Abstract

Optically absorbing ducts embedded in scattering adipose tissue can be injured during laparoscopic surgery. Non-sequential simulations and theoretical analysis compare optical system configurations for detecting these absorbers. For absorbers in deep scattering volumes, trans-illumination is preferred instead of diffuse reflectance. For improved contrast, a scanning source with a large area detector is preferred instead of a large area source with a pixelated detector.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013

A. C. Medeiros, I. Araújo-Filho, M. D. F. Carvalho, M. de Paiva, V. F. Lima, I. M. de Azevedo, and A. M. Dantas Filho, “Laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy: Complications and cost,” J. Surg. Clin. Res.3, 49–58 (2013).

N. Sato, K. Shibao, Y. Akiyama, Y. Inoue, Y. Mori, N. Minagawa, A. Higure, and K. Yamaguchi, “Routine intraoperative cholangiography during single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A review of 196 consecutive patients,” J. Gastrointest. Surg.17(4), 668–674 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

V. Salvatore, A. Borghi, and F. Piscaglia, “Contrast-enhanced ultrasound for liver imaging: Recent advances,” Curr. Pharm. Des.18(15), 2236–2252 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

O. J. Garden, “Fluorescent cholangiography illuminating the biliary tree during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Br. J. Surg.97(9), 1378 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Perera, M. A. Silva, A. J. Shah, R. Hardstaff, S. R. Bramhall, J. Issac, J. A. Buckels, and D. F. Mirza, “Risk factors for litigation following major transectional bile duct injury sustained at laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” World J. Surg.34(11), 2635–2641 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

Z. B. Ou, S. W. Li, C. A. Liu, B. Tu, C. X. Wu, X. Ding, Z. J. Liu, K. Sun, H. Y. Feng, and J. P. Gong, “Prevention of common bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” HBPD INT8(4), 414–417 (2009).
[PubMed]

P. D. Agrba, M. Y. Kirillin, A. I. Abelevich, E. V. Zagaynova, and V. A. Kamensky, “Compression as a method for increasing the informativity of optical coherence tomography of biotissues,” Opt107(Spec.), 853–858 (2009).

2005

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(15), 2543–2555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Tarvainen, M. Vauhkonen, V. Kolehmainen, S. R. Arridge, and J. P. Kaipio, “Coupled radiative transfer equation and diffusion approximation model for photon migration in turbid medium with low-scattering and non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(20), 4913–4930 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

F. Xu, C. G. Xu, and D. Z. Xu, “A new method of preventing bile duct injury in laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” World J. Gastroenterol.10(19), 2916–2918 (2004).
[PubMed]

2000

1998

A. H. Hielscher, R. E. Alcouffe, and R. L. Barbour, “Comparison of finite-difference transport and diffusion calculations for photon migration in homogeneous and heterogeneous tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol.43(5), 1285–1302 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

D. Contini, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Photon migration through a turbid slab described by a model based on diffusion approximation. I. Theory,” Appl. Opt.36(19), 4587–4599 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Savader, K. D. Lillemoe, C. A. Prescott, A. B. Winick, A. C. Venbrux, G. B. Lund, S. E. Mitchell, J. L. Cameron, and F. A. Osterman., “Laparoscopic cholecystectomy-related bile duct injuries: A health and financial disaster,” Ann. Surg.225(3), 268–273 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

T. L. Troy, D. L. Page, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Optical properties of normal and diseased breast tissues: prognosis for optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt.1(3), 342–355 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, and E. Gratton, “Semi-infinite-geometry boundary problem for light migration in highly scattering media: A frequency-domain study in the diffusion approximation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.11(10), 2128–2138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

D. A. Boas, M. A. O’Leary, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Scattering and wavelength transduction of diffuse photon density waves,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics47(5), R2999–R3002 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Refraction of diffuse photon density waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett.69(18), 2658–2661 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Moossa, D. W. Easter, E. Van Sonnenberg, G. Casola, and H. D’Agostino, “Laparoscopic injuries to the bile duct. A cause for concern,” Ann. Surg.215(3), 203–208 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

M. A. Stott, P. A. Farrands, P. B. Guyer, K. C. Dewbury, J. J. Browning, and R. Sutton, “Ultrasound of the common bile duct in patients undergoing cholecystectomy,” J. Clin. Ultrasound19(2), 73–76 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, and G. L. Frank, “Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissues in the visible and near infrared,” Phys. Med. Biol.35(9), 1317–1334 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abelevich, A. I.

P. D. Agrba, M. Y. Kirillin, A. I. Abelevich, E. V. Zagaynova, and V. A. Kamensky, “Compression as a method for increasing the informativity of optical coherence tomography of biotissues,” Opt107(Spec.), 853–858 (2009).

Agrba, P. D.

P. D. Agrba, M. Y. Kirillin, A. I. Abelevich, E. V. Zagaynova, and V. A. Kamensky, “Compression as a method for increasing the informativity of optical coherence tomography of biotissues,” Opt107(Spec.), 853–858 (2009).

Akiyama, Y.

N. Sato, K. Shibao, Y. Akiyama, Y. Inoue, Y. Mori, N. Minagawa, A. Higure, and K. Yamaguchi, “Routine intraoperative cholangiography during single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A review of 196 consecutive patients,” J. Gastrointest. Surg.17(4), 668–674 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alcouffe, R. E.

A. H. Hielscher, R. E. Alcouffe, and R. L. Barbour, “Comparison of finite-difference transport and diffusion calculations for photon migration in homogeneous and heterogeneous tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol.43(5), 1285–1302 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alexandrakis, G.

Araújo-Filho, I.

A. C. Medeiros, I. Araújo-Filho, M. D. F. Carvalho, M. de Paiva, V. F. Lima, I. M. de Azevedo, and A. M. Dantas Filho, “Laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy: Complications and cost,” J. Surg. Clin. Res.3, 49–58 (2013).

Arridge, S. R.

T. Tarvainen, M. Vauhkonen, V. Kolehmainen, S. R. Arridge, and J. P. Kaipio, “Coupled radiative transfer equation and diffusion approximation model for photon migration in turbid medium with low-scattering and non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(20), 4913–4930 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbour, R. L.

A. H. Hielscher, R. E. Alcouffe, and R. L. Barbour, “Comparison of finite-difference transport and diffusion calculations for photon migration in homogeneous and heterogeneous tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol.43(5), 1285–1302 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bashkatov, A. N.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(15), 2543–2555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boas, D. A.

D. A. Boas, M. A. O’Leary, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Scattering and wavelength transduction of diffuse photon density waves,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics47(5), R2999–R3002 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Refraction of diffuse photon density waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett.69(18), 2658–2661 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borghi, A.

V. Salvatore, A. Borghi, and F. Piscaglia, “Contrast-enhanced ultrasound for liver imaging: Recent advances,” Curr. Pharm. Des.18(15), 2236–2252 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bramhall, S. R.

M. T. Perera, M. A. Silva, A. J. Shah, R. Hardstaff, S. R. Bramhall, J. Issac, J. A. Buckels, and D. F. Mirza, “Risk factors for litigation following major transectional bile duct injury sustained at laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” World J. Surg.34(11), 2635–2641 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Browning, J. J.

M. A. Stott, P. A. Farrands, P. B. Guyer, K. C. Dewbury, J. J. Browning, and R. Sutton, “Ultrasound of the common bile duct in patients undergoing cholecystectomy,” J. Clin. Ultrasound19(2), 73–76 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buckels, J. A.

M. T. Perera, M. A. Silva, A. J. Shah, R. Hardstaff, S. R. Bramhall, J. Issac, J. A. Buckels, and D. F. Mirza, “Risk factors for litigation following major transectional bile duct injury sustained at laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” World J. Surg.34(11), 2635–2641 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cameron, J. L.

S. J. Savader, K. D. Lillemoe, C. A. Prescott, A. B. Winick, A. C. Venbrux, G. B. Lund, S. E. Mitchell, J. L. Cameron, and F. A. Osterman., “Laparoscopic cholecystectomy-related bile duct injuries: A health and financial disaster,” Ann. Surg.225(3), 268–273 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carvalho, M. D. F.

A. C. Medeiros, I. Araújo-Filho, M. D. F. Carvalho, M. de Paiva, V. F. Lima, I. M. de Azevedo, and A. M. Dantas Filho, “Laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy: Complications and cost,” J. Surg. Clin. Res.3, 49–58 (2013).

Casola, G.

A. R. Moossa, D. W. Easter, E. Van Sonnenberg, G. Casola, and H. D’Agostino, “Laparoscopic injuries to the bile duct. A cause for concern,” Ann. Surg.215(3), 203–208 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

D. A. Boas, M. A. O’Leary, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Scattering and wavelength transduction of diffuse photon density waves,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics47(5), R2999–R3002 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Refraction of diffuse photon density waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett.69(18), 2658–2661 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Contini, D.

D’Agostino, H.

A. R. Moossa, D. W. Easter, E. Van Sonnenberg, G. Casola, and H. D’Agostino, “Laparoscopic injuries to the bile duct. A cause for concern,” Ann. Surg.215(3), 203–208 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dantas Filho, A. M.

A. C. Medeiros, I. Araújo-Filho, M. D. F. Carvalho, M. de Paiva, V. F. Lima, I. M. de Azevedo, and A. M. Dantas Filho, “Laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy: Complications and cost,” J. Surg. Clin. Res.3, 49–58 (2013).

de Azevedo, I. M.

A. C. Medeiros, I. Araújo-Filho, M. D. F. Carvalho, M. de Paiva, V. F. Lima, I. M. de Azevedo, and A. M. Dantas Filho, “Laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy: Complications and cost,” J. Surg. Clin. Res.3, 49–58 (2013).

de Paiva, M.

A. C. Medeiros, I. Araújo-Filho, M. D. F. Carvalho, M. de Paiva, V. F. Lima, I. M. de Azevedo, and A. M. Dantas Filho, “Laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy: Complications and cost,” J. Surg. Clin. Res.3, 49–58 (2013).

Dewbury, K. C.

M. A. Stott, P. A. Farrands, P. B. Guyer, K. C. Dewbury, J. J. Browning, and R. Sutton, “Ultrasound of the common bile duct in patients undergoing cholecystectomy,” J. Clin. Ultrasound19(2), 73–76 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, X.

Z. B. Ou, S. W. Li, C. A. Liu, B. Tu, C. X. Wu, X. Ding, Z. J. Liu, K. Sun, H. Y. Feng, and J. P. Gong, “Prevention of common bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” HBPD INT8(4), 414–417 (2009).
[PubMed]

Easter, D. W.

A. R. Moossa, D. W. Easter, E. Van Sonnenberg, G. Casola, and H. D’Agostino, “Laparoscopic injuries to the bile duct. A cause for concern,” Ann. Surg.215(3), 203–208 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fantini, S.

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, and E. Gratton, “Semi-infinite-geometry boundary problem for light migration in highly scattering media: A frequency-domain study in the diffusion approximation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.11(10), 2128–2138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Farrands, P. A.

M. A. Stott, P. A. Farrands, P. B. Guyer, K. C. Dewbury, J. J. Browning, and R. Sutton, “Ultrasound of the common bile duct in patients undergoing cholecystectomy,” J. Clin. Ultrasound19(2), 73–76 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farrell, T. J.

Feng, H. Y.

Z. B. Ou, S. W. Li, C. A. Liu, B. Tu, C. X. Wu, X. Ding, Z. J. Liu, K. Sun, H. Y. Feng, and J. P. Gong, “Prevention of common bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” HBPD INT8(4), 414–417 (2009).
[PubMed]

Franceschini, M. A.

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, and E. Gratton, “Semi-infinite-geometry boundary problem for light migration in highly scattering media: A frequency-domain study in the diffusion approximation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.11(10), 2128–2138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Frank, G. L.

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, and G. L. Frank, “Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissues in the visible and near infrared,” Phys. Med. Biol.35(9), 1317–1334 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garden, O. J.

O. J. Garden, “Fluorescent cholangiography illuminating the biliary tree during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Br. J. Surg.97(9), 1378 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genina, E. A.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(15), 2543–2555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gong, J. P.

Z. B. Ou, S. W. Li, C. A. Liu, B. Tu, C. X. Wu, X. Ding, Z. J. Liu, K. Sun, H. Y. Feng, and J. P. Gong, “Prevention of common bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” HBPD INT8(4), 414–417 (2009).
[PubMed]

Gratton, E.

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, and E. Gratton, “Semi-infinite-geometry boundary problem for light migration in highly scattering media: A frequency-domain study in the diffusion approximation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.11(10), 2128–2138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Guyer, P. B.

M. A. Stott, P. A. Farrands, P. B. Guyer, K. C. Dewbury, J. J. Browning, and R. Sutton, “Ultrasound of the common bile duct in patients undergoing cholecystectomy,” J. Clin. Ultrasound19(2), 73–76 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hardstaff, R.

M. T. Perera, M. A. Silva, A. J. Shah, R. Hardstaff, S. R. Bramhall, J. Issac, J. A. Buckels, and D. F. Mirza, “Risk factors for litigation following major transectional bile duct injury sustained at laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” World J. Surg.34(11), 2635–2641 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hielscher, A. H.

A. H. Hielscher, R. E. Alcouffe, and R. L. Barbour, “Comparison of finite-difference transport and diffusion calculations for photon migration in homogeneous and heterogeneous tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol.43(5), 1285–1302 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Higure, A.

N. Sato, K. Shibao, Y. Akiyama, Y. Inoue, Y. Mori, N. Minagawa, A. Higure, and K. Yamaguchi, “Routine intraoperative cholangiography during single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A review of 196 consecutive patients,” J. Gastrointest. Surg.17(4), 668–674 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inoue, Y.

N. Sato, K. Shibao, Y. Akiyama, Y. Inoue, Y. Mori, N. Minagawa, A. Higure, and K. Yamaguchi, “Routine intraoperative cholangiography during single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A review of 196 consecutive patients,” J. Gastrointest. Surg.17(4), 668–674 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Issac, J.

M. T. Perera, M. A. Silva, A. J. Shah, R. Hardstaff, S. R. Bramhall, J. Issac, J. A. Buckels, and D. F. Mirza, “Risk factors for litigation following major transectional bile duct injury sustained at laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” World J. Surg.34(11), 2635–2641 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaipio, J. P.

T. Tarvainen, M. Vauhkonen, V. Kolehmainen, S. R. Arridge, and J. P. Kaipio, “Coupled radiative transfer equation and diffusion approximation model for photon migration in turbid medium with low-scattering and non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(20), 4913–4930 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamensky, V. A.

P. D. Agrba, M. Y. Kirillin, A. I. Abelevich, E. V. Zagaynova, and V. A. Kamensky, “Compression as a method for increasing the informativity of optical coherence tomography of biotissues,” Opt107(Spec.), 853–858 (2009).

Kirillin, M. Y.

P. D. Agrba, M. Y. Kirillin, A. I. Abelevich, E. V. Zagaynova, and V. A. Kamensky, “Compression as a method for increasing the informativity of optical coherence tomography of biotissues,” Opt107(Spec.), 853–858 (2009).

Kochubey, V. I.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(15), 2543–2555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kolehmainen, V.

T. Tarvainen, M. Vauhkonen, V. Kolehmainen, S. R. Arridge, and J. P. Kaipio, “Coupled radiative transfer equation and diffusion approximation model for photon migration in turbid medium with low-scattering and non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(20), 4913–4930 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, S. W.

Z. B. Ou, S. W. Li, C. A. Liu, B. Tu, C. X. Wu, X. Ding, Z. J. Liu, K. Sun, H. Y. Feng, and J. P. Gong, “Prevention of common bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” HBPD INT8(4), 414–417 (2009).
[PubMed]

Lillemoe, K. D.

S. J. Savader, K. D. Lillemoe, C. A. Prescott, A. B. Winick, A. C. Venbrux, G. B. Lund, S. E. Mitchell, J. L. Cameron, and F. A. Osterman., “Laparoscopic cholecystectomy-related bile duct injuries: A health and financial disaster,” Ann. Surg.225(3), 268–273 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lima, V. F.

A. C. Medeiros, I. Araújo-Filho, M. D. F. Carvalho, M. de Paiva, V. F. Lima, I. M. de Azevedo, and A. M. Dantas Filho, “Laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy: Complications and cost,” J. Surg. Clin. Res.3, 49–58 (2013).

Liu, C. A.

Z. B. Ou, S. W. Li, C. A. Liu, B. Tu, C. X. Wu, X. Ding, Z. J. Liu, K. Sun, H. Y. Feng, and J. P. Gong, “Prevention of common bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” HBPD INT8(4), 414–417 (2009).
[PubMed]

Liu, Z. J.

Z. B. Ou, S. W. Li, C. A. Liu, B. Tu, C. X. Wu, X. Ding, Z. J. Liu, K. Sun, H. Y. Feng, and J. P. Gong, “Prevention of common bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” HBPD INT8(4), 414–417 (2009).
[PubMed]

Lund, G. B.

S. J. Savader, K. D. Lillemoe, C. A. Prescott, A. B. Winick, A. C. Venbrux, G. B. Lund, S. E. Mitchell, J. L. Cameron, and F. A. Osterman., “Laparoscopic cholecystectomy-related bile duct injuries: A health and financial disaster,” Ann. Surg.225(3), 268–273 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martelli, F.

Medeiros, A. C.

A. C. Medeiros, I. Araújo-Filho, M. D. F. Carvalho, M. de Paiva, V. F. Lima, I. M. de Azevedo, and A. M. Dantas Filho, “Laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy: Complications and cost,” J. Surg. Clin. Res.3, 49–58 (2013).

Minagawa, N.

N. Sato, K. Shibao, Y. Akiyama, Y. Inoue, Y. Mori, N. Minagawa, A. Higure, and K. Yamaguchi, “Routine intraoperative cholangiography during single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A review of 196 consecutive patients,” J. Gastrointest. Surg.17(4), 668–674 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirza, D. F.

M. T. Perera, M. A. Silva, A. J. Shah, R. Hardstaff, S. R. Bramhall, J. Issac, J. A. Buckels, and D. F. Mirza, “Risk factors for litigation following major transectional bile duct injury sustained at laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” World J. Surg.34(11), 2635–2641 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitchell, S. E.

S. J. Savader, K. D. Lillemoe, C. A. Prescott, A. B. Winick, A. C. Venbrux, G. B. Lund, S. E. Mitchell, J. L. Cameron, and F. A. Osterman., “Laparoscopic cholecystectomy-related bile duct injuries: A health and financial disaster,” Ann. Surg.225(3), 268–273 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moossa, A. R.

A. R. Moossa, D. W. Easter, E. Van Sonnenberg, G. Casola, and H. D’Agostino, “Laparoscopic injuries to the bile duct. A cause for concern,” Ann. Surg.215(3), 203–208 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mori, Y.

N. Sato, K. Shibao, Y. Akiyama, Y. Inoue, Y. Mori, N. Minagawa, A. Higure, and K. Yamaguchi, “Routine intraoperative cholangiography during single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A review of 196 consecutive patients,” J. Gastrointest. Surg.17(4), 668–674 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Leary, M. A.

D. A. Boas, M. A. O’Leary, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Scattering and wavelength transduction of diffuse photon density waves,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics47(5), R2999–R3002 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Refraction of diffuse photon density waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett.69(18), 2658–2661 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osterman, F. A.

S. J. Savader, K. D. Lillemoe, C. A. Prescott, A. B. Winick, A. C. Venbrux, G. B. Lund, S. E. Mitchell, J. L. Cameron, and F. A. Osterman., “Laparoscopic cholecystectomy-related bile duct injuries: A health and financial disaster,” Ann. Surg.225(3), 268–273 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ou, Z. B.

Z. B. Ou, S. W. Li, C. A. Liu, B. Tu, C. X. Wu, X. Ding, Z. J. Liu, K. Sun, H. Y. Feng, and J. P. Gong, “Prevention of common bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” HBPD INT8(4), 414–417 (2009).
[PubMed]

Page, D. L.

T. L. Troy, D. L. Page, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Optical properties of normal and diseased breast tissues: prognosis for optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt.1(3), 342–355 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

G. Alexandrakis, T. J. Farrell, and M. S. Patterson, “Monte Carlo diffusion hybrid model for photon migration in a two-layer turbid medium in the frequency domain,” Appl. Opt.39(13), 2235–2244 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, and G. L. Frank, “Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissues in the visible and near infrared,” Phys. Med. Biol.35(9), 1317–1334 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perera, M. T.

M. T. Perera, M. A. Silva, A. J. Shah, R. Hardstaff, S. R. Bramhall, J. Issac, J. A. Buckels, and D. F. Mirza, “Risk factors for litigation following major transectional bile duct injury sustained at laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” World J. Surg.34(11), 2635–2641 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peters, V. G.

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, and G. L. Frank, “Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissues in the visible and near infrared,” Phys. Med. Biol.35(9), 1317–1334 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piscaglia, F.

V. Salvatore, A. Borghi, and F. Piscaglia, “Contrast-enhanced ultrasound for liver imaging: Recent advances,” Curr. Pharm. Des.18(15), 2236–2252 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prescott, C. A.

S. J. Savader, K. D. Lillemoe, C. A. Prescott, A. B. Winick, A. C. Venbrux, G. B. Lund, S. E. Mitchell, J. L. Cameron, and F. A. Osterman., “Laparoscopic cholecystectomy-related bile duct injuries: A health and financial disaster,” Ann. Surg.225(3), 268–273 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salvatore, V.

V. Salvatore, A. Borghi, and F. Piscaglia, “Contrast-enhanced ultrasound for liver imaging: Recent advances,” Curr. Pharm. Des.18(15), 2236–2252 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sato, N.

N. Sato, K. Shibao, Y. Akiyama, Y. Inoue, Y. Mori, N. Minagawa, A. Higure, and K. Yamaguchi, “Routine intraoperative cholangiography during single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A review of 196 consecutive patients,” J. Gastrointest. Surg.17(4), 668–674 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Savader, S. J.

S. J. Savader, K. D. Lillemoe, C. A. Prescott, A. B. Winick, A. C. Venbrux, G. B. Lund, S. E. Mitchell, J. L. Cameron, and F. A. Osterman., “Laparoscopic cholecystectomy-related bile duct injuries: A health and financial disaster,” Ann. Surg.225(3), 268–273 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sevick-Muraca, E. M.

T. L. Troy, D. L. Page, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Optical properties of normal and diseased breast tissues: prognosis for optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt.1(3), 342–355 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, A. J.

M. T. Perera, M. A. Silva, A. J. Shah, R. Hardstaff, S. R. Bramhall, J. Issac, J. A. Buckels, and D. F. Mirza, “Risk factors for litigation following major transectional bile duct injury sustained at laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” World J. Surg.34(11), 2635–2641 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shibao, K.

N. Sato, K. Shibao, Y. Akiyama, Y. Inoue, Y. Mori, N. Minagawa, A. Higure, and K. Yamaguchi, “Routine intraoperative cholangiography during single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A review of 196 consecutive patients,” J. Gastrointest. Surg.17(4), 668–674 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silva, M. A.

M. T. Perera, M. A. Silva, A. J. Shah, R. Hardstaff, S. R. Bramhall, J. Issac, J. A. Buckels, and D. F. Mirza, “Risk factors for litigation following major transectional bile duct injury sustained at laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” World J. Surg.34(11), 2635–2641 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stott, M. A.

M. A. Stott, P. A. Farrands, P. B. Guyer, K. C. Dewbury, J. J. Browning, and R. Sutton, “Ultrasound of the common bile duct in patients undergoing cholecystectomy,” J. Clin. Ultrasound19(2), 73–76 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, K.

Z. B. Ou, S. W. Li, C. A. Liu, B. Tu, C. X. Wu, X. Ding, Z. J. Liu, K. Sun, H. Y. Feng, and J. P. Gong, “Prevention of common bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” HBPD INT8(4), 414–417 (2009).
[PubMed]

Sutton, R.

M. A. Stott, P. A. Farrands, P. B. Guyer, K. C. Dewbury, J. J. Browning, and R. Sutton, “Ultrasound of the common bile duct in patients undergoing cholecystectomy,” J. Clin. Ultrasound19(2), 73–76 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tarvainen, T.

T. Tarvainen, M. Vauhkonen, V. Kolehmainen, S. R. Arridge, and J. P. Kaipio, “Coupled radiative transfer equation and diffusion approximation model for photon migration in turbid medium with low-scattering and non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(20), 4913–4930 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Troy, T. L.

T. L. Troy, D. L. Page, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Optical properties of normal and diseased breast tissues: prognosis for optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt.1(3), 342–355 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tu, B.

Z. B. Ou, S. W. Li, C. A. Liu, B. Tu, C. X. Wu, X. Ding, Z. J. Liu, K. Sun, H. Y. Feng, and J. P. Gong, “Prevention of common bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” HBPD INT8(4), 414–417 (2009).
[PubMed]

Tuchin, V. V.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(15), 2543–2555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Van Sonnenberg, E.

A. R. Moossa, D. W. Easter, E. Van Sonnenberg, G. Casola, and H. D’Agostino, “Laparoscopic injuries to the bile duct. A cause for concern,” Ann. Surg.215(3), 203–208 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vauhkonen, M.

T. Tarvainen, M. Vauhkonen, V. Kolehmainen, S. R. Arridge, and J. P. Kaipio, “Coupled radiative transfer equation and diffusion approximation model for photon migration in turbid medium with low-scattering and non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(20), 4913–4930 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venbrux, A. C.

S. J. Savader, K. D. Lillemoe, C. A. Prescott, A. B. Winick, A. C. Venbrux, G. B. Lund, S. E. Mitchell, J. L. Cameron, and F. A. Osterman., “Laparoscopic cholecystectomy-related bile duct injuries: A health and financial disaster,” Ann. Surg.225(3), 268–273 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winick, A. B.

S. J. Savader, K. D. Lillemoe, C. A. Prescott, A. B. Winick, A. C. Venbrux, G. B. Lund, S. E. Mitchell, J. L. Cameron, and F. A. Osterman., “Laparoscopic cholecystectomy-related bile duct injuries: A health and financial disaster,” Ann. Surg.225(3), 268–273 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, C. X.

Z. B. Ou, S. W. Li, C. A. Liu, B. Tu, C. X. Wu, X. Ding, Z. J. Liu, K. Sun, H. Y. Feng, and J. P. Gong, “Prevention of common bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” HBPD INT8(4), 414–417 (2009).
[PubMed]

Wyman, D. R.

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, and G. L. Frank, “Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissues in the visible and near infrared,” Phys. Med. Biol.35(9), 1317–1334 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, C. G.

F. Xu, C. G. Xu, and D. Z. Xu, “A new method of preventing bile duct injury in laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” World J. Gastroenterol.10(19), 2916–2918 (2004).
[PubMed]

Xu, D. Z.

F. Xu, C. G. Xu, and D. Z. Xu, “A new method of preventing bile duct injury in laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” World J. Gastroenterol.10(19), 2916–2918 (2004).
[PubMed]

Xu, F.

F. Xu, C. G. Xu, and D. Z. Xu, “A new method of preventing bile duct injury in laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” World J. Gastroenterol.10(19), 2916–2918 (2004).
[PubMed]

Yamaguchi, K.

N. Sato, K. Shibao, Y. Akiyama, Y. Inoue, Y. Mori, N. Minagawa, A. Higure, and K. Yamaguchi, “Routine intraoperative cholangiography during single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A review of 196 consecutive patients,” J. Gastrointest. Surg.17(4), 668–674 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yodh, A. G.

D. A. Boas, M. A. O’Leary, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Scattering and wavelength transduction of diffuse photon density waves,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics47(5), R2999–R3002 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Refraction of diffuse photon density waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett.69(18), 2658–2661 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaccanti, G.

Zagaynova, E. V.

P. D. Agrba, M. Y. Kirillin, A. I. Abelevich, E. V. Zagaynova, and V. A. Kamensky, “Compression as a method for increasing the informativity of optical coherence tomography of biotissues,” Opt107(Spec.), 853–858 (2009).

Ann. Surg.

S. J. Savader, K. D. Lillemoe, C. A. Prescott, A. B. Winick, A. C. Venbrux, G. B. Lund, S. E. Mitchell, J. L. Cameron, and F. A. Osterman., “Laparoscopic cholecystectomy-related bile duct injuries: A health and financial disaster,” Ann. Surg.225(3), 268–273 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Moossa, D. W. Easter, E. Van Sonnenberg, G. Casola, and H. D’Agostino, “Laparoscopic injuries to the bile duct. A cause for concern,” Ann. Surg.215(3), 203–208 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Br. J. Surg.

O. J. Garden, “Fluorescent cholangiography illuminating the biliary tree during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Br. J. Surg.97(9), 1378 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Pharm. Des.

V. Salvatore, A. Borghi, and F. Piscaglia, “Contrast-enhanced ultrasound for liver imaging: Recent advances,” Curr. Pharm. Des.18(15), 2236–2252 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

HBPD INT

Z. B. Ou, S. W. Li, C. A. Liu, B. Tu, C. X. Wu, X. Ding, Z. J. Liu, K. Sun, H. Y. Feng, and J. P. Gong, “Prevention of common bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” HBPD INT8(4), 414–417 (2009).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

T. L. Troy, D. L. Page, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Optical properties of normal and diseased breast tissues: prognosis for optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt.1(3), 342–355 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Clin. Ultrasound

M. A. Stott, P. A. Farrands, P. B. Guyer, K. C. Dewbury, J. J. Browning, and R. Sutton, “Ultrasound of the common bile duct in patients undergoing cholecystectomy,” J. Clin. Ultrasound19(2), 73–76 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gastrointest. Surg.

N. Sato, K. Shibao, Y. Akiyama, Y. Inoue, Y. Mori, N. Minagawa, A. Higure, and K. Yamaguchi, “Routine intraoperative cholangiography during single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A review of 196 consecutive patients,” J. Gastrointest. Surg.17(4), 668–674 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, and E. Gratton, “Semi-infinite-geometry boundary problem for light migration in highly scattering media: A frequency-domain study in the diffusion approximation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.11(10), 2128–2138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(15), 2543–2555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Surg. Clin. Res.

A. C. Medeiros, I. Araújo-Filho, M. D. F. Carvalho, M. de Paiva, V. F. Lima, I. M. de Azevedo, and A. M. Dantas Filho, “Laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy: Complications and cost,” J. Surg. Clin. Res.3, 49–58 (2013).

Opt

P. D. Agrba, M. Y. Kirillin, A. I. Abelevich, E. V. Zagaynova, and V. A. Kamensky, “Compression as a method for increasing the informativity of optical coherence tomography of biotissues,” Opt107(Spec.), 853–858 (2009).

Phys. Med. Biol.

T. Tarvainen, M. Vauhkonen, V. Kolehmainen, S. R. Arridge, and J. P. Kaipio, “Coupled radiative transfer equation and diffusion approximation model for photon migration in turbid medium with low-scattering and non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol.50(20), 4913–4930 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, and G. L. Frank, “Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissues in the visible and near infrared,” Phys. Med. Biol.35(9), 1317–1334 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Hielscher, R. E. Alcouffe, and R. L. Barbour, “Comparison of finite-difference transport and diffusion calculations for photon migration in homogeneous and heterogeneous tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol.43(5), 1285–1302 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics

D. A. Boas, M. A. O’Leary, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Scattering and wavelength transduction of diffuse photon density waves,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics47(5), R2999–R3002 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Refraction of diffuse photon density waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett.69(18), 2658–2661 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

World J. Gastroenterol.

F. Xu, C. G. Xu, and D. Z. Xu, “A new method of preventing bile duct injury in laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” World J. Gastroenterol.10(19), 2916–2918 (2004).
[PubMed]

World J. Surg.

M. T. Perera, M. A. Silva, A. J. Shah, R. Hardstaff, S. R. Bramhall, J. Issac, J. A. Buckels, and D. F. Mirza, “Risk factors for litigation following major transectional bile duct injury sustained at laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” World J. Surg.34(11), 2635–2641 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

H. Akbari, Y. Kosugi, and Z. Khorgami, “Image-guided preparation of the calot's triangle in laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” in Proceedings of EMBS EMBC Annual International Conference of the IEEE (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Irvin, FRED Technical Support, Photon Engineering, (personal communication, 2014).

L. V. Wang and H. Wu, Biomedical Optics: Principles and Imaging (Hoboken: Wiley; 2012), Chap. 5.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Planar geometry for describing light propagation where ballistic photons flow from the fat surface (z = 0) to the diffuse point source origin (z = zs), intensity is described by the Green’s function in Eq. (1) for zs to the aperture plane (z = za), and intensity is described by Eq. (4) for za to the detector plane (z = zd).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

2-dimensionalcross-section of the 3-dimensional digital phantom (a); and viewed in FRED (b). The source is scanned linearly across the absorbing rod and at each point in the scan the intensity is captured by a detector on Side B and Side A. Line profiles when d = 5 and source power is 25 W are shown in (c).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

View of fat sample from Side B (a) and isometric (b). Construction of fat sample sandwich with three locations for inserting and removing an absorber (c).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photographs of manual scanning setup with pixelated detector (Lab Setup #1) and automatic scanning setup with single large area detector (Lab Setup #2).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Line profiles of Eq. (4) compared to Eq. (1) with unity transmission function (a), and line profile of Eq. (4) with bar absorber transmission function compared to cross section of intensity in Monte Carlo simulation (b).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Line profiles of Eq. (5) for Side B LAD processing (a) compared to line profiles of Eq. (6) for Side A LAD processing (b) based on Monte Carlo simulations with a bar absorber stepped in 1mm increments through a 12 mm block of fat tissue.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Individual line profiles for absorber at different depths used to calculate contrast for (a) LAD on Side B from Monte Carlo simulations, (b) LAD on Side B from theory, (c) PD on Side B from Monte Carlo simulations, and (c) PD on Side B from diffusion theory.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Contrast comparison of system configurations, combining results from theory (solid lines), Monte Carlo (dashed lines), and experiments (large circles).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Line scan for a digital phantom of 12mm of fat with absorber embedded in center compared to line scan for two 6mm digital phantoms of fat with glass slides and air gap as is the case in the experiments. Transmission configuration with LAD.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Sample images from Lab Setup #1 showing (a) the size of the fat sample; a single scan location snapshot with the absorber on the (b) camera side, (c) middle, and (d) laser side; the PD processing sum of all scan locations with (e) no absorber, (f) camera side absorber, (g) middle absorber, and (h) laser side absorber; and the LAD processing scans with (i) no absorber, (j) camera side absorber, (k) middle absorber, and (l) laser side absorber.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Sample images from Lab Setup #2 showing (a,c) control samples with no absorber, and (b,d) samples with absorber placed on the detector side of the fat sample.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϕ( r 0 )= 1 4πD exp[ μ eff r 0 ] r 0
D= 1 3( μ a + μ s ' )
μ eff = 3 μ a ( μ a + μ s ' )
ϕ( x d , y d , z d )= z d z a 8 π 2 D x a y a τ( x a , y a ) e µ eff ( r 1 + r 0 ) r 0 r 1 3 ( 1+ µ eff r 1 ) dydx
τ( x a , y a )={ 0, 1 x a 1 1, | x a |>1
I A,LAD ( x S , y S )= X Y Ψ A (x,y, x S , y S )
I B,LAD ( x S , y S )= X Y Ψ B (x,y, x S , y S )
I B,PD (x,y)= X S Y S Ψ B (x,y, x S , y S )

Metrics