Abstract

Our quest in the pathogenesis and therapies targeting human heart diseases requires assessment of the contractile dynamics of cardiac models of varied complexity, such as isolated cardiomyocytes and the heart of a model animal. It is hence beneficial to have an integral means that can interrogate both cardiomyocytes in vitro and a heart in vivo. Herein we report an application of dual-beam optical reflectometry to determine noninvasively the rhythm of two representative cardiac models–chick embryonic cardiomyocytes and the heart of zebrafish. We probed self-beating cardiomyocytes and revealed the temporally varying contractile frequency with a short-time Fourier transform. Our unique dual-beam setup uniquely records the atrial and ventricular pulsations of zebrafish simultaneously. To minimize the cross talk between signals associated with atrial and ventricular chambers, we particularly modulated the two probe beams at distinct frequencies and extracted the signals specific to individual cardiac chambers with phase-sensitive detection. With this setup, we determined the atrio-ventricular interval, a parameter that is manifested by the electrical conduction from the atrium to the ventricle. To demonstrate pharmacological applications, we characterized zebrafish treated with various cardioactive and cardiotoxic drugs, and identified abnormal cardiac rhythms and atrioventricular (AV) blocks of varied degree. In light of its potential capability to assess cardiac models both in vitro and in vivo and to screen drugs with cardioactivity or toxicity, we expect this approach to have broad applications ranging from cardiopharmacology to developmental biology.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Dhillon, É. Dóró, I. Magyary, S. Egginton, A. Sík, and F. Müller, “Optimisation of embryonic and larval ECG measurement in zebrafish for quantifying the effect of QT prolonging drugs,” PLoS ONE8(4), e60552 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. T. Chang, D. Yu, Y. C. Lai, K. Y. Lin, and I. Liau, “Characterization of the mechanodynamic response of cardiomyocytes with atomic force microscopy,” Anal. Chem.85(3), 1395–1400 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (4)

J. Bakkers, “Zebrafish as a model to study cardiac development and human cardiac disease,” Cardiovasc. Res.91(2), 279–288 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Peal, R. W. Mills, S. N. Lynch, J. M. Mosley, E. Lim, P. T. Ellinor, C. T. January, R. T. Peterson, and D. J. Milan, “Novel chemical suppressors of long QT syndrome identified by an in vivo functional screen,” Circulation123(1), 23–30 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-H. Huang, C.-D. Hsiao, D.-S. Lin, C.-Y. Chow, C.-J. Chang, and I. Liau, “Imaging of zebrafish in vivo with second-harmonic generation reveals shortened sarcomeres associated with myopathy induced by statin,” PLoS ONE6(9), e24764 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Tsai, C. K. Wu, F. T. Chiang, C. D. Tseng, J. K. Lee, C. C. Yu, Y. C. Wang, L. P. Lai, J. L. Lin, and J. J. Hwang, “In-vitro recording of adult zebrafish heart electrocardiogram - A platform for pharmacological testing,” Clin. Chim. Acta412(21-22), 1963–1967 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

W. C. Huang, Y. S. Hsieh, I. H. Chen, C. H. Wang, H. W. Chang, C. C. Yang, T. H. Ku, S. R. Yeh, and Y. J. Chuang, “Combined use of MS-222 (Tricaine) and isoflurane extends anesthesia time and minimizes cardiac rhythm side effects in adult zebrafish,” Zebrafish7(3), 297–304 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

M. Yoshida, R. Hirano, and T. Shima, “Photocardiography: A novel method for monitoring cardiac activity in fish,” Zoolog. Sci.26(5), 356–361 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Sun, Y. Zhang, F. Yu, E. Parks, A. Lyman, Q. Wu, L. S. Ai, C. H. Hu, Q. F. Zhou, K. Shung, C. L. Lien, and T. K. Hsiai, “Micro-electrocardiograms to study post-ventricular amputation of zebrafish heart,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.37(5), 890–901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Klauke, G. Smith, and J. M. Cooper, “Local regional stimulation of single isolated ventricular myocytes using microfluidics,” Anal. Chem.81(15), 6390–6398 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

T. J. A. Chico, P. W. Ingham, and D. C. Crossman, “Modeling cardiovascular disease in the zebrafish,” Trends Cardiovasc. Med.18(4), 150–155 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. C. Chi, R. M. Shaw, B. Jungblut, J. Huisken, T. Ferrer, R. Arnaout, I. Scott, D. Beis, T. Xiao, H. Baier, L. Y. Jan, M. Tristani-Firouzi, and D. Y. Stainier, “Genetic and physiologic dissection of the vertebrate cardiac conduction system,” PLoS Biol.6(5), e109 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

G. J. Lieschke and P. D. Currie, “Animal models of human disease: zebrafish swim into view,” Nat. Rev. Genet.8(5), 353–367 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Iribe, M. Helmes, and P. Kohl, “Force-length relations in isolated intact cardiomyocytes subjected to dynamic changes in mechanical load,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart. C.292, H1487–H1497 (2007).

2006 (2)

D. J. Milan, I. L. Jones, P. T. Ellinor, and C. A. MacRae, “In vivo recording of adult zebrafish electrocardiogram and assessment of drug-induced QT prolongation,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart. C.291, H269–H273 (2006).

T. Schwerte, C. Prem, A. Mairösl, and B. Pelster, “Development of the sympatho-vagal balance in the cardiovascular system in zebrafish (Danio rerio) characterized by power spectrum and classical signal analysis,” J. Exp. Biol.209(6), 1093–1100 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

C. G. Burns, D. J. Milan, E. J. Grande, W. Rottbauer, C. A. MacRae, and M. C. Fishman, “High-throughput assay for small molecules that modulate zebrafish embryonic heart rate,” Nat. Chem. Biol.1(5), 263–264 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol.147(1), 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gheorghiade, K. F. Adams, and W. S. Colucci, “Digoxin in the management of cardiovascular disorders,” Circulation109(24), 2959–2964 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

D. J. Milan, T. A. Peterson, J. N. Ruskin, R. T. Peterson, and C. A. MacRae, “Drugs that induce repolarization abnormalities cause bradycardia in zebrafish,” Circulation107(10), 1355–1358 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Ritto, J. G. Contreras, and J. J. Alvarado-Gil, “Monitoring of heartbeat by laser beam reflection,” Meas. Sci. Technol.14(3), 317–322 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. Ma, W. J. Brady, M. Pollack, and T. C. Chan, “Electrocardiographic manifestations: digitalis toxicity,” J. Emerg. Med.20(2), 145–152 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

S. Kinlay and N. A. Buckley, “Magnesium sulfate in the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias due to digoxin toxicity,” J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol.33(1), 55–59 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

M. Brodsky, D. Wu, P. Denes, C. Kanakis, and K. M. Rosen, “Arrhythmias documented by 24 hour continuous electrocardiographic monitoring in 50 male medical students without apparent heart disease,” Am. J. Cardiol.39(3), 390–395 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adams, K. F.

M. Gheorghiade, K. F. Adams, and W. S. Colucci, “Digoxin in the management of cardiovascular disorders,” Circulation109(24), 2959–2964 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ai, L. S.

P. Sun, Y. Zhang, F. Yu, E. Parks, A. Lyman, Q. Wu, L. S. Ai, C. H. Hu, Q. F. Zhou, K. Shung, C. L. Lien, and T. K. Hsiai, “Micro-electrocardiograms to study post-ventricular amputation of zebrafish heart,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.37(5), 890–901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

P. A. Ritto, J. G. Contreras, and J. J. Alvarado-Gil, “Monitoring of heartbeat by laser beam reflection,” Meas. Sci. Technol.14(3), 317–322 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Arnaout, R.

N. C. Chi, R. M. Shaw, B. Jungblut, J. Huisken, T. Ferrer, R. Arnaout, I. Scott, D. Beis, T. Xiao, H. Baier, L. Y. Jan, M. Tristani-Firouzi, and D. Y. Stainier, “Genetic and physiologic dissection of the vertebrate cardiac conduction system,” PLoS Biol.6(5), e109 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baier, H.

N. C. Chi, R. M. Shaw, B. Jungblut, J. Huisken, T. Ferrer, R. Arnaout, I. Scott, D. Beis, T. Xiao, H. Baier, L. Y. Jan, M. Tristani-Firouzi, and D. Y. Stainier, “Genetic and physiologic dissection of the vertebrate cardiac conduction system,” PLoS Biol.6(5), e109 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bakkers, J.

J. Bakkers, “Zebrafish as a model to study cardiac development and human cardiac disease,” Cardiovasc. Res.91(2), 279–288 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beis, D.

N. C. Chi, R. M. Shaw, B. Jungblut, J. Huisken, T. Ferrer, R. Arnaout, I. Scott, D. Beis, T. Xiao, H. Baier, L. Y. Jan, M. Tristani-Firouzi, and D. Y. Stainier, “Genetic and physiologic dissection of the vertebrate cardiac conduction system,” PLoS Biol.6(5), e109 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benjamin, E. J.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berry, J. D.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borden, W. B.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brady, W. J.

G. Ma, W. J. Brady, M. Pollack, and T. C. Chan, “Electrocardiographic manifestations: digitalis toxicity,” J. Emerg. Med.20(2), 145–152 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bravata, D. M.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brodsky, M.

M. Brodsky, D. Wu, P. Denes, C. Kanakis, and K. M. Rosen, “Arrhythmias documented by 24 hour continuous electrocardiographic monitoring in 50 male medical students without apparent heart disease,” Am. J. Cardiol.39(3), 390–395 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buckley, N. A.

S. Kinlay and N. A. Buckley, “Magnesium sulfate in the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias due to digoxin toxicity,” J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol.33(1), 55–59 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burns, C. G.

C. G. Burns, D. J. Milan, E. J. Grande, W. Rottbauer, C. A. MacRae, and M. C. Fishman, “High-throughput assay for small molecules that modulate zebrafish embryonic heart rate,” Nat. Chem. Biol.1(5), 263–264 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, T. C.

G. Ma, W. J. Brady, M. Pollack, and T. C. Chan, “Electrocardiographic manifestations: digitalis toxicity,” J. Emerg. Med.20(2), 145–152 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C.-J.

S.-H. Huang, C.-D. Hsiao, D.-S. Lin, C.-Y. Chow, C.-J. Chang, and I. Liau, “Imaging of zebrafish in vivo with second-harmonic generation reveals shortened sarcomeres associated with myopathy induced by statin,” PLoS ONE6(9), e24764 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, H. W.

W. C. Huang, Y. S. Hsieh, I. H. Chen, C. H. Wang, H. W. Chang, C. C. Yang, T. H. Ku, S. R. Yeh, and Y. J. Chuang, “Combined use of MS-222 (Tricaine) and isoflurane extends anesthesia time and minimizes cardiac rhythm side effects in adult zebrafish,” Zebrafish7(3), 297–304 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W. T.

W. T. Chang, D. Yu, Y. C. Lai, K. Y. Lin, and I. Liau, “Characterization of the mechanodynamic response of cardiomyocytes with atomic force microscopy,” Anal. Chem.85(3), 1395–1400 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, I. H.

W. C. Huang, Y. S. Hsieh, I. H. Chen, C. H. Wang, H. W. Chang, C. C. Yang, T. H. Ku, S. R. Yeh, and Y. J. Chuang, “Combined use of MS-222 (Tricaine) and isoflurane extends anesthesia time and minimizes cardiac rhythm side effects in adult zebrafish,” Zebrafish7(3), 297–304 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

Chen, S.-Y.

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol.147(1), 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chi, N. C.

N. C. Chi, R. M. Shaw, B. Jungblut, J. Huisken, T. Ferrer, R. Arnaout, I. Scott, D. Beis, T. Xiao, H. Baier, L. Y. Jan, M. Tristani-Firouzi, and D. Y. Stainier, “Genetic and physiologic dissection of the vertebrate cardiac conduction system,” PLoS Biol.6(5), e109 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiang, F. T.

C. T. Tsai, C. K. Wu, F. T. Chiang, C. D. Tseng, J. K. Lee, C. C. Yu, Y. C. Wang, L. P. Lai, J. L. Lin, and J. J. Hwang, “In-vitro recording of adult zebrafish heart electrocardiogram - A platform for pharmacological testing,” Clin. Chim. Acta412(21-22), 1963–1967 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chico, T. J. A.

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N. Klauke, G. Smith, and J. M. Cooper, “Local regional stimulation of single isolated ventricular myocytes using microfluidics,” Anal. Chem.81(15), 6390–6398 (2009).
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M. Brodsky, D. Wu, P. Denes, C. Kanakis, and K. M. Rosen, “Arrhythmias documented by 24 hour continuous electrocardiographic monitoring in 50 male medical students without apparent heart disease,” Am. J. Cardiol.39(3), 390–395 (1977).
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D. S. Peal, R. W. Mills, S. N. Lynch, J. M. Mosley, E. Lim, P. T. Ellinor, C. T. January, R. T. Peterson, and D. J. Milan, “Novel chemical suppressors of long QT syndrome identified by an in vivo functional screen,” Circulation123(1), 23–30 (2011).
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D. J. Milan, I. L. Jones, P. T. Ellinor, and C. A. MacRae, “In vivo recording of adult zebrafish electrocardiogram and assessment of drug-induced QT prolongation,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart. C.291, H269–H273 (2006).

Ferrer, T.

N. C. Chi, R. M. Shaw, B. Jungblut, J. Huisken, T. Ferrer, R. Arnaout, I. Scott, D. Beis, T. Xiao, H. Baier, L. Y. Jan, M. Tristani-Firouzi, and D. Y. Stainier, “Genetic and physiologic dissection of the vertebrate cardiac conduction system,” PLoS Biol.6(5), e109 (2008).
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Fishman, M. C.

C. G. Burns, D. J. Milan, E. J. Grande, W. Rottbauer, C. A. MacRae, and M. C. Fishman, “High-throughput assay for small molecules that modulate zebrafish embryonic heart rate,” Nat. Chem. Biol.1(5), 263–264 (2005).
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Ford, E. S.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
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A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
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A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
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Fullerton, H. J.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
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Gao, J.

Gheorghiade, M.

M. Gheorghiade, K. F. Adams, and W. S. Colucci, “Digoxin in the management of cardiovascular disorders,” Circulation109(24), 2959–2964 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillespie, C.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
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Go, A. S.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
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Grande, E. J.

C. G. Burns, D. J. Milan, E. J. Grande, W. Rottbauer, C. A. MacRae, and M. C. Fishman, “High-throughput assay for small molecules that modulate zebrafish embryonic heart rate,” Nat. Chem. Biol.1(5), 263–264 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hailpern, S. M.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
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Heit, J. A.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
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G. Iribe, M. Helmes, and P. Kohl, “Force-length relations in isolated intact cardiomyocytes subjected to dynamic changes in mechanical load,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart. C.292, H1487–H1497 (2007).

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M. Yoshida, R. Hirano, and T. Shima, “Photocardiography: A novel method for monitoring cardiac activity in fish,” Zoolog. Sci.26(5), 356–361 (2009).
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A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
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Hsiai, T. K.

P. Sun, Y. Zhang, F. Yu, E. Parks, A. Lyman, Q. Wu, L. S. Ai, C. H. Hu, Q. F. Zhou, K. Shung, C. L. Lien, and T. K. Hsiai, “Micro-electrocardiograms to study post-ventricular amputation of zebrafish heart,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.37(5), 890–901 (2009).
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Hsiao, C.-D.

S.-H. Huang, C.-D. Hsiao, D.-S. Lin, C.-Y. Chow, C.-J. Chang, and I. Liau, “Imaging of zebrafish in vivo with second-harmonic generation reveals shortened sarcomeres associated with myopathy induced by statin,” PLoS ONE6(9), e24764 (2011).
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Hsieh, Y. S.

W. C. Huang, Y. S. Hsieh, I. H. Chen, C. H. Wang, H. W. Chang, C. C. Yang, T. H. Ku, S. R. Yeh, and Y. J. Chuang, “Combined use of MS-222 (Tricaine) and isoflurane extends anesthesia time and minimizes cardiac rhythm side effects in adult zebrafish,” Zebrafish7(3), 297–304 (2010).
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Hu, C. H.

P. Sun, Y. Zhang, F. Yu, E. Parks, A. Lyman, Q. Wu, L. S. Ai, C. H. Hu, Q. F. Zhou, K. Shung, C. L. Lien, and T. K. Hsiai, “Micro-electrocardiograms to study post-ventricular amputation of zebrafish heart,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.37(5), 890–901 (2009).
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Huang, S.-H.

S.-H. Huang, C.-D. Hsiao, D.-S. Lin, C.-Y. Chow, C.-J. Chang, and I. Liau, “Imaging of zebrafish in vivo with second-harmonic generation reveals shortened sarcomeres associated with myopathy induced by statin,” PLoS ONE6(9), e24764 (2011).
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Huang, W. C.

W. C. Huang, Y. S. Hsieh, I. H. Chen, C. H. Wang, H. W. Chang, C. C. Yang, T. H. Ku, S. R. Yeh, and Y. J. Chuang, “Combined use of MS-222 (Tricaine) and isoflurane extends anesthesia time and minimizes cardiac rhythm side effects in adult zebrafish,” Zebrafish7(3), 297–304 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huffman, M. D.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
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Huisken, J.

N. C. Chi, R. M. Shaw, B. Jungblut, J. Huisken, T. Ferrer, R. Arnaout, I. Scott, D. Beis, T. Xiao, H. Baier, L. Y. Jan, M. Tristani-Firouzi, and D. Y. Stainier, “Genetic and physiologic dissection of the vertebrate cardiac conduction system,” PLoS Biol.6(5), e109 (2008).
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Hwang, J. J.

C. T. Tsai, C. K. Wu, F. T. Chiang, C. D. Tseng, J. K. Lee, C. C. Yu, Y. C. Wang, L. P. Lai, J. L. Lin, and J. J. Hwang, “In-vitro recording of adult zebrafish heart electrocardiogram - A platform for pharmacological testing,” Clin. Chim. Acta412(21-22), 1963–1967 (2011).
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Ingham, P. W.

T. J. A. Chico, P. W. Ingham, and D. C. Crossman, “Modeling cardiovascular disease in the zebrafish,” Trends Cardiovasc. Med.18(4), 150–155 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iribe, G.

G. Iribe, M. Helmes, and P. Kohl, “Force-length relations in isolated intact cardiomyocytes subjected to dynamic changes in mechanical load,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart. C.292, H1487–H1497 (2007).

Jan, L. Y.

N. C. Chi, R. M. Shaw, B. Jungblut, J. Huisken, T. Ferrer, R. Arnaout, I. Scott, D. Beis, T. Xiao, H. Baier, L. Y. Jan, M. Tristani-Firouzi, and D. Y. Stainier, “Genetic and physiologic dissection of the vertebrate cardiac conduction system,” PLoS Biol.6(5), e109 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

January, C. T.

D. S. Peal, R. W. Mills, S. N. Lynch, J. M. Mosley, E. Lim, P. T. Ellinor, C. T. January, R. T. Peterson, and D. J. Milan, “Novel chemical suppressors of long QT syndrome identified by an in vivo functional screen,” Circulation123(1), 23–30 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, I. L.

D. J. Milan, I. L. Jones, P. T. Ellinor, and C. A. MacRae, “In vivo recording of adult zebrafish electrocardiogram and assessment of drug-induced QT prolongation,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart. C.291, H269–H273 (2006).

Jungblut, B.

N. C. Chi, R. M. Shaw, B. Jungblut, J. Huisken, T. Ferrer, R. Arnaout, I. Scott, D. Beis, T. Xiao, H. Baier, L. Y. Jan, M. Tristani-Firouzi, and D. Y. Stainier, “Genetic and physiologic dissection of the vertebrate cardiac conduction system,” PLoS Biol.6(5), e109 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanakis, C.

M. Brodsky, D. Wu, P. Denes, C. Kanakis, and K. M. Rosen, “Arrhythmias documented by 24 hour continuous electrocardiographic monitoring in 50 male medical students without apparent heart disease,” Am. J. Cardiol.39(3), 390–395 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Kinlay and N. A. Buckley, “Magnesium sulfate in the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias due to digoxin toxicity,” J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol.33(1), 55–59 (1995).
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Kissela, B. M.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kittner, S. J.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klauke, N.

N. Klauke, G. Smith, and J. M. Cooper, “Local regional stimulation of single isolated ventricular myocytes using microfluidics,” Anal. Chem.81(15), 6390–6398 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohl, P.

G. Iribe, M. Helmes, and P. Kohl, “Force-length relations in isolated intact cardiomyocytes subjected to dynamic changes in mechanical load,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart. C.292, H1487–H1497 (2007).

Ku, T. H.

W. C. Huang, Y. S. Hsieh, I. H. Chen, C. H. Wang, H. W. Chang, C. C. Yang, T. H. Ku, S. R. Yeh, and Y. J. Chuang, “Combined use of MS-222 (Tricaine) and isoflurane extends anesthesia time and minimizes cardiac rhythm side effects in adult zebrafish,” Zebrafish7(3), 297–304 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lackland, D. T.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, L. P.

C. T. Tsai, C. K. Wu, F. T. Chiang, C. D. Tseng, J. K. Lee, C. C. Yu, Y. C. Wang, L. P. Lai, J. L. Lin, and J. J. Hwang, “In-vitro recording of adult zebrafish heart electrocardiogram - A platform for pharmacological testing,” Clin. Chim. Acta412(21-22), 1963–1967 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, Y. C.

W. T. Chang, D. Yu, Y. C. Lai, K. Y. Lin, and I. Liau, “Characterization of the mechanodynamic response of cardiomyocytes with atomic force microscopy,” Anal. Chem.85(3), 1395–1400 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J. K.

C. T. Tsai, C. K. Wu, F. T. Chiang, C. D. Tseng, J. K. Lee, C. C. Yu, Y. C. Wang, L. P. Lai, J. L. Lin, and J. J. Hwang, “In-vitro recording of adult zebrafish heart electrocardiogram - A platform for pharmacological testing,” Clin. Chim. Acta412(21-22), 1963–1967 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liau, I.

W. T. Chang, D. Yu, Y. C. Lai, K. Y. Lin, and I. Liau, “Characterization of the mechanodynamic response of cardiomyocytes with atomic force microscopy,” Anal. Chem.85(3), 1395–1400 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-H. Huang, C.-D. Hsiao, D.-S. Lin, C.-Y. Chow, C.-J. Chang, and I. Liau, “Imaging of zebrafish in vivo with second-harmonic generation reveals shortened sarcomeres associated with myopathy induced by statin,” PLoS ONE6(9), e24764 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lichtman, J. H.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lien, C. L.

P. Sun, Y. Zhang, F. Yu, E. Parks, A. Lyman, Q. Wu, L. S. Ai, C. H. Hu, Q. F. Zhou, K. Shung, C. L. Lien, and T. K. Hsiai, “Micro-electrocardiograms to study post-ventricular amputation of zebrafish heart,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.37(5), 890–901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lieschke, G. J.

G. J. Lieschke and P. D. Currie, “Animal models of human disease: zebrafish swim into view,” Nat. Rev. Genet.8(5), 353–367 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, E.

D. S. Peal, R. W. Mills, S. N. Lynch, J. M. Mosley, E. Lim, P. T. Ellinor, C. T. January, R. T. Peterson, and D. J. Milan, “Novel chemical suppressors of long QT syndrome identified by an in vivo functional screen,” Circulation123(1), 23–30 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C.-Y.

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol.147(1), 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, D.-S.

S.-H. Huang, C.-D. Hsiao, D.-S. Lin, C.-Y. Chow, C.-J. Chang, and I. Liau, “Imaging of zebrafish in vivo with second-harmonic generation reveals shortened sarcomeres associated with myopathy induced by statin,” PLoS ONE6(9), e24764 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, J. L.

C. T. Tsai, C. K. Wu, F. T. Chiang, C. D. Tseng, J. K. Lee, C. C. Yu, Y. C. Wang, L. P. Lai, J. L. Lin, and J. J. Hwang, “In-vitro recording of adult zebrafish heart electrocardiogram - A platform for pharmacological testing,” Clin. Chim. Acta412(21-22), 1963–1967 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, K. Y.

W. T. Chang, D. Yu, Y. C. Lai, K. Y. Lin, and I. Liau, “Characterization of the mechanodynamic response of cardiomyocytes with atomic force microscopy,” Anal. Chem.85(3), 1395–1400 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lisabeth, L. D.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, T.-M.

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol.147(1), 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyman, A.

P. Sun, Y. Zhang, F. Yu, E. Parks, A. Lyman, Q. Wu, L. S. Ai, C. H. Hu, Q. F. Zhou, K. Shung, C. L. Lien, and T. K. Hsiai, “Micro-electrocardiograms to study post-ventricular amputation of zebrafish heart,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.37(5), 890–901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lynch, S. N.

D. S. Peal, R. W. Mills, S. N. Lynch, J. M. Mosley, E. Lim, P. T. Ellinor, C. T. January, R. T. Peterson, and D. J. Milan, “Novel chemical suppressors of long QT syndrome identified by an in vivo functional screen,” Circulation123(1), 23–30 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyon, J. A.

Ma, G.

G. Ma, W. J. Brady, M. Pollack, and T. C. Chan, “Electrocardiographic manifestations: digitalis toxicity,” J. Emerg. Med.20(2), 145–152 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacRae, C. A.

D. J. Milan, I. L. Jones, P. T. Ellinor, and C. A. MacRae, “In vivo recording of adult zebrafish electrocardiogram and assessment of drug-induced QT prolongation,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart. C.291, H269–H273 (2006).

C. G. Burns, D. J. Milan, E. J. Grande, W. Rottbauer, C. A. MacRae, and M. C. Fishman, “High-throughput assay for small molecules that modulate zebrafish embryonic heart rate,” Nat. Chem. Biol.1(5), 263–264 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Milan, T. A. Peterson, J. N. Ruskin, R. T. Peterson, and C. A. MacRae, “Drugs that induce repolarization abnormalities cause bradycardia in zebrafish,” Circulation107(10), 1355–1358 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magid, D.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magyary, I.

S. S. Dhillon, É. Dóró, I. Magyary, S. Egginton, A. Sík, and F. Müller, “Optimisation of embryonic and larval ECG measurement in zebrafish for quantifying the effect of QT prolonging drugs,” PLoS ONE8(4), e60552 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mairösl, A.

T. Schwerte, C. Prem, A. Mairösl, and B. Pelster, “Development of the sympatho-vagal balance in the cardiovascular system in zebrafish (Danio rerio) characterized by power spectrum and classical signal analysis,” J. Exp. Biol.209(6), 1093–1100 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcus, G. M.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marelli, A.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matchar, D. B.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGuire, D. K.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milan, D. J.

D. S. Peal, R. W. Mills, S. N. Lynch, J. M. Mosley, E. Lim, P. T. Ellinor, C. T. January, R. T. Peterson, and D. J. Milan, “Novel chemical suppressors of long QT syndrome identified by an in vivo functional screen,” Circulation123(1), 23–30 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Milan, I. L. Jones, P. T. Ellinor, and C. A. MacRae, “In vivo recording of adult zebrafish electrocardiogram and assessment of drug-induced QT prolongation,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart. C.291, H269–H273 (2006).

C. G. Burns, D. J. Milan, E. J. Grande, W. Rottbauer, C. A. MacRae, and M. C. Fishman, “High-throughput assay for small molecules that modulate zebrafish embryonic heart rate,” Nat. Chem. Biol.1(5), 263–264 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Milan, T. A. Peterson, J. N. Ruskin, R. T. Peterson, and C. A. MacRae, “Drugs that induce repolarization abnormalities cause bradycardia in zebrafish,” Circulation107(10), 1355–1358 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mills, R. W.

D. S. Peal, R. W. Mills, S. N. Lynch, J. M. Mosley, E. Lim, P. T. Ellinor, C. T. January, R. T. Peterson, and D. J. Milan, “Novel chemical suppressors of long QT syndrome identified by an in vivo functional screen,” Circulation123(1), 23–30 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohler, E. R.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mosley, J. M.

D. S. Peal, R. W. Mills, S. N. Lynch, J. M. Mosley, E. Lim, P. T. Ellinor, C. T. January, R. T. Peterson, and D. J. Milan, “Novel chemical suppressors of long QT syndrome identified by an in vivo functional screen,” Circulation123(1), 23–30 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moy, C. S.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mozaffarian, D.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, F.

S. S. Dhillon, É. Dóró, I. Magyary, S. Egginton, A. Sík, and F. Müller, “Optimisation of embryonic and larval ECG measurement in zebrafish for quantifying the effect of QT prolonging drugs,” PLoS ONE8(4), e60552 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mussolino, M. E.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nichol, G.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parks, E.

P. Sun, Y. Zhang, F. Yu, E. Parks, A. Lyman, Q. Wu, L. S. Ai, C. H. Hu, Q. F. Zhou, K. Shung, C. L. Lien, and T. K. Hsiai, “Micro-electrocardiograms to study post-ventricular amputation of zebrafish heart,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.37(5), 890–901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paynter, N. P.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peal, D. S.

D. S. Peal, R. W. Mills, S. N. Lynch, J. M. Mosley, E. Lim, P. T. Ellinor, C. T. January, R. T. Peterson, and D. J. Milan, “Novel chemical suppressors of long QT syndrome identified by an in vivo functional screen,” Circulation123(1), 23–30 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelster, B.

T. Schwerte, C. Prem, A. Mairösl, and B. Pelster, “Development of the sympatho-vagal balance in the cardiovascular system in zebrafish (Danio rerio) characterized by power spectrum and classical signal analysis,” J. Exp. Biol.209(6), 1093–1100 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peterson, R. T.

D. S. Peal, R. W. Mills, S. N. Lynch, J. M. Mosley, E. Lim, P. T. Ellinor, C. T. January, R. T. Peterson, and D. J. Milan, “Novel chemical suppressors of long QT syndrome identified by an in vivo functional screen,” Circulation123(1), 23–30 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Milan, T. A. Peterson, J. N. Ruskin, R. T. Peterson, and C. A. MacRae, “Drugs that induce repolarization abnormalities cause bradycardia in zebrafish,” Circulation107(10), 1355–1358 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peterson, T. A.

D. J. Milan, T. A. Peterson, J. N. Ruskin, R. T. Peterson, and C. A. MacRae, “Drugs that induce repolarization abnormalities cause bradycardia in zebrafish,” Circulation107(10), 1355–1358 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pollack, M.

G. Ma, W. J. Brady, M. Pollack, and T. C. Chan, “Electrocardiographic manifestations: digitalis toxicity,” J. Emerg. Med.20(2), 145–152 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prem, C.

T. Schwerte, C. Prem, A. Mairösl, and B. Pelster, “Development of the sympatho-vagal balance in the cardiovascular system in zebrafish (Danio rerio) characterized by power spectrum and classical signal analysis,” J. Exp. Biol.209(6), 1093–1100 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritto, P. A.

P. A. Ritto, J. G. Contreras, and J. J. Alvarado-Gil, “Monitoring of heartbeat by laser beam reflection,” Meas. Sci. Technol.14(3), 317–322 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Roger, V. L.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
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M. Brodsky, D. Wu, P. Denes, C. Kanakis, and K. M. Rosen, “Arrhythmias documented by 24 hour continuous electrocardiographic monitoring in 50 male medical students without apparent heart disease,” Am. J. Cardiol.39(3), 390–395 (1977).
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C. G. Burns, D. J. Milan, E. J. Grande, W. Rottbauer, C. A. MacRae, and M. C. Fishman, “High-throughput assay for small molecules that modulate zebrafish embryonic heart rate,” Nat. Chem. Biol.1(5), 263–264 (2005).
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D. J. Milan, T. A. Peterson, J. N. Ruskin, R. T. Peterson, and C. A. MacRae, “Drugs that induce repolarization abnormalities cause bradycardia in zebrafish,” Circulation107(10), 1355–1358 (2003).
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A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
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N. C. Chi, R. M. Shaw, B. Jungblut, J. Huisken, T. Ferrer, R. Arnaout, I. Scott, D. Beis, T. Xiao, H. Baier, L. Y. Jan, M. Tristani-Firouzi, and D. Y. Stainier, “Genetic and physiologic dissection of the vertebrate cardiac conduction system,” PLoS Biol.6(5), e109 (2008).
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N. C. Chi, R. M. Shaw, B. Jungblut, J. Huisken, T. Ferrer, R. Arnaout, I. Scott, D. Beis, T. Xiao, H. Baier, L. Y. Jan, M. Tristani-Firouzi, and D. Y. Stainier, “Genetic and physiologic dissection of the vertebrate cardiac conduction system,” PLoS Biol.6(5), e109 (2008).
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M. Yoshida, R. Hirano, and T. Shima, “Photocardiography: A novel method for monitoring cardiac activity in fish,” Zoolog. Sci.26(5), 356–361 (2009).
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P. Sun, Y. Zhang, F. Yu, E. Parks, A. Lyman, Q. Wu, L. S. Ai, C. H. Hu, Q. F. Zhou, K. Shung, C. L. Lien, and T. K. Hsiai, “Micro-electrocardiograms to study post-ventricular amputation of zebrafish heart,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.37(5), 890–901 (2009).
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N. Klauke, G. Smith, and J. M. Cooper, “Local regional stimulation of single isolated ventricular myocytes using microfluidics,” Anal. Chem.81(15), 6390–6398 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
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N. C. Chi, R. M. Shaw, B. Jungblut, J. Huisken, T. Ferrer, R. Arnaout, I. Scott, D. Beis, T. Xiao, H. Baier, L. Y. Jan, M. Tristani-Firouzi, and D. Y. Stainier, “Genetic and physiologic dissection of the vertebrate cardiac conduction system,” PLoS Biol.6(5), e109 (2008).
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A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
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P. Sun, Y. Zhang, F. Yu, E. Parks, A. Lyman, Q. Wu, L. S. Ai, C. H. Hu, Q. F. Zhou, K. Shung, C. L. Lien, and T. K. Hsiai, “Micro-electrocardiograms to study post-ventricular amputation of zebrafish heart,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.37(5), 890–901 (2009).
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Tristani-Firouzi, M.

N. C. Chi, R. M. Shaw, B. Jungblut, J. Huisken, T. Ferrer, R. Arnaout, I. Scott, D. Beis, T. Xiao, H. Baier, L. Y. Jan, M. Tristani-Firouzi, and D. Y. Stainier, “Genetic and physiologic dissection of the vertebrate cardiac conduction system,” PLoS Biol.6(5), e109 (2008).
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C. T. Tsai, C. K. Wu, F. T. Chiang, C. D. Tseng, J. K. Lee, C. C. Yu, Y. C. Wang, L. P. Lai, J. L. Lin, and J. J. Hwang, “In-vitro recording of adult zebrafish heart electrocardiogram - A platform for pharmacological testing,” Clin. Chim. Acta412(21-22), 1963–1967 (2011).
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C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol.147(1), 19–30 (2004).
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C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol.147(1), 19–30 (2004).
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C. T. Tsai, C. K. Wu, F. T. Chiang, C. D. Tseng, J. K. Lee, C. C. Yu, Y. C. Wang, L. P. Lai, J. L. Lin, and J. J. Hwang, “In-vitro recording of adult zebrafish heart electrocardiogram - A platform for pharmacological testing,” Clin. Chim. Acta412(21-22), 1963–1967 (2011).
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A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
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A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
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A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
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M. Brodsky, D. Wu, P. Denes, C. Kanakis, and K. M. Rosen, “Arrhythmias documented by 24 hour continuous electrocardiographic monitoring in 50 male medical students without apparent heart disease,” Am. J. Cardiol.39(3), 390–395 (1977).
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P. Sun, Y. Zhang, F. Yu, E. Parks, A. Lyman, Q. Wu, L. S. Ai, C. H. Hu, Q. F. Zhou, K. Shung, C. L. Lien, and T. K. Hsiai, “Micro-electrocardiograms to study post-ventricular amputation of zebrafish heart,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.37(5), 890–901 (2009).
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N. C. Chi, R. M. Shaw, B. Jungblut, J. Huisken, T. Ferrer, R. Arnaout, I. Scott, D. Beis, T. Xiao, H. Baier, L. Y. Jan, M. Tristani-Firouzi, and D. Y. Stainier, “Genetic and physiologic dissection of the vertebrate cardiac conduction system,” PLoS Biol.6(5), e109 (2008).
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W. C. Huang, Y. S. Hsieh, I. H. Chen, C. H. Wang, H. W. Chang, C. C. Yang, T. H. Ku, S. R. Yeh, and Y. J. Chuang, “Combined use of MS-222 (Tricaine) and isoflurane extends anesthesia time and minimizes cardiac rhythm side effects in adult zebrafish,” Zebrafish7(3), 297–304 (2010).
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Yeh, S. R.

W. C. Huang, Y. S. Hsieh, I. H. Chen, C. H. Wang, H. W. Chang, C. C. Yang, T. H. Ku, S. R. Yeh, and Y. J. Chuang, “Combined use of MS-222 (Tricaine) and isoflurane extends anesthesia time and minimizes cardiac rhythm side effects in adult zebrafish,” Zebrafish7(3), 297–304 (2010).
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M. Yoshida, R. Hirano, and T. Shima, “Photocardiography: A novel method for monitoring cardiac activity in fish,” Zoolog. Sci.26(5), 356–361 (2009).
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C. T. Tsai, C. K. Wu, F. T. Chiang, C. D. Tseng, J. K. Lee, C. C. Yu, Y. C. Wang, L. P. Lai, J. L. Lin, and J. J. Hwang, “In-vitro recording of adult zebrafish heart electrocardiogram - A platform for pharmacological testing,” Clin. Chim. Acta412(21-22), 1963–1967 (2011).
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P. Sun, Y. Zhang, F. Yu, E. Parks, A. Lyman, Q. Wu, L. S. Ai, C. H. Hu, Q. F. Zhou, K. Shung, C. L. Lien, and T. K. Hsiai, “Micro-electrocardiograms to study post-ventricular amputation of zebrafish heart,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.37(5), 890–901 (2009).
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N. C. Chi, R. M. Shaw, B. Jungblut, J. Huisken, T. Ferrer, R. Arnaout, I. Scott, D. Beis, T. Xiao, H. Baier, L. Y. Jan, M. Tristani-Firouzi, and D. Y. Stainier, “Genetic and physiologic dissection of the vertebrate cardiac conduction system,” PLoS Biol.6(5), e109 (2008).
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S.-H. Huang, C.-D. Hsiao, D.-S. Lin, C.-Y. Chow, C.-J. Chang, and I. Liau, “Imaging of zebrafish in vivo with second-harmonic generation reveals shortened sarcomeres associated with myopathy induced by statin,” PLoS ONE6(9), e24764 (2011).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the optical determination of cardiac rhythm. (A) Dual-beam optical reflectometry. (B-C) Cartoons showing determinations of cardiac rhythm of cardiomyocytes and zebrafish larvae.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Determination of the contractile frequency of self-beating cardiomyocytes in vitro. (A) Part of a temporal trace recorded from chick embryonic cardiomyocytes cultured in vitro showing individual beats. (B) Spectrogram obtained with a short-time Fourier transform of the temporal trace of cardiomyocyte contraction showing that the contractile frequency remained stable for 10 min.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Assessment of the cardiac rhythm of zebrafish larvae treated with cardioactive drugs. (A) Enlarged sections of the temporal trace of heartbeats recorded from a zebrafish larva (3 dpf) treated with esmolol (2000 ppm). (B) Spectrogram of the entire temporal trace (~2000 s) of heart beats showing the declining heart rate caused by the treatment of esmolol. (C) The heart rates of zebrafish larvae determined after a treatment with either esmolol (2000 ppm) or epinephrine (200 ppm) for 30 min and their comparison with the untreated control. ** p < 0.01

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simultaneous determination of atrial and ventricular rhythms. (A) Temporal traces corresponding to the atrial (upper trace) and ventricular (lower trace) beatings of a zebrafish larva (6 dpf) treated with digoxin (33 ppm). (B) Histograms showing the distribution of the temporal intervals between two adjacent atrial (red) and ventricular (blue) beats. The upper and lower panels correspond to the histogram analyzed from sections of the temporal traces within the fifth and sixtieth minutes after the treatment. (C) Comparison of the ratios between the ventricular and the atrial beating rates.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Identification of an atrio-ventricular block of first degree. (A) Temporal traces and the corresponding strip plot obtained from a zebrafish larva recorded immediately after an administration of digoxin (33 ppm). Upper panel: temporal traces showing atrial (upper trace) and ventricular (lower trace) beating. Lower panel: strip plot highlighting the temporal relation between each atrial beat and its subsequent ventricular beat. (B) Temporal traces and the corresponding strip plot obtained 10 min after a treatment of digoxin showing characteristic features of an atrio- ventricular block of first degree.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Demonstration of an atrio-ventricular block of second degree and arrhythmia of another type. (A) Temporal traces and the corresponding strip plot showing characteristic features of an atrio-ventricular block of second degree. (B) Temporal traces and the corresponding strip plot showing arrhythmia of a distinct type that exhibited premature atrial beats with no subsequent ventricular beats.

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