Abstract

The sensitivity and resolution of fluorescence-based imaging in vivo is often limited by autofluorescence and other background noise. To overcome these limitations, we have developed a wide-field background-free imaging technique based on magnetic modulation of fluorescent nanodiamond emission. Fluorescent nanodiamonds are bright, photo-stable, biocompatible nanoparticles that are promising probes for a wide range of in vitro and in vivo imaging applications. Our readily applied background-free imaging technique improves the signal-to-background ratio for in vivo imaging up to 100-fold. This technique has the potential to significantly improve and extend fluorescent nanodiamond imaging capabilities on diverse fluorescence imaging platforms.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (5)

M. W. Doherty, N. B. Manson, P. Delaney, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, and L. C. L. Hollenberg, “The nitrogen-vacancy colour centre in diamond,” Phys. Rep.528(1), 1–45 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Proulx and M. Detmar, “Molecular mechanisms and imaging of lymphatic metastasis,” Exp. Cell Res.319(11), 1611–1617 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bumb, S. K. Sarkar, N. Billington, M. W. Brechbiel, and K. C. Neuman, “Silica encapsulation of fluorescent nanodiamonds for colloidal stability and facile surface functionalization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.135(21), 7815–7818 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Chapman and T. Plakhoitnik, “Background-free imaging of luminescent nanodiamonds using external magnetic field for contrast enhancement,” Opt. Lett.38(11), 1847–1849 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hegyi and E. Yablonovitch, “Molecular imaging by optically detected electron spin resonance of nitrogen-vacancies in nanodiamonds,” Nano Lett.13(3), 1173–1178 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

R. Igarashi, Y. Yoshinari, H. Yokota, T. Sugi, F. Sugihara, K. Ikeda, H. Sumiya, S. Tsuji, I. Mori, H. Tochio, Y. Harada, and M. Shirakawa, “Real-time background-free selective imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds in vivo,” Nano Lett.12(11), 5726–5732 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Jarmola, V. M. Acosta, K. Jensen, S. Chemerisov, and D. Budker, “Temperature- and magnetic-field-dependent longitudinal spin relaxation in nitrogen-vacancy ensembles in diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(19), 197601 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Vaijayanthimala, P. Y. Cheng, S. H. Yeh, K. K. Liu, C. H. Hsiao, J. I. Chao, and H. C. Chang, “The long-term stability and biocompatibility of fluorescent nanodiamond as an in vivo contrast agent,” Biomaterials33(31), 7794–7802 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

E. K. Chow, X. Q. Zhang, M. Chen, R. Lam, E. Robinson, H. J. Huang, D. Schaffer, E. Osawa, A. Goga, and D. Ho, “Nanodiamond therapeutic delivery agents mediate enhanced chemoresistant tumor treatment,” Sci. Transl. Med.3(73), 73ra21 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Pham, D. L. Sage, P. L. Stanwix, T. K. Yeung, D. Glenn, A. Trifonov, P. Cappellaro, P. R. Hemmer, M. D. Lukin, H. Park, A. Yacoby, and R. L. Walsworth, “Magnetic field imaging with nitrogen-vacancy ensembles,” New J. Phys.13, 045021 (2011).

A. Bumb, C. A. Regino, J. G. Egen, M. Bernardo, P. J. Dobson, R. N. Germain, P. L. Choyke, and M. W. Brechbiel, “Trafficking of a dual-modality magnetic resonance and fluorescence imaging superparamagnetic iron oxide-based nanoprobe to lymph nodes,” Mol. Imaging Biol.13(6), 1163–1172 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Maze, A. Gali, E. Togan, Y. Chu, A. Trifonov, E. Kaxiras, and M. Lukin, “Properties of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond: the group theoretic approach,” New J. Phys.13(2), 025025 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

V. M. Acosta, A. Jarmola, E. Bauch, and D. Budker, “Optical properties of the nitrogen-vacancy singlet levels in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B82(20), 201202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Mohan, C. S. Chen, H. H. Hsieh, Y. C. Wu, and H. C. Chang, “In Vivo Imaging and Toxicity Assessments of Fluorescent Nanodiamonds in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3692–3699 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

A. M. Smith, M. C. Mancini, and S. Nie, “Bioimaging: second window for in vivo imaging,” Nat. Nanotechnol.4(11), 710–711 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xu and B. W. Rice, “In-vivo fluorescence imaging with a multivariate curve resolution spectral unmixing technique,” J. Biomed. Opt.14, 064011 (2009).

N. D. Lai, D. Zheng, F. Jelezko, F. Treussart, and J.-F. Roch, “Influence of a static magnetic field on the photoluminescence of an ensemble of nitrogen-vacancy color centers in a diamond single-crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(13), 133101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. I. Richards, J. C. Hsiang, D. Senapati, S. Patel, J. Yu, T. Vosch, and R. M. Dickson, “Optically modulated fluorophores for selective fluorescence signal recovery,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.131(13), 4619–4621 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Kosaka, M. Ogawa, N. Sato, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “In vivo real-time, multicolor, quantum dot lymphatic imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol.129(12), 2818–2822 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

G. Marriott, S. Mao, T. Sakata, J. Ran, D. K. Jackson, C. Petchprayoon, T. J. Gomez, E. Warp, O. Tulyathan, H. L. Aaron, E. Y. Isacoff, and Y. Yan, “Optical lock-in detection imaging microscopy for contrast-enhanced imaging in living cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(46), 17789–17794 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. R. Chang, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, C. C. Chang, D. S. Tsai, C. C. Fu, T. S. Lim, Y. K. Tzeng, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(5), 284–288 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

C.-C. Fu, H.-Y. Lee, K. Chen, T.-S. Lim, H.-Y. Wu, P.-K. Lin, P.-K. Wei, P.-H. Tsao, H.-C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Characterization and application of single fluorescent nanodiamonds as cellular biomarkers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(3), 727–732 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Schrand, H. J. Huang, C. Carlson, J. J. Schlager, E. Omacr Sawa, S. M. Hussain, and L. M. Dai, “Are diamond nanoparticles cytotoxic?” J. Phys. Chem. B111(1), 2–7 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kobayashi, Y. Hama, Y. Koyama, T. Barrett, C. A. Regino, Y. Urano, and P. L. Choyke, “Simultaneous multicolor imaging of five different lymphatic basins using quantum dots,” Nano Lett.7(6), 1711–1716 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

F. Jelezko and J. Wrachtrup, “Single defect centres in diamond: A review,” Phys. Status Solidi203(13), 3207–3225 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

S.-J. Yu, M.-W. Kang, H.-C. Chang, K.-M. Chen, and Y.-C. Yu, “Bright fluorescent nanodiamonds: no photobleaching and low cytotoxicity,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.127(50), 17604–17605 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mansfield, K. W. Gossage, C. C. Hoyt, and R. M. Levenson, “Autofluorescence removal, multiplexing, and automated analysis methods for in-vivo fluorescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.10, 041207 (2005).

2003 (2)

J. V. Frangioni, “In vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol.7(5), 626–634 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Anker and R. Kopelman, “Magnetically modulated optical nanoprobes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(7), 1102–1104 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

G. Hermosillo, C. Chefd’Hotel, and O. Faugeras, “Variational methods for multimodal image matching,” Int. J. Comput. Vis.50(3), 329–343 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. H. Scofield, “Frequency-domain description of a lock-in amplifier,” Am. J. Phys.62(2), 129–132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. R. Lakowicz, H. Szmacinski, K. Nowaczyk, K. W. Berndt, and M. Johnson, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging,” Anal. Biochem.202(2), 316–330 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1946 (1)

R. H. Dicke, “The measurement of thermal radiation at microwave frequencies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.17(7), 268–275 (1946).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aaron, H. L.

G. Marriott, S. Mao, T. Sakata, J. Ran, D. K. Jackson, C. Petchprayoon, T. J. Gomez, E. Warp, O. Tulyathan, H. L. Aaron, E. Y. Isacoff, and Y. Yan, “Optical lock-in detection imaging microscopy for contrast-enhanced imaging in living cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(46), 17789–17794 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acosta, V. M.

A. Jarmola, V. M. Acosta, K. Jensen, S. Chemerisov, and D. Budker, “Temperature- and magnetic-field-dependent longitudinal spin relaxation in nitrogen-vacancy ensembles in diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(19), 197601 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Acosta, A. Jarmola, E. Bauch, and D. Budker, “Optical properties of the nitrogen-vacancy singlet levels in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B82(20), 201202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker and R. Kopelman, “Magnetically modulated optical nanoprobes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(7), 1102–1104 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, T.

H. Kobayashi, Y. Hama, Y. Koyama, T. Barrett, C. A. Regino, Y. Urano, and P. L. Choyke, “Simultaneous multicolor imaging of five different lymphatic basins using quantum dots,” Nano Lett.7(6), 1711–1716 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bauch, E.

V. M. Acosta, A. Jarmola, E. Bauch, and D. Budker, “Optical properties of the nitrogen-vacancy singlet levels in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B82(20), 201202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bernardo, M.

A. Bumb, C. A. Regino, J. G. Egen, M. Bernardo, P. J. Dobson, R. N. Germain, P. L. Choyke, and M. W. Brechbiel, “Trafficking of a dual-modality magnetic resonance and fluorescence imaging superparamagnetic iron oxide-based nanoprobe to lymph nodes,” Mol. Imaging Biol.13(6), 1163–1172 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berndt, K. W.

J. R. Lakowicz, H. Szmacinski, K. Nowaczyk, K. W. Berndt, and M. Johnson, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging,” Anal. Biochem.202(2), 316–330 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Billington, N.

A. Bumb, S. K. Sarkar, N. Billington, M. W. Brechbiel, and K. C. Neuman, “Silica encapsulation of fluorescent nanodiamonds for colloidal stability and facile surface functionalization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.135(21), 7815–7818 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brechbiel, M. W.

A. Bumb, S. K. Sarkar, N. Billington, M. W. Brechbiel, and K. C. Neuman, “Silica encapsulation of fluorescent nanodiamonds for colloidal stability and facile surface functionalization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.135(21), 7815–7818 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bumb, C. A. Regino, J. G. Egen, M. Bernardo, P. J. Dobson, R. N. Germain, P. L. Choyke, and M. W. Brechbiel, “Trafficking of a dual-modality magnetic resonance and fluorescence imaging superparamagnetic iron oxide-based nanoprobe to lymph nodes,” Mol. Imaging Biol.13(6), 1163–1172 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Budker, D.

A. Jarmola, V. M. Acosta, K. Jensen, S. Chemerisov, and D. Budker, “Temperature- and magnetic-field-dependent longitudinal spin relaxation in nitrogen-vacancy ensembles in diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(19), 197601 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Acosta, A. Jarmola, E. Bauch, and D. Budker, “Optical properties of the nitrogen-vacancy singlet levels in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B82(20), 201202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bumb, A.

A. Bumb, S. K. Sarkar, N. Billington, M. W. Brechbiel, and K. C. Neuman, “Silica encapsulation of fluorescent nanodiamonds for colloidal stability and facile surface functionalization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.135(21), 7815–7818 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bumb, C. A. Regino, J. G. Egen, M. Bernardo, P. J. Dobson, R. N. Germain, P. L. Choyke, and M. W. Brechbiel, “Trafficking of a dual-modality magnetic resonance and fluorescence imaging superparamagnetic iron oxide-based nanoprobe to lymph nodes,” Mol. Imaging Biol.13(6), 1163–1172 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cappellaro, P.

L. M. Pham, D. L. Sage, P. L. Stanwix, T. K. Yeung, D. Glenn, A. Trifonov, P. Cappellaro, P. R. Hemmer, M. D. Lukin, H. Park, A. Yacoby, and R. L. Walsworth, “Magnetic field imaging with nitrogen-vacancy ensembles,” New J. Phys.13, 045021 (2011).

Carlson, C.

A. M. Schrand, H. J. Huang, C. Carlson, J. J. Schlager, E. Omacr Sawa, S. M. Hussain, and L. M. Dai, “Are diamond nanoparticles cytotoxic?” J. Phys. Chem. B111(1), 2–7 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C. C.

Y. R. Chang, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, C. C. Chang, D. S. Tsai, C. C. Fu, T. S. Lim, Y. K. Tzeng, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(5), 284–288 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, H. C.

V. Vaijayanthimala, P. Y. Cheng, S. H. Yeh, K. K. Liu, C. H. Hsiao, J. I. Chao, and H. C. Chang, “The long-term stability and biocompatibility of fluorescent nanodiamond as an in vivo contrast agent,” Biomaterials33(31), 7794–7802 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Mohan, C. S. Chen, H. H. Hsieh, Y. C. Wu, and H. C. Chang, “In Vivo Imaging and Toxicity Assessments of Fluorescent Nanodiamonds in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3692–3699 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. R. Chang, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, C. C. Chang, D. S. Tsai, C. C. Fu, T. S. Lim, Y. K. Tzeng, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(5), 284–288 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, H.-C.

C.-C. Fu, H.-Y. Lee, K. Chen, T.-S. Lim, H.-Y. Wu, P.-K. Lin, P.-K. Wei, P.-H. Tsao, H.-C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Characterization and application of single fluorescent nanodiamonds as cellular biomarkers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(3), 727–732 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-J. Yu, M.-W. Kang, H.-C. Chang, K.-M. Chen, and Y.-C. Yu, “Bright fluorescent nanodiamonds: no photobleaching and low cytotoxicity,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.127(50), 17604–17605 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, Y. R.

Y. R. Chang, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, C. C. Chang, D. S. Tsai, C. C. Fu, T. S. Lim, Y. K. Tzeng, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(5), 284–288 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chao, J. I.

V. Vaijayanthimala, P. Y. Cheng, S. H. Yeh, K. K. Liu, C. H. Hsiao, J. I. Chao, and H. C. Chang, “The long-term stability and biocompatibility of fluorescent nanodiamond as an in vivo contrast agent,” Biomaterials33(31), 7794–7802 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chapman, R.

Chefd’Hotel, C.

G. Hermosillo, C. Chefd’Hotel, and O. Faugeras, “Variational methods for multimodal image matching,” Int. J. Comput. Vis.50(3), 329–343 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chemerisov, S.

A. Jarmola, V. M. Acosta, K. Jensen, S. Chemerisov, and D. Budker, “Temperature- and magnetic-field-dependent longitudinal spin relaxation in nitrogen-vacancy ensembles in diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(19), 197601 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. S.

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G. Hermosillo, C. Chefd’Hotel, and O. Faugeras, “Variational methods for multimodal image matching,” Int. J. Comput. Vis.50(3), 329–343 (2002).
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E. K. Chow, X. Q. Zhang, M. Chen, R. Lam, E. Robinson, H. J. Huang, D. Schaffer, E. Osawa, A. Goga, and D. Ho, “Nanodiamond therapeutic delivery agents mediate enhanced chemoresistant tumor treatment,” Sci. Transl. Med.3(73), 73ra21 (2011).
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M. W. Doherty, N. B. Manson, P. Delaney, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, and L. C. L. Hollenberg, “The nitrogen-vacancy colour centre in diamond,” Phys. Rep.528(1), 1–45 (2013).
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J. R. Mansfield, K. W. Gossage, C. C. Hoyt, and R. M. Levenson, “Autofluorescence removal, multiplexing, and automated analysis methods for in-vivo fluorescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.10, 041207 (2005).

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C. I. Richards, J. C. Hsiang, D. Senapati, S. Patel, J. Yu, T. Vosch, and R. M. Dickson, “Optically modulated fluorophores for selective fluorescence signal recovery,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.131(13), 4619–4621 (2009).
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N. Mohan, C. S. Chen, H. H. Hsieh, Y. C. Wu, and H. C. Chang, “In Vivo Imaging and Toxicity Assessments of Fluorescent Nanodiamonds in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3692–3699 (2010).
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J. Maze, A. Gali, E. Togan, Y. Chu, A. Trifonov, E. Kaxiras, and M. Lukin, “Properties of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond: the group theoretic approach,” New J. Phys.13(2), 025025 (2011).
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N. Kosaka, M. Ogawa, N. Sato, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “In vivo real-time, multicolor, quantum dot lymphatic imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol.129(12), 2818–2822 (2009).
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H. Kobayashi, Y. Hama, Y. Koyama, T. Barrett, C. A. Regino, Y. Urano, and P. L. Choyke, “Simultaneous multicolor imaging of five different lymphatic basins using quantum dots,” Nano Lett.7(6), 1711–1716 (2007).
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H. Kobayashi, Y. Hama, Y. Koyama, T. Barrett, C. A. Regino, Y. Urano, and P. L. Choyke, “Simultaneous multicolor imaging of five different lymphatic basins using quantum dots,” Nano Lett.7(6), 1711–1716 (2007).
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Y. R. Chang, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, C. C. Chang, D. S. Tsai, C. C. Fu, T. S. Lim, Y. K. Tzeng, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(5), 284–288 (2008).
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C.-C. Fu, H.-Y. Lee, K. Chen, T.-S. Lim, H.-Y. Wu, P.-K. Lin, P.-K. Wei, P.-H. Tsao, H.-C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Characterization and application of single fluorescent nanodiamonds as cellular biomarkers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(3), 727–732 (2007).
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J. R. Mansfield, K. W. Gossage, C. C. Hoyt, and R. M. Levenson, “Autofluorescence removal, multiplexing, and automated analysis methods for in-vivo fluorescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.10, 041207 (2005).

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Y. R. Chang, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, C. C. Chang, D. S. Tsai, C. C. Fu, T. S. Lim, Y. K. Tzeng, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(5), 284–288 (2008).
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C.-C. Fu, H.-Y. Lee, K. Chen, T.-S. Lim, H.-Y. Wu, P.-K. Lin, P.-K. Wei, P.-H. Tsao, H.-C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Characterization and application of single fluorescent nanodiamonds as cellular biomarkers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(3), 727–732 (2007).
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M. W. Doherty, N. B. Manson, P. Delaney, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, and L. C. L. Hollenberg, “The nitrogen-vacancy colour centre in diamond,” Phys. Rep.528(1), 1–45 (2013).
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G. Marriott, S. Mao, T. Sakata, J. Ran, D. K. Jackson, C. Petchprayoon, T. J. Gomez, E. Warp, O. Tulyathan, H. L. Aaron, E. Y. Isacoff, and Y. Yan, “Optical lock-in detection imaging microscopy for contrast-enhanced imaging in living cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(46), 17789–17794 (2008).
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J. Maze, A. Gali, E. Togan, Y. Chu, A. Trifonov, E. Kaxiras, and M. Lukin, “Properties of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond: the group theoretic approach,” New J. Phys.13(2), 025025 (2011).
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H. Xu and B. W. Rice, “In-vivo fluorescence imaging with a multivariate curve resolution spectral unmixing technique,” J. Biomed. Opt.14, 064011 (2009).

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G. Marriott, S. Mao, T. Sakata, J. Ran, D. K. Jackson, C. Petchprayoon, T. J. Gomez, E. Warp, O. Tulyathan, H. L. Aaron, E. Y. Isacoff, and Y. Yan, “Optical lock-in detection imaging microscopy for contrast-enhanced imaging in living cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(46), 17789–17794 (2008).
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A. Bumb, S. K. Sarkar, N. Billington, M. W. Brechbiel, and K. C. Neuman, “Silica encapsulation of fluorescent nanodiamonds for colloidal stability and facile surface functionalization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.135(21), 7815–7818 (2013).
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N. Kosaka, M. Ogawa, N. Sato, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “In vivo real-time, multicolor, quantum dot lymphatic imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol.129(12), 2818–2822 (2009).
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A. M. Schrand, H. J. Huang, C. Carlson, J. J. Schlager, E. Omacr Sawa, S. M. Hussain, and L. M. Dai, “Are diamond nanoparticles cytotoxic?” J. Phys. Chem. B111(1), 2–7 (2007).
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A. M. Schrand, H. J. Huang, C. Carlson, J. J. Schlager, E. Omacr Sawa, S. M. Hussain, and L. M. Dai, “Are diamond nanoparticles cytotoxic?” J. Phys. Chem. B111(1), 2–7 (2007).
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L. M. Pham, D. L. Sage, P. L. Stanwix, T. K. Yeung, D. Glenn, A. Trifonov, P. Cappellaro, P. R. Hemmer, M. D. Lukin, H. Park, A. Yacoby, and R. L. Walsworth, “Magnetic field imaging with nitrogen-vacancy ensembles,” New J. Phys.13, 045021 (2011).

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G. Marriott, S. Mao, T. Sakata, J. Ran, D. K. Jackson, C. Petchprayoon, T. J. Gomez, E. Warp, O. Tulyathan, H. L. Aaron, E. Y. Isacoff, and Y. Yan, “Optical lock-in detection imaging microscopy for contrast-enhanced imaging in living cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(46), 17789–17794 (2008).
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R. Igarashi, Y. Yoshinari, H. Yokota, T. Sugi, F. Sugihara, K. Ikeda, H. Sumiya, S. Tsuji, I. Mori, H. Tochio, Y. Harada, and M. Shirakawa, “Real-time background-free selective imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds in vivo,” Nano Lett.12(11), 5726–5732 (2012).
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