Abstract

In functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) superficial hemodynamics can mask optical signals related to brain activity. We present a method to separate superficial and cerebral absorption changes based on the analysis of changes in moments of time-of-flight distributions and a two-layered model. The related sensitivity factors were calculated from individual optical properties. The method was validated on a two-layer liquid phantom. Absorption changes in the lower layer were retrieved with an accuracy better than 20%. The method was successfully applied to in vivo data and compared to the reconstruction of homogeneous absorption changes.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (3)

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Funane, H. Atsumori, T. Katura, A. N. Obata, H. Sato, Y. Tanikawa, E. Okada, and M. Kiguchi, “Quantitative evaluation of deep and shallow tissue layers’ contribution to fNIRS signal using multi-distance optodes and independent component analysis,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 150–165 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 28–50 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (3)

E. Kirilina, N. Yu, A. Jelzow, H. Wabnitz, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “Identifying and quantifying main components of physiological noise in functional near infrared spectroscopy on the prefrontal cortex,” Front Hum Neurosci 7, 864 (2013).
[PubMed]

L. Zucchelli, D. Contini, R. Re, A. Torricelli, and L. Spinelli, “Method for the discrimination of superficial and deep absorption variations by time domain fNIRS,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(12), 2893–2910 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE 8583, 85830L (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, W. Staszkiewicz, A. Gabrusiewicz, P. Sawosz, G. Madycki, and R. Maniewski, “Application of a time-resolved optical brain imager for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during carotid surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yamada, S. Umeyama, and K. Matsuda, “Separation of fNIRS Signals into Functional and Systemic Components Based on Differences in Hemodynamic Modalities,” PLoS ONE 7(11), e50271 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ferrari and V. Quaresima, “A brief review on the history of human functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) development and fields of application,” Neuroimage 63(2), 921–935 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 61(1), 70–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, and C. Elster, “Determination of absorption changes from moments of distributions of times of flight of photons: optimization of measurement conditions for a two-layered tissue model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 057005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

R. B. Saager, N. L. Telleri, and A. J. Berger, “Two-detector Corrected Near Infrared Spectroscopy (C-NIRS) detects hemodynamic activation responses more robustly than single-detector NIRS,” Neuroimage 55(4), 1679–1685 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Takahashi, Y. Takikawa, R. Kawagoe, S. Shibuya, T. Iwano, and S. Kitazawa, “Influence of skin blood flow on near-infrared spectroscopy signals measured on the forehead during a verbal fluency task,” Neuroimage 57(3), 991–1002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

X. Cui, S. Bray, and A. L. Reiss, “Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) signal improvement based on negative correlation between oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin dynamics,” Neuroimage 49(4), 3039–3046 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the adult human brain,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 662, 143–148 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liemert and A. Kienle, “Light diffusion in a turbid cylinder. II. Layered case,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9266–9279 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

Q. Zhang, G. E. Strangman, and G. Ganis, “Adaptive filtering to reduce global interference in non-invasive NIRS measures of brain activation: How well and when does it work?” Neuroimage 45(3), 788–794 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Virtanen, T. Noponen, and P. Meriläinen, “Comparison of principal and independent component analysis in removing extracerebral interference from near-infrared spectroscopy signals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054032 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Tachtsidis, T. S. Leung, A. Chopra, P. H. Koh, C. B. Reid, and C. E. Elwell, “False positives in functional near-infrared topography,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 645, 307–314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

Q. Zhang, E. N. Brown, and G. E. Strangman, “Adaptive filtering for global interference cancellation and real-time recovery of evoked brain activity: a Monte Carlo simulation study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 044014 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, N. Żolek, and R. Maniewski, “Time-resolved optical imager for assessment of cerebral oxygenation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034019 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Martelli and G. Zaccanti, “Calibration of scattering and absorption properties of a liquid diffusive medium at NIR wavelengths. CW method,” Opt. Express 15(2), 486–500 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. P. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590H (2005).
[Crossref]

R. B. Saager and A. J. Berger, “Direct characterization and removal of interfering absorption trends in two-layer turbid media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(9), 1874–1882 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, and H. Rinneberg, “Evaluation of Optical Properties of Highly Scattering Media by Moments of Distributions of Times of Flight of Photons,” Appl. Opt. 42(28), 5785–5792 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, and R. Macdonald, “Fiber dispersion in time domain measurements compromising the accuracy of determination of optical properties of strongly scattering media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 512–516 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

D. A. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. J. A. Marota, and J. B. Mandeville, “The Accuracy of Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Imaging during Focal Changes in Cerebral Hemodynamics,” Neuroimage 13(1), 76–90 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. G. Al-Rawi, P. Smielewski, and P. J. Kirkpatrick, “Evaluation of a Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRO 300) for the Detection of Intracranial Oxygenation Changes in the Adult Head,” Stroke 32(11), 2492–2500 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(3), 879–896 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

Y. Nomura, O. Hazeki, and M. Tamura, “Relationship between time-resolved and non-time-resolved Beer-Lambert law in turbid media,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(6), 1009–1022 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kienle and M. S. Patterson, “Improved solutions of the steady-state and the time-resolved diffusion equations for reflectance from a semi-infinite turbid medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(1), 246–254 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(2), 295–304 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

S. J. Matcher, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Use of the water absorption spectrum to quantify tissue chromophore concentration changes in near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 39(1), 177–196 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (3)

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38(12), 1859–1876 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Essenpreis, C. E. Elwell, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, “Spectral dependence of temporal point spread functions in human tissues,” Appl. Opt. 32(4), 418–425 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ferrari, Q. Wei, R. A. De Blasi, V. Quaresima, and G. Zaccanti, “Variability of human brain and muscle optical pathlength in different experimental conditions,” Proc. SPIE 1888, 466–472 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “The theoretical basis for the determination of optical pathlengths in tissue: temporal and frequency analysis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(7), 1531–1560 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1976 (1)

C. A. Laury-Micoulaut, “The n-th centered moment of a multiple convolution and its applications to an intercloud gas model,” Astron. Astrophys. 51, 343–346 (1976).

Al-Rawi, P. G.

P. G. Al-Rawi, P. Smielewski, and P. J. Kirkpatrick, “Evaluation of a Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRO 300) for the Detection of Intracranial Oxygenation Changes in the Adult Head,” Stroke 32(11), 2492–2500 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38(12), 1859–1876 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Essenpreis, C. E. Elwell, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, “Spectral dependence of temporal point spread functions in human tissues,” Appl. Opt. 32(4), 418–425 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “The theoretical basis for the determination of optical pathlengths in tissue: temporal and frequency analysis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(7), 1531–1560 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atsumori, H.

T. Funane, H. Atsumori, T. Katura, A. N. Obata, H. Sato, Y. Tanikawa, E. Okada, and M. Kiguchi, “Quantitative evaluation of deep and shallow tissue layers’ contribution to fNIRS signal using multi-distance optodes and independent component analysis,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 150–165 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berger, A. J.

R. B. Saager, N. L. Telleri, and A. J. Berger, “Two-detector Corrected Near Infrared Spectroscopy (C-NIRS) detects hemodynamic activation responses more robustly than single-detector NIRS,” Neuroimage 55(4), 1679–1685 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. B. Saager and A. J. Berger, “Direct characterization and removal of interfering absorption trends in two-layer turbid media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(9), 1874–1882 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

D. A. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. J. A. Marota, and J. B. Mandeville, “The Accuracy of Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Imaging during Focal Changes in Cerebral Hemodynamics,” Neuroimage 13(1), 76–90 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bray, S.

X. Cui, S. Bray, and A. L. Reiss, “Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) signal improvement based on negative correlation between oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin dynamics,” Neuroimage 49(4), 3039–3046 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, E. N.

Q. Zhang, E. N. Brown, and G. E. Strangman, “Adaptive filtering for global interference cancellation and real-time recovery of evoked brain activity: a Monte Carlo simulation study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 044014 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brühl, R.

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 61(1), 70–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caffini, M.

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 28–50 (2014).
[PubMed]

Chance, B.

Cheng, X.

D. A. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. J. A. Marota, and J. B. Mandeville, “The Accuracy of Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Imaging during Focal Changes in Cerebral Hemodynamics,” Neuroimage 13(1), 76–90 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chopra, A.

I. Tachtsidis, T. S. Leung, A. Chopra, P. H. Koh, C. B. Reid, and C. E. Elwell, “False positives in functional near-infrared topography,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 645, 307–314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clemence, M.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(2), 295–304 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Contini, D.

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 28–50 (2014).
[PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE 8583, 85830L (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Zucchelli, D. Contini, R. Re, A. Torricelli, and L. Spinelli, “Method for the discrimination of superficial and deep absorption variations by time domain fNIRS,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(12), 2893–2910 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cope, M.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(2), 295–304 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Matcher, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Use of the water absorption spectrum to quantify tissue chromophore concentration changes in near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 39(1), 177–196 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Essenpreis, C. E. Elwell, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, “Spectral dependence of temporal point spread functions in human tissues,” Appl. Opt. 32(4), 418–425 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38(12), 1859–1876 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “The theoretical basis for the determination of optical pathlengths in tissue: temporal and frequency analysis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(7), 1531–1560 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cubeddu, R.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE 8583, 85830L (2013).
[Crossref]

Cui, X.

X. Cui, S. Bray, and A. L. Reiss, “Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) signal improvement based on negative correlation between oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin dynamics,” Neuroimage 49(4), 3039–3046 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Blasi, R. A.

M. Ferrari, Q. Wei, R. A. De Blasi, V. Quaresima, and G. Zaccanti, “Variability of human brain and muscle optical pathlength in different experimental conditions,” Proc. SPIE 1888, 466–472 (1993).
[Crossref]

Delpy, D. T.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(2), 295–304 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Matcher, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Use of the water absorption spectrum to quantify tissue chromophore concentration changes in near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 39(1), 177–196 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Essenpreis, C. E. Elwell, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, “Spectral dependence of temporal point spread functions in human tissues,” Appl. Opt. 32(4), 418–425 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38(12), 1859–1876 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “The theoretical basis for the determination of optical pathlengths in tissue: temporal and frequency analysis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(7), 1531–1560 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Di Ninni, P.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE 8583, 85830L (2013).
[Crossref]

Dreier, J. P.

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. P. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590H (2005).
[Crossref]

Drenckhahn, C.

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. P. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590H (2005).
[Crossref]

Duncan, A.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(2), 295–304 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elster, C.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, and C. Elster, “Determination of absorption changes from moments of distributions of times of flight of photons: optimization of measurement conditions for a two-layered tissue model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 057005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elwell, C. E.

I. Tachtsidis, T. S. Leung, A. Chopra, P. H. Koh, C. B. Reid, and C. E. Elwell, “False positives in functional near-infrared topography,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 645, 307–314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(2), 295–304 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Essenpreis, C. E. Elwell, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, “Spectral dependence of temporal point spread functions in human tissues,” Appl. Opt. 32(4), 418–425 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Erdmann, R.

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. P. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590H (2005).
[Crossref]

Essenpreis, M.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38(12), 1859–1876 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Essenpreis, C. E. Elwell, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, “Spectral dependence of temporal point spread functions in human tissues,” Appl. Opt. 32(4), 418–425 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferrari, M.

M. Ferrari and V. Quaresima, “A brief review on the history of human functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) development and fields of application,” Neuroimage 63(2), 921–935 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ferrari, Q. Wei, R. A. De Blasi, V. Quaresima, and G. Zaccanti, “Variability of human brain and muscle optical pathlength in different experimental conditions,” Proc. SPIE 1888, 466–472 (1993).
[Crossref]

Firbank, M.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38(12), 1859–1876 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Funane, T.

T. Funane, H. Atsumori, T. Katura, A. N. Obata, H. Sato, Y. Tanikawa, E. Okada, and M. Kiguchi, “Quantitative evaluation of deep and shallow tissue layers’ contribution to fNIRS signal using multi-distance optodes and independent component analysis,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 150–165 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gabrusiewicz, A.

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, W. Staszkiewicz, A. Gabrusiewicz, P. Sawosz, G. Madycki, and R. Maniewski, “Application of a time-resolved optical brain imager for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during carotid surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ganis, G.

Q. Zhang, G. E. Strangman, and G. Ganis, “Adaptive filtering to reduce global interference in non-invasive NIRS measures of brain activation: How well and when does it work?” Neuroimage 45(3), 788–794 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaudette, T.

D. A. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. J. A. Marota, and J. B. Mandeville, “The Accuracy of Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Imaging during Focal Changes in Cerebral Hemodynamics,” Neuroimage 13(1), 76–90 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grosenick, D.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, and R. Macdonald, “Fiber dispersion in time domain measurements compromising the accuracy of determination of optical properties of strongly scattering media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 512–516 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, and H. Rinneberg, “Evaluation of Optical Properties of Highly Scattering Media by Moments of Distributions of Times of Flight of Photons,” Appl. Opt. 42(28), 5785–5792 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hazeki, O.

Y. Nomura, O. Hazeki, and M. Tamura, “Relationship between time-resolved and non-time-resolved Beer-Lambert law in turbid media,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(6), 1009–1022 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hebden, J. C.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE 8583, 85830L (2013).
[Crossref]

Heine, A.

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 61(1), 70–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hiraoka, M.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38(12), 1859–1876 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ittermann, B.

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 61(1), 70–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iwano, T.

T. Takahashi, Y. Takikawa, R. Kawagoe, S. Shibuya, T. Iwano, and S. Kitazawa, “Influence of skin blood flow on near-infrared spectroscopy signals measured on the forehead during a verbal fluency task,” Neuroimage 57(3), 991–1002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacobs, A. M.

E. Kirilina, N. Yu, A. Jelzow, H. Wabnitz, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “Identifying and quantifying main components of physiological noise in functional near infrared spectroscopy on the prefrontal cortex,” Front Hum Neurosci 7, 864 (2013).
[PubMed]

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 61(1), 70–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jelzow, A.

E. Kirilina, N. Yu, A. Jelzow, H. Wabnitz, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “Identifying and quantifying main components of physiological noise in functional near infrared spectroscopy on the prefrontal cortex,” Front Hum Neurosci 7, 864 (2013).
[PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE 8583, 85830L (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 61(1), 70–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kacprzak, M.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE 8583, 85830L (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, W. Staszkiewicz, A. Gabrusiewicz, P. Sawosz, G. Madycki, and R. Maniewski, “Application of a time-resolved optical brain imager for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during carotid surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, N. Żolek, and R. Maniewski, “Time-resolved optical imager for assessment of cerebral oxygenation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034019 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Katura, T.

T. Funane, H. Atsumori, T. Katura, A. N. Obata, H. Sato, Y. Tanikawa, E. Okada, and M. Kiguchi, “Quantitative evaluation of deep and shallow tissue layers’ contribution to fNIRS signal using multi-distance optodes and independent component analysis,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 150–165 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawagoe, R.

T. Takahashi, Y. Takikawa, R. Kawagoe, S. Shibuya, T. Iwano, and S. Kitazawa, “Influence of skin blood flow on near-infrared spectroscopy signals measured on the forehead during a verbal fluency task,” Neuroimage 57(3), 991–1002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kienle, A.

Kiguchi, M.

T. Funane, H. Atsumori, T. Katura, A. N. Obata, H. Sato, Y. Tanikawa, E. Okada, and M. Kiguchi, “Quantitative evaluation of deep and shallow tissue layers’ contribution to fNIRS signal using multi-distance optodes and independent component analysis,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 150–165 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirilina, E.

E. Kirilina, N. Yu, A. Jelzow, H. Wabnitz, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “Identifying and quantifying main components of physiological noise in functional near infrared spectroscopy on the prefrontal cortex,” Front Hum Neurosci 7, 864 (2013).
[PubMed]

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 61(1), 70–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirkpatrick, P. J.

P. G. Al-Rawi, P. Smielewski, and P. J. Kirkpatrick, “Evaluation of a Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRO 300) for the Detection of Intracranial Oxygenation Changes in the Adult Head,” Stroke 32(11), 2492–2500 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kitazawa, S.

T. Takahashi, Y. Takikawa, R. Kawagoe, S. Shibuya, T. Iwano, and S. Kitazawa, “Influence of skin blood flow on near-infrared spectroscopy signals measured on the forehead during a verbal fluency task,” Neuroimage 57(3), 991–1002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kleiser, S.

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koh, P. H.

I. Tachtsidis, T. S. Leung, A. Chopra, P. H. Koh, C. B. Reid, and C. E. Elwell, “False positives in functional near-infrared topography,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 645, 307–314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laury-Micoulaut, C. A.

C. A. Laury-Micoulaut, “The n-th centered moment of a multiple convolution and its applications to an intercloud gas model,” Astron. Astrophys. 51, 343–346 (1976).

Leung, T. S.

I. Tachtsidis, T. S. Leung, A. Chopra, P. H. Koh, C. B. Reid, and C. E. Elwell, “False positives in functional near-infrared topography,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 645, 307–314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liebert, A.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE 8583, 85830L (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, W. Staszkiewicz, A. Gabrusiewicz, P. Sawosz, G. Madycki, and R. Maniewski, “Application of a time-resolved optical brain imager for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during carotid surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, and C. Elster, “Determination of absorption changes from moments of distributions of times of flight of photons: optimization of measurement conditions for a two-layered tissue model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 057005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the adult human brain,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 662, 143–148 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, N. Żolek, and R. Maniewski, “Time-resolved optical imager for assessment of cerebral oxygenation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034019 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. P. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590H (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: Intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons,” Appl. Opt. 43(15), 3037–3047 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, and H. Rinneberg, “Evaluation of Optical Properties of Highly Scattering Media by Moments of Distributions of Times of Flight of Photons,” Appl. Opt. 42(28), 5785–5792 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, and R. Macdonald, “Fiber dispersion in time domain measurements compromising the accuracy of determination of optical properties of strongly scattering media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 512–516 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liemert, A.

Macdonald, R.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE 8583, 85830L (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the adult human brain,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 662, 143–148 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. P. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590H (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: Intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons,” Appl. Opt. 43(15), 3037–3047 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, and H. Rinneberg, “Evaluation of Optical Properties of Highly Scattering Media by Moments of Distributions of Times of Flight of Photons,” Appl. Opt. 42(28), 5785–5792 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, and R. Macdonald, “Fiber dispersion in time domain measurements compromising the accuracy of determination of optical properties of strongly scattering media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 512–516 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Madycki, G.

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, W. Staszkiewicz, A. Gabrusiewicz, P. Sawosz, G. Madycki, and R. Maniewski, “Application of a time-resolved optical brain imager for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during carotid surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Magazov, S.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE 8583, 85830L (2013).
[Crossref]

Mandeville, J. B.

D. A. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. J. A. Marota, and J. B. Mandeville, “The Accuracy of Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Imaging during Focal Changes in Cerebral Hemodynamics,” Neuroimage 13(1), 76–90 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maniewski, R.

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, W. Staszkiewicz, A. Gabrusiewicz, P. Sawosz, G. Madycki, and R. Maniewski, “Application of a time-resolved optical brain imager for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during carotid surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, N. Żolek, and R. Maniewski, “Time-resolved optical imager for assessment of cerebral oxygenation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034019 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marota, J. J. A.

D. A. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. J. A. Marota, and J. B. Mandeville, “The Accuracy of Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Imaging during Focal Changes in Cerebral Hemodynamics,” Neuroimage 13(1), 76–90 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martelli, F.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE 8583, 85830L (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Martelli and G. Zaccanti, “Calibration of scattering and absorption properties of a liquid diffusive medium at NIR wavelengths. CW method,” Opt. Express 15(2), 486–500 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mata Pavia, J.

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matcher, S. J.

S. J. Matcher, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Use of the water absorption spectrum to quantify tissue chromophore concentration changes in near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 39(1), 177–196 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matsuda, K.

T. Yamada, S. Umeyama, and K. Matsuda, “Separation of fNIRS Signals into Functional and Systemic Components Based on Differences in Hemodynamic Modalities,” PLoS ONE 7(11), e50271 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mazurenka, M.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE 8583, 85830L (2013).
[Crossref]

Meek, J. H.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(2), 295–304 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meriläinen, P.

J. Virtanen, T. Noponen, and P. Meriläinen, “Comparison of principal and independent component analysis in removing extracerebral interference from near-infrared spectroscopy signals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054032 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Metz, A. J.

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milej, D.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE 8583, 85830L (2013).
[Crossref]

Moeller, M.

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the adult human brain,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 662, 143–148 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. P. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590H (2005).
[Crossref]

Möller, M.

Niessing, M.

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 61(1), 70–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nomura, Y.

Y. Nomura, O. Hazeki, and M. Tamura, “Relationship between time-resolved and non-time-resolved Beer-Lambert law in turbid media,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(6), 1009–1022 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noponen, T.

J. Virtanen, T. Noponen, and P. Meriläinen, “Comparison of principal and independent component analysis in removing extracerebral interference from near-infrared spectroscopy signals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054032 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Obata, A. N.

T. Funane, H. Atsumori, T. Katura, A. N. Obata, H. Sato, Y. Tanikawa, E. Okada, and M. Kiguchi, “Quantitative evaluation of deep and shallow tissue layers’ contribution to fNIRS signal using multi-distance optodes and independent component analysis,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 150–165 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Obrig, H.

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the adult human brain,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 662, 143–148 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. P. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590H (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: Intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons,” Appl. Opt. 43(15), 3037–3047 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(3), 879–896 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Okada, E.

T. Funane, H. Atsumori, T. Katura, A. N. Obata, H. Sato, Y. Tanikawa, E. Okada, and M. Kiguchi, “Quantitative evaluation of deep and shallow tissue layers’ contribution to fNIRS signal using multi-distance optodes and independent component analysis,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 150–165 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

Pifferi, A.

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 28–50 (2014).
[PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE 8583, 85830L (2013).
[Crossref]

Quaresima, V.

M. Ferrari and V. Quaresima, “A brief review on the history of human functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) development and fields of application,” Neuroimage 63(2), 921–935 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ferrari, Q. Wei, R. A. De Blasi, V. Quaresima, and G. Zaccanti, “Variability of human brain and muscle optical pathlength in different experimental conditions,” Proc. SPIE 1888, 466–472 (1993).
[Crossref]

Raitza, O.

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. P. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590H (2005).
[Crossref]

Re, R.

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 28–50 (2014).
[PubMed]

L. Zucchelli, D. Contini, R. Re, A. Torricelli, and L. Spinelli, “Method for the discrimination of superficial and deep absorption variations by time domain fNIRS,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(12), 2893–2910 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reid, C. B.

I. Tachtsidis, T. S. Leung, A. Chopra, P. H. Koh, C. B. Reid, and C. E. Elwell, “False positives in functional near-infrared topography,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 645, 307–314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reiss, A. L.

X. Cui, S. Bray, and A. L. Reiss, “Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) signal improvement based on negative correlation between oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin dynamics,” Neuroimage 49(4), 3039–3046 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rinneberg, H.

Saager, R. B.

R. B. Saager, N. L. Telleri, and A. J. Berger, “Two-detector Corrected Near Infrared Spectroscopy (C-NIRS) detects hemodynamic activation responses more robustly than single-detector NIRS,” Neuroimage 55(4), 1679–1685 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. B. Saager and A. J. Berger, “Direct characterization and removal of interfering absorption trends in two-layer turbid media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(9), 1874–1882 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sato, H.

T. Funane, H. Atsumori, T. Katura, A. N. Obata, H. Sato, Y. Tanikawa, E. Okada, and M. Kiguchi, “Quantitative evaluation of deep and shallow tissue layers’ contribution to fNIRS signal using multi-distance optodes and independent component analysis,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 150–165 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sawosz, P.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE 8583, 85830L (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, W. Staszkiewicz, A. Gabrusiewicz, P. Sawosz, G. Madycki, and R. Maniewski, “Application of a time-resolved optical brain imager for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during carotid surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, N. Żolek, and R. Maniewski, “Time-resolved optical imager for assessment of cerebral oxygenation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034019 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scholkmann, F.

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shibuya, S.

T. Takahashi, Y. Takikawa, R. Kawagoe, S. Shibuya, T. Iwano, and S. Kitazawa, “Influence of skin blood flow on near-infrared spectroscopy signals measured on the forehead during a verbal fluency task,” Neuroimage 57(3), 991–1002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smielewski, P.

P. G. Al-Rawi, P. Smielewski, and P. J. Kirkpatrick, “Evaluation of a Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRO 300) for the Detection of Intracranial Oxygenation Changes in the Adult Head,” Stroke 32(11), 2492–2500 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spinelli, L.

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 28–50 (2014).
[PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE 8583, 85830L (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Zucchelli, D. Contini, R. Re, A. Torricelli, and L. Spinelli, “Method for the discrimination of superficial and deep absorption variations by time domain fNIRS,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(12), 2893–2910 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Staszkiewicz, W.

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, W. Staszkiewicz, A. Gabrusiewicz, P. Sawosz, G. Madycki, and R. Maniewski, “Application of a time-resolved optical brain imager for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during carotid surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steinbrink, J.

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the adult human brain,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 662, 143–148 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. P. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590H (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: Intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons,” Appl. Opt. 43(15), 3037–3047 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(3), 879–896 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steinkellner, O.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE 8583, 85830L (2013).
[Crossref]

Strangman, G.

D. A. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. J. A. Marota, and J. B. Mandeville, “The Accuracy of Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Imaging during Focal Changes in Cerebral Hemodynamics,” Neuroimage 13(1), 76–90 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strangman, G. E.

Q. Zhang, G. E. Strangman, and G. Ganis, “Adaptive filtering to reduce global interference in non-invasive NIRS measures of brain activation: How well and when does it work?” Neuroimage 45(3), 788–794 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, E. N. Brown, and G. E. Strangman, “Adaptive filtering for global interference cancellation and real-time recovery of evoked brain activity: a Monte Carlo simulation study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 044014 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tachtsidis, I.

E. Kirilina, N. Yu, A. Jelzow, H. Wabnitz, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “Identifying and quantifying main components of physiological noise in functional near infrared spectroscopy on the prefrontal cortex,” Front Hum Neurosci 7, 864 (2013).
[PubMed]

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 61(1), 70–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Tachtsidis, T. S. Leung, A. Chopra, P. H. Koh, C. B. Reid, and C. E. Elwell, “False positives in functional near-infrared topography,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 645, 307–314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takahashi, T.

T. Takahashi, Y. Takikawa, R. Kawagoe, S. Shibuya, T. Iwano, and S. Kitazawa, “Influence of skin blood flow on near-infrared spectroscopy signals measured on the forehead during a verbal fluency task,” Neuroimage 57(3), 991–1002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takikawa, Y.

T. Takahashi, Y. Takikawa, R. Kawagoe, S. Shibuya, T. Iwano, and S. Kitazawa, “Influence of skin blood flow on near-infrared spectroscopy signals measured on the forehead during a verbal fluency task,” Neuroimage 57(3), 991–1002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tamura, M.

Y. Nomura, O. Hazeki, and M. Tamura, “Relationship between time-resolved and non-time-resolved Beer-Lambert law in turbid media,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(6), 1009–1022 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanikawa, Y.

T. Funane, H. Atsumori, T. Katura, A. N. Obata, H. Sato, Y. Tanikawa, E. Okada, and M. Kiguchi, “Quantitative evaluation of deep and shallow tissue layers’ contribution to fNIRS signal using multi-distance optodes and independent component analysis,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 150–165 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Telleri, N. L.

R. B. Saager, N. L. Telleri, and A. J. Berger, “Two-detector Corrected Near Infrared Spectroscopy (C-NIRS) detects hemodynamic activation responses more robustly than single-detector NIRS,” Neuroimage 55(4), 1679–1685 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torricelli, A.

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 28–50 (2014).
[PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE 8583, 85830L (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Zucchelli, D. Contini, R. Re, A. Torricelli, and L. Spinelli, “Method for the discrimination of superficial and deep absorption variations by time domain fNIRS,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(12), 2893–2910 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tyszczuk, L.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(2), 295–304 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Umeyama, S.

T. Yamada, S. Umeyama, and K. Matsuda, “Separation of fNIRS Signals into Functional and Systemic Components Based on Differences in Hemodynamic Modalities,” PLoS ONE 7(11), e50271 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van der Zee, P.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38(12), 1859–1876 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Essenpreis, C. E. Elwell, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, “Spectral dependence of temporal point spread functions in human tissues,” Appl. Opt. 32(4), 418–425 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villringer, A.

Virtanen, J.

J. Virtanen, T. Noponen, and P. Meriläinen, “Comparison of principal and independent component analysis in removing extracerebral interference from near-infrared spectroscopy signals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054032 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wabnitz, H.

E. Kirilina, N. Yu, A. Jelzow, H. Wabnitz, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “Identifying and quantifying main components of physiological noise in functional near infrared spectroscopy on the prefrontal cortex,” Front Hum Neurosci 7, 864 (2013).
[PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE 8583, 85830L (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 61(1), 70–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, and C. Elster, “Determination of absorption changes from moments of distributions of times of flight of photons: optimization of measurement conditions for a two-layered tissue model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 057005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the adult human brain,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 662, 143–148 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. P. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590H (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: Intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons,” Appl. Opt. 43(15), 3037–3047 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, and H. Rinneberg, “Evaluation of Optical Properties of Highly Scattering Media by Moments of Distributions of Times of Flight of Photons,” Appl. Opt. 42(28), 5785–5792 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, and R. Macdonald, “Fiber dispersion in time domain measurements compromising the accuracy of determination of optical properties of strongly scattering media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 512–516 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(3), 879–896 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walter, A.

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. P. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590H (2005).
[Crossref]

Wei, Q.

M. Ferrari, Q. Wei, R. A. De Blasi, V. Quaresima, and G. Zaccanti, “Variability of human brain and muscle optical pathlength in different experimental conditions,” Proc. SPIE 1888, 466–472 (1993).
[Crossref]

Wilson, B. C.

Wolf, M.

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolf, U.

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamada, T.

T. Yamada, S. Umeyama, and K. Matsuda, “Separation of fNIRS Signals into Functional and Systemic Components Based on Differences in Hemodynamic Modalities,” PLoS ONE 7(11), e50271 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, N.

E. Kirilina, N. Yu, A. Jelzow, H. Wabnitz, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “Identifying and quantifying main components of physiological noise in functional near infrared spectroscopy on the prefrontal cortex,” Front Hum Neurosci 7, 864 (2013).
[PubMed]

Zaccanti, G.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE 8583, 85830L (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Martelli and G. Zaccanti, “Calibration of scattering and absorption properties of a liquid diffusive medium at NIR wavelengths. CW method,” Opt. Express 15(2), 486–500 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ferrari, Q. Wei, R. A. De Blasi, V. Quaresima, and G. Zaccanti, “Variability of human brain and muscle optical pathlength in different experimental conditions,” Proc. SPIE 1888, 466–472 (1993).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

Q. Zhang, G. E. Strangman, and G. Ganis, “Adaptive filtering to reduce global interference in non-invasive NIRS measures of brain activation: How well and when does it work?” Neuroimage 45(3), 788–794 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, E. N. Brown, and G. E. Strangman, “Adaptive filtering for global interference cancellation and real-time recovery of evoked brain activity: a Monte Carlo simulation study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 044014 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zimmermann, R.

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zolek, N.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE 8583, 85830L (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, N. Żolek, and R. Maniewski, “Time-resolved optical imager for assessment of cerebral oxygenation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034019 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zucchelli, L.

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 28–50 (2014).
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L. Zucchelli, D. Contini, R. Re, A. Torricelli, and L. Spinelli, “Method for the discrimination of superficial and deep absorption variations by time domain fNIRS,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(12), 2893–2910 (2013).
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Zucchelli, L. M. G.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE 8583, 85830L (2013).
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H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the adult human brain,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 662, 143–148 (2010).
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Appl. Opt. (4)

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E. Kirilina, N. Yu, A. Jelzow, H. Wabnitz, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “Identifying and quantifying main components of physiological noise in functional near infrared spectroscopy on the prefrontal cortex,” Front Hum Neurosci 7, 864 (2013).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (6)

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, N. Żolek, and R. Maniewski, “Time-resolved optical imager for assessment of cerebral oxygenation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034019 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, W. Staszkiewicz, A. Gabrusiewicz, P. Sawosz, G. Madycki, and R. Maniewski, “Application of a time-resolved optical brain imager for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during carotid surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, and R. Macdonald, “Fiber dispersion in time domain measurements compromising the accuracy of determination of optical properties of strongly scattering media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 512–516 (2003).
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J. Virtanen, T. Noponen, and P. Meriläinen, “Comparison of principal and independent component analysis in removing extracerebral interference from near-infrared spectroscopy signals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054032 (2009).
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Q. Zhang, E. N. Brown, and G. E. Strangman, “Adaptive filtering for global interference cancellation and real-time recovery of evoked brain activity: a Monte Carlo simulation study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 044014 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, and C. Elster, “Determination of absorption changes from moments of distributions of times of flight of photons: optimization of measurement conditions for a two-layered tissue model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 057005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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R. B. Saager, N. L. Telleri, and A. J. Berger, “Two-detector Corrected Near Infrared Spectroscopy (C-NIRS) detects hemodynamic activation responses more robustly than single-detector NIRS,” Neuroimage 55(4), 1679–1685 (2011).
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T. Takahashi, Y. Takikawa, R. Kawagoe, S. Shibuya, T. Iwano, and S. Kitazawa, “Influence of skin blood flow on near-infrared spectroscopy signals measured on the forehead during a verbal fluency task,” Neuroimage 57(3), 991–1002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 61(1), 70–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ferrari and V. Quaresima, “A brief review on the history of human functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) development and fields of application,” Neuroimage 63(2), 921–935 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, G. E. Strangman, and G. Ganis, “Adaptive filtering to reduce global interference in non-invasive NIRS measures of brain activation: How well and when does it work?” Neuroimage 45(3), 788–794 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Funane, H. Atsumori, T. Katura, A. N. Obata, H. Sato, Y. Tanikawa, E. Okada, and M. Kiguchi, “Quantitative evaluation of deep and shallow tissue layers’ contribution to fNIRS signal using multi-distance optodes and independent component analysis,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 150–165 (2014).
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X. Cui, S. Bray, and A. L. Reiss, “Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) signal improvement based on negative correlation between oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin dynamics,” Neuroimage 49(4), 3039–3046 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 28–50 (2014).
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D. A. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. J. A. Marota, and J. B. Mandeville, “The Accuracy of Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Imaging during Focal Changes in Cerebral Hemodynamics,” Neuroimage 13(1), 76–90 (2001).
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J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(3), 879–896 (2001).
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T. Yamada, S. Umeyama, and K. Matsuda, “Separation of fNIRS Signals into Functional and Systemic Components Based on Differences in Hemodynamic Modalities,” PLoS ONE 7(11), e50271 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (3)

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. P. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590H (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Ferrari, Q. Wei, R. A. De Blasi, V. Quaresima, and G. Zaccanti, “Variability of human brain and muscle optical pathlength in different experimental conditions,” Proc. SPIE 1888, 466–472 (1993).
[Crossref]

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE 8583, 85830L (2013).
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J. Steinbrink, “Near-infrared-spectroscopy on the adult human head with picosecond resolution,” PhD Thesis, FU Berlin (2000).

L. Spinelli, M. Botwicz, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, D. Milej, A. Liebert, U. Weigel, T. Durduran, F. Foschum, A. Kienle, F. Baribeau, S. Leclair, J.-P. Bouchard, I. Noiseux, P. Gallant, O. Mermut, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, H.-C. Ho, M. Mazurenka, H. Wabnitz, K. Klauenberg, O. Bodnar, C. Elster, M. Bénazech-Lavoué, Y. Bérubé-Lauzière, F. Lesage, P. D. Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Inter-Laboratory Comparison of Optical Properties Performed on Intralipid and India Ink,” in Biomedical Optics and 3-D Imaging (Optical Society of America, 2012), p. BW1A.6.

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, R. Erdmann, and O. Raitza, “A Time-Domain NIR Brain Imager Applied in Functional Stimulation Experiments,” in Photon Migration and Diffuse-Light Imaging II, K. and C. Licha, ed., Proc. SPIE (Optical Society of America, 2005), Vol. 5859, p. WA5.

H. Wabnitz, A. Liebert, D. Contini, L. Spinelli, and A. Torricelli, “Depth Selectivity in Time-Domain Optical Brain Imaging Based on Time Windows and Moments of Time-of-Flight Distributions,” in Biomedical Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), p. BMD9.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Workflow of the correction procedure for the calculation of moments for a specific set of relative limits LL and LU. Symbols are explained in the text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Performance of the correction procedure. Left: Simulated DTOF R(t), experimental IRF I(t) and the result of the convolution of the two. Right: values of moments m1, V and m3,C as a function of the relative upper integration limit LU. Moments were calculated without (blue) and with (orange) application of the correction procedure illustrated in Fig. 1 for multiple values of LU. The horizontal cyan lines correspond to the true values of moments calculated directly from the simulated R(t) without clipping.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Distribution of values of moments and homogeneous background optical properties obtained in vivo on the forehead of 15 adults and four optodes (60 samples). Upper panels: Distribution of values of the moments m1, V and m3,C for rsd = 3 cm obtained at three wavelengths. Blue dots - individual values, gray area - interpolated histograms, black and red lines - box plots (red horizontal bars - median position, wide black bars - 1st and 3rd quartile, short black bars - extreme values), white square - mean value. Lower panels: distribution of individual homogeneous background optical properties µa and µs´ calculated from m1 and V at the three wavelengths. White squares mark the mean values. Mean values of moments are summarized in Table 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sensitivity factors (SF) for absorption changes obtained from a simulation. Plots in the upper, middle and lower rows refer to SF for changes in attenuation A, mean time of flight m1 and variance V, respectively. Left three columns: color maps of SF as a function of the layer number j and µs´. The units for the color bars are printed on the far-right. The plots refer to fixed values of µa, i.e. 0.05 cm−1, 0.1 cm−1 and 0.2 cm−1 (left to right). Thin black lines show the position of the extrema of the (Z-dependent) sensitivity profiles. Right column: selected depth sensitivity profiles shown for µs´ = 10 cm−1 (white dashed lines on the color maps). The colors of the lines (red, green, blue) refer to the µa values of the three columns on the left. Gray lines show the shift of the median (50%) and the 90% percentile.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Results of the measurement on the two-layered phantom. Upper panels: measured courses of changes in attenuation ΔA, mean time of flight m1 and variance V while µa is changing in the upper (left) and lower (right) layer. Note the different color scale for the different measurands. Gray lines refer to cubic fits. Lower panels: changes in the absorption retrieved using reconstruction approaches based on a model of homogeneous (RHAC) and layered (RLAC) absorption changes. Gray lines refer to the true values of Δµa.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Application of reconstruction methods to in vivo data from a single subject and two channels. The periods of the first task (T1, word-CPT), rest (R) and the second task (T2, sem-CPT) are separated by dashed vertical lines. Left: concentration changes in oxy- (red) and deoxyhemoglobin (blue) obtained from changes in ΔA, Δm1 and ΔV and using the RHAC method. Right: concentration changes obtained from the same in vivo data as before but using the RLAC. Results are reported for the upper and lower layers. Shadowed areas around the lines depict the standard error of mean obtained from the nine repetitions of the tasks.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Mean values of moments m1, V and m3,C as well as homogeneous optical properties µa and µs´ derived from m1 and V. Corresponding coefficients of variation (CV) are given in parentheses (60 samples). For m1 values from literature are given for comparison.

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N T (N)= N(t)dt
m n (N)= 1 N T t n N(t)dt
m n,C (N)= 1 N T (t m 1 ) n N(t)dt
N(t)=R(t)I(t)
ΔM S M Δ μ a = M μ a Δ μ a
S A = c m m 1 r sd D PF
S m1 = c m V
S V = c m m 3,C
ΔM j S M,j Δ μ a,j
S M,j = M μ a,j ΔM Δ μ a,j
ΔMΔ μ a,S 0 z 1 S M (Z)dZ +Δ μ a,B z 2 z 3 S M (Z)dZ =Δ μ a,S S M,S +Δ μ a,B S M,B
ΔM=( ΔA Δ m 1 ΔV )=[ S A,S S A,B S m 1 ,S S m 1 ,B S V,S S V,B ]( Δ µ a,S Δ µ a,B )=SΔ µ a
Δ µ a = ( S T K 1 S ) 1 S T K 1 ΔM
K=[ 1 N T 0 0 0 V N T m 3,C N T 0 m 3,C N T m 4,C V 2 N T ]
Δ μ a (λ)=( Δ μ a ( λ 1 ) Δ μ a ( λ i ) )=ln(10)ε( Δ C HbO Δ C HbR )=ln(10)εΔC

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