Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the capability of detecting prostate cancer (PCa) using auto-fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy (AFLS) and light reflectance spectroscopy (LRS). AFLS used excitation at 447 nm with four emission wavelengths (532, 562, 632, and 684 nm), where their lifetimes and weights were analyzed using a double exponent model. LRS was measured between 500 and 840 nm and analyzed by a quantitative model to determine hemoglobin concentrations and light scattering. Both AFLS and LRS were taken on n = 724 distinct locations from both prostate capsular (nc = 185) and parenchymal (np = 539) tissues, including PCa tissue, benign peripheral zone tissue and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), of fresh ex vivo radical prostatectomy specimens from 37 patients with high volume, intermediate-to-high-grade PCa (Gleason score, GS ≥7). AFLS and LRS parameters from parenchymal tissues were analyzed for statistical testing and classification. A feature selection algorithm based on multinomial logistic regression was implemented to identify critical parameters in order to classify high-grade PCa tissue. The regression model was in turn used to classify PCa tissue at the individual aggressive level of GS = 7,8,9. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated and used to determine classification accuracy for each tissue type. We show that our dual-modal technique resulted in accuracies of 87.9%, 90.1%, and 85.1% for PCa classification at GS = 7, 8, 9 within parenchymal tissues, and up to 91.1%, 91.9%, and 94.3% if capsular tissues were included for detection. Possible biochemical and physiological mechanisms causing signal differences in AFLS and LRS between PCa and benign tissues were also discussed.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

V. C. Kavuri and H. Liu, “Hierarchical Clustering Method to Improve Transrectal Ultrasound-guided Diffuse Optical Tomography for Prostate Cancer Imaging,” Acad. Radiol.21(2), 250–262 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

J. D. Sammon, Q. D. Trinh, S. Sukumar, P. Ravi, A. Friedman, M. Sun, J. Schmitges, C. Jeldres, W. Jeong, N. Mander, J. O. Peabody, P. I. Karakiewicz, and M. Harris, “Risk factors for biochemical recurrence following radical perineal prostatectomy in a large contemporary series: A detailed assessment of margin extent and location,” Urol. Oncol.31(8), 1470–1476 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Iremashvili, S. D. Lokeshwar, M. S. Soloway, L. Pelaez, S. A. Umar, M. Manoharan, and M. Jordá, “Partial sampling of radical prostatectomy specimens: detection of positive margins and extraprostatic extension,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol.37(2), 219–225 (2013).
[PubMed]

T. D. Wager, L. Y. Atlas, M. A. Lindquist, M. Roy, C.-W. Woo, and E. Kross, “An fMRI-Based Neurologic Signature of Physical Pain,” N. Engl. J. Med.368(15), 1388–1397 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

D. A. Barron and D. R. Rowley, “The reactive stroma microenvironment and prostate cancer progression,” Endocr. Relat. Cancer19(6), R187–R204 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Sharma, S. Shivalingaiah, Y. Peng, D. Euhus, Z. Gryczynski, and H. Liu, “Auto-fluorescence lifetime and light reflectance spectroscopy for breast cancer diagnosis: potential tools for intraoperative margin detection,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(8), 1825–1840 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Lue, J. W. Kang, C. C. Yu, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, M. S. Feld, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Portable optical fiber probe-based spectroscopic scanner for rapid cancer diagnosis: a new tool for intraoperative margin assessment,” PLoS ONE7(1), e30887 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Turkbey and P. L. Choyke, “Multiparametric MRI and prostate cancer diagnosis and risk stratification,” Curr. Opin. Urol.22(4), 310–315 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

R. J. Halter, A. R. Schned, J. A. Heaney, and A. Hartov, “Passive bioelectrical properties for assessing high- and low-grade prostate adenocarcinoma,” Prostate71(16), 1759–1767 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fukuhara, K. Inoue, H. Satake, K. Tamura, T. Karashima, I. Yamasaki, I. Tatsuo, A. Kurabayashi, M. Furihata, and T. Shuin, “Photodynamic diagnosis of positive margin during radical prostatectomy: preliminary experience with 5-aminolevulinic acid,” Int. J. Urol.18(8), 585–591 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gao, H. Zhou, M. J. Thrall, F. Li, Y. Yang, Z. Wang, P. Luo, K. K. Wong, G. S. Palapattu, and S. T. Wong, “Label-free high-resolution imaging of prostate glands and cavernous nerves using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(4), 915–926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jiang, D. Piao, G. R. Holyoak, J. W. Ritchey, K. E. Bartels, G. Slobodov, C. F. Bunting, and J. S. Krasinski, “Trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled spectral optical tomography of total hemoglobin concentration enhances assessment of the laterality and progression of a transmissible venereal tumor in canine prostate,” Urology77(1), 237–242 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Sharma, J. W. He, S. Narvenkar, Y. B. Peng, and H. Liu, “Quantification of light reflectance spectroscopy and its application: determination of hemodynamics on the rat spinal cord and brain induced by electrical stimulation,” Neuroimage56(3), 1316–1328 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Nachabé, D. J. Evers, B. H. Hendriks, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, E. J. Rutgers, M. J. Peeters, J. A. Van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse optical spectroscopy from 500 to 1600 nm: comparison of classification methods,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 087010 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

M. M. Shen and C. Abate-Shen, “Molecular genetics of prostate cancer: new prospects for old challenges,” Genes Dev.24(18), 1967–2000 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Y. Berezin and S. Achilefu, “Fluorescence lifetime measurements and biological imaging,” Chem. Rev.110(5), 2641–2684 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Salem, S. S. Chang, P. E. Clark, R. Davis, S. D. Herrell, Y. Kordan, M. L. Wills, S. B. Shappell, R. Baumgartner, S. Phillips, J. A. Smith, M. S. Cookson, and D. A. Barocas, “Comparative analysis of whole mount processing and systematic sampling of radical prostatectomy specimens: pathological outcomes and risk of biochemical recurrence,” J. Urol.184(4), 1334–1340 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kim, C. Temiyasathit, K. Bensalah, A. Tuncel, J. Cadeddu, W. Kabbani, V. Mathker, and H. Liu, “An efficient procedure for classification of prostate cancer in optical spectra,” Expert Syst. Appl.37, 3863–3869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (6)

G. Salomon, T. Hess, A. Erbersdobler, C. Eichelberg, S. Greschner, A. N. Sobchuk, A. K. Korolik, N. A. Nemkovich, J. Schreiber, M. Herms, M. Graefen, and H. Huland, “The feasibility of prostate cancer detection by triple spectroscopy,” Eur. Urol.55(2), 376–384 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. P. Dangle, K. K. Shah, B. Kaffenberger, and V. R. Patel, “The use of high resolution optical coherence tomography to evaluate robotic radical prostatectomy specimens,” Int. Braz. J. Urol.35(3), 344–353 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jiang, G. R. Holyoak, K. E. Bartels, J. W. Ritchey, G. Xu, C. F. Bunting, G. Slobodov, and D. Piao, “In vivo trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled optical tomography of a transmissible venereal tumor model in the canine pelvic canal,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 030506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Sharma, D. Kashyap, A. Mathker, S. Narvenkar, K. Bensalah, W. Kabbani, A. Tuncel, J. A. Cadeddu, and H. Liu, “Optical reflectance spectroscopy for detection of human prostate cancer,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc.2009, 118–121 (2009).
[PubMed]

O. Yossepowitch, A. Bjartell, J. A. Eastham, M. Graefen, B. D. Guillonneau, P. I. Karakiewicz, R. Montironi, and F. Montorsi, “Positive surgical margins in radical prostatectomy: outlining the problem and its long-term consequences,” Eur. Urol.55(1), 87–99 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios and A. Dimou, “Light scattering spectroscopy of human skin in vivo,” Opt. Express17(3), 1256–1267 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

L. W. D’Avolio, M. S. Litwin, S. O. Rogers, and A. A. Bui, “Automatic identification and classification of surgical margin status from pathology reports following prostate cancer surgery,” AMIA Annu. Symp. Proc.2007, 160–164 (2007).
[PubMed]

2004 (1)

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

P. Crow, N. Stone, C. A. Kendall, R. A. Persad, and M. P. Wright, “Optical diagnostics in urology: current applications and future prospects,” BJU Int.92(4), 400–407 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (3)

J. A. Wieder and M. S. Soloway, “Incidence, etiology, location, prevention and treatment of positive surgical margins after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer,” J. Urol.160(2), 299–315 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tewari and P. Narayan, “Novel staging tool for localized prostate cancer: a pilot study using genetic adaptive neural networks,” J. Urol.160(2), 430–436 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Wagnières, W. M. Star, and B. C. Wilson, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oncological applications,” Photochem. Photobiol.68(5), 603–632 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.47(1), 555–606 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abate-Shen, C.

M. M. Shen and C. Abate-Shen, “Molecular genetics of prostate cancer: new prospects for old challenges,” Genes Dev.24(18), 1967–2000 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Achilefu, S.

M. Y. Berezin and S. Achilefu, “Fluorescence lifetime measurements and biological imaging,” Chem. Rev.110(5), 2641–2684 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arendt, J. T.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atlas, L. Y.

T. D. Wager, L. Y. Atlas, M. A. Lindquist, M. Roy, C.-W. Woo, and E. Kross, “An fMRI-Based Neurologic Signature of Physical Pain,” N. Engl. J. Med.368(15), 1388–1397 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badizadegan, K.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barman, I.

N. Lue, J. W. Kang, C. C. Yu, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, M. S. Feld, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Portable optical fiber probe-based spectroscopic scanner for rapid cancer diagnosis: a new tool for intraoperative margin assessment,” PLoS ONE7(1), e30887 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barocas, D. A.

S. Salem, S. S. Chang, P. E. Clark, R. Davis, S. D. Herrell, Y. Kordan, M. L. Wills, S. B. Shappell, R. Baumgartner, S. Phillips, J. A. Smith, M. S. Cookson, and D. A. Barocas, “Comparative analysis of whole mount processing and systematic sampling of radical prostatectomy specimens: pathological outcomes and risk of biochemical recurrence,” J. Urol.184(4), 1334–1340 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barron, D. A.

D. A. Barron and D. R. Rowley, “The reactive stroma microenvironment and prostate cancer progression,” Endocr. Relat. Cancer19(6), R187–R204 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartels, K. E.

Z. Jiang, D. Piao, G. R. Holyoak, J. W. Ritchey, K. E. Bartels, G. Slobodov, C. F. Bunting, and J. S. Krasinski, “Trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled spectral optical tomography of total hemoglobin concentration enhances assessment of the laterality and progression of a transmissible venereal tumor in canine prostate,” Urology77(1), 237–242 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jiang, G. R. Holyoak, K. E. Bartels, J. W. Ritchey, G. Xu, C. F. Bunting, G. Slobodov, and D. Piao, “In vivo trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled optical tomography of a transmissible venereal tumor model in the canine pelvic canal,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 030506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jiang, D. Piao, G. Xu, J. W. Ritchey, G. R. Holyoak, K. E. Bartels, C. F. Bunting, G. Slobodov, and J. S. Krasinski, “Trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled near-infrared optical tomography of the prostate, part II: experimental demonstration,” Opt. Express16(22), 17505–17520 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumgartner, R.

S. Salem, S. S. Chang, P. E. Clark, R. Davis, S. D. Herrell, Y. Kordan, M. L. Wills, S. B. Shappell, R. Baumgartner, S. Phillips, J. A. Smith, M. S. Cookson, and D. A. Barocas, “Comparative analysis of whole mount processing and systematic sampling of radical prostatectomy specimens: pathological outcomes and risk of biochemical recurrence,” J. Urol.184(4), 1334–1340 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benninger, R.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.3(8), 795–801 (2004).
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Bensalah, K.

B. Kim, C. Temiyasathit, K. Bensalah, A. Tuncel, J. Cadeddu, W. Kabbani, V. Mathker, and H. Liu, “An efficient procedure for classification of prostate cancer in optical spectra,” Expert Syst. Appl.37, 3863–3869 (2010).
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V. Sharma, D. Kashyap, A. Mathker, S. Narvenkar, K. Bensalah, W. Kabbani, A. Tuncel, J. A. Cadeddu, and H. Liu, “Optical reflectance spectroscopy for detection of human prostate cancer,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc.2009, 118–121 (2009).
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M. Y. Berezin and S. Achilefu, “Fluorescence lifetime measurements and biological imaging,” Chem. Rev.110(5), 2641–2684 (2010).
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O. Yossepowitch, A. Bjartell, J. A. Eastham, M. Graefen, B. D. Guillonneau, P. I. Karakiewicz, R. Montironi, and F. Montorsi, “Positive surgical margins in radical prostatectomy: outlining the problem and its long-term consequences,” Eur. Urol.55(1), 87–99 (2009).
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Bui, A. A.

L. W. D’Avolio, M. S. Litwin, S. O. Rogers, and A. A. Bui, “Automatic identification and classification of surgical margin status from pathology reports following prostate cancer surgery,” AMIA Annu. Symp. Proc.2007, 160–164 (2007).
[PubMed]

Bunting, C. F.

Z. Jiang, D. Piao, G. R. Holyoak, J. W. Ritchey, K. E. Bartels, G. Slobodov, C. F. Bunting, and J. S. Krasinski, “Trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled spectral optical tomography of total hemoglobin concentration enhances assessment of the laterality and progression of a transmissible venereal tumor in canine prostate,” Urology77(1), 237–242 (2011).
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Z. Jiang, G. R. Holyoak, K. E. Bartels, J. W. Ritchey, G. Xu, C. F. Bunting, G. Slobodov, and D. Piao, “In vivo trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled optical tomography of a transmissible venereal tumor model in the canine pelvic canal,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 030506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jiang, D. Piao, G. Xu, J. W. Ritchey, G. R. Holyoak, K. E. Bartels, C. F. Bunting, G. Slobodov, and J. S. Krasinski, “Trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled near-infrared optical tomography of the prostate, part II: experimental demonstration,” Opt. Express16(22), 17505–17520 (2008).
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Cadeddu, J.

B. Kim, C. Temiyasathit, K. Bensalah, A. Tuncel, J. Cadeddu, W. Kabbani, V. Mathker, and H. Liu, “An efficient procedure for classification of prostate cancer in optical spectra,” Expert Syst. Appl.37, 3863–3869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cadeddu, J. A.

V. Sharma, D. Kashyap, A. Mathker, S. Narvenkar, K. Bensalah, W. Kabbani, A. Tuncel, J. A. Cadeddu, and H. Liu, “Optical reflectance spectroscopy for detection of human prostate cancer,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc.2009, 118–121 (2009).
[PubMed]

Chang, S. S.

S. Salem, S. S. Chang, P. E. Clark, R. Davis, S. D. Herrell, Y. Kordan, M. L. Wills, S. B. Shappell, R. Baumgartner, S. Phillips, J. A. Smith, M. S. Cookson, and D. A. Barocas, “Comparative analysis of whole mount processing and systematic sampling of radical prostatectomy specimens: pathological outcomes and risk of biochemical recurrence,” J. Urol.184(4), 1334–1340 (2010).
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B. Turkbey and P. L. Choyke, “Multiparametric MRI and prostate cancer diagnosis and risk stratification,” Curr. Opin. Urol.22(4), 310–315 (2012).
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S. Salem, S. S. Chang, P. E. Clark, R. Davis, S. D. Herrell, Y. Kordan, M. L. Wills, S. B. Shappell, R. Baumgartner, S. Phillips, J. A. Smith, M. S. Cookson, and D. A. Barocas, “Comparative analysis of whole mount processing and systematic sampling of radical prostatectomy specimens: pathological outcomes and risk of biochemical recurrence,” J. Urol.184(4), 1334–1340 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cookson, M. S.

S. Salem, S. S. Chang, P. E. Clark, R. Davis, S. D. Herrell, Y. Kordan, M. L. Wills, S. B. Shappell, R. Baumgartner, S. Phillips, J. A. Smith, M. S. Cookson, and D. A. Barocas, “Comparative analysis of whole mount processing and systematic sampling of radical prostatectomy specimens: pathological outcomes and risk of biochemical recurrence,” J. Urol.184(4), 1334–1340 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crawford, J. M.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
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P. Crow, N. Stone, C. A. Kendall, R. A. Persad, and M. P. Wright, “Optical diagnostics in urology: current applications and future prospects,” BJU Int.92(4), 400–407 (2003).
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D’Avolio, L. W.

L. W. D’Avolio, M. S. Litwin, S. O. Rogers, and A. A. Bui, “Automatic identification and classification of surgical margin status from pathology reports following prostate cancer surgery,” AMIA Annu. Symp. Proc.2007, 160–164 (2007).
[PubMed]

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P. P. Dangle, K. K. Shah, B. Kaffenberger, and V. R. Patel, “The use of high resolution optical coherence tomography to evaluate robotic radical prostatectomy specimens,” Int. Braz. J. Urol.35(3), 344–353 (2009).
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Dasari, R. R.

N. Lue, J. W. Kang, C. C. Yu, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, M. S. Feld, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Portable optical fiber probe-based spectroscopic scanner for rapid cancer diagnosis: a new tool for intraoperative margin assessment,” PLoS ONE7(1), e30887 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, D.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, R.

S. Salem, S. S. Chang, P. E. Clark, R. Davis, S. D. Herrell, Y. Kordan, M. L. Wills, S. B. Shappell, R. Baumgartner, S. Phillips, J. A. Smith, M. S. Cookson, and D. A. Barocas, “Comparative analysis of whole mount processing and systematic sampling of radical prostatectomy specimens: pathological outcomes and risk of biochemical recurrence,” J. Urol.184(4), 1334–1340 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dimou, A.

Dingari, N. C.

N. Lue, J. W. Kang, C. C. Yu, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, M. S. Feld, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Portable optical fiber probe-based spectroscopic scanner for rapid cancer diagnosis: a new tool for intraoperative margin assessment,” PLoS ONE7(1), e30887 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eastham, J. A.

O. Yossepowitch, A. Bjartell, J. A. Eastham, M. Graefen, B. D. Guillonneau, P. I. Karakiewicz, R. Montironi, and F. Montorsi, “Positive surgical margins in radical prostatectomy: outlining the problem and its long-term consequences,” Eur. Urol.55(1), 87–99 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eichelberg, C.

G. Salomon, T. Hess, A. Erbersdobler, C. Eichelberg, S. Greschner, A. N. Sobchuk, A. K. Korolik, N. A. Nemkovich, J. Schreiber, M. Herms, M. Graefen, and H. Huland, “The feasibility of prostate cancer detection by triple spectroscopy,” Eur. Urol.55(2), 376–384 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elson, D.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erbersdobler, A.

G. Salomon, T. Hess, A. Erbersdobler, C. Eichelberg, S. Greschner, A. N. Sobchuk, A. K. Korolik, N. A. Nemkovich, J. Schreiber, M. Herms, M. Graefen, and H. Huland, “The feasibility of prostate cancer detection by triple spectroscopy,” Eur. Urol.55(2), 376–384 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Euhus, D.

Evers, D. J.

R. Nachabé, D. J. Evers, B. H. Hendriks, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, E. J. Rutgers, M. J. Peeters, J. A. Van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse optical spectroscopy from 500 to 1600 nm: comparison of classification methods,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 087010 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

N. Lue, J. W. Kang, C. C. Yu, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, M. S. Feld, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Portable optical fiber probe-based spectroscopic scanner for rapid cancer diagnosis: a new tool for intraoperative margin assessment,” PLoS ONE7(1), e30887 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzmaurice, M.

N. Lue, J. W. Kang, C. C. Yu, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, M. S. Feld, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Portable optical fiber probe-based spectroscopic scanner for rapid cancer diagnosis: a new tool for intraoperative margin assessment,” PLoS ONE7(1), e30887 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

French, P.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friedman, A.

J. D. Sammon, Q. D. Trinh, S. Sukumar, P. Ravi, A. Friedman, M. Sun, J. Schmitges, C. Jeldres, W. Jeong, N. Mander, J. O. Peabody, P. I. Karakiewicz, and M. Harris, “Risk factors for biochemical recurrence following radical perineal prostatectomy in a large contemporary series: A detailed assessment of margin extent and location,” Urol. Oncol.31(8), 1470–1476 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukuhara, H.

H. Fukuhara, K. Inoue, H. Satake, K. Tamura, T. Karashima, I. Yamasaki, I. Tatsuo, A. Kurabayashi, M. Furihata, and T. Shuin, “Photodynamic diagnosis of positive margin during radical prostatectomy: preliminary experience with 5-aminolevulinic acid,” Int. J. Urol.18(8), 585–591 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furihata, M.

H. Fukuhara, K. Inoue, H. Satake, K. Tamura, T. Karashima, I. Yamasaki, I. Tatsuo, A. Kurabayashi, M. Furihata, and T. Shuin, “Photodynamic diagnosis of positive margin during radical prostatectomy: preliminary experience with 5-aminolevulinic acid,” Int. J. Urol.18(8), 585–591 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, L.

Graefen, M.

G. Salomon, T. Hess, A. Erbersdobler, C. Eichelberg, S. Greschner, A. N. Sobchuk, A. K. Korolik, N. A. Nemkovich, J. Schreiber, M. Herms, M. Graefen, and H. Huland, “The feasibility of prostate cancer detection by triple spectroscopy,” Eur. Urol.55(2), 376–384 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Yossepowitch, A. Bjartell, J. A. Eastham, M. Graefen, B. D. Guillonneau, P. I. Karakiewicz, R. Montironi, and F. Montorsi, “Positive surgical margins in radical prostatectomy: outlining the problem and its long-term consequences,” Eur. Urol.55(1), 87–99 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greschner, S.

G. Salomon, T. Hess, A. Erbersdobler, C. Eichelberg, S. Greschner, A. N. Sobchuk, A. K. Korolik, N. A. Nemkovich, J. Schreiber, M. Herms, M. Graefen, and H. Huland, “The feasibility of prostate cancer detection by triple spectroscopy,” Eur. Urol.55(2), 376–384 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gryczynski, Z.

Guillonneau, B. D.

O. Yossepowitch, A. Bjartell, J. A. Eastham, M. Graefen, B. D. Guillonneau, P. I. Karakiewicz, R. Montironi, and F. Montorsi, “Positive surgical margins in radical prostatectomy: outlining the problem and its long-term consequences,” Eur. Urol.55(1), 87–99 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gurjar, R.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halter, R. J.

R. J. Halter, A. R. Schned, J. A. Heaney, and A. Hartov, “Passive bioelectrical properties for assessing high- and low-grade prostate adenocarcinoma,” Prostate71(16), 1759–1767 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, M.

J. D. Sammon, Q. D. Trinh, S. Sukumar, P. Ravi, A. Friedman, M. Sun, J. Schmitges, C. Jeldres, W. Jeong, N. Mander, J. O. Peabody, P. I. Karakiewicz, and M. Harris, “Risk factors for biochemical recurrence following radical perineal prostatectomy in a large contemporary series: A detailed assessment of margin extent and location,” Urol. Oncol.31(8), 1470–1476 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartov, A.

R. J. Halter, A. R. Schned, J. A. Heaney, and A. Hartov, “Passive bioelectrical properties for assessing high- and low-grade prostate adenocarcinoma,” Prostate71(16), 1759–1767 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, J. W.

V. Sharma, J. W. He, S. Narvenkar, Y. B. Peng, and H. Liu, “Quantification of light reflectance spectroscopy and its application: determination of hemodynamics on the rat spinal cord and brain induced by electrical stimulation,” Neuroimage56(3), 1316–1328 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heaney, J. A.

R. J. Halter, A. R. Schned, J. A. Heaney, and A. Hartov, “Passive bioelectrical properties for assessing high- and low-grade prostate adenocarcinoma,” Prostate71(16), 1759–1767 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendriks, B. H.

R. Nachabé, D. J. Evers, B. H. Hendriks, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, E. J. Rutgers, M. J. Peeters, J. A. Van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse optical spectroscopy from 500 to 1600 nm: comparison of classification methods,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 087010 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herms, M.

G. Salomon, T. Hess, A. Erbersdobler, C. Eichelberg, S. Greschner, A. N. Sobchuk, A. K. Korolik, N. A. Nemkovich, J. Schreiber, M. Herms, M. Graefen, and H. Huland, “The feasibility of prostate cancer detection by triple spectroscopy,” Eur. Urol.55(2), 376–384 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herrell, S. D.

S. Salem, S. S. Chang, P. E. Clark, R. Davis, S. D. Herrell, Y. Kordan, M. L. Wills, S. B. Shappell, R. Baumgartner, S. Phillips, J. A. Smith, M. S. Cookson, and D. A. Barocas, “Comparative analysis of whole mount processing and systematic sampling of radical prostatectomy specimens: pathological outcomes and risk of biochemical recurrence,” J. Urol.184(4), 1334–1340 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hess, T.

G. Salomon, T. Hess, A. Erbersdobler, C. Eichelberg, S. Greschner, A. N. Sobchuk, A. K. Korolik, N. A. Nemkovich, J. Schreiber, M. Herms, M. Graefen, and H. Huland, “The feasibility of prostate cancer detection by triple spectroscopy,” Eur. Urol.55(2), 376–384 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holyoak, G. R.

Z. Jiang, D. Piao, G. R. Holyoak, J. W. Ritchey, K. E. Bartels, G. Slobodov, C. F. Bunting, and J. S. Krasinski, “Trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled spectral optical tomography of total hemoglobin concentration enhances assessment of the laterality and progression of a transmissible venereal tumor in canine prostate,” Urology77(1), 237–242 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jiang, G. R. Holyoak, K. E. Bartels, J. W. Ritchey, G. Xu, C. F. Bunting, G. Slobodov, and D. Piao, “In vivo trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled optical tomography of a transmissible venereal tumor model in the canine pelvic canal,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 030506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jiang, D. Piao, G. Xu, J. W. Ritchey, G. R. Holyoak, K. E. Bartels, C. F. Bunting, G. Slobodov, and J. S. Krasinski, “Trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled near-infrared optical tomography of the prostate, part II: experimental demonstration,” Opt. Express16(22), 17505–17520 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huland, H.

G. Salomon, T. Hess, A. Erbersdobler, C. Eichelberg, S. Greschner, A. N. Sobchuk, A. K. Korolik, N. A. Nemkovich, J. Schreiber, M. Herms, M. Graefen, and H. Huland, “The feasibility of prostate cancer detection by triple spectroscopy,” Eur. Urol.55(2), 376–384 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inoue, K.

H. Fukuhara, K. Inoue, H. Satake, K. Tamura, T. Karashima, I. Yamasaki, I. Tatsuo, A. Kurabayashi, M. Furihata, and T. Shuin, “Photodynamic diagnosis of positive margin during radical prostatectomy: preliminary experience with 5-aminolevulinic acid,” Int. J. Urol.18(8), 585–591 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iremashvili, V.

V. Iremashvili, S. D. Lokeshwar, M. S. Soloway, L. Pelaez, S. A. Umar, M. Manoharan, and M. Jordá, “Partial sampling of radical prostatectomy specimens: detection of positive margins and extraprostatic extension,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol.37(2), 219–225 (2013).
[PubMed]

Itzkan, I.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeldres, C.

J. D. Sammon, Q. D. Trinh, S. Sukumar, P. Ravi, A. Friedman, M. Sun, J. Schmitges, C. Jeldres, W. Jeong, N. Mander, J. O. Peabody, P. I. Karakiewicz, and M. Harris, “Risk factors for biochemical recurrence following radical perineal prostatectomy in a large contemporary series: A detailed assessment of margin extent and location,” Urol. Oncol.31(8), 1470–1476 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeong, W.

J. D. Sammon, Q. D. Trinh, S. Sukumar, P. Ravi, A. Friedman, M. Sun, J. Schmitges, C. Jeldres, W. Jeong, N. Mander, J. O. Peabody, P. I. Karakiewicz, and M. Harris, “Risk factors for biochemical recurrence following radical perineal prostatectomy in a large contemporary series: A detailed assessment of margin extent and location,” Urol. Oncol.31(8), 1470–1476 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang, D. Piao, G. R. Holyoak, J. W. Ritchey, K. E. Bartels, G. Slobodov, C. F. Bunting, and J. S. Krasinski, “Trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled spectral optical tomography of total hemoglobin concentration enhances assessment of the laterality and progression of a transmissible venereal tumor in canine prostate,” Urology77(1), 237–242 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jiang, G. R. Holyoak, K. E. Bartels, J. W. Ritchey, G. Xu, C. F. Bunting, G. Slobodov, and D. Piao, “In vivo trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled optical tomography of a transmissible venereal tumor model in the canine pelvic canal,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 030506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jiang, D. Piao, G. Xu, J. W. Ritchey, G. R. Holyoak, K. E. Bartels, C. F. Bunting, G. Slobodov, and J. S. Krasinski, “Trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled near-infrared optical tomography of the prostate, part II: experimental demonstration,” Opt. Express16(22), 17505–17520 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jordá, M.

V. Iremashvili, S. D. Lokeshwar, M. S. Soloway, L. Pelaez, S. A. Umar, M. Manoharan, and M. Jordá, “Partial sampling of radical prostatectomy specimens: detection of positive margins and extraprostatic extension,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol.37(2), 219–225 (2013).
[PubMed]

Kabani, S.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kabbani, W.

B. Kim, C. Temiyasathit, K. Bensalah, A. Tuncel, J. Cadeddu, W. Kabbani, V. Mathker, and H. Liu, “An efficient procedure for classification of prostate cancer in optical spectra,” Expert Syst. Appl.37, 3863–3869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Sharma, D. Kashyap, A. Mathker, S. Narvenkar, K. Bensalah, W. Kabbani, A. Tuncel, J. A. Cadeddu, and H. Liu, “Optical reflectance spectroscopy for detection of human prostate cancer,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc.2009, 118–121 (2009).
[PubMed]

Kaffenberger, B.

P. P. Dangle, K. K. Shah, B. Kaffenberger, and V. R. Patel, “The use of high resolution optical coherence tomography to evaluate robotic radical prostatectomy specimens,” Int. Braz. J. Urol.35(3), 344–353 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, J. W.

N. Lue, J. W. Kang, C. C. Yu, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, M. S. Feld, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Portable optical fiber probe-based spectroscopic scanner for rapid cancer diagnosis: a new tool for intraoperative margin assessment,” PLoS ONE7(1), e30887 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karakiewicz, P. I.

J. D. Sammon, Q. D. Trinh, S. Sukumar, P. Ravi, A. Friedman, M. Sun, J. Schmitges, C. Jeldres, W. Jeong, N. Mander, J. O. Peabody, P. I. Karakiewicz, and M. Harris, “Risk factors for biochemical recurrence following radical perineal prostatectomy in a large contemporary series: A detailed assessment of margin extent and location,” Urol. Oncol.31(8), 1470–1476 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Yossepowitch, A. Bjartell, J. A. Eastham, M. Graefen, B. D. Guillonneau, P. I. Karakiewicz, R. Montironi, and F. Montorsi, “Positive surgical margins in radical prostatectomy: outlining the problem and its long-term consequences,” Eur. Urol.55(1), 87–99 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karashima, T.

H. Fukuhara, K. Inoue, H. Satake, K. Tamura, T. Karashima, I. Yamasaki, I. Tatsuo, A. Kurabayashi, M. Furihata, and T. Shuin, “Photodynamic diagnosis of positive margin during radical prostatectomy: preliminary experience with 5-aminolevulinic acid,” Int. J. Urol.18(8), 585–591 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kashyap, D.

V. Sharma, D. Kashyap, A. Mathker, S. Narvenkar, K. Bensalah, W. Kabbani, A. Tuncel, J. A. Cadeddu, and H. Liu, “Optical reflectance spectroscopy for detection of human prostate cancer,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc.2009, 118–121 (2009).
[PubMed]

Kavuri, V. C.

V. C. Kavuri and H. Liu, “Hierarchical Clustering Method to Improve Transrectal Ultrasound-guided Diffuse Optical Tomography for Prostate Cancer Imaging,” Acad. Radiol.21(2), 250–262 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kendall, C. A.

P. Crow, N. Stone, C. A. Kendall, R. A. Persad, and M. P. Wright, “Optical diagnostics in urology: current applications and future prospects,” BJU Int.92(4), 400–407 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, B.

B. Kim, C. Temiyasathit, K. Bensalah, A. Tuncel, J. Cadeddu, W. Kabbani, V. Mathker, and H. Liu, “An efficient procedure for classification of prostate cancer in optical spectra,” Expert Syst. Appl.37, 3863–3869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kline, E.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kordan, Y.

S. Salem, S. S. Chang, P. E. Clark, R. Davis, S. D. Herrell, Y. Kordan, M. L. Wills, S. B. Shappell, R. Baumgartner, S. Phillips, J. A. Smith, M. S. Cookson, and D. A. Barocas, “Comparative analysis of whole mount processing and systematic sampling of radical prostatectomy specimens: pathological outcomes and risk of biochemical recurrence,” J. Urol.184(4), 1334–1340 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korolik, A. K.

G. Salomon, T. Hess, A. Erbersdobler, C. Eichelberg, S. Greschner, A. N. Sobchuk, A. K. Korolik, N. A. Nemkovich, J. Schreiber, M. Herms, M. Graefen, and H. Huland, “The feasibility of prostate cancer detection by triple spectroscopy,” Eur. Urol.55(2), 376–384 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krasinski, J. S.

Z. Jiang, D. Piao, G. R. Holyoak, J. W. Ritchey, K. E. Bartels, G. Slobodov, C. F. Bunting, and J. S. Krasinski, “Trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled spectral optical tomography of total hemoglobin concentration enhances assessment of the laterality and progression of a transmissible venereal tumor in canine prostate,” Urology77(1), 237–242 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jiang, D. Piao, G. Xu, J. W. Ritchey, G. R. Holyoak, K. E. Bartels, C. F. Bunting, G. Slobodov, and J. S. Krasinski, “Trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled near-infrared optical tomography of the prostate, part II: experimental demonstration,” Opt. Express16(22), 17505–17520 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kross, E.

T. D. Wager, L. Y. Atlas, M. A. Lindquist, M. Roy, C.-W. Woo, and E. Kross, “An fMRI-Based Neurologic Signature of Physical Pain,” N. Engl. J. Med.368(15), 1388–1397 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurabayashi, A.

H. Fukuhara, K. Inoue, H. Satake, K. Tamura, T. Karashima, I. Yamasaki, I. Tatsuo, A. Kurabayashi, M. Furihata, and T. Shuin, “Photodynamic diagnosis of positive margin during radical prostatectomy: preliminary experience with 5-aminolevulinic acid,” Int. J. Urol.18(8), 585–591 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lanigan, P.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lever, J.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levin, H. S.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, F.

Lindquist, M. A.

T. D. Wager, L. Y. Atlas, M. A. Lindquist, M. Roy, C.-W. Woo, and E. Kross, “An fMRI-Based Neurologic Signature of Physical Pain,” N. Engl. J. Med.368(15), 1388–1397 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Litwin, M. S.

L. W. D’Avolio, M. S. Litwin, S. O. Rogers, and A. A. Bui, “Automatic identification and classification of surgical margin status from pathology reports following prostate cancer surgery,” AMIA Annu. Symp. Proc.2007, 160–164 (2007).
[PubMed]

Liu, H.

V. C. Kavuri and H. Liu, “Hierarchical Clustering Method to Improve Transrectal Ultrasound-guided Diffuse Optical Tomography for Prostate Cancer Imaging,” Acad. Radiol.21(2), 250–262 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Sharma, S. Shivalingaiah, Y. Peng, D. Euhus, Z. Gryczynski, and H. Liu, “Auto-fluorescence lifetime and light reflectance spectroscopy for breast cancer diagnosis: potential tools for intraoperative margin detection,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(8), 1825–1840 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Sharma, J. W. He, S. Narvenkar, Y. B. Peng, and H. Liu, “Quantification of light reflectance spectroscopy and its application: determination of hemodynamics on the rat spinal cord and brain induced by electrical stimulation,” Neuroimage56(3), 1316–1328 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kim, C. Temiyasathit, K. Bensalah, A. Tuncel, J. Cadeddu, W. Kabbani, V. Mathker, and H. Liu, “An efficient procedure for classification of prostate cancer in optical spectra,” Expert Syst. Appl.37, 3863–3869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Sharma, D. Kashyap, A. Mathker, S. Narvenkar, K. Bensalah, W. Kabbani, A. Tuncel, J. A. Cadeddu, and H. Liu, “Optical reflectance spectroscopy for detection of human prostate cancer,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc.2009, 118–121 (2009).
[PubMed]

Lokeshwar, S. D.

V. Iremashvili, S. D. Lokeshwar, M. S. Soloway, L. Pelaez, S. A. Umar, M. Manoharan, and M. Jordá, “Partial sampling of radical prostatectomy specimens: detection of positive margins and extraprostatic extension,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol.37(2), 219–225 (2013).
[PubMed]

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R. Nachabé, D. J. Evers, B. H. Hendriks, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, E. J. Rutgers, M. J. Peeters, J. A. Van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse optical spectroscopy from 500 to 1600 nm: comparison of classification methods,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 087010 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lue, N.

N. Lue, J. W. Kang, C. C. Yu, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, M. S. Feld, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Portable optical fiber probe-based spectroscopic scanner for rapid cancer diagnosis: a new tool for intraoperative margin assessment,” PLoS ONE7(1), e30887 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Mander, N.

J. D. Sammon, Q. D. Trinh, S. Sukumar, P. Ravi, A. Friedman, M. Sun, J. Schmitges, C. Jeldres, W. Jeong, N. Mander, J. O. Peabody, P. I. Karakiewicz, and M. Harris, “Risk factors for biochemical recurrence following radical perineal prostatectomy in a large contemporary series: A detailed assessment of margin extent and location,” Urol. Oncol.31(8), 1470–1476 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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V. Iremashvili, S. D. Lokeshwar, M. S. Soloway, L. Pelaez, S. A. Umar, M. Manoharan, and M. Jordá, “Partial sampling of radical prostatectomy specimens: detection of positive margins and extraprostatic extension,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol.37(2), 219–225 (2013).
[PubMed]

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V. Sharma, D. Kashyap, A. Mathker, S. Narvenkar, K. Bensalah, W. Kabbani, A. Tuncel, J. A. Cadeddu, and H. Liu, “Optical reflectance spectroscopy for detection of human prostate cancer,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc.2009, 118–121 (2009).
[PubMed]

Mathker, V.

B. Kim, C. Temiyasathit, K. Bensalah, A. Tuncel, J. Cadeddu, W. Kabbani, V. Mathker, and H. Liu, “An efficient procedure for classification of prostate cancer in optical spectra,” Expert Syst. Appl.37, 3863–3869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montironi, R.

O. Yossepowitch, A. Bjartell, J. A. Eastham, M. Graefen, B. D. Guillonneau, P. I. Karakiewicz, R. Montironi, and F. Montorsi, “Positive surgical margins in radical prostatectomy: outlining the problem and its long-term consequences,” Eur. Urol.55(1), 87–99 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montorsi, F.

O. Yossepowitch, A. Bjartell, J. A. Eastham, M. Graefen, B. D. Guillonneau, P. I. Karakiewicz, R. Montironi, and F. Montorsi, “Positive surgical margins in radical prostatectomy: outlining the problem and its long-term consequences,” Eur. Urol.55(1), 87–99 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, M. G.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munro, I.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.3(8), 795–801 (2004).
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Nachabé, R.

R. Nachabé, D. J. Evers, B. H. Hendriks, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, E. J. Rutgers, M. J. Peeters, J. A. Van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse optical spectroscopy from 500 to 1600 nm: comparison of classification methods,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 087010 (2011).
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A. Tewari and P. Narayan, “Novel staging tool for localized prostate cancer: a pilot study using genetic adaptive neural networks,” J. Urol.160(2), 430–436 (1998).
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Narvenkar, S.

V. Sharma, J. W. He, S. Narvenkar, Y. B. Peng, and H. Liu, “Quantification of light reflectance spectroscopy and its application: determination of hemodynamics on the rat spinal cord and brain induced by electrical stimulation,” Neuroimage56(3), 1316–1328 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Sharma, D. Kashyap, A. Mathker, S. Narvenkar, K. Bensalah, W. Kabbani, A. Tuncel, J. A. Cadeddu, and H. Liu, “Optical reflectance spectroscopy for detection of human prostate cancer,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc.2009, 118–121 (2009).
[PubMed]

Neil, M.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.3(8), 795–801 (2004).
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Nemkovich, N. A.

G. Salomon, T. Hess, A. Erbersdobler, C. Eichelberg, S. Greschner, A. N. Sobchuk, A. K. Korolik, N. A. Nemkovich, J. Schreiber, M. Herms, M. Graefen, and H. Huland, “The feasibility of prostate cancer detection by triple spectroscopy,” Eur. Urol.55(2), 376–384 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oldenburg, H. S.

R. Nachabé, D. J. Evers, B. H. Hendriks, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, E. J. Rutgers, M. J. Peeters, J. A. Van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse optical spectroscopy from 500 to 1600 nm: comparison of classification methods,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 087010 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palapattu, G. S.

Patel, V. R.

P. P. Dangle, K. K. Shah, B. Kaffenberger, and V. R. Patel, “The use of high resolution optical coherence tomography to evaluate robotic radical prostatectomy specimens,” Int. Braz. J. Urol.35(3), 344–353 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peabody, J. O.

J. D. Sammon, Q. D. Trinh, S. Sukumar, P. Ravi, A. Friedman, M. Sun, J. Schmitges, C. Jeldres, W. Jeong, N. Mander, J. O. Peabody, P. I. Karakiewicz, and M. Harris, “Risk factors for biochemical recurrence following radical perineal prostatectomy in a large contemporary series: A detailed assessment of margin extent and location,” Urol. Oncol.31(8), 1470–1476 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peeters, M. J.

R. Nachabé, D. J. Evers, B. H. Hendriks, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, E. J. Rutgers, M. J. Peeters, J. A. Van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse optical spectroscopy from 500 to 1600 nm: comparison of classification methods,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 087010 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelaez, L.

V. Iremashvili, S. D. Lokeshwar, M. S. Soloway, L. Pelaez, S. A. Umar, M. Manoharan, and M. Jordá, “Partial sampling of radical prostatectomy specimens: detection of positive margins and extraprostatic extension,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol.37(2), 219–225 (2013).
[PubMed]

Peng, Y.

Peng, Y. B.

V. Sharma, J. W. He, S. Narvenkar, Y. B. Peng, and H. Liu, “Quantification of light reflectance spectroscopy and its application: determination of hemodynamics on the rat spinal cord and brain induced by electrical stimulation,” Neuroimage56(3), 1316–1328 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perelman, L. T.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Persad, R. A.

P. Crow, N. Stone, C. A. Kendall, R. A. Persad, and M. P. Wright, “Optical diagnostics in urology: current applications and future prospects,” BJU Int.92(4), 400–407 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, D.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, S.

S. Salem, S. S. Chang, P. E. Clark, R. Davis, S. D. Herrell, Y. Kordan, M. L. Wills, S. B. Shappell, R. Baumgartner, S. Phillips, J. A. Smith, M. S. Cookson, and D. A. Barocas, “Comparative analysis of whole mount processing and systematic sampling of radical prostatectomy specimens: pathological outcomes and risk of biochemical recurrence,” J. Urol.184(4), 1334–1340 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piao, D.

Z. Jiang, D. Piao, G. R. Holyoak, J. W. Ritchey, K. E. Bartels, G. Slobodov, C. F. Bunting, and J. S. Krasinski, “Trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled spectral optical tomography of total hemoglobin concentration enhances assessment of the laterality and progression of a transmissible venereal tumor in canine prostate,” Urology77(1), 237–242 (2011).
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Z. Jiang, G. R. Holyoak, K. E. Bartels, J. W. Ritchey, G. Xu, C. F. Bunting, G. Slobodov, and D. Piao, “In vivo trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled optical tomography of a transmissible venereal tumor model in the canine pelvic canal,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 030506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jiang, D. Piao, G. Xu, J. W. Ritchey, G. R. Holyoak, K. E. Bartels, C. F. Bunting, G. Slobodov, and J. S. Krasinski, “Trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled near-infrared optical tomography of the prostate, part II: experimental demonstration,” Opt. Express16(22), 17505–17520 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ravi, P.

J. D. Sammon, Q. D. Trinh, S. Sukumar, P. Ravi, A. Friedman, M. Sun, J. Schmitges, C. Jeldres, W. Jeong, N. Mander, J. O. Peabody, P. I. Karakiewicz, and M. Harris, “Risk factors for biochemical recurrence following radical perineal prostatectomy in a large contemporary series: A detailed assessment of margin extent and location,” Urol. Oncol.31(8), 1470–1476 (2013).
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Reavell, F.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.3(8), 795–801 (2004).
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R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.47(1), 555–606 (1996).
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Z. Jiang, D. Piao, G. R. Holyoak, J. W. Ritchey, K. E. Bartels, G. Slobodov, C. F. Bunting, and J. S. Krasinski, “Trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled spectral optical tomography of total hemoglobin concentration enhances assessment of the laterality and progression of a transmissible venereal tumor in canine prostate,” Urology77(1), 237–242 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jiang, G. R. Holyoak, K. E. Bartels, J. W. Ritchey, G. Xu, C. F. Bunting, G. Slobodov, and D. Piao, “In vivo trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled optical tomography of a transmissible venereal tumor model in the canine pelvic canal,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 030506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jiang, D. Piao, G. Xu, J. W. Ritchey, G. R. Holyoak, K. E. Bartels, C. F. Bunting, G. Slobodov, and J. S. Krasinski, “Trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled near-infrared optical tomography of the prostate, part II: experimental demonstration,” Opt. Express16(22), 17505–17520 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogers, S. O.

L. W. D’Avolio, M. S. Litwin, S. O. Rogers, and A. A. Bui, “Automatic identification and classification of surgical margin status from pathology reports following prostate cancer surgery,” AMIA Annu. Symp. Proc.2007, 160–164 (2007).
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D. A. Barron and D. R. Rowley, “The reactive stroma microenvironment and prostate cancer progression,” Endocr. Relat. Cancer19(6), R187–R204 (2012).
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Roy, M.

T. D. Wager, L. Y. Atlas, M. A. Lindquist, M. Roy, C.-W. Woo, and E. Kross, “An fMRI-Based Neurologic Signature of Physical Pain,” N. Engl. J. Med.368(15), 1388–1397 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruers, T. J.

R. Nachabé, D. J. Evers, B. H. Hendriks, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, E. J. Rutgers, M. J. Peeters, J. A. Van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse optical spectroscopy from 500 to 1600 nm: comparison of classification methods,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 087010 (2011).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Instrumentation: (a) Dual-modal optical system assembled on a portable cart for mobile capability to meet clinical needs; (b) close view of the optical probe positioned near the prostate specimen before actual optical readings; (c) front view of the probe showing arrangement of source and detector fibers for both AFLS and LRS.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measurement Protocol: a freshly removed prostate specimen (a) was inked (b); then bi-valved in a coronal plane (c). After identifying benign peripheral zone tissue (nPZ), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and suspicious lesions for PCa, optical measurements were performed on the selected regions (d). Then, the measured regions were black-inked, removed, and sent for pathology confirmation (e), where black markings represent the removed tissue pieces that were optically measured and then sent for pathology analysis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A flow chart describing calculation of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and generation of ROC curves through cross-validated classification process.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Comparison of four AFLS-derived mean-lifetimes, τm, at all four emission wavelengths across three tissue types (PCa, nPZ, and BPH). (b) Comparison of five LRS-derived features across the three tissue types. μs' was calculated at 750 nm, and β-car is scaled down by a factor of 10 for display purposes. For both (a) and (b), the symbol of ‘*’ above bars indicates a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) when compared to PCa. Error bars are based on standard error of mean.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

ROC curves obtained using the dMOD and the MLR classification for identifying parenchymal PCa tissues at individual PCa grades (GS 9, GS 8, GS 7) using 5-tissue-type classification and with all grades combined (All PCa) using 3-tissue-type classification.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

ROC curves obtained using the dMOD and MLR classification for identifying PCa and ECTs at individual Gleason grades (GS 9, GS 8, GS 7) using 5-tissue-type classification and with all grades combined (All PCa) using 3-tissue-type classification.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Number of measurements classified by tissue type*

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Table 2 Classification metrics of PCa for parenchymal tissues, evaluated by LRS only, AFLS only, and dMOD (unit: %)

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Table 3 Classification metrics to discriminate PCa from benign tissues (including ECT), evaluated by LRS only, AFLS only, and dMOD (unit: %)

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Table 4 Summary of relations among fluorophores, cellular or metabolic functions, and expected versus measured fluorescence signals and lifetimes at emission wavelengths

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R(λ)= μ s ' (λ) k 1 + k 2 μ a (λ) .
I( t ) = a 1 exp(t/ τ 1 ) + a 2 exp(t/ τ 2 ) + c
τ m =( a 1 τ 1 2 + a 2 τ 2 2 )/( a 1 τ 1 + a 2 τ 2 ),

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