Abstract

Recent advances to the adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) have enabled finer in vivo assessment of the human retinal microvasculature. AOSLO confocal reflectance imaging has been coupled with oral fluorescein angiography (FA), enabling simultaneous acquisition of structural and perfusion images. AOSLO offset pinhole (OP) imaging combined with motion contrast post-processing techniques, are able to create a similar set of structural and perfusion images without the use of exogenous contrast agent. In this study, we evaluate the similarities and differences of the structural and perfusion images obtained by either method, in healthy control subjects and in patients with retinal vasculopathy including hypertensive retinopathy, diabetic retinopathy, and retinal vein occlusion. Our results show that AOSLO OP motion contrast provides perfusion maps comparable to those obtained with AOSLO FA, while AOSLO OP reflectance images provide additional information such as vessel wall fine structure not as readily visible in AOSLO confocal reflectance images. AOSLO OP offers a non-invasive alternative to AOSLO FA without the need for any exogenous contrast agent.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

M. Dubow, A. Pinhas, N. Shah, R. F. Cooper, A. Gan, R. C. Gentile, V. L. Hendrix, Y. N. Sulai, J. Carroll, T. Y. Chui, J. Walsh, R. Weitz, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “Classification of Human Retinal Microaneurysms using Adaptive Optics Scanning Light Ophthalmoscope Fluorescein Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.2014, 13122 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

T. Y. Chui, T. J. Gast, and S. A. Burns, “Imaging of vascular wall fine structure in the human retina using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(10), 7115–7124 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, M. Stirpe, and G. Lombardo, “Analysis of Retinal Capillaries in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes and Nonproliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Using Adaptive Optics Imaging,” Retina33(8), 1630–1639 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pinhas, M. Dubow, N. Shah, T. Y. Chui, D. Scoles, Y. N. Sulai, R. Weitz, J. B. Walsh, J. Carroll, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “In vivo imaging of human retinal microvasculature using adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope fluorescein angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(8), 1305–1317 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

T. Y. Chui, D. A. Vannasdale, and S. A. Burns, “The use of forward scatter to improve retinal vascular imaging with an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(10), 2537–2549 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bedggood and A. Metha, “Direct visualization and characterization of erythrocyte flow in human retinal capillaries,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(12), 3264–3277 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, B. J. Lujan, R. N. Johnson, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Subclinical capillary changes in non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), E692–E703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. Chui, Z. Zhong, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Foveal avascular zone and its relationship to foveal pit shape,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), 602–610 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Hunter, J. I. Morgan, W. H. Merigan, D. H. Sliney, J. R. Sparrow, and D. R. Williams, “The susceptibility of the retina to photochemical damage from visible light,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.31(1), 28–42 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, S. Manzanera, S. Barez, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Disruption of the retinal parafoveal capillary network in type 2 diabetes before the onset of diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(12), 9257–9266 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Kalogeromitros, M. P. Makris, X. S. Aggelides, A. I. Mellios, F. C. Giannoula, K. A. Sideri, A. A. Rouvas, and P. G. Theodossiadis, “Allergy skin testing in predicting adverse reactions to fluorescein: a prospective clinical study,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)89(5), 480–483 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zotter, M. Pircher, T. Torzicky, M. Bonesi, E. Götzinger, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Visualization of microvasculature by dual-beam phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express19(2), 1217–1227 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, J. S. Werner, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and R. J. Zawadzki, “In vivo volumetric imaging of human retinal circulation with phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1504–1513 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubra and Y. Sulai, “Reflective afocal broadband adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1757–1768 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

K. R. Mendis, C. Balaratnasingam, P. Yu, C. J. Barry, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D. Y. Yu, “Correlation of histologic and clinical images to determine the diagnostic value of fluorescein angiography for studying retinal capillary detail,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(11), 5864–5869 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tam, J. A. Martin, and A. Roorda, “Noninvasive visualization and analysis of parafoveal capillaries in humans,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(3), 1691–1698 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

D. Scoles, D. C. Gray, J. J. Hunter, R. Wolfe, B. P. Gee, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, R. T. Libby, S. Russell, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “In-vivo imaging of retinal nerve fiber layer vasculature: imaging histology comparison,” BMC Ophthalmol.9(1), 9 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

J. I. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, B. Masella, R. Wolfe, D. C. Gray, W. H. Merigan, F. C. Delori, and D. R. Williams, “Light-induced retinal changes observed with high-resolution autofluorescence imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(8), 3715–3729 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express16(15), 11438–11452 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

2001 (1)

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, “Detecting AMD with multiply scattered light tomography,” Int. Ophthalmol.23(4/6), 245–250 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1999 (3)

J. Moore, S. Bagley, G. Ireland, D. McLeod, and M. E. Boulton, “Three dimensional analysis of microaneurysms in the human diabetic retina,” J. Anat.194(1), 89–100 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Kylstra, J. C. Brown, G. J. Jaffe, T. A. Cox, R. Gallemore, C. M. Greven, J. G. Hall, and D. E. Eifrig, “The importance of fluorescein angiography in planning laser treatment of diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology106(11), 2068–2073 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Fineschi, G. Monasterolo, R. Rosi, and E. Turillazzi, “Fatal anaphylactic shock during a fluorescein angiography,” Forensic Sci. Int.100(1-2), 137–142 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

T. Hara, M. Inami, and T. Hara, “Efficacy and safety of fluorescein angiography with orally administered sodium fluorescein,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.126(4), 560–564 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, “Infrared imaging of sub-retinal structures in the human ocular fundus,” Vision Res.36(1), 191–205 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

A. W. Stitt, T. A. Gardiner, and D. B. Archer, “Histological and ultrastructural investigation of retinal microaneurysm development in diabetic patients,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.79(4), 362–367 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Weinhaus, J. M. Burke, F. C. Delori, and D. M. Snodderly, “Comparison of fluorescein angiography with microvascular anatomy of macaque retinas,” Exp. Eye Res.61(1), 1–16 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

F. J. Ascaso, M. T. Tiestos, J. Navales, F. Iturbe, A. Palomar, and J. I. Ayala, “Fatal acute myocardial infarction after intravenous fluorescein angiography,” Retina13(3), 238–239 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

S. Wolf, O. Arend, H. Toonen, B. Bertram, F. Jung, and M. Reim, “Retinal capillary blood flow measurement with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope. Preliminary results,” Ophthalmology98(6), 996–1000 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

A. P. Watson and E. S. Rosen, “Oral fluorescein angiography: reassessment of its relative safety and evaluation of optimum conditions with use of capsules,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.74(8), 458–461 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, and S. L. Fine, “Age-related macular degeneration,” Surv. Ophthalmol.32(6), 375–413 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (2)

H. Miller, B. Miller, and S. J. Ryan, “Newly-formed subretinal vessels. Fine structure and fluorescein leakage,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.27(2), 204–213 (1986).
[PubMed]

L. A. Yannuzzi, K. T. Rohrer, L. J. Tindel, R. S. Sobel, M. A. Costanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey,” Ophthalmology93(5), 611–617 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, “Blood velocity and volumetric flow rate in human retinal vessels,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.26(8), 1124–1132 (1985).
[PubMed]

1984 (1)

G. H. Bresnick, R. Condit, S. Syrjala, M. Palta, A. Groo, and K. Korth, “Abnormalities of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol.102(9), 1286–1293 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

S. H. Sarks, D. Van Driel, L. Maxwell, and M. Killingsworth, “Softening of drusen and subretinal neovascularization,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K.100(3), 414–422 (1980).
[PubMed]

1974 (1)

A. C. Bird and R. A. Weale, “On the retinal vasculature of the human fovea,” Exp. Eye Res.19(5), 409–417 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adams, A. J.

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, B. J. Lujan, R. N. Johnson, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Subclinical capillary changes in non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), E692–E703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, S. Manzanera, S. Barez, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Disruption of the retinal parafoveal capillary network in type 2 diabetes before the onset of diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(12), 9257–9266 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aggelides, X. S.

D. C. Kalogeromitros, M. P. Makris, X. S. Aggelides, A. I. Mellios, F. C. Giannoula, K. A. Sideri, A. A. Rouvas, and P. G. Theodossiadis, “Allergy skin testing in predicting adverse reactions to fluorescein: a prospective clinical study,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)89(5), 480–483 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahamd, K.

An, L.

Archer, D. B.

A. W. Stitt, T. A. Gardiner, and D. B. Archer, “Histological and ultrastructural investigation of retinal microaneurysm development in diabetic patients,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.79(4), 362–367 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arend, O.

S. Wolf, O. Arend, H. Toonen, B. Bertram, F. Jung, and M. Reim, “Retinal capillary blood flow measurement with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope. Preliminary results,” Ophthalmology98(6), 996–1000 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ascaso, F. J.

F. J. Ascaso, M. T. Tiestos, J. Navales, F. Iturbe, A. Palomar, and J. I. Ayala, “Fatal acute myocardial infarction after intravenous fluorescein angiography,” Retina13(3), 238–239 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ayala, J. I.

F. J. Ascaso, M. T. Tiestos, J. Navales, F. Iturbe, A. Palomar, and J. I. Ayala, “Fatal acute myocardial infarction after intravenous fluorescein angiography,” Retina13(3), 238–239 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bagley, S.

J. Moore, S. Bagley, G. Ireland, D. McLeod, and M. E. Boulton, “Three dimensional analysis of microaneurysms in the human diabetic retina,” J. Anat.194(1), 89–100 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balaratnasingam, C.

K. R. Mendis, C. Balaratnasingam, P. Yu, C. J. Barry, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D. Y. Yu, “Correlation of histologic and clinical images to determine the diagnostic value of fluorescein angiography for studying retinal capillary detail,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(11), 5864–5869 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barez, S.

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, S. Manzanera, S. Barez, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Disruption of the retinal parafoveal capillary network in type 2 diabetes before the onset of diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(12), 9257–9266 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barry, C.

A. S. L. Kwan, C. Barry, I. L. McAllister, and I. Constable, “Fluorescein angiography and adverse drug reactions revisited: the Lions Eye experience,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.34(1), 33–38 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barry, C. J.

K. R. Mendis, C. Balaratnasingam, P. Yu, C. J. Barry, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D. Y. Yu, “Correlation of histologic and clinical images to determine the diagnostic value of fluorescein angiography for studying retinal capillary detail,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(11), 5864–5869 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bearse, M. A.

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, B. J. Lujan, R. N. Johnson, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Subclinical capillary changes in non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), E692–E703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, S. Manzanera, S. Barez, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Disruption of the retinal parafoveal capillary network in type 2 diabetes before the onset of diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(12), 9257–9266 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beck, F.

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, “Detecting AMD with multiply scattered light tomography,” Int. Ophthalmol.23(4/6), 245–250 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bedggood, P.

Bertram, B.

S. Wolf, O. Arend, H. Toonen, B. Bertram, F. Jung, and M. Reim, “Retinal capillary blood flow measurement with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope. Preliminary results,” Ophthalmology98(6), 996–1000 (1991).
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A. C. Bird and R. A. Weale, “On the retinal vasculature of the human fovea,” Exp. Eye Res.19(5), 409–417 (1974).
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Bonesi, M.

Boulton, M. E.

J. Moore, S. Bagley, G. Ireland, D. McLeod, and M. E. Boulton, “Three dimensional analysis of microaneurysms in the human diabetic retina,” J. Anat.194(1), 89–100 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bresnick, G. H.

G. H. Bresnick, R. Condit, S. Syrjala, M. Palta, A. Groo, and K. Korth, “Abnormalities of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol.102(9), 1286–1293 (1984).
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Bressler, N. M.

N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, and S. L. Fine, “Age-related macular degeneration,” Surv. Ophthalmol.32(6), 375–413 (1988).
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Bressler, S. B.

N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, and S. L. Fine, “Age-related macular degeneration,” Surv. Ophthalmol.32(6), 375–413 (1988).
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Brown, J. C.

J. A. Kylstra, J. C. Brown, G. J. Jaffe, T. A. Cox, R. Gallemore, C. M. Greven, J. G. Hall, and D. E. Eifrig, “The importance of fluorescein angiography in planning laser treatment of diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology106(11), 2068–2073 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burke, J. M.

R. S. Weinhaus, J. M. Burke, F. C. Delori, and D. M. Snodderly, “Comparison of fluorescein angiography with microvascular anatomy of macaque retinas,” Exp. Eye Res.61(1), 1–16 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burns, S. A.

T. Y. Chui, T. J. Gast, and S. A. Burns, “Imaging of vascular wall fine structure in the human retina using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(10), 7115–7124 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. Chui, Z. Zhong, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Foveal avascular zone and its relationship to foveal pit shape,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), 602–610 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. Chui, D. A. Vannasdale, and S. A. Burns, “The use of forward scatter to improve retinal vascular imaging with an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(10), 2537–2549 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, “Detecting AMD with multiply scattered light tomography,” Int. Ophthalmol.23(4/6), 245–250 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, “Infrared imaging of sub-retinal structures in the human ocular fundus,” Vision Res.36(1), 191–205 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carroll, J.

M. Dubow, A. Pinhas, N. Shah, R. F. Cooper, A. Gan, R. C. Gentile, V. L. Hendrix, Y. N. Sulai, J. Carroll, T. Y. Chui, J. Walsh, R. Weitz, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “Classification of Human Retinal Microaneurysms using Adaptive Optics Scanning Light Ophthalmoscope Fluorescein Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.2014, 13122 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pinhas, M. Dubow, N. Shah, T. Y. Chui, D. Scoles, Y. N. Sulai, R. Weitz, J. B. Walsh, J. Carroll, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “In vivo imaging of human retinal microvasculature using adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope fluorescein angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(8), 1305–1317 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chui, T. Y.

M. Dubow, A. Pinhas, N. Shah, R. F. Cooper, A. Gan, R. C. Gentile, V. L. Hendrix, Y. N. Sulai, J. Carroll, T. Y. Chui, J. Walsh, R. Weitz, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “Classification of Human Retinal Microaneurysms using Adaptive Optics Scanning Light Ophthalmoscope Fluorescein Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.2014, 13122 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. Chui, T. J. Gast, and S. A. Burns, “Imaging of vascular wall fine structure in the human retina using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(10), 7115–7124 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pinhas, M. Dubow, N. Shah, T. Y. Chui, D. Scoles, Y. N. Sulai, R. Weitz, J. B. Walsh, J. Carroll, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “In vivo imaging of human retinal microvasculature using adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope fluorescein angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(8), 1305–1317 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. Chui, D. A. Vannasdale, and S. A. Burns, “The use of forward scatter to improve retinal vascular imaging with an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(10), 2537–2549 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. Chui, Z. Zhong, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Foveal avascular zone and its relationship to foveal pit shape,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), 602–610 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Condit, R.

G. H. Bresnick, R. Condit, S. Syrjala, M. Palta, A. Groo, and K. Korth, “Abnormalities of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol.102(9), 1286–1293 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Constable, I.

A. S. L. Kwan, C. Barry, I. L. McAllister, and I. Constable, “Fluorescein angiography and adverse drug reactions revisited: the Lions Eye experience,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.34(1), 33–38 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, R. F.

M. Dubow, A. Pinhas, N. Shah, R. F. Cooper, A. Gan, R. C. Gentile, V. L. Hendrix, Y. N. Sulai, J. Carroll, T. Y. Chui, J. Walsh, R. Weitz, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “Classification of Human Retinal Microaneurysms using Adaptive Optics Scanning Light Ophthalmoscope Fluorescein Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.2014, 13122 (2014).
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L. A. Yannuzzi, K. T. Rohrer, L. J. Tindel, R. S. Sobel, M. A. Costanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey,” Ophthalmology93(5), 611–617 (1986).
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Cox, T. A.

J. A. Kylstra, J. C. Brown, G. J. Jaffe, T. A. Cox, R. Gallemore, C. M. Greven, J. G. Hall, and D. E. Eifrig, “The importance of fluorescein angiography in planning laser treatment of diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology106(11), 2068–2073 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cringle, S. J.

K. R. Mendis, C. Balaratnasingam, P. Yu, C. J. Barry, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D. Y. Yu, “Correlation of histologic and clinical images to determine the diagnostic value of fluorescein angiography for studying retinal capillary detail,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(11), 5864–5869 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delori, F. C.

J. I. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, B. Masella, R. Wolfe, D. C. Gray, W. H. Merigan, F. C. Delori, and D. R. Williams, “Light-induced retinal changes observed with high-resolution autofluorescence imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(8), 3715–3729 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, “Infrared imaging of sub-retinal structures in the human ocular fundus,” Vision Res.36(1), 191–205 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Weinhaus, J. M. Burke, F. C. Delori, and D. M. Snodderly, “Comparison of fluorescein angiography with microvascular anatomy of macaque retinas,” Exp. Eye Res.61(1), 1–16 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dhamdhere, K. P.

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, B. J. Lujan, R. N. Johnson, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Subclinical capillary changes in non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), E692–E703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, S. Manzanera, S. Barez, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Disruption of the retinal parafoveal capillary network in type 2 diabetes before the onset of diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(12), 9257–9266 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dreher, A. W.

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, “Detecting AMD with multiply scattered light tomography,” Int. Ophthalmol.23(4/6), 245–250 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubow, M.

M. Dubow, A. Pinhas, N. Shah, R. F. Cooper, A. Gan, R. C. Gentile, V. L. Hendrix, Y. N. Sulai, J. Carroll, T. Y. Chui, J. Walsh, R. Weitz, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “Classification of Human Retinal Microaneurysms using Adaptive Optics Scanning Light Ophthalmoscope Fluorescein Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.2014, 13122 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pinhas, M. Dubow, N. Shah, T. Y. Chui, D. Scoles, Y. N. Sulai, R. Weitz, J. B. Walsh, J. Carroll, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “In vivo imaging of human retinal microvasculature using adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope fluorescein angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(8), 1305–1317 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubra, A.

Ducoli, P.

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, M. Stirpe, and G. Lombardo, “Analysis of Retinal Capillaries in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes and Nonproliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Using Adaptive Optics Imaging,” Retina33(8), 1630–1639 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eifrig, D. E.

J. A. Kylstra, J. C. Brown, G. J. Jaffe, T. A. Cox, R. Gallemore, C. M. Greven, J. G. Hall, and D. E. Eifrig, “The importance of fluorescein angiography in planning laser treatment of diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology106(11), 2068–2073 (1999).
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A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, “Detecting AMD with multiply scattered light tomography,” Int. Ophthalmol.23(4/6), 245–250 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, “Infrared imaging of sub-retinal structures in the human ocular fundus,” Vision Res.36(1), 191–205 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fine, S. L.

N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, and S. L. Fine, “Age-related macular degeneration,” Surv. Ophthalmol.32(6), 375–413 (1988).
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V. Fineschi, G. Monasterolo, R. Rosi, and E. Turillazzi, “Fatal anaphylactic shock during a fluorescein angiography,” Forensic Sci. Int.100(1-2), 137–142 (1999).
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Fingler, J.

Fraser, S. E.

Gallemore, R.

J. A. Kylstra, J. C. Brown, G. J. Jaffe, T. A. Cox, R. Gallemore, C. M. Greven, J. G. Hall, and D. E. Eifrig, “The importance of fluorescein angiography in planning laser treatment of diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology106(11), 2068–2073 (1999).
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Gan, A.

M. Dubow, A. Pinhas, N. Shah, R. F. Cooper, A. Gan, R. C. Gentile, V. L. Hendrix, Y. N. Sulai, J. Carroll, T. Y. Chui, J. Walsh, R. Weitz, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “Classification of Human Retinal Microaneurysms using Adaptive Optics Scanning Light Ophthalmoscope Fluorescein Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.2014, 13122 (2014).
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A. W. Stitt, T. A. Gardiner, and D. B. Archer, “Histological and ultrastructural investigation of retinal microaneurysm development in diabetic patients,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.79(4), 362–367 (1995).
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Gast, T. J.

T. Y. Chui, T. J. Gast, and S. A. Burns, “Imaging of vascular wall fine structure in the human retina using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(10), 7115–7124 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gee, B. P.

Geng, Y.

D. Scoles, D. C. Gray, J. J. Hunter, R. Wolfe, B. P. Gee, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, R. T. Libby, S. Russell, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “In-vivo imaging of retinal nerve fiber layer vasculature: imaging histology comparison,” BMC Ophthalmol.9(1), 9 (2009).
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Gentile, R. C.

M. Dubow, A. Pinhas, N. Shah, R. F. Cooper, A. Gan, R. C. Gentile, V. L. Hendrix, Y. N. Sulai, J. Carroll, T. Y. Chui, J. Walsh, R. Weitz, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “Classification of Human Retinal Microaneurysms using Adaptive Optics Scanning Light Ophthalmoscope Fluorescein Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.2014, 13122 (2014).
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D. C. Kalogeromitros, M. P. Makris, X. S. Aggelides, A. I. Mellios, F. C. Giannoula, K. A. Sideri, A. A. Rouvas, and P. G. Theodossiadis, “Allergy skin testing in predicting adverse reactions to fluorescein: a prospective clinical study,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)89(5), 480–483 (2011).
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Götzinger, E.

Gray, D. C.

D. Scoles, D. C. Gray, J. J. Hunter, R. Wolfe, B. P. Gee, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, R. T. Libby, S. Russell, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “In-vivo imaging of retinal nerve fiber layer vasculature: imaging histology comparison,” BMC Ophthalmol.9(1), 9 (2009).
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J. I. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, B. Masella, R. Wolfe, D. C. Gray, W. H. Merigan, F. C. Delori, and D. R. Williams, “Light-induced retinal changes observed with high-resolution autofluorescence imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(8), 3715–3729 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Gray, W. Merigan, J. I. Wolfing, B. P. Gee, J. Porter, A. Dubra, T. H. Twietmeyer, K. Ahamd, R. Tumbar, F. Reinholz, and D. R. Williams, “In vivo fluorescence imaging of primate retinal ganglion cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells,” Opt. Express14(16), 7144–7158 (2006).
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D. C. Gray, W. Merigan, J. I. Wolfing, B. P. Gee, J. Porter, A. Dubra, T. H. Twietmeyer, K. Ahamd, R. Tumbar, F. Reinholz, and D. R. Williams, “In vivo fluorescence imaging of primate retinal ganglion cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells,” Opt. Express14(16), 7144–7158 (2006).
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Greven, C. M.

J. A. Kylstra, J. C. Brown, G. J. Jaffe, T. A. Cox, R. Gallemore, C. M. Greven, J. G. Hall, and D. E. Eifrig, “The importance of fluorescein angiography in planning laser treatment of diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology106(11), 2068–2073 (1999).
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Groo, A.

G. H. Bresnick, R. Condit, S. Syrjala, M. Palta, A. Groo, and K. Korth, “Abnormalities of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol.102(9), 1286–1293 (1984).
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C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, “Blood velocity and volumetric flow rate in human retinal vessels,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.26(8), 1124–1132 (1985).
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Hall, J. G.

J. A. Kylstra, J. C. Brown, G. J. Jaffe, T. A. Cox, R. Gallemore, C. M. Greven, J. G. Hall, and D. E. Eifrig, “The importance of fluorescein angiography in planning laser treatment of diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology106(11), 2068–2073 (1999).
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Hara, T.

T. Hara, M. Inami, and T. Hara, “Efficacy and safety of fluorescein angiography with orally administered sodium fluorescein,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.126(4), 560–564 (1998).
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T. Hara, M. Inami, and T. Hara, “Efficacy and safety of fluorescein angiography with orally administered sodium fluorescein,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.126(4), 560–564 (1998).
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Hendrix, V. L.

M. Dubow, A. Pinhas, N. Shah, R. F. Cooper, A. Gan, R. C. Gentile, V. L. Hendrix, Y. N. Sulai, J. Carroll, T. Y. Chui, J. Walsh, R. Weitz, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “Classification of Human Retinal Microaneurysms using Adaptive Optics Scanning Light Ophthalmoscope Fluorescein Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.2014, 13122 (2014).
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Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hunter, J. J.

J. J. Hunter, J. I. Morgan, W. H. Merigan, D. H. Sliney, J. R. Sparrow, and D. R. Williams, “The susceptibility of the retina to photochemical damage from visible light,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.31(1), 28–42 (2012).
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D. Scoles, D. C. Gray, J. J. Hunter, R. Wolfe, B. P. Gee, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, R. T. Libby, S. Russell, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “In-vivo imaging of retinal nerve fiber layer vasculature: imaging histology comparison,” BMC Ophthalmol.9(1), 9 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, B. Masella, R. Wolfe, D. C. Gray, W. H. Merigan, F. C. Delori, and D. R. Williams, “Light-induced retinal changes observed with high-resolution autofluorescence imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(8), 3715–3729 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inami, M.

T. Hara, M. Inami, and T. Hara, “Efficacy and safety of fluorescein angiography with orally administered sodium fluorescein,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.126(4), 560–564 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ireland, G.

J. Moore, S. Bagley, G. Ireland, D. McLeod, and M. E. Boulton, “Three dimensional analysis of microaneurysms in the human diabetic retina,” J. Anat.194(1), 89–100 (1999).
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F. J. Ascaso, M. T. Tiestos, J. Navales, F. Iturbe, A. Palomar, and J. I. Ayala, “Fatal acute myocardial infarction after intravenous fluorescein angiography,” Retina13(3), 238–239 (1993).
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Jaffe, G. J.

J. A. Kylstra, J. C. Brown, G. J. Jaffe, T. A. Cox, R. Gallemore, C. M. Greven, J. G. Hall, and D. E. Eifrig, “The importance of fluorescein angiography in planning laser treatment of diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology106(11), 2068–2073 (1999).
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Johnson, R. N.

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, B. J. Lujan, R. N. Johnson, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Subclinical capillary changes in non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), E692–E703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, F.

S. Wolf, O. Arend, H. Toonen, B. Bertram, F. Jung, and M. Reim, “Retinal capillary blood flow measurement with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope. Preliminary results,” Ophthalmology98(6), 996–1000 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalogeromitros, D. C.

D. C. Kalogeromitros, M. P. Makris, X. S. Aggelides, A. I. Mellios, F. C. Giannoula, K. A. Sideri, A. A. Rouvas, and P. G. Theodossiadis, “Allergy skin testing in predicting adverse reactions to fluorescein: a prospective clinical study,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)89(5), 480–483 (2011).
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S. H. Sarks, D. Van Driel, L. Maxwell, and M. Killingsworth, “Softening of drusen and subretinal neovascularization,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K.100(3), 414–422 (1980).
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Kim, D. Y.

Korth, K.

G. H. Bresnick, R. Condit, S. Syrjala, M. Palta, A. Groo, and K. Korth, “Abnormalities of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol.102(9), 1286–1293 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwan, A. S. L.

A. S. L. Kwan, C. Barry, I. L. McAllister, and I. Constable, “Fluorescein angiography and adverse drug reactions revisited: the Lions Eye experience,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.34(1), 33–38 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kylstra, J. A.

J. A. Kylstra, J. C. Brown, G. J. Jaffe, T. A. Cox, R. Gallemore, C. M. Greven, J. G. Hall, and D. E. Eifrig, “The importance of fluorescein angiography in planning laser treatment of diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology106(11), 2068–2073 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R. A.

Libby, R. T.

D. Scoles, D. C. Gray, J. J. Hunter, R. Wolfe, B. P. Gee, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, R. T. Libby, S. Russell, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “In-vivo imaging of retinal nerve fiber layer vasculature: imaging histology comparison,” BMC Ophthalmol.9(1), 9 (2009).
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Lombardo, G.

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, M. Stirpe, and G. Lombardo, “Analysis of Retinal Capillaries in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes and Nonproliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Using Adaptive Optics Imaging,” Retina33(8), 1630–1639 (2013).
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Lombardo, M.

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, M. Stirpe, and G. Lombardo, “Analysis of Retinal Capillaries in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes and Nonproliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Using Adaptive Optics Imaging,” Retina33(8), 1630–1639 (2013).
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Lujan, B. J.

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, B. J. Lujan, R. N. Johnson, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Subclinical capillary changes in non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), E692–E703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Makris, M. P.

D. C. Kalogeromitros, M. P. Makris, X. S. Aggelides, A. I. Mellios, F. C. Giannoula, K. A. Sideri, A. A. Rouvas, and P. G. Theodossiadis, “Allergy skin testing in predicting adverse reactions to fluorescein: a prospective clinical study,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)89(5), 480–483 (2011).
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Manzanera, S.

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, S. Manzanera, S. Barez, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Disruption of the retinal parafoveal capillary network in type 2 diabetes before the onset of diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(12), 9257–9266 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, J. A.

J. Tam, J. A. Martin, and A. Roorda, “Noninvasive visualization and analysis of parafoveal capillaries in humans,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(3), 1691–1698 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masella, B.

J. I. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, B. Masella, R. Wolfe, D. C. Gray, W. H. Merigan, F. C. Delori, and D. R. Williams, “Light-induced retinal changes observed with high-resolution autofluorescence imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(8), 3715–3729 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masella, B. D.

D. Scoles, D. C. Gray, J. J. Hunter, R. Wolfe, B. P. Gee, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, R. T. Libby, S. Russell, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “In-vivo imaging of retinal nerve fiber layer vasculature: imaging histology comparison,” BMC Ophthalmol.9(1), 9 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maxwell, L.

S. H. Sarks, D. Van Driel, L. Maxwell, and M. Killingsworth, “Softening of drusen and subretinal neovascularization,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K.100(3), 414–422 (1980).
[PubMed]

McAllister, I. L.

K. R. Mendis, C. Balaratnasingam, P. Yu, C. J. Barry, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D. Y. Yu, “Correlation of histologic and clinical images to determine the diagnostic value of fluorescein angiography for studying retinal capillary detail,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(11), 5864–5869 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. L. Kwan, C. Barry, I. L. McAllister, and I. Constable, “Fluorescein angiography and adverse drug reactions revisited: the Lions Eye experience,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.34(1), 33–38 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLeod, D.

J. Moore, S. Bagley, G. Ireland, D. McLeod, and M. E. Boulton, “Three dimensional analysis of microaneurysms in the human diabetic retina,” J. Anat.194(1), 89–100 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mellios, A. I.

D. C. Kalogeromitros, M. P. Makris, X. S. Aggelides, A. I. Mellios, F. C. Giannoula, K. A. Sideri, A. A. Rouvas, and P. G. Theodossiadis, “Allergy skin testing in predicting adverse reactions to fluorescein: a prospective clinical study,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)89(5), 480–483 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mendis, K. R.

K. R. Mendis, C. Balaratnasingam, P. Yu, C. J. Barry, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D. Y. Yu, “Correlation of histologic and clinical images to determine the diagnostic value of fluorescein angiography for studying retinal capillary detail,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(11), 5864–5869 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merigan, W.

Merigan, W. H.

J. J. Hunter, J. I. Morgan, W. H. Merigan, D. H. Sliney, J. R. Sparrow, and D. R. Williams, “The susceptibility of the retina to photochemical damage from visible light,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.31(1), 28–42 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Scoles, D. C. Gray, J. J. Hunter, R. Wolfe, B. P. Gee, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, R. T. Libby, S. Russell, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “In-vivo imaging of retinal nerve fiber layer vasculature: imaging histology comparison,” BMC Ophthalmol.9(1), 9 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, B. Masella, R. Wolfe, D. C. Gray, W. H. Merigan, F. C. Delori, and D. R. Williams, “Light-induced retinal changes observed with high-resolution autofluorescence imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(8), 3715–3729 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Metha, A.

Miller, B.

H. Miller, B. Miller, and S. J. Ryan, “Newly-formed subretinal vessels. Fine structure and fluorescein leakage,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.27(2), 204–213 (1986).
[PubMed]

Miller, H.

H. Miller, B. Miller, and S. J. Ryan, “Newly-formed subretinal vessels. Fine structure and fluorescein leakage,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.27(2), 204–213 (1986).
[PubMed]

Monasterolo, G.

V. Fineschi, G. Monasterolo, R. Rosi, and E. Turillazzi, “Fatal anaphylactic shock during a fluorescein angiography,” Forensic Sci. Int.100(1-2), 137–142 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, J.

J. Moore, S. Bagley, G. Ireland, D. McLeod, and M. E. Boulton, “Three dimensional analysis of microaneurysms in the human diabetic retina,” J. Anat.194(1), 89–100 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgan, J. I.

J. J. Hunter, J. I. Morgan, W. H. Merigan, D. H. Sliney, J. R. Sparrow, and D. R. Williams, “The susceptibility of the retina to photochemical damage from visible light,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.31(1), 28–42 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, B. Masella, R. Wolfe, D. C. Gray, W. H. Merigan, F. C. Delori, and D. R. Williams, “Light-induced retinal changes observed with high-resolution autofluorescence imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(8), 3715–3729 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Navales, J.

F. J. Ascaso, M. T. Tiestos, J. Navales, F. Iturbe, A. Palomar, and J. I. Ayala, “Fatal acute myocardial infarction after intravenous fluorescein angiography,” Retina13(3), 238–239 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palomar, A.

F. J. Ascaso, M. T. Tiestos, J. Navales, F. Iturbe, A. Palomar, and J. I. Ayala, “Fatal acute myocardial infarction after intravenous fluorescein angiography,” Retina13(3), 238–239 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palta, M.

G. H. Bresnick, R. Condit, S. Syrjala, M. Palta, A. Groo, and K. Korth, “Abnormalities of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol.102(9), 1286–1293 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parravano, M.

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, M. Stirpe, and G. Lombardo, “Analysis of Retinal Capillaries in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes and Nonproliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Using Adaptive Optics Imaging,” Retina33(8), 1630–1639 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrig, B. L.

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, “Blood velocity and volumetric flow rate in human retinal vessels,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.26(8), 1124–1132 (1985).
[PubMed]

Pinhas, A.

M. Dubow, A. Pinhas, N. Shah, R. F. Cooper, A. Gan, R. C. Gentile, V. L. Hendrix, Y. N. Sulai, J. Carroll, T. Y. Chui, J. Walsh, R. Weitz, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “Classification of Human Retinal Microaneurysms using Adaptive Optics Scanning Light Ophthalmoscope Fluorescein Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.2014, 13122 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pinhas, M. Dubow, N. Shah, T. Y. Chui, D. Scoles, Y. N. Sulai, R. Weitz, J. B. Walsh, J. Carroll, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “In vivo imaging of human retinal microvasculature using adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope fluorescein angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(8), 1305–1317 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pircher, M.

Porter, J.

Reim, M.

S. Wolf, O. Arend, H. Toonen, B. Bertram, F. Jung, and M. Reim, “Retinal capillary blood flow measurement with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope. Preliminary results,” Ophthalmology98(6), 996–1000 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reinholz, F.

Riva, C. E.

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, “Blood velocity and volumetric flow rate in human retinal vessels,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.26(8), 1124–1132 (1985).
[PubMed]

Rohrer, K. T.

L. A. Yannuzzi, K. T. Rohrer, L. J. Tindel, R. S. Sobel, M. A. Costanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey,” Ophthalmology93(5), 611–617 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

Roorda, A.

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, B. J. Lujan, R. N. Johnson, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Subclinical capillary changes in non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), E692–E703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, S. Manzanera, S. Barez, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Disruption of the retinal parafoveal capillary network in type 2 diabetes before the onset of diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(12), 9257–9266 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tam, J. A. Martin, and A. Roorda, “Noninvasive visualization and analysis of parafoveal capillaries in humans,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(3), 1691–1698 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosen, E. S.

A. P. Watson and E. S. Rosen, “Oral fluorescein angiography: reassessment of its relative safety and evaluation of optimum conditions with use of capsules,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.74(8), 458–461 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosen, R. B.

M. Dubow, A. Pinhas, N. Shah, R. F. Cooper, A. Gan, R. C. Gentile, V. L. Hendrix, Y. N. Sulai, J. Carroll, T. Y. Chui, J. Walsh, R. Weitz, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “Classification of Human Retinal Microaneurysms using Adaptive Optics Scanning Light Ophthalmoscope Fluorescein Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.2014, 13122 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pinhas, M. Dubow, N. Shah, T. Y. Chui, D. Scoles, Y. N. Sulai, R. Weitz, J. B. Walsh, J. Carroll, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “In vivo imaging of human retinal microvasculature using adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope fluorescein angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(8), 1305–1317 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosi, R.

V. Fineschi, G. Monasterolo, R. Rosi, and E. Turillazzi, “Fatal anaphylactic shock during a fluorescein angiography,” Forensic Sci. Int.100(1-2), 137–142 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rouvas, A. A.

D. C. Kalogeromitros, M. P. Makris, X. S. Aggelides, A. I. Mellios, F. C. Giannoula, K. A. Sideri, A. A. Rouvas, and P. G. Theodossiadis, “Allergy skin testing in predicting adverse reactions to fluorescein: a prospective clinical study,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)89(5), 480–483 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, S.

D. Scoles, D. C. Gray, J. J. Hunter, R. Wolfe, B. P. Gee, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, R. T. Libby, S. Russell, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “In-vivo imaging of retinal nerve fiber layer vasculature: imaging histology comparison,” BMC Ophthalmol.9(1), 9 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryan, S. J.

H. Miller, B. Miller, and S. J. Ryan, “Newly-formed subretinal vessels. Fine structure and fluorescein leakage,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.27(2), 204–213 (1986).
[PubMed]

Sarks, S. H.

S. H. Sarks, D. Van Driel, L. Maxwell, and M. Killingsworth, “Softening of drusen and subretinal neovascularization,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K.100(3), 414–422 (1980).
[PubMed]

Schwartz, D. M.

Scoles, D.

A. Pinhas, M. Dubow, N. Shah, T. Y. Chui, D. Scoles, Y. N. Sulai, R. Weitz, J. B. Walsh, J. Carroll, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “In vivo imaging of human retinal microvasculature using adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope fluorescein angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(8), 1305–1317 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Scoles, D. C. Gray, J. J. Hunter, R. Wolfe, B. P. Gee, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, R. T. Libby, S. Russell, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “In-vivo imaging of retinal nerve fiber layer vasculature: imaging histology comparison,” BMC Ophthalmol.9(1), 9 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serrao, S.

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, M. Stirpe, and G. Lombardo, “Analysis of Retinal Capillaries in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes and Nonproliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Using Adaptive Optics Imaging,” Retina33(8), 1630–1639 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, N.

M. Dubow, A. Pinhas, N. Shah, R. F. Cooper, A. Gan, R. C. Gentile, V. L. Hendrix, Y. N. Sulai, J. Carroll, T. Y. Chui, J. Walsh, R. Weitz, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “Classification of Human Retinal Microaneurysms using Adaptive Optics Scanning Light Ophthalmoscope Fluorescein Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.2014, 13122 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pinhas, M. Dubow, N. Shah, T. Y. Chui, D. Scoles, Y. N. Sulai, R. Weitz, J. B. Walsh, J. Carroll, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “In vivo imaging of human retinal microvasculature using adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope fluorescein angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(8), 1305–1317 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shields, W.

L. A. Yannuzzi, K. T. Rohrer, L. J. Tindel, R. S. Sobel, M. A. Costanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey,” Ophthalmology93(5), 611–617 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sideri, K. A.

D. C. Kalogeromitros, M. P. Makris, X. S. Aggelides, A. I. Mellios, F. C. Giannoula, K. A. Sideri, A. A. Rouvas, and P. G. Theodossiadis, “Allergy skin testing in predicting adverse reactions to fluorescein: a prospective clinical study,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)89(5), 480–483 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sinclair, S. H.

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, “Blood velocity and volumetric flow rate in human retinal vessels,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.26(8), 1124–1132 (1985).
[PubMed]

Sliney, D. H.

J. J. Hunter, J. I. Morgan, W. H. Merigan, D. H. Sliney, J. R. Sparrow, and D. R. Williams, “The susceptibility of the retina to photochemical damage from visible light,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.31(1), 28–42 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snodderly, D. M.

R. S. Weinhaus, J. M. Burke, F. C. Delori, and D. M. Snodderly, “Comparison of fluorescein angiography with microvascular anatomy of macaque retinas,” Exp. Eye Res.61(1), 1–16 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sobel, R. S.

L. A. Yannuzzi, K. T. Rohrer, L. J. Tindel, R. S. Sobel, M. A. Costanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey,” Ophthalmology93(5), 611–617 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, H.

T. Y. Chui, Z. Zhong, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Foveal avascular zone and its relationship to foveal pit shape,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), 602–610 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sparrow, J. R.

J. J. Hunter, J. I. Morgan, W. H. Merigan, D. H. Sliney, J. R. Sparrow, and D. R. Williams, “The susceptibility of the retina to photochemical damage from visible light,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.31(1), 28–42 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stirpe, M.

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, M. Stirpe, and G. Lombardo, “Analysis of Retinal Capillaries in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes and Nonproliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Using Adaptive Optics Imaging,” Retina33(8), 1630–1639 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stitt, A. W.

A. W. Stitt, T. A. Gardiner, and D. B. Archer, “Histological and ultrastructural investigation of retinal microaneurysm development in diabetic patients,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.79(4), 362–367 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sulai, Y.

Sulai, Y. N.

M. Dubow, A. Pinhas, N. Shah, R. F. Cooper, A. Gan, R. C. Gentile, V. L. Hendrix, Y. N. Sulai, J. Carroll, T. Y. Chui, J. Walsh, R. Weitz, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “Classification of Human Retinal Microaneurysms using Adaptive Optics Scanning Light Ophthalmoscope Fluorescein Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.2014, 13122 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pinhas, M. Dubow, N. Shah, T. Y. Chui, D. Scoles, Y. N. Sulai, R. Weitz, J. B. Walsh, J. Carroll, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “In vivo imaging of human retinal microvasculature using adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope fluorescein angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(8), 1305–1317 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Syrjala, S.

G. H. Bresnick, R. Condit, S. Syrjala, M. Palta, A. Groo, and K. Korth, “Abnormalities of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol.102(9), 1286–1293 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tam, J.

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, B. J. Lujan, R. N. Johnson, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Subclinical capillary changes in non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), E692–E703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, S. Manzanera, S. Barez, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Disruption of the retinal parafoveal capillary network in type 2 diabetes before the onset of diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(12), 9257–9266 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tam, J. A. Martin, and A. Roorda, “Noninvasive visualization and analysis of parafoveal capillaries in humans,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(3), 1691–1698 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Theodossiadis, P. G.

D. C. Kalogeromitros, M. P. Makris, X. S. Aggelides, A. I. Mellios, F. C. Giannoula, K. A. Sideri, A. A. Rouvas, and P. G. Theodossiadis, “Allergy skin testing in predicting adverse reactions to fluorescein: a prospective clinical study,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)89(5), 480–483 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tiestos, M. T.

F. J. Ascaso, M. T. Tiestos, J. Navales, F. Iturbe, A. Palomar, and J. I. Ayala, “Fatal acute myocardial infarction after intravenous fluorescein angiography,” Retina13(3), 238–239 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tindel, L. J.

L. A. Yannuzzi, K. T. Rohrer, L. J. Tindel, R. S. Sobel, M. A. Costanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey,” Ophthalmology93(5), 611–617 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tiruveedhula, P.

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, B. J. Lujan, R. N. Johnson, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Subclinical capillary changes in non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), E692–E703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, S. Manzanera, S. Barez, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Disruption of the retinal parafoveal capillary network in type 2 diabetes before the onset of diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(12), 9257–9266 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toonen, H.

S. Wolf, O. Arend, H. Toonen, B. Bertram, F. Jung, and M. Reim, “Retinal capillary blood flow measurement with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope. Preliminary results,” Ophthalmology98(6), 996–1000 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tornambe, P. E.

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, “Detecting AMD with multiply scattered light tomography,” Int. Ophthalmol.23(4/6), 245–250 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torzicky, T.

Tumbar, R.

Turillazzi, E.

V. Fineschi, G. Monasterolo, R. Rosi, and E. Turillazzi, “Fatal anaphylactic shock during a fluorescein angiography,” Forensic Sci. Int.100(1-2), 137–142 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Twietmeyer, T. H.

Van Driel, D.

S. H. Sarks, D. Van Driel, L. Maxwell, and M. Killingsworth, “Softening of drusen and subretinal neovascularization,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K.100(3), 414–422 (1980).
[PubMed]

Vannasdale, D. A.

Walsh, J.

M. Dubow, A. Pinhas, N. Shah, R. F. Cooper, A. Gan, R. C. Gentile, V. L. Hendrix, Y. N. Sulai, J. Carroll, T. Y. Chui, J. Walsh, R. Weitz, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “Classification of Human Retinal Microaneurysms using Adaptive Optics Scanning Light Ophthalmoscope Fluorescein Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.2014, 13122 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsh, J. B.

Wang, R. K.

Watson, A. P.

A. P. Watson and E. S. Rosen, “Oral fluorescein angiography: reassessment of its relative safety and evaluation of optimum conditions with use of capsules,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.74(8), 458–461 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weale, R. A.

A. C. Bird and R. A. Weale, “On the retinal vasculature of the human fovea,” Exp. Eye Res.19(5), 409–417 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinhaus, R. S.

R. S. Weinhaus, J. M. Burke, F. C. Delori, and D. M. Snodderly, “Comparison of fluorescein angiography with microvascular anatomy of macaque retinas,” Exp. Eye Res.61(1), 1–16 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiter, J. J.

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, “Detecting AMD with multiply scattered light tomography,” Int. Ophthalmol.23(4/6), 245–250 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, “Infrared imaging of sub-retinal structures in the human ocular fundus,” Vision Res.36(1), 191–205 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weitz, R.

M. Dubow, A. Pinhas, N. Shah, R. F. Cooper, A. Gan, R. C. Gentile, V. L. Hendrix, Y. N. Sulai, J. Carroll, T. Y. Chui, J. Walsh, R. Weitz, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “Classification of Human Retinal Microaneurysms using Adaptive Optics Scanning Light Ophthalmoscope Fluorescein Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.2014, 13122 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pinhas, M. Dubow, N. Shah, T. Y. Chui, D. Scoles, Y. N. Sulai, R. Weitz, J. B. Walsh, J. Carroll, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “In vivo imaging of human retinal microvasculature using adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope fluorescein angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(8), 1305–1317 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, J. S.

Williams, D. R.

J. J. Hunter, J. I. Morgan, W. H. Merigan, D. H. Sliney, J. R. Sparrow, and D. R. Williams, “The susceptibility of the retina to photochemical damage from visible light,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.31(1), 28–42 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Scoles, D. C. Gray, J. J. Hunter, R. Wolfe, B. P. Gee, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, R. T. Libby, S. Russell, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “In-vivo imaging of retinal nerve fiber layer vasculature: imaging histology comparison,” BMC Ophthalmol.9(1), 9 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, B. Masella, R. Wolfe, D. C. Gray, W. H. Merigan, F. C. Delori, and D. R. Williams, “Light-induced retinal changes observed with high-resolution autofluorescence imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(8), 3715–3729 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Supplementary Material (5)

» Media 1: AVI (3960 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (3532 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (3018 KB)     
» Media 4: AVI (3986 KB)     
» Media 5: AVI (3960 KB)     

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Flow chart of image processing for different imaging techniques.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of foveal capillary networks imaged using AOSLO FA (left column) and AOSLO OP perfusion maps (middle column) in 3 healthy subjects, after bidirectional elastic image registration. The right column shows the superimposition of the two perfusion maps (AOSLO FA in green and OP in red). Scale bars are 100 µm across. Images have been contrast stretched for display purposes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of perifoveal (5° above the fovea) microvasculature imaged using AOSLO FA and OP. A) Multiple capillary plexuses including the inner and outer (white arrows) retinal capillary layers are visible on AOSLO FA perfusion map. Image is shown in logarithmic scale for display purposes. B) The corresponding AOSLO confocal structural image as indicated by the white box in A shows limited visibility of the blood vessel wall fine structure. C) AOSLO OP perfusion map shows less capillary layers and reveals an arteriolar capillary free zone at the inner capillary layer. White arrow indicates the motion artifact induced by the vascular wall structure. D) The corresponding AOSLO OP structural image as indicated by the white box in C. Fine details of arteriolar wall fine structure (black arrow) is visible on the AOSLO OP structural image. Images have been contrast stretched for display purposes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of peripapillary microvasculature visualized by AOSLO FA and AOSLO OP perfusion maps. A) Conventional color fundus photograph with regions of interest marked. B-D) AOSLO FA perfusion maps [21] in logarithmic scale for display purposes. E-G) the corresponding AOSLO OP perfusion maps. AOSLO OP structural video (Media 1, scale bar 25 µm) of the black box region in E shows single file flow of red blood cells within capillaries. While both types of perfusion maps are focused at the inner retinal layer, only AOSLO FA show capillaries originating from both the inner and outer retinal layers. Panels B-D were reproduced with permission from the Optical Society. Scale bars are 25 µm. Images have been contrast stretched for display purposes.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of retinal microvasculature located at 6° above the fovea in a 49 year old female with DR. A) The AOSLO OP structural image shows a relatively normal vasculature when focused at the inner retinal layer. B) When focusing at the outer retinal layer, the AOSLO OP structural image reveals a 30 µm microaneurysm at the same retinal location. C & D). The corresponding AOSLO OP perfusion maps of A & B. E) Multiple capillary layers including the inner and outer capillary plexuses are visible in the corresponding AOSLO FA perfusion map at a single focus. F) Superimposed AOSLO OP perfusion maps C & D showing inner capillary plexus in yellow and outer capillary plexus in red. Scale bars are 50 µm. Images have been contrast stretched for display purposes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of the fluorescein pooling and blood flow pattern of two microaneurysms located at 2° temporal to the fovea in a 47 year old male with HR. A) AOSLO FA perfusion map, showing the pooling of blood content as indicated by the relatively high pixel intensity inside the right microaneurysm (white arrows) (Media 2 and Media 3, scale bars 25 µm). B) The corresponding AOSLO confocal structural image, showing two distinct microaneurysm morphologies. C) AOSLO OP perfusion map showing the same microaneurysms. White arrows indicate the relatively low pixel intensity when compared to A. The black circle in the center of the microaneurysm on the left was due the saturated pixel intensity on the AOSLO OP structural video. D) AOSLO OP structural image. The corresponding structural videos of the microaneurysms demonstrate a range of blood flow velocities (Media 4 and Media 5, scale bars 25 µm). Images have been contrast stretched for display purposes.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of AOSLO FA and OP images on a 55 year old BRVO patient. A) AOSLO confocal structural image showing vessel remodeling of an arteriole located at ~2.5° superior nasal to the fovea. B) The corresponding AOSLO FA perfusion map showing a region with capillary dropout (white arrow) and vessel looping (white arrow head). C) The same retinal region on AOSLO OP structural image. D) The corresponding AOSLO OP perfusion map showing the same region with capillary dropout (white arrow) and vessel looping (white arrow head). E) The magnified region of the white box in A, as an AOSLO confocal structural image, showing limited detail of the vascular wall fine structure. F) The same region on AOSLO OP structural image revealing the vascular wall fine structure (black arrows). G) Magnified region of the black box in C showing vessel looping (white arrow), lumen diameter changes (large black arrow), and non-perfused capillaries (small black arrows). Images have been contrast stretched for display purposes.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of foveal capillary network (~1.5° superior temporal from the fovea) in a 62 year old CRVO patient obtained using AOSLO FA and OP. A) AOSLO confocal structural image. White arrow head indicates a microaneurysm. B) The corresponding AOSLO FA perfusion map shows focal leakage (white arrow) and a microaneurysm (white arrow head). C) AOSLO OP structural image shows non-perfused blood vessels (black arrows) which are absent from the AOSLO FA and OP perfusion maps. Also shown on the AOSLO OP structural image is the corresponding microaneurysm (white arrow head). D) AOSLO OP perfusion map does not show focal leakage as indicated by the white arrow. White arrow head indicates the corresponding microaneurysm. Yellow arrow heads on A-D indicate a capillary identified as non-perfused on AOSLO OP perfusion map, but shows poor perfusion on the AOLSO FA perfusion map. Images have been contrast stretched for display purposes.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of foveal capillary networks (~1° superior temporal from the fovea) in a 37 year old female with macular drusen. A) AOSLO confocal structural image shows an intact capillary network. B) AOSLO FA perfusion map reveals two hyperfluorescent regions mimicking the appearance of microaneurysms, due to underlying drusen autofluorescence (white arrows). C) AOSLO OP structural image shows two diffuse hyper-reflective regions (black arrows) from the same drusen in B. D) AOSLO OP perfusion map shows intact vasculature. Images have been contrast stretched for display purposes.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of AOSLO confocal reflectance, FA, OP reflectance, and OP motion contrast techniques.

Metrics