm can be detected by Raman microspectroscopy,” Fertil. Steril. 98, 1124–1129.e1123 (2012).

Schill, W. B.

R. Sanchez, E. Toepfer-Petersen, R. J. Aitken, and W. B. Schill, “A new method for evaluation of the acrosome reaction in viable human spermatozoa,” Andrologia 23(3), 197–203 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schlatt, S.

V. Sánchez, K. Redmann, J. Wistuba, F. Wübbeling, M. Burger, H. Oldenhof, W. F. Wolkers, S. Kliesch, S. Schlatt, and C. Mallidis, “Oxidative DNA damage in human sperm can be detected by Raman microspectroscopy,” Fertil. Steril. 98, 1124–1129.e1123 (2012).

C. Mallidis, J. Wistuba, B. Bleisteiner, O. S. Damm, P. Gross, F. Wübbeling, C. Fallnich, M. Burger, and S. Schlatt, “In situ visualization of damaged DNA in human sperm by Raman microspectroscopy,” Hum. Reprod. 26(7), 1641–1649 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, D. A.

K. Meister, D. A. Schmidt, E. Bründermann, and M. Havenith, “Confocal Raman microspectroscopy as an analytical tool to assess the mitochondrial status in human spermatozoa,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(6), 1370–1374 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schnieden, H.

D. M. Stein and H. Schnieden, “Effect of antidepressant drugs on the in-vitro eggpenetrating ability of golden hamster epididymal spermatozoa,” Reprod. Fertil. 68(1), 227–233 (1983).
[Crossref]

Schuster, K. C.

K. C. Schuster, I. Reese, E. Urlaub, J. R. Gapes, and B. Lendl, “Multidimensional information on the chemical composition of single bacterial cells by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 72(22), 5529–5534 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Segrelles, E.

J. L. Fernández, L. Muriel, V. Goyanes, E. Segrelles, J. Gosálvez, M. Enciso, M. LaFromboise, and C. De Jonge, “Simple determination of human sperm DNA fragmentation with an improved sperm chromatin dispersion test,” Fertil. Steril. 84(4), 833–842 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Serour, G.

Z. Pandian, A. Templeton, G. Serour, and S. Bhattacharya, “Number of embryos for transfer after IVF and ICSI: a Cochrane review,” Hum. Reprod. 20(10), 2681–2687 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, H.

H. Singh, M. S. Jabbal, A. R. Ray, and P. Vasudevan, “Effect of anionic polymeric hydrogels on spermatozoa motility,” Biomaterials 5(5), 307–309 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sockalingum, G. D.

Stanislawski, D.

D. Lechniak, A. Kedzierski, and D. Stanislawski, “The use of HOS test to evaluate membrane functionality of boar sperm capacitated in vitro,” Reprod. Domest. Anim. 37(6), 379–380 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stein, D. M.

D. M. Stein and H. Schnieden, “Effect of antidepressant drugs on the in-vitro eggpenetrating ability of golden hamster epididymal spermatozoa,” Reprod. Fertil. 68(1), 227–233 (1983).
[Crossref]

Steinkampf, M. P.

D. S. Guzick, J. W. Overstreet, P. Factor-Litvak, C. K. Brazil, S. T. Nakajima, C. Coutifaris, S. A. Carson, P. Cisneros, M. P. Steinkampf, J. A. Hill, D. Xu, D. L. Vogel, and National Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network, “Sperm morphology, motility, and concentration in fertile and infertile men,” N. Engl. J. Med. 345(19), 1388–1393 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sutovsky, P.

C. Kennedy, P. Ahlering, H. Rodriguez, S. Levy, and P. Sutovsky, “Sperm chromatin structure correlates with spontaneous abortion and multiple pregnancy rates in assisted reproduction,” Reprod. Biomed. Online 22(3), 272–276 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tamburrino, L.

M. Muratori, L. Tamburrino, V. Tocci, A. Costantino, S. Marchiani, C. Giachini, I. Laface, C. Krausz, M. C. Meriggiola, G. Forti, and E. Baldi, “Small variations in crucial steps of TUNEL assay coupled to flow cytometry greatly affect measures of sperm DNA fragmentation,” J. Androl. 31(4), 336–345 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanaka, H.

Y. Nishimune and H. Tanaka, “Infertility caused by polymorphisms or mutations in spermatogenesis-specific genes,” J. Androl. 27(3), 326–334 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, S.

C. Avendaño, A. Franchi, S. Taylor, M. Morshedi, S. Bocca, and S. Oehninger, “Fragmentation of DNA in morphologically normal human spermatozoa,” Fertil. Steril. 91(4), 1077–1084 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Templeton, A.

Z. Pandian, A. Templeton, G. Serour, and S. Bhattacharya, “Number of embryos for transfer after IVF and ICSI: a Cochrane review,” Hum. Reprod. 20(10), 2681–2687 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomas, G. J.

H. Deng, V. A. Bloomfield, J. M. Benevides, and G. J. Thomas., “Structural basis of polyamine-DNA recognition: spermidine and spermine interactions with genomic B-DNAs of different GC content probed by Raman spectroscopy,” Nucleic Acids Res. 28(17), 3379–3385 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Deng, V. A. Bloomfield, J. M. Benevides, and G. J. Thomas., “Dependence of the Raman signature of genomic B-DNA on nucleotide base sequence,” Biopolymers 50(6), 656–666 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Benevides and G. J. Thomas., “Characterization of DNA structures by Raman spectroscopy: high-salt and low-salt forms of double helical poly(dG-dC) in H2O and D2O solutions and application to B, Z and A-DNA,” Nucleic Acids Res. 11(16), 5747–5761 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tocci, V.

M. Muratori, L. Tamburrino, V. Tocci, A. Costantino, S. Marchiani, C. Giachini, I. Laface, C. Krausz, M. C. Meriggiola, G. Forti, and E. Baldi, “Small variations in crucial steps of TUNEL assay coupled to flow cytometry greatly affect measures of sperm DNA fragmentation,” J. Androl. 31(4), 336–345 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toepfer-Petersen, E.

R. Sanchez, E. Toepfer-Petersen, R. J. Aitken, and W. B. Schill, “A new method for evaluation of the acrosome reaction in viable human spermatozoa,” Andrologia 23(3), 197–203 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Urlaub, E.

K. C. Schuster, I. Reese, E. Urlaub, J. R. Gapes, and B. Lendl, “Multidimensional information on the chemical composition of single bacterial cells by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 72(22), 5529–5534 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vadhiraja, B. M.

M. S. Vidyasagar, K. Maheedhar, B. M. Vadhiraja, D. J. Fernendes, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Prediction of radiotherapy response in cervix cancer by Raman spectroscopy: A pilot study,” Biopolymers 89(6), 530–537 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van der Ven, H. H.

R. S. Jeyendran, H. H. Van der Ven, M. Perez-Pelaez, B. G. Crabo, and L. J. D. Zaneveld, “Development of an assay to assess the functional integrity of the human sperm membrane and its relationship to other semen characteristics,” J. Reprod. Fertil. 70(1), 219–228 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Steirteghem, A.

P. Devroey and A. Van Steirteghem, “A review of ten years experience of ICSI,” Hum. Reprod. Update 10(1), 19–28 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vasudevan, P.

H. Singh, M. S. Jabbal, A. R. Ray, and P. Vasudevan, “Effect of anionic polymeric hydrogels on spermatozoa motility,” Biomaterials 5(5), 307–309 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Venteo, L.

Vidyasagar, M. S.

M. S. Vidyasagar, K. Maheedhar, B. M. Vadhiraja, D. J. Fernendes, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Prediction of radiotherapy response in cervix cancer by Raman spectroscopy: A pilot study,” Biopolymers 89(6), 530–537 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vogel, D. L.

D. S. Guzick, J. W. Overstreet, P. Factor-Litvak, C. K. Brazil, S. T. Nakajima, C. Coutifaris, S. A. Carson, P. Cisneros, M. P. Steinkampf, J. A. Hill, D. Xu, D. L. Vogel, and National Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network, “Sperm morphology, motility, and concentration in fertile and infertile men,” N. Engl. J. Med. 345(19), 1388–1393 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Z. Huang, G. Chen, X. Chen, J. Wang, J. Chen, P. Lu, and R. Chen, “Rapid and label-free identification of normal spermatozoa based on image analysis and micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J Biophotonics1–5 (2013).

Wang, X.

F. Liu, Y. Zhu, Y. Liu, X. Wang, P. Ping, X. Zhu, H. Hu, Z. Li, and L. He, “Real-time Raman microspectroscopy scanning of the single live sperm bound to human zona pellucida,” Fertil. Steril. 99, 684–689.e684 (2013).

Warner, C. M.

C. Matthäus, T. Chernenko, J. A. Newmark, C. M. Warner, and M. Diem, “Label-free detection of mitochondrial distribution in cells by nonresonant Raman microspectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 93(2), 668–673 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, I. G.

P. D. Brown-Woodman, E. J. Post, P. Y. Chow, and I. G. White, “Effects of malonic, maleic, citric and caffeic acids on the motility of human sperm and penetration of cervical mucus,” Int. J. Fertil. 30(3), 38–44 (1985).
[PubMed]

Willets, A. E.

A. E. Willets, J. M. Corbo, and J. N. Brown, “Clomiphene for the treatment of male infertility,” Reprod. Sci. 20(7), 739–744 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wistuba, J.

V. Sánchez, K. Redmann, J. Wistuba, F. Wübbeling, M. Burger, H. Oldenhof, W. F. Wolkers, S. Kliesch, S. Schlatt, and C. Mallidis, “Oxidative DNA damage in human sperm can be detected by Raman microspectroscopy,” Fertil. Steril. 98, 1124–1129.e1123 (2012).

C. Mallidis, J. Wistuba, B. Bleisteiner, O. S. Damm, P. Gross, F. Wübbeling, C. Fallnich, M. Burger, and S. Schlatt, “In situ visualization of damaged DNA in human sperm by Raman microspectroscopy,” Hum. Reprod. 26(7), 1641–1649 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolkers, W. F.

V. Sánchez, K. Redmann, J. Wistuba, F. Wübbeling, M. Burger, H. Oldenhof, W. F. Wolkers, S. Kliesch, S. Schlatt, and C. Mallidis, “Oxidative DNA damage in human sperm can be detected by Raman microspectroscopy,” Fertil. Steril. 98, 1124–1129.e1123 (2012).

Wübbeling, F.

V. Sánchez, K. Redmann, J. Wistuba, F. Wübbeling, M. Burger, H. Oldenhof, W. F. Wolkers, S. Kliesch, S. Schlatt, and C. Mallidis, “Oxidative DNA damage in human sperm can be detected by Raman microspectroscopy,” Fertil. Steril. 98, 1124–1129.e1123 (2012).

C. Mallidis, J. Wistuba, B. Bleisteiner, O. S. Damm, P. Gross, F. Wübbeling, C. Fallnich, M. Burger, and S. Schlatt, “In situ visualization of damaged DNA in human sperm by Raman microspectroscopy,” Hum. Reprod. 26(7), 1641–1649 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiong, K.

Z. Zhuang, N. Li, Z. Guo, M. Zhu, K. Xiong, and S. Chen, “Study of molecule variations in renal tumor based on confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 031103 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Li, S. X. Li, Z. Y. Guo, Z. F. Zhuang, R. Li, K. Xiong, S. J. Chen, and S. H. Liu, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy study of the effect of mid-ultraviolet radiation on erythrocyte membrane,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 112, 37–42 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, D.

D. S. Guzick, J. W. Overstreet, P. Factor-Litvak, C. K. Brazil, S. T. Nakajima, C. Coutifaris, S. A. Carson, P. Cisneros, M. P. Steinkampf, J. A. Hill, D. Xu, D. L. Vogel, and National Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network, “Sperm morphology, motility, and concentration in fertile and infertile men,” N. Engl. J. Med. 345(19), 1388–1393 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Y.

Y. Xu, Z. Zhou, H. Yang, Y. Xu, and Z. Zhang, “Raman spectroscopic study of microcosmic photodamage of the space structure of DNA sensitized by Yangzhou haematoporphyrin derivative and Photofrin II,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 52(1-3), 30–34 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, Z. Zhou, H. Yang, Y. Xu, and Z. Zhang, “Raman spectroscopic study of microcosmic photodamage of the space structure of DNA sensitized by Yangzhou haematoporphyrin derivative and Photofrin II,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 52(1-3), 30–34 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

Y. Xu, Z. Zhou, H. Yang, Y. Xu, and Z. Zhang, “Raman spectroscopic study of microcosmic photodamage of the space structure of DNA sensitized by Yangzhou haematoporphyrin derivative and Photofrin II,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 52(1-3), 30–34 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zaini, A.

A. Zaini, M. G. Jennings, and H. W. Baker, “Are conventional sperm morphology and motility assessments of predictive value in subfertile men?” Int. J. Androl. 8(6), 427–435 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zaneveld, L. J. D.

R. S. Jeyendran, H. H. Van der Ven, M. Perez-Pelaez, B. G. Crabo, and L. J. D. Zaneveld, “Development of an assay to assess the functional integrity of the human sperm membrane and its relationship to other semen characteristics,” J. Reprod. Fertil. 70(1), 219–228 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

Y. Xu, Z. Zhou, H. Yang, Y. Xu, and Z. Zhang, “Raman spectroscopic study of microcosmic photodamage of the space structure of DNA sensitized by Yangzhou haematoporphyrin derivative and Photofrin II,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 52(1-3), 30–34 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, W.

Zhou, Z.

Y. Xu, Z. Zhou, H. Yang, Y. Xu, and Z. Zhang, “Raman spectroscopic study of microcosmic photodamage of the space structure of DNA sensitized by Yangzhou haematoporphyrin derivative and Photofrin II,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 52(1-3), 30–34 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, M.

Z. Zhuang, N. Li, Z. Guo, M. Zhu, K. Xiong, and S. Chen, “Study of molecule variations in renal tumor based on confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 031103 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, X.

F. Liu, Y. Zhu, Y. Liu, X. Wang, P. Ping, X. Zhu, H. Hu, Z. Li, and L. He, “Real-time Raman microspectroscopy scanning of the single live sperm bound to human zona pellucida,” Fertil. Steril. 99, 684–689.e684 (2013).

Zhu, Y.

F. Liu, Y. Zhu, Y. Liu, X. Wang, P. Ping, X. Zhu, H. Hu, Z. Li, and L. He, “Real-time Raman microspectroscopy scanning of the single live sperm bound to human zona pellucida,” Fertil. Steril. 99, 684–689.e684 (2013).

Zhuang, Z.

Z. Zhuang, N. Li, Z. Guo, M. Zhu, K. Xiong, and S. Chen, “Study of molecule variations in renal tumor based on confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 031103 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhuang, Z. F.

N. Li, S. X. Li, Z. Y. Guo, Z. F. Zhuang, R. Li, K. Xiong, S. J. Chen, and S. H. Liu, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy study of the effect of mid-ultraviolet radiation on erythrocyte membrane,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 112, 37–42 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zinaman, M. J.

D. P. Evenson, L. K. Jost, D. Marshall, M. J. Zinaman, E. Clegg, K. Purvis, P. de Angelis, and O. P. Claussen, “Utility of the sperm chromatin structure assay as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in the human fertility clinic,” Hum. Reprod. 14(4), 1039–1049 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

K. C. Schuster, I. Reese, E. Urlaub, J. R. Gapes, and B. Lendl, “Multidimensional information on the chemical composition of single bacterial cells by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 72(22), 5529–5534 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Analyst (Lond.) (1)

K. Meister, D. A. Schmidt, E. Bründermann, and M. Havenith, “Confocal Raman microspectroscopy as an analytical tool to assess the mitochondrial status in human spermatozoa,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(6), 1370–1374 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andrologia (1)

R. Sanchez, E. Toepfer-Petersen, R. J. Aitken, and W. B. Schill, “A new method for evaluation of the acrosome reaction in viable human spermatozoa,” Andrologia 23(3), 197–203 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Asian J. Androl. (1)

M. Bungum, L. Bungum, and A. Giwercman, “Sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA): a tool in diagnosis and treatment of infertility,” Asian J. Androl. 13(1), 69–75 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1)

B. P. Gaber and W. L. Peticolas, “On the quantitative interpretation of biomembrane structure by Raman spectroscopy,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 465(2), 260–274 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomaterials (1)

H. Singh, M. S. Jabbal, A. R. Ray, and P. Vasudevan, “Effect of anionic polymeric hydrogels on spermatozoa motility,” Biomaterials 5(5), 307–309 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Biophys. J. (1)

C. Matthäus, T. Chernenko, J. A. Newmark, C. M. Warner, and M. Diem, “Label-free detection of mitochondrial distribution in cells by nonresonant Raman microspectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 93(2), 668–673 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biopolymers (5)

H. Deng, V. A. Bloomfield, J. M. Benevides, and G. J. Thomas., “Dependence of the Raman signature of genomic B-DNA on nucleotide base sequence,” Biopolymers 50(6), 656–666 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. V. Chowdary, K. K. Kumar, J. Kurien, S. Mathew, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, benign, and malignant breast tissues by Raman spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 83(5), 556–569 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Vidyasagar, K. Maheedhar, B. M. Vadhiraja, D. J. Fernendes, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Prediction of radiotherapy response in cervix cancer by Raman spectroscopy: A pilot study,” Biopolymers 89(6), 530–537 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Erfurth and W. L. Peticolas, “Melting and premelting phenomenon in DNA by laser Raman scattering,” Biopolymers 14(2), 247–264 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Krimm and J. Bandekar, “Vibrational analysis of peptides, polypeptides, and proteins. V. Normal vibrations of beta-turns,” Biopolymers 19(1), 1–29 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fertil. Steril. (4)

J. L. Fernández, L. Muriel, V. Goyanes, E. Segrelles, J. Gosálvez, M. Enciso, M. LaFromboise, and C. De Jonge, “Simple determination of human sperm DNA fragmentation with an improved sperm chromatin dispersion test,” Fertil. Steril. 84(4), 833–842 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Avendaño, A. Franchi, S. Taylor, M. Morshedi, S. Bocca, and S. Oehninger, “Fragmentation of DNA in morphologically normal human spermatozoa,” Fertil. Steril. 91(4), 1077–1084 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Sánchez, K. Redmann, J. Wistuba, F. Wübbeling, M. Burger, H. Oldenhof, W. F. Wolkers, S. Kliesch, S. Schlatt, and C. Mallidis, “Oxidative DNA damage in human sperm can be detected by Raman microspectroscopy,” Fertil. Steril. 98, 1124–1129.e1123 (2012).

F. Liu, Y. Zhu, Y. Liu, X. Wang, P. Ping, X. Zhu, H. Hu, Z. Li, and L. He, “Real-time Raman microspectroscopy scanning of the single live sperm bound to human zona pellucida,” Fertil. Steril. 99, 684–689.e684 (2013).

Hum. Reprod. (4)

C. Mallidis, J. Wistuba, B. Bleisteiner, O. S. Damm, P. Gross, F. Wübbeling, C. Fallnich, M. Burger, and S. Schlatt, “In situ visualization of damaged DNA in human sperm by Raman microspectroscopy,” Hum. Reprod. 26(7), 1641–1649 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Pandian, A. Templeton, G. Serour, and S. Bhattacharya, “Number of embryos for transfer after IVF and ICSI: a Cochrane review,” Hum. Reprod. 20(10), 2681–2687 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Evenson, L. K. Jost, D. Marshall, M. J. Zinaman, E. Clegg, K. Purvis, P. de Angelis, and O. P. Claussen, “Utility of the sperm chromatin structure assay as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in the human fertility clinic,” Hum. Reprod. 14(4), 1039–1049 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. N. Sallam, A. Farrag, A.-F. Agameya, Y. El-Garem, and F. Ezzeldin, “The use of the modified hypo-osmotic swelling test for the selection of immotile testicular spermatozoa in patients treated with ICSI: a randomized controlled study,” Hum. Reprod. 20(12), 3435–3440 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hum. Reprod. Update (1)

P. Devroey and A. Van Steirteghem, “A review of ten years experience of ICSI,” Hum. Reprod. Update 10(1), 19–28 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. J. Androl. (1)

A. Zaini, M. G. Jennings, and H. W. Baker, “Are conventional sperm morphology and motility assessments of predictive value in subfertile men?” Int. J. Androl. 8(6), 427–435 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. J. Fertil. (1)

P. D. Brown-Woodman, E. J. Post, P. Y. Chow, and I. G. White, “Effects of malonic, maleic, citric and caffeic acids on the motility of human sperm and penetration of cervical mucus,” Int. J. Fertil. 30(3), 38–44 (1985).
[PubMed]

J Biophotonics (1)

T. Huser, C. A. Orme, C. W. Hollars, M. H. Corzett, and R. Balhorn, “Raman spectroscopy of DNA packaging in individual human sperm cells distinguishes normal from abnormal cells,” J Biophotonics 2(5), 322–332 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Androl. (2)

Y. Nishimune and H. Tanaka, “Infertility caused by polymorphisms or mutations in spermatogenesis-specific genes,” J. Androl. 27(3), 326–334 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Muratori, L. Tamburrino, V. Tocci, A. Costantino, S. Marchiani, C. Giachini, I. Laface, C. Krausz, M. C. Meriggiola, G. Forti, and E. Baldi, “Small variations in crucial steps of TUNEL assay coupled to flow cytometry greatly affect measures of sperm DNA fragmentation,” J. Androl. 31(4), 336–345 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Biotechnol. (1)

A. Downes, R. Mouras, and A. Elfick, “Optical spectroscopy for noninvasive monitoring of stem cell differentiation,” J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 2010, 101864 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

Z. Zhuang, N. Li, Z. Guo, M. Zhu, K. Xiong, and S. Chen, “Study of molecule variations in renal tumor based on confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 031103 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. B (2)

Y. Xu, Z. Zhou, H. Yang, Y. Xu, and Z. Zhang, “Raman spectroscopic study of microcosmic photodamage of the space structure of DNA sensitized by Yangzhou haematoporphyrin derivative and Photofrin II,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 52(1-3), 30–34 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Li, S. X. Li, Z. Y. Guo, Z. F. Zhuang, R. Li, K. Xiong, S. J. Chen, and S. H. Liu, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy study of the effect of mid-ultraviolet radiation on erythrocyte membrane,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 112, 37–42 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Reprod. Fertil. (1)

R. S. Jeyendran, H. H. Van der Ven, M. Perez-Pelaez, B. G. Crabo, and L. J. D. Zaneveld, “Development of an assay to assess the functional integrity of the human sperm membrane and its relationship to other semen characteristics,” J. Reprod. Fertil. 70(1), 219–228 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Med. Clin. North Am. (1)

V. M. Brugh and L. I. Lipshultz, “Male factor infertility,” Med. Clin. North Am. 88(2), 367–385 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Engl. J. Med. (1)

D. S. Guzick, J. W. Overstreet, P. Factor-Litvak, C. K. Brazil, S. T. Nakajima, C. Coutifaris, S. A. Carson, P. Cisneros, M. P. Steinkampf, J. A. Hill, D. Xu, D. L. Vogel, and National Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network, “Sperm morphology, motility, and concentration in fertile and infertile men,” N. Engl. J. Med. 345(19), 1388–1393 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Protoc. (1)

P. L. Olive and J. P. Banáth, “The comet assay: a method to measure DNA damage in individual cells,” Nat. Protoc. 1(1), 23–29 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, “Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Nature 347(6290), 301–303 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nucleic Acids Res. (2)

J. M. Benevides and G. J. Thomas., “Characterization of DNA structures by Raman spectroscopy: high-salt and low-salt forms of double helical poly(dG-dC) in H2O and D2O solutions and application to B, Z and A-DNA,” Nucleic Acids Res. 11(16), 5747–5761 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Deng, V. A. Bloomfield, J. M. Benevides, and G. J. Thomas., “Structural basis of polyamine-DNA recognition: spermidine and spermine interactions with genomic B-DNAs of different GC content probed by Raman spectroscopy,” Nucleic Acids Res. 28(17), 3379–3385 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reprod. Biomed. Online (1)

C. Kennedy, P. Ahlering, H. Rodriguez, S. Levy, and P. Sutovsky, “Sperm chromatin structure correlates with spontaneous abortion and multiple pregnancy rates in assisted reproduction,” Reprod. Biomed. Online 22(3), 272–276 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reprod. Domest. Anim. (1)

D. Lechniak, A. Kedzierski, and D. Stanislawski, “The use of HOS test to evaluate membrane functionality of boar sperm capacitated in vitro,” Reprod. Domest. Anim. 37(6), 379–380 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reprod. Fertil. (1)

D. M. Stein and H. Schnieden, “Effect of antidepressant drugs on the in-vitro eggpenetrating ability of golden hamster epididymal spermatozoa,” Reprod. Fertil. 68(1), 227–233 (1983).
[Crossref]

Reprod. Sci. (1)

A. E. Willets, J. M. Corbo, and J. N. Brown, “Clomiphene for the treatment of male infertility,” Reprod. Sci. 20(7), 739–744 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vib. Spectrosc. (1)

C. Krafft, T. Knetschke, R. H. W. Funk, and R. Salzer, “Identification of organelles and vesicles in single cells by Raman microspectroscopic mapping,” Vib. Spectrosc. 38(1-2), 85–93 (2005).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

Z. Huang, G. Chen, X. Chen, J. Wang, J. Chen, P. Lu, and R. Chen, “Rapid and label-free identification of normal spermatozoa based on image analysis and micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J Biophotonics1–5 (2013).

W. L. Peticolas, “Raman spectroscopy of DNA and proteins,” in Methods in Enzymology, S. Kenneth, ed. (Academic Press, 1995).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(A) Bright-field image of sperm cell and (B) averaged Raman spectra correspond to the regions of nucleus (a), middle piece (b), and acrosome (c) in normal human sperm, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Averaged Raman spectra obtained from the nucleus region (A), the middle piece (B), and the acrosomal region (C) of control sperm and treated sperm with different concentrations of maleic acid, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral intensities of Raman peaks that occur in the nucleus, A: 787, 1094, 1337, 1421, 1446cm−1; in the middle piece, B: 988, 1004, 1344 cm−1; and in the acrosome, C: 1238, 1303 cm−1, after 0.01 M, 0.02 M, 0.04 M, 0.08 M and for control sperm cells without maleic acid.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of the spectra of control and treated sperm cells with the different concentrations of maleic acid in the region of 900 cm−1 to 1050 cm−1 from the nucleus region of human sperm..

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(A) Comparison of the spectra of control and treated sperm cells with the different concentrations of maleic acid in the region of 800 cm−1 to 900 cm−1 from the middle piece in human sperm and (B) correlation of the maleic acid concentration with the peak intensity ratios 855/836cm−1 of the spectra.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

PC1 vs PC2 plot for the spectra from the acrosome region in the control sperm cells (CSC) and treated sperm cells (TSC) with maleic acid incubation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Evaluation of sperm membrane integrity with HOS test.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Flow-cytometric assessment of sperm DNA damage showing the different levels of fragmention induced by maleic acid.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Longitudinal order-parameters in chains Strans and the rate of variation in the middle piece membrane before and after the effects of maleic acid.

Equations (1)

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strans= (I1128/I1086)sample (I1128/I1086)DPPCofsolid = (I1128/I1086)sample 1.77

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