Abstract

In functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) superficial hemodynamics can mask optical signals related to brain activity. We present a method to separate superficial and cerebral absorption changes based on the analysis of changes in moments of time-of-flight distributions and a two-layered model. The related sensitivity factors were calculated from individual optical properties. The method was validated on a two-layer liquid phantom. Absorption changes in the lower layer were retrieved with an accuracy better than 20%. The method was successfully applied to in vivo data and compared to the reconstruction of homogeneous absorption changes.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014

T. Funane, H. Atsumori, T. Katura, A. N. Obata, H. Sato, Y. Tanikawa, E. Okada, and M. Kiguchi, “Quantitative evaluation of deep and shallow tissue layers’ contribution to fNIRS signal using multi-distance optodes and independent component analysis,” Neuroimage85(Pt 1), 150–165 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage85(Pt 1), 28–50 (2014).
[PubMed]

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE8583, 85830L (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. Kirilina, N. Yu, A. Jelzow, H. Wabnitz, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “Identifying and quantifying main components of physiological noise in functional near infrared spectroscopy on the prefrontal cortex,” Front Hum Neurosci7, 864 (2013).
[PubMed]

L. Zucchelli, D. Contini, R. Re, A. Torricelli, and L. Spinelli, “Method for the discrimination of superficial and deep absorption variations by time domain fNIRS,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(12), 2893–2910 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

T. Yamada, S. Umeyama, and K. Matsuda, “Separation of fNIRS Signals into Functional and Systemic Components Based on Differences in Hemodynamic Modalities,” PLoS ONE7(11), e50271 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage61(1), 70–81 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, W. Staszkiewicz, A. Gabrusiewicz, P. Sawosz, G. Madycki, and R. Maniewski, “Application of a time-resolved optical brain imager for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during carotid surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(1), 016002 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ferrari and V. Quaresima, “A brief review on the history of human functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) development and fields of application,” Neuroimage63(2), 921–935 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, and C. Elster, “Determination of absorption changes from moments of distributions of times of flight of photons: optimization of measurement conditions for a two-layered tissue model,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(5), 057005 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

T. Takahashi, Y. Takikawa, R. Kawagoe, S. Shibuya, T. Iwano, and S. Kitazawa, “Influence of skin blood flow on near-infrared spectroscopy signals measured on the forehead during a verbal fluency task,” Neuroimage57(3), 991–1002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Saager, N. L. Telleri, and A. J. Berger, “Two-detector Corrected Near Infrared Spectroscopy (C-NIRS) detects hemodynamic activation responses more robustly than single-detector NIRS,” Neuroimage55(4), 1679–1685 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

X. Cui, S. Bray, and A. L. Reiss, “Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) signal improvement based on negative correlation between oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin dynamics,” Neuroimage49(4), 3039–3046 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the adult human brain,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.662, 143–148 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liemert and A. Kienle, “Light diffusion in a turbid cylinder. II. Layered case,” Opt. Express18(9), 9266–9279 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

J. Virtanen, T. Noponen, and P. Meriläinen, “Comparison of principal and independent component analysis in removing extracerebral interference from near-infrared spectroscopy signals,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054032 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, G. E. Strangman, and G. Ganis, “Adaptive filtering to reduce global interference in non-invasive NIRS measures of brain activation: How well and when does it work?” Neuroimage45(3), 788–794 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Tachtsidis, T. S. Leung, A. Chopra, P. H. Koh, C. B. Reid, and C. E. Elwell, “False positives in functional near-infrared topography,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.645, 307–314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, N. Żolek, and R. Maniewski, “Time-resolved optical imager for assessment of cerebral oxygenation,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, E. N. Brown, and G. E. Strangman, “Adaptive filtering for global interference cancellation and real-time recovery of evoked brain activity: a Monte Carlo simulation study,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 044014 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Martelli and G. Zaccanti, “Calibration of scattering and absorption properties of a liquid diffusive medium at NIR wavelengths. CW method,” Opt. Express15(2), 486–500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

R. B. Saager and A. J. Berger, “Direct characterization and removal of interfering absorption trends in two-layer turbid media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A22(9), 1874–1882 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. P. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE5859, 58590H (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, and R. Macdonald, “Fiber dispersion in time domain measurements compromising the accuracy of determination of optical properties of strongly scattering media,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 512–516 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, and H. Rinneberg, “Evaluation of Optical Properties of Highly Scattering Media by Moments of Distributions of Times of Flight of Photons,” Appl. Opt.42(28), 5785–5792 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

D. A. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. J. A. Marota, and J. B. Mandeville, “The Accuracy of Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Imaging during Focal Changes in Cerebral Hemodynamics,” Neuroimage13(1), 76–90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol.46(3), 879–896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Al-Rawi, P. Smielewski, and P. J. Kirkpatrick, “Evaluation of a Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRO 300) for the Detection of Intracranial Oxygenation Changes in the Adult Head,” Stroke32(11), 2492–2500 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

Y. Nomura, O. Hazeki, and M. Tamura, “Relationship between time-resolved and non-time-resolved Beer-Lambert law in turbid media,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(6), 1009–1022 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle and M. S. Patterson, “Improved solutions of the steady-state and the time-resolved diffusion equations for reflectance from a semi-infinite turbid medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A14(1), 246–254 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.40(2), 295–304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

S. J. Matcher, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Use of the water absorption spectrum to quantify tissue chromophore concentration changes in near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.39(1), 177–196 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

M. Ferrari, Q. Wei, R. A. De Blasi, V. Quaresima, and G. Zaccanti, “Variability of human brain and muscle optical pathlength in different experimental conditions,” Proc. SPIE1888, 466–472 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Essenpreis, C. E. Elwell, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, “Spectral dependence of temporal point spread functions in human tissues,” Appl. Opt.32(4), 418–425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.38(12), 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “The theoretical basis for the determination of optical pathlengths in tissue: temporal and frequency analysis,” Phys. Med. Biol.37(7), 1531–1560 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

1976

C. A. Laury-Micoulaut, “The n-th centered moment of a multiple convolution and its applications to an intercloud gas model,” Astron. Astrophys.51, 343–346 (1976).

Al-Rawi, P. G.

P. G. Al-Rawi, P. Smielewski, and P. J. Kirkpatrick, “Evaluation of a Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRO 300) for the Detection of Intracranial Oxygenation Changes in the Adult Head,” Stroke32(11), 2492–2500 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.38(12), 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Essenpreis, C. E. Elwell, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, “Spectral dependence of temporal point spread functions in human tissues,” Appl. Opt.32(4), 418–425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “The theoretical basis for the determination of optical pathlengths in tissue: temporal and frequency analysis,” Phys. Med. Biol.37(7), 1531–1560 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atsumori, H.

T. Funane, H. Atsumori, T. Katura, A. N. Obata, H. Sato, Y. Tanikawa, E. Okada, and M. Kiguchi, “Quantitative evaluation of deep and shallow tissue layers’ contribution to fNIRS signal using multi-distance optodes and independent component analysis,” Neuroimage85(Pt 1), 150–165 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berger, A. J.

R. B. Saager, N. L. Telleri, and A. J. Berger, “Two-detector Corrected Near Infrared Spectroscopy (C-NIRS) detects hemodynamic activation responses more robustly than single-detector NIRS,” Neuroimage55(4), 1679–1685 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Saager and A. J. Berger, “Direct characterization and removal of interfering absorption trends in two-layer turbid media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A22(9), 1874–1882 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

D. A. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. J. A. Marota, and J. B. Mandeville, “The Accuracy of Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Imaging during Focal Changes in Cerebral Hemodynamics,” Neuroimage13(1), 76–90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bray, S.

X. Cui, S. Bray, and A. L. Reiss, “Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) signal improvement based on negative correlation between oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin dynamics,” Neuroimage49(4), 3039–3046 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, E. N.

Q. Zhang, E. N. Brown, and G. E. Strangman, “Adaptive filtering for global interference cancellation and real-time recovery of evoked brain activity: a Monte Carlo simulation study,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 044014 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brühl, R.

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage61(1), 70–81 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caffini, M.

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage85(Pt 1), 28–50 (2014).
[PubMed]

Chance, B.

Cheng, X.

D. A. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. J. A. Marota, and J. B. Mandeville, “The Accuracy of Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Imaging during Focal Changes in Cerebral Hemodynamics,” Neuroimage13(1), 76–90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chopra, A.

I. Tachtsidis, T. S. Leung, A. Chopra, P. H. Koh, C. B. Reid, and C. E. Elwell, “False positives in functional near-infrared topography,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.645, 307–314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clemence, M.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.40(2), 295–304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Contini, D.

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage85(Pt 1), 28–50 (2014).
[PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE8583, 85830L (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Zucchelli, D. Contini, R. Re, A. Torricelli, and L. Spinelli, “Method for the discrimination of superficial and deep absorption variations by time domain fNIRS,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(12), 2893–2910 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cope, M.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.40(2), 295–304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Matcher, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Use of the water absorption spectrum to quantify tissue chromophore concentration changes in near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.39(1), 177–196 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Essenpreis, C. E. Elwell, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, “Spectral dependence of temporal point spread functions in human tissues,” Appl. Opt.32(4), 418–425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.38(12), 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “The theoretical basis for the determination of optical pathlengths in tissue: temporal and frequency analysis,” Phys. Med. Biol.37(7), 1531–1560 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cubeddu, R.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE8583, 85830L (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cui, X.

X. Cui, S. Bray, and A. L. Reiss, “Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) signal improvement based on negative correlation between oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin dynamics,” Neuroimage49(4), 3039–3046 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Blasi, R. A.

M. Ferrari, Q. Wei, R. A. De Blasi, V. Quaresima, and G. Zaccanti, “Variability of human brain and muscle optical pathlength in different experimental conditions,” Proc. SPIE1888, 466–472 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Delpy, D. T.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.40(2), 295–304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Matcher, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Use of the water absorption spectrum to quantify tissue chromophore concentration changes in near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.39(1), 177–196 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Essenpreis, C. E. Elwell, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, “Spectral dependence of temporal point spread functions in human tissues,” Appl. Opt.32(4), 418–425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.38(12), 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “The theoretical basis for the determination of optical pathlengths in tissue: temporal and frequency analysis,” Phys. Med. Biol.37(7), 1531–1560 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Di Ninni, P.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE8583, 85830L (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dreier, J. P.

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. P. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE5859, 58590H (2005).
[CrossRef]

Drenckhahn, C.

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. P. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE5859, 58590H (2005).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, A.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.40(2), 295–304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elster, C.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, and C. Elster, “Determination of absorption changes from moments of distributions of times of flight of photons: optimization of measurement conditions for a two-layered tissue model,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(5), 057005 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elwell, C. E.

I. Tachtsidis, T. S. Leung, A. Chopra, P. H. Koh, C. B. Reid, and C. E. Elwell, “False positives in functional near-infrared topography,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.645, 307–314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.40(2), 295–304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Essenpreis, C. E. Elwell, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, “Spectral dependence of temporal point spread functions in human tissues,” Appl. Opt.32(4), 418–425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erdmann, R.

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. P. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE5859, 58590H (2005).
[CrossRef]

Essenpreis, M.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.38(12), 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Essenpreis, C. E. Elwell, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, “Spectral dependence of temporal point spread functions in human tissues,” Appl. Opt.32(4), 418–425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrari, M.

M. Ferrari and V. Quaresima, “A brief review on the history of human functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) development and fields of application,” Neuroimage63(2), 921–935 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ferrari, Q. Wei, R. A. De Blasi, V. Quaresima, and G. Zaccanti, “Variability of human brain and muscle optical pathlength in different experimental conditions,” Proc. SPIE1888, 466–472 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Firbank, M.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.38(12), 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Funane, T.

T. Funane, H. Atsumori, T. Katura, A. N. Obata, H. Sato, Y. Tanikawa, E. Okada, and M. Kiguchi, “Quantitative evaluation of deep and shallow tissue layers’ contribution to fNIRS signal using multi-distance optodes and independent component analysis,” Neuroimage85(Pt 1), 150–165 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gabrusiewicz, A.

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, W. Staszkiewicz, A. Gabrusiewicz, P. Sawosz, G. Madycki, and R. Maniewski, “Application of a time-resolved optical brain imager for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during carotid surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(1), 016002 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ganis, G.

Q. Zhang, G. E. Strangman, and G. Ganis, “Adaptive filtering to reduce global interference in non-invasive NIRS measures of brain activation: How well and when does it work?” Neuroimage45(3), 788–794 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaudette, T.

D. A. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. J. A. Marota, and J. B. Mandeville, “The Accuracy of Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Imaging during Focal Changes in Cerebral Hemodynamics,” Neuroimage13(1), 76–90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grosenick, D.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, and R. Macdonald, “Fiber dispersion in time domain measurements compromising the accuracy of determination of optical properties of strongly scattering media,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 512–516 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, and H. Rinneberg, “Evaluation of Optical Properties of Highly Scattering Media by Moments of Distributions of Times of Flight of Photons,” Appl. Opt.42(28), 5785–5792 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hazeki, O.

Y. Nomura, O. Hazeki, and M. Tamura, “Relationship between time-resolved and non-time-resolved Beer-Lambert law in turbid media,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(6), 1009–1022 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hebden, J. C.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE8583, 85830L (2013).
[CrossRef]

Heine, A.

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage61(1), 70–81 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hiraoka, M.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.38(12), 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ittermann, B.

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage61(1), 70–81 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iwano, T.

T. Takahashi, Y. Takikawa, R. Kawagoe, S. Shibuya, T. Iwano, and S. Kitazawa, “Influence of skin blood flow on near-infrared spectroscopy signals measured on the forehead during a verbal fluency task,” Neuroimage57(3), 991–1002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobs, A. M.

E. Kirilina, N. Yu, A. Jelzow, H. Wabnitz, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “Identifying and quantifying main components of physiological noise in functional near infrared spectroscopy on the prefrontal cortex,” Front Hum Neurosci7, 864 (2013).
[PubMed]

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage61(1), 70–81 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jelzow, A.

E. Kirilina, N. Yu, A. Jelzow, H. Wabnitz, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “Identifying and quantifying main components of physiological noise in functional near infrared spectroscopy on the prefrontal cortex,” Front Hum Neurosci7, 864 (2013).
[PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE8583, 85830L (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage61(1), 70–81 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kacprzak, M.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE8583, 85830L (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, W. Staszkiewicz, A. Gabrusiewicz, P. Sawosz, G. Madycki, and R. Maniewski, “Application of a time-resolved optical brain imager for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during carotid surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(1), 016002 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, N. Żolek, and R. Maniewski, “Time-resolved optical imager for assessment of cerebral oxygenation,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katura, T.

T. Funane, H. Atsumori, T. Katura, A. N. Obata, H. Sato, Y. Tanikawa, E. Okada, and M. Kiguchi, “Quantitative evaluation of deep and shallow tissue layers’ contribution to fNIRS signal using multi-distance optodes and independent component analysis,” Neuroimage85(Pt 1), 150–165 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawagoe, R.

T. Takahashi, Y. Takikawa, R. Kawagoe, S. Shibuya, T. Iwano, and S. Kitazawa, “Influence of skin blood flow on near-infrared spectroscopy signals measured on the forehead during a verbal fluency task,” Neuroimage57(3), 991–1002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kienle, A.

Kiguchi, M.

T. Funane, H. Atsumori, T. Katura, A. N. Obata, H. Sato, Y. Tanikawa, E. Okada, and M. Kiguchi, “Quantitative evaluation of deep and shallow tissue layers’ contribution to fNIRS signal using multi-distance optodes and independent component analysis,” Neuroimage85(Pt 1), 150–165 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirilina, E.

E. Kirilina, N. Yu, A. Jelzow, H. Wabnitz, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “Identifying and quantifying main components of physiological noise in functional near infrared spectroscopy on the prefrontal cortex,” Front Hum Neurosci7, 864 (2013).
[PubMed]

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage61(1), 70–81 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirkpatrick, P. J.

P. G. Al-Rawi, P. Smielewski, and P. J. Kirkpatrick, “Evaluation of a Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRO 300) for the Detection of Intracranial Oxygenation Changes in the Adult Head,” Stroke32(11), 2492–2500 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitazawa, S.

T. Takahashi, Y. Takikawa, R. Kawagoe, S. Shibuya, T. Iwano, and S. Kitazawa, “Influence of skin blood flow on near-infrared spectroscopy signals measured on the forehead during a verbal fluency task,” Neuroimage57(3), 991–1002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleiser, S.

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koh, P. H.

I. Tachtsidis, T. S. Leung, A. Chopra, P. H. Koh, C. B. Reid, and C. E. Elwell, “False positives in functional near-infrared topography,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.645, 307–314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laury-Micoulaut, C. A.

C. A. Laury-Micoulaut, “The n-th centered moment of a multiple convolution and its applications to an intercloud gas model,” Astron. Astrophys.51, 343–346 (1976).

Leung, T. S.

I. Tachtsidis, T. S. Leung, A. Chopra, P. H. Koh, C. B. Reid, and C. E. Elwell, “False positives in functional near-infrared topography,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.645, 307–314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liebert, A.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE8583, 85830L (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, W. Staszkiewicz, A. Gabrusiewicz, P. Sawosz, G. Madycki, and R. Maniewski, “Application of a time-resolved optical brain imager for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during carotid surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(1), 016002 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, and C. Elster, “Determination of absorption changes from moments of distributions of times of flight of photons: optimization of measurement conditions for a two-layered tissue model,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(5), 057005 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the adult human brain,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.662, 143–148 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, N. Żolek, and R. Maniewski, “Time-resolved optical imager for assessment of cerebral oxygenation,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. P. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE5859, 58590H (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: Intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons,” Appl. Opt.43(15), 3037–3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, and H. Rinneberg, “Evaluation of Optical Properties of Highly Scattering Media by Moments of Distributions of Times of Flight of Photons,” Appl. Opt.42(28), 5785–5792 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, and R. Macdonald, “Fiber dispersion in time domain measurements compromising the accuracy of determination of optical properties of strongly scattering media,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 512–516 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liemert, A.

Macdonald, R.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE8583, 85830L (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the adult human brain,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.662, 143–148 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. P. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE5859, 58590H (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: Intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons,” Appl. Opt.43(15), 3037–3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, and H. Rinneberg, “Evaluation of Optical Properties of Highly Scattering Media by Moments of Distributions of Times of Flight of Photons,” Appl. Opt.42(28), 5785–5792 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, and R. Macdonald, “Fiber dispersion in time domain measurements compromising the accuracy of determination of optical properties of strongly scattering media,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 512–516 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madycki, G.

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, W. Staszkiewicz, A. Gabrusiewicz, P. Sawosz, G. Madycki, and R. Maniewski, “Application of a time-resolved optical brain imager for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during carotid surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(1), 016002 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magazov, S.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE8583, 85830L (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mandeville, J. B.

D. A. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. J. A. Marota, and J. B. Mandeville, “The Accuracy of Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Imaging during Focal Changes in Cerebral Hemodynamics,” Neuroimage13(1), 76–90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maniewski, R.

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, W. Staszkiewicz, A. Gabrusiewicz, P. Sawosz, G. Madycki, and R. Maniewski, “Application of a time-resolved optical brain imager for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during carotid surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(1), 016002 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, N. Żolek, and R. Maniewski, “Time-resolved optical imager for assessment of cerebral oxygenation,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marota, J. J. A.

D. A. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. J. A. Marota, and J. B. Mandeville, “The Accuracy of Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Imaging during Focal Changes in Cerebral Hemodynamics,” Neuroimage13(1), 76–90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martelli, F.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE8583, 85830L (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Martelli and G. Zaccanti, “Calibration of scattering and absorption properties of a liquid diffusive medium at NIR wavelengths. CW method,” Opt. Express15(2), 486–500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mata Pavia, J.

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matcher, S. J.

S. J. Matcher, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Use of the water absorption spectrum to quantify tissue chromophore concentration changes in near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.39(1), 177–196 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuda, K.

T. Yamada, S. Umeyama, and K. Matsuda, “Separation of fNIRS Signals into Functional and Systemic Components Based on Differences in Hemodynamic Modalities,” PLoS ONE7(11), e50271 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazurenka, M.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE8583, 85830L (2013).
[CrossRef]

Meek, J. H.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.40(2), 295–304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meriläinen, P.

J. Virtanen, T. Noponen, and P. Meriläinen, “Comparison of principal and independent component analysis in removing extracerebral interference from near-infrared spectroscopy signals,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054032 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Metz, A. J.

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milej, D.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE8583, 85830L (2013).
[CrossRef]

Moeller, M.

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the adult human brain,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.662, 143–148 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. P. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE5859, 58590H (2005).
[CrossRef]

Möller, M.

Niessing, M.

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage61(1), 70–81 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nomura, Y.

Y. Nomura, O. Hazeki, and M. Tamura, “Relationship between time-resolved and non-time-resolved Beer-Lambert law in turbid media,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(6), 1009–1022 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noponen, T.

J. Virtanen, T. Noponen, and P. Meriläinen, “Comparison of principal and independent component analysis in removing extracerebral interference from near-infrared spectroscopy signals,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054032 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Obata, A. N.

T. Funane, H. Atsumori, T. Katura, A. N. Obata, H. Sato, Y. Tanikawa, E. Okada, and M. Kiguchi, “Quantitative evaluation of deep and shallow tissue layers’ contribution to fNIRS signal using multi-distance optodes and independent component analysis,” Neuroimage85(Pt 1), 150–165 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Obrig, H.

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the adult human brain,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.662, 143–148 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. P. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE5859, 58590H (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: Intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons,” Appl. Opt.43(15), 3037–3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol.46(3), 879–896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okada, E.

T. Funane, H. Atsumori, T. Katura, A. N. Obata, H. Sato, Y. Tanikawa, E. Okada, and M. Kiguchi, “Quantitative evaluation of deep and shallow tissue layers’ contribution to fNIRS signal using multi-distance optodes and independent component analysis,” Neuroimage85(Pt 1), 150–165 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

Pifferi, A.

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage85(Pt 1), 28–50 (2014).
[PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE8583, 85830L (2013).
[CrossRef]

Quaresima, V.

M. Ferrari and V. Quaresima, “A brief review on the history of human functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) development and fields of application,” Neuroimage63(2), 921–935 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ferrari, Q. Wei, R. A. De Blasi, V. Quaresima, and G. Zaccanti, “Variability of human brain and muscle optical pathlength in different experimental conditions,” Proc. SPIE1888, 466–472 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Raitza, O.

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. P. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE5859, 58590H (2005).
[CrossRef]

Re, R.

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage85(Pt 1), 28–50 (2014).
[PubMed]

L. Zucchelli, D. Contini, R. Re, A. Torricelli, and L. Spinelli, “Method for the discrimination of superficial and deep absorption variations by time domain fNIRS,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(12), 2893–2910 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reid, C. B.

I. Tachtsidis, T. S. Leung, A. Chopra, P. H. Koh, C. B. Reid, and C. E. Elwell, “False positives in functional near-infrared topography,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.645, 307–314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reiss, A. L.

X. Cui, S. Bray, and A. L. Reiss, “Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) signal improvement based on negative correlation between oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin dynamics,” Neuroimage49(4), 3039–3046 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rinneberg, H.

Saager, R. B.

R. B. Saager, N. L. Telleri, and A. J. Berger, “Two-detector Corrected Near Infrared Spectroscopy (C-NIRS) detects hemodynamic activation responses more robustly than single-detector NIRS,” Neuroimage55(4), 1679–1685 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Saager and A. J. Berger, “Direct characterization and removal of interfering absorption trends in two-layer turbid media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A22(9), 1874–1882 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sato, H.

T. Funane, H. Atsumori, T. Katura, A. N. Obata, H. Sato, Y. Tanikawa, E. Okada, and M. Kiguchi, “Quantitative evaluation of deep and shallow tissue layers’ contribution to fNIRS signal using multi-distance optodes and independent component analysis,” Neuroimage85(Pt 1), 150–165 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sawosz, P.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE8583, 85830L (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, W. Staszkiewicz, A. Gabrusiewicz, P. Sawosz, G. Madycki, and R. Maniewski, “Application of a time-resolved optical brain imager for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during carotid surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(1), 016002 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, N. Żolek, and R. Maniewski, “Time-resolved optical imager for assessment of cerebral oxygenation,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scholkmann, F.

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shibuya, S.

T. Takahashi, Y. Takikawa, R. Kawagoe, S. Shibuya, T. Iwano, and S. Kitazawa, “Influence of skin blood flow on near-infrared spectroscopy signals measured on the forehead during a verbal fluency task,” Neuroimage57(3), 991–1002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smielewski, P.

P. G. Al-Rawi, P. Smielewski, and P. J. Kirkpatrick, “Evaluation of a Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRO 300) for the Detection of Intracranial Oxygenation Changes in the Adult Head,” Stroke32(11), 2492–2500 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spinelli, L.

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage85(Pt 1), 28–50 (2014).
[PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE8583, 85830L (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Zucchelli, D. Contini, R. Re, A. Torricelli, and L. Spinelli, “Method for the discrimination of superficial and deep absorption variations by time domain fNIRS,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(12), 2893–2910 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Staszkiewicz, W.

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, W. Staszkiewicz, A. Gabrusiewicz, P. Sawosz, G. Madycki, and R. Maniewski, “Application of a time-resolved optical brain imager for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during carotid surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(1), 016002 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinbrink, J.

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the adult human brain,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.662, 143–148 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. P. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE5859, 58590H (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: Intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons,” Appl. Opt.43(15), 3037–3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol.46(3), 879–896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinkellner, O.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE8583, 85830L (2013).
[CrossRef]

Strangman, G.

D. A. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. J. A. Marota, and J. B. Mandeville, “The Accuracy of Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Imaging during Focal Changes in Cerebral Hemodynamics,” Neuroimage13(1), 76–90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strangman, G. E.

Q. Zhang, G. E. Strangman, and G. Ganis, “Adaptive filtering to reduce global interference in non-invasive NIRS measures of brain activation: How well and when does it work?” Neuroimage45(3), 788–794 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, E. N. Brown, and G. E. Strangman, “Adaptive filtering for global interference cancellation and real-time recovery of evoked brain activity: a Monte Carlo simulation study,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 044014 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tachtsidis, I.

E. Kirilina, N. Yu, A. Jelzow, H. Wabnitz, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “Identifying and quantifying main components of physiological noise in functional near infrared spectroscopy on the prefrontal cortex,” Front Hum Neurosci7, 864 (2013).
[PubMed]

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage61(1), 70–81 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Tachtsidis, T. S. Leung, A. Chopra, P. H. Koh, C. B. Reid, and C. E. Elwell, “False positives in functional near-infrared topography,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.645, 307–314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, T.

T. Takahashi, Y. Takikawa, R. Kawagoe, S. Shibuya, T. Iwano, and S. Kitazawa, “Influence of skin blood flow on near-infrared spectroscopy signals measured on the forehead during a verbal fluency task,” Neuroimage57(3), 991–1002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takikawa, Y.

T. Takahashi, Y. Takikawa, R. Kawagoe, S. Shibuya, T. Iwano, and S. Kitazawa, “Influence of skin blood flow on near-infrared spectroscopy signals measured on the forehead during a verbal fluency task,” Neuroimage57(3), 991–1002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamura, M.

Y. Nomura, O. Hazeki, and M. Tamura, “Relationship between time-resolved and non-time-resolved Beer-Lambert law in turbid media,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(6), 1009–1022 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanikawa, Y.

T. Funane, H. Atsumori, T. Katura, A. N. Obata, H. Sato, Y. Tanikawa, E. Okada, and M. Kiguchi, “Quantitative evaluation of deep and shallow tissue layers’ contribution to fNIRS signal using multi-distance optodes and independent component analysis,” Neuroimage85(Pt 1), 150–165 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Telleri, N. L.

R. B. Saager, N. L. Telleri, and A. J. Berger, “Two-detector Corrected Near Infrared Spectroscopy (C-NIRS) detects hemodynamic activation responses more robustly than single-detector NIRS,” Neuroimage55(4), 1679–1685 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torricelli, A.

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage85(Pt 1), 28–50 (2014).
[PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE8583, 85830L (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Zucchelli, D. Contini, R. Re, A. Torricelli, and L. Spinelli, “Method for the discrimination of superficial and deep absorption variations by time domain fNIRS,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(12), 2893–2910 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tyszczuk, L.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.40(2), 295–304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Umeyama, S.

T. Yamada, S. Umeyama, and K. Matsuda, “Separation of fNIRS Signals into Functional and Systemic Components Based on Differences in Hemodynamic Modalities,” PLoS ONE7(11), e50271 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Zee, P.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.38(12), 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Essenpreis, C. E. Elwell, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, “Spectral dependence of temporal point spread functions in human tissues,” Appl. Opt.32(4), 418–425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villringer, A.

Virtanen, J.

J. Virtanen, T. Noponen, and P. Meriläinen, “Comparison of principal and independent component analysis in removing extracerebral interference from near-infrared spectroscopy signals,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054032 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wabnitz, H.

E. Kirilina, N. Yu, A. Jelzow, H. Wabnitz, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “Identifying and quantifying main components of physiological noise in functional near infrared spectroscopy on the prefrontal cortex,” Front Hum Neurosci7, 864 (2013).
[PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE8583, 85830L (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage61(1), 70–81 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, and C. Elster, “Determination of absorption changes from moments of distributions of times of flight of photons: optimization of measurement conditions for a two-layered tissue model,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(5), 057005 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the adult human brain,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.662, 143–148 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. P. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE5859, 58590H (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: Intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons,” Appl. Opt.43(15), 3037–3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, and H. Rinneberg, “Evaluation of Optical Properties of Highly Scattering Media by Moments of Distributions of Times of Flight of Photons,” Appl. Opt.42(28), 5785–5792 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, and R. Macdonald, “Fiber dispersion in time domain measurements compromising the accuracy of determination of optical properties of strongly scattering media,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 512–516 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol.46(3), 879–896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walter, A.

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. P. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE5859, 58590H (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Q.

M. Ferrari, Q. Wei, R. A. De Blasi, V. Quaresima, and G. Zaccanti, “Variability of human brain and muscle optical pathlength in different experimental conditions,” Proc. SPIE1888, 466–472 (1993).
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Wolf, M.

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, U.

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, T.

T. Yamada, S. Umeyama, and K. Matsuda, “Separation of fNIRS Signals into Functional and Systemic Components Based on Differences in Hemodynamic Modalities,” PLoS ONE7(11), e50271 (2012).
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Yu, N.

E. Kirilina, N. Yu, A. Jelzow, H. Wabnitz, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “Identifying and quantifying main components of physiological noise in functional near infrared spectroscopy on the prefrontal cortex,” Front Hum Neurosci7, 864 (2013).
[PubMed]

Zaccanti, G.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE8583, 85830L (2013).
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M. Ferrari, Q. Wei, R. A. De Blasi, V. Quaresima, and G. Zaccanti, “Variability of human brain and muscle optical pathlength in different experimental conditions,” Proc. SPIE1888, 466–472 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Q. Zhang, G. E. Strangman, and G. Ganis, “Adaptive filtering to reduce global interference in non-invasive NIRS measures of brain activation: How well and when does it work?” Neuroimage45(3), 788–794 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, E. N. Brown, and G. E. Strangman, “Adaptive filtering for global interference cancellation and real-time recovery of evoked brain activity: a Monte Carlo simulation study,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 044014 (2007).
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Zimmermann, R.

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zolek, N.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE8583, 85830L (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, N. Żolek, and R. Maniewski, “Time-resolved optical imager for assessment of cerebral oxygenation,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zucchelli, L.

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage85(Pt 1), 28–50 (2014).
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L. Zucchelli, D. Contini, R. Re, A. Torricelli, and L. Spinelli, “Method for the discrimination of superficial and deep absorption variations by time domain fNIRS,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(12), 2893–2910 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zucchelli, L. M. G.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE8583, 85830L (2013).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the adult human brain,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.662, 143–148 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Tachtsidis, T. S. Leung, A. Chopra, P. H. Koh, C. B. Reid, and C. E. Elwell, “False positives in functional near-infrared topography,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.645, 307–314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Biomed. Opt. Express

Front Hum Neurosci

E. Kirilina, N. Yu, A. Jelzow, H. Wabnitz, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “Identifying and quantifying main components of physiological noise in functional near infrared spectroscopy on the prefrontal cortex,” Front Hum Neurosci7, 864 (2013).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, N. Żolek, and R. Maniewski, “Time-resolved optical imager for assessment of cerebral oxygenation,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, W. Staszkiewicz, A. Gabrusiewicz, P. Sawosz, G. Madycki, and R. Maniewski, “Application of a time-resolved optical brain imager for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during carotid surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(1), 016002 (2012).
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Q. Zhang, E. N. Brown, and G. E. Strangman, “Adaptive filtering for global interference cancellation and real-time recovery of evoked brain activity: a Monte Carlo simulation study,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 044014 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, and C. Elster, “Determination of absorption changes from moments of distributions of times of flight of photons: optimization of measurement conditions for a two-layered tissue model,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(5), 057005 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, and R. Macdonald, “Fiber dispersion in time domain measurements compromising the accuracy of determination of optical properties of strongly scattering media,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 512–516 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Neuroimage

M. Ferrari and V. Quaresima, “A brief review on the history of human functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) development and fields of application,” Neuroimage63(2), 921–935 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage61(1), 70–81 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, G. E. Strangman, and G. Ganis, “Adaptive filtering to reduce global interference in non-invasive NIRS measures of brain activation: How well and when does it work?” Neuroimage45(3), 788–794 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Funane, H. Atsumori, T. Katura, A. N. Obata, H. Sato, Y. Tanikawa, E. Okada, and M. Kiguchi, “Quantitative evaluation of deep and shallow tissue layers’ contribution to fNIRS signal using multi-distance optodes and independent component analysis,” Neuroimage85(Pt 1), 150–165 (2014).
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X. Cui, S. Bray, and A. L. Reiss, “Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) signal improvement based on negative correlation between oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin dynamics,” Neuroimage49(4), 3039–3046 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage85(Pt 1), 28–50 (2014).
[PubMed]

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Opt. Express

Phys. Med. Biol.

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J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol.46(3), 879–896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Yamada, S. Umeyama, and K. Matsuda, “Separation of fNIRS Signals into Functional and Systemic Components Based on Differences in Hemodynamic Modalities,” PLoS ONE7(11), e50271 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Erdmann, O. Raitza, C. Drenckhahn, J. P. Dreier, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE5859, 58590H (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. M. G. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. C. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers: a multi-laboratory study,” Proc. SPIE8583, 85830L (2013).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Workflow of the correction procedure for the calculation of moments for a specific set of relative limits LL and LU. Symbols are explained in the text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Performance of the correction procedure. Left: Simulated DTOF R(t), experimental IRF I(t) and the result of the convolution of the two. Right: values of moments m1, V and m3,C as a function of the relative upper integration limit LU. Moments were calculated without (blue) and with (orange) application of the correction procedure illustrated in Fig. 1 for multiple values of LU. The horizontal cyan lines correspond to the true values of moments calculated directly from the simulated R(t) without clipping.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Distribution of values of moments and homogeneous background optical properties obtained in vivo on the forehead of 15 adults and four optodes (60 samples). Upper panels: Distribution of values of the moments m1, V and m3,C for rsd = 3 cm obtained at three wavelengths. Blue dots - individual values, gray area - interpolated histograms, black and red lines - box plots (red horizontal bars - median position, wide black bars - 1st and 3rd quartile, short black bars - extreme values), white square - mean value. Lower panels: distribution of individual homogeneous background optical properties µa and µs´ calculated from m1 and V at the three wavelengths. White squares mark the mean values. Mean values of moments are summarized in Table 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sensitivity factors (SF) for absorption changes obtained from a simulation. Plots in the upper, middle and lower rows refer to SF for changes in attenuation A, mean time of flight m1 and variance V, respectively. Left three columns: color maps of SF as a function of the layer number j and µs´. The units for the color bars are printed on the far-right. The plots refer to fixed values of µa, i.e. 0.05 cm−1, 0.1 cm−1 and 0.2 cm−1 (left to right). Thin black lines show the position of the extrema of the (Z-dependent) sensitivity profiles. Right column: selected depth sensitivity profiles shown for µs´ = 10 cm−1 (white dashed lines on the color maps). The colors of the lines (red, green, blue) refer to the µa values of the three columns on the left. Gray lines show the shift of the median (50%) and the 90% percentile.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Results of the measurement on the two-layered phantom. Upper panels: measured courses of changes in attenuation ΔA, mean time of flight m1 and variance V while µa is changing in the upper (left) and lower (right) layer. Note the different color scale for the different measurands. Gray lines refer to cubic fits. Lower panels: changes in the absorption retrieved using reconstruction approaches based on a model of homogeneous (RHAC) and layered (RLAC) absorption changes. Gray lines refer to the true values of Δµa.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Application of reconstruction methods to in vivo data from a single subject and two channels. The periods of the first task (T1, word-CPT), rest (R) and the second task (T2, sem-CPT) are separated by dashed vertical lines. Left: concentration changes in oxy- (red) and deoxyhemoglobin (blue) obtained from changes in ΔA, Δm1 and ΔV and using the RHAC method. Right: concentration changes obtained from the same in vivo data as before but using the RLAC. Results are reported for the upper and lower layers. Shadowed areas around the lines depict the standard error of mean obtained from the nine repetitions of the tasks.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Mean values of moments m1, V and m3,C as well as homogeneous optical properties µa and µs´ derived from m1 and V. Corresponding coefficients of variation (CV) are given in parentheses (60 samples). For m1 values from literature are given for comparison.

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N T (N)= N(t)dt
m n (N)= 1 N T t n N(t)dt
m n,C (N)= 1 N T (t m 1 ) n N(t)dt
N(t)=R(t)I(t)
ΔM S M Δ μ a = M μ a Δ μ a
S A = c m m 1 r sd D PF
S m1 = c m V
S V = c m m 3,C
ΔM j S M,j Δ μ a,j
S M,j = M μ a,j ΔM Δ μ a,j
ΔMΔ μ a,S 0 z 1 S M (Z)dZ +Δ μ a,B z 2 z 3 S M (Z)dZ =Δ μ a,S S M,S +Δ μ a,B S M,B
ΔM=( ΔA Δ m 1 ΔV )=[ S A,S S A,B S m 1 ,S S m 1 ,B S V,S S V,B ]( Δ µ a,S Δ µ a,B )=SΔ µ a
Δ µ a = ( S T K 1 S ) 1 S T K 1 ΔM
K=[ 1 N T 0 0 0 V N T m 3,C N T 0 m 3,C N T m 4,C V 2 N T ]
Δ μ a (λ)=( Δ μ a ( λ 1 ) Δ μ a ( λ i ) )=ln(10)ε( Δ C HbO Δ C HbR )=ln(10)εΔC

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