Abstract

We evaluate Spectral OCT (SOCT) with a speckle contrast reduction technique using resonant scanner for assessment of corneal surface changes after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and we compare healing process between conventional PRK and transepithelial PRK. The measurements were performed before and after the surgery. Obtained results show that SOCT with a resonant scanner speckle contrast reduction is capable of providing information regarding the healing process after PRK. The main difference between the healing processes of PRK and TransPRK, assessed by SOCT, was the time to cover the stroma with epithelium, which was shorter in the TransPRK group.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. C.  Abad, B.  An, W. J.  Power, C. S.  Foster, D. T.  Azar, J. H.  Talamo, “A prospective evaluation of alcohol-assisted versus mechanical epithelial removal before photorefractive keratectomy,” Ophthalmology 104(10), 1566–1575 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T.  Seiler, T.  Bende, J.  Wollensak, ““[Laser surgery of the cornea],” Fortschritte der Ophthalmologie,” Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft 84, 513–518 (1987).
  3. M.  Camellin, “Laser epithelial keratomileusis for myopia,” J. Refract. Surg. 19(6), 666–670 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  4. I. G.  Pallikaris, V. J.  Katsanevaki, M. I.  Kalyvianaki, I. I.  Naoumidi, “Advances in subepithelial excimer refractive surgery techniques: Epi-LASIK,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 14(4), 207–212 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. D.  Carr, R.  Patel, P. S.  Hersh, “Management of late corneal haze following photorefractive keratectomy,” J. Refract. Surg. 11(3Suppl), S309–S313 (1995).
    [PubMed]
  6. K. D.  Kanitkar, J.  Camp, H.  Humble, D. J.  Shen, M. X.  Wang, “Pain after epithelial removal by ethanol-assisted mechanical versus transepithelial excimer laser debridement,” J. Refract. Surg. 16(5), 519–522 (2000).
    [PubMed]
  7. H. K.  Lee, K. S.  Lee, J. K.  Kim, H. C.  Kim, K. R.  Seo, E. K.  Kim, “Epithelial healing and clinical outcomes in excimer laser photorefractive surgery following three epithelial removal techniques: mechanical, alcohol, and excimer laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139(1), 56–63 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. Z.  Reinstein, T. J.  Archer, M.  Gobbe, R. H.  Silverman, D. J.  Coleman, “Epithelial thickness in the normal cornea: three-dimensional display with Artemis very high-frequency digital ultrasound,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(6), 571–581 (2008).
    [PubMed]
  9. M.  Szkulmowski, I.  Gorczynska, D.  Szlag, M.  Sylwestrzak, A.  Kowalczyk, M.  Wojtkowski, “Efficient reduction of speckle noise in Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1337–1359 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. B. J.  Kaluzny, J. J.  Kałuzny, A.  Szkulmowska, I.  Gorczyńska, M.  Szkulmowski, T.  Bajraszewski, M.  Wojtkowski, P.  Targowski, “Spectral optical coherence tomography: a novel technique for cornea imaging,” Cornea 25(8), 960–965 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M.  Wojtkowski, B.  Kaluzny, R. J.  Zawadzki, “New directions in ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), 524–542 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. E.  Pang, V.  M, D. T.  Tan, J. S.  Mehta, “Evaluation of Corneal Epithelial Healing Under Contact Lens with Spectral-Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT),” Open Ophthalmol. J. 5(1), 51–54 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. I. M.  Aslanides, S.  Padroni, S.  Arba Mosquera, A.  Ioannides, A.  Mukherjee, “Comparison of single-step reverse transepithelial all-surface laser ablation (ASLA) to alcohol-assisted photorefractive keratectomy,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 6, 973–980 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A.  Fadlallah, D.  Fahed, K.  Khalil, I.  Dunia, J.  Menassa, H.  El Rami, E.  Chlela, S.  Fahed, “Transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy: clinical results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 37(10), 1852–1857 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. H.  Luger, T.  Ewering, S.  Arba-Mosquera, “Consecutive myopia correction with transepithelial versus alcohol-assisted photorefractive keratectomy in contralateral eyes: one-year results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(8), 1414–1423 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M.  Panagiotopoulos, L.  Gan, P.  Fagerholm, “Stroma remodelling during healing of corneal surface irregularities induced by PTK,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 85(4), 387–394 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. B. A.  Weber, L.  Gan, P.  Fagerholm, “Wound healing response in the presence of stromal irregularities after excimer laser treatment,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 79(4), 381–388 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. T.  Linna, T.  Tervo, “Real-time confocal microscopic observations on human corneal nerves and wound healing after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy,” Curr. Eye Res. 16(7), 640–649 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. T.  Møller-Pedersen, H. F.  Li, W. M.  Petroll, H. D.  Cavanagh, J. V.  Jester, “Confocal microscopic characterization of wound repair after photorefractive keratectomy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39(3), 487–501 (1998).
    [PubMed]

2012 (4)

M.  Szkulmowski, I.  Gorczynska, D.  Szlag, M.  Sylwestrzak, A.  Kowalczyk, M.  Wojtkowski, “Efficient reduction of speckle noise in Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1337–1359 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.  Wojtkowski, B.  Kaluzny, R. J.  Zawadzki, “New directions in ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), 524–542 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M.  Aslanides, S.  Padroni, S.  Arba Mosquera, A.  Ioannides, A.  Mukherjee, “Comparison of single-step reverse transepithelial all-surface laser ablation (ASLA) to alcohol-assisted photorefractive keratectomy,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 6, 973–980 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H.  Luger, T.  Ewering, S.  Arba-Mosquera, “Consecutive myopia correction with transepithelial versus alcohol-assisted photorefractive keratectomy in contralateral eyes: one-year results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(8), 1414–1423 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

A.  Fadlallah, D.  Fahed, K.  Khalil, I.  Dunia, J.  Menassa, H.  El Rami, E.  Chlela, S.  Fahed, “Transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy: clinical results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 37(10), 1852–1857 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E.  Pang, V.  M, D. T.  Tan, J. S.  Mehta, “Evaluation of Corneal Epithelial Healing Under Contact Lens with Spectral-Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT),” Open Ophthalmol. J. 5(1), 51–54 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

D. Z.  Reinstein, T. J.  Archer, M.  Gobbe, R. H.  Silverman, D. J.  Coleman, “Epithelial thickness in the normal cornea: three-dimensional display with Artemis very high-frequency digital ultrasound,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(6), 571–581 (2008).
[PubMed]

2007 (1)

M.  Panagiotopoulos, L.  Gan, P.  Fagerholm, “Stroma remodelling during healing of corneal surface irregularities induced by PTK,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 85(4), 387–394 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

B. J.  Kaluzny, J. J.  Kałuzny, A.  Szkulmowska, I.  Gorczyńska, M.  Szkulmowski, T.  Bajraszewski, M.  Wojtkowski, P.  Targowski, “Spectral optical coherence tomography: a novel technique for cornea imaging,” Cornea 25(8), 960–965 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

H. K.  Lee, K. S.  Lee, J. K.  Kim, H. C.  Kim, K. R.  Seo, E. K.  Kim, “Epithelial healing and clinical outcomes in excimer laser photorefractive surgery following three epithelial removal techniques: mechanical, alcohol, and excimer laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139(1), 56–63 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

M.  Camellin, “Laser epithelial keratomileusis for myopia,” J. Refract. Surg. 19(6), 666–670 (2003).
[PubMed]

I. G.  Pallikaris, V. J.  Katsanevaki, M. I.  Kalyvianaki, I. I.  Naoumidi, “Advances in subepithelial excimer refractive surgery techniques: Epi-LASIK,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 14(4), 207–212 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

B. A.  Weber, L.  Gan, P.  Fagerholm, “Wound healing response in the presence of stromal irregularities after excimer laser treatment,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 79(4), 381–388 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

K. D.  Kanitkar, J.  Camp, H.  Humble, D. J.  Shen, M. X.  Wang, “Pain after epithelial removal by ethanol-assisted mechanical versus transepithelial excimer laser debridement,” J. Refract. Surg. 16(5), 519–522 (2000).
[PubMed]

1998 (1)

T.  Møller-Pedersen, H. F.  Li, W. M.  Petroll, H. D.  Cavanagh, J. V.  Jester, “Confocal microscopic characterization of wound repair after photorefractive keratectomy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39(3), 487–501 (1998).
[PubMed]

1997 (2)

J. C.  Abad, B.  An, W. J.  Power, C. S.  Foster, D. T.  Azar, J. H.  Talamo, “A prospective evaluation of alcohol-assisted versus mechanical epithelial removal before photorefractive keratectomy,” Ophthalmology 104(10), 1566–1575 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.  Linna, T.  Tervo, “Real-time confocal microscopic observations on human corneal nerves and wound healing after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy,” Curr. Eye Res. 16(7), 640–649 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

J. D.  Carr, R.  Patel, P. S.  Hersh, “Management of late corneal haze following photorefractive keratectomy,” J. Refract. Surg. 11(3Suppl), S309–S313 (1995).
[PubMed]

1987 (1)

T.  Seiler, T.  Bende, J.  Wollensak, ““[Laser surgery of the cornea],” Fortschritte der Ophthalmologie,” Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft 84, 513–518 (1987).

Abad, J. C.

J. C.  Abad, B.  An, W. J.  Power, C. S.  Foster, D. T.  Azar, J. H.  Talamo, “A prospective evaluation of alcohol-assisted versus mechanical epithelial removal before photorefractive keratectomy,” Ophthalmology 104(10), 1566–1575 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

An, B.

J. C.  Abad, B.  An, W. J.  Power, C. S.  Foster, D. T.  Azar, J. H.  Talamo, “A prospective evaluation of alcohol-assisted versus mechanical epithelial removal before photorefractive keratectomy,” Ophthalmology 104(10), 1566–1575 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arba Mosquera, S.

I. M.  Aslanides, S.  Padroni, S.  Arba Mosquera, A.  Ioannides, A.  Mukherjee, “Comparison of single-step reverse transepithelial all-surface laser ablation (ASLA) to alcohol-assisted photorefractive keratectomy,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 6, 973–980 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arba-Mosquera, S.

M. H.  Luger, T.  Ewering, S.  Arba-Mosquera, “Consecutive myopia correction with transepithelial versus alcohol-assisted photorefractive keratectomy in contralateral eyes: one-year results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(8), 1414–1423 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Archer, T. J.

D. Z.  Reinstein, T. J.  Archer, M.  Gobbe, R. H.  Silverman, D. J.  Coleman, “Epithelial thickness in the normal cornea: three-dimensional display with Artemis very high-frequency digital ultrasound,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(6), 571–581 (2008).
[PubMed]

Aslanides, I. M.

I. M.  Aslanides, S.  Padroni, S.  Arba Mosquera, A.  Ioannides, A.  Mukherjee, “Comparison of single-step reverse transepithelial all-surface laser ablation (ASLA) to alcohol-assisted photorefractive keratectomy,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 6, 973–980 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azar, D. T.

J. C.  Abad, B.  An, W. J.  Power, C. S.  Foster, D. T.  Azar, J. H.  Talamo, “A prospective evaluation of alcohol-assisted versus mechanical epithelial removal before photorefractive keratectomy,” Ophthalmology 104(10), 1566–1575 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

B. J.  Kaluzny, J. J.  Kałuzny, A.  Szkulmowska, I.  Gorczyńska, M.  Szkulmowski, T.  Bajraszewski, M.  Wojtkowski, P.  Targowski, “Spectral optical coherence tomography: a novel technique for cornea imaging,” Cornea 25(8), 960–965 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bende, T.

T.  Seiler, T.  Bende, J.  Wollensak, ““[Laser surgery of the cornea],” Fortschritte der Ophthalmologie,” Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft 84, 513–518 (1987).

Camellin, M.

M.  Camellin, “Laser epithelial keratomileusis for myopia,” J. Refract. Surg. 19(6), 666–670 (2003).
[PubMed]

Camp, J.

K. D.  Kanitkar, J.  Camp, H.  Humble, D. J.  Shen, M. X.  Wang, “Pain after epithelial removal by ethanol-assisted mechanical versus transepithelial excimer laser debridement,” J. Refract. Surg. 16(5), 519–522 (2000).
[PubMed]

Carr, J. D.

J. D.  Carr, R.  Patel, P. S.  Hersh, “Management of late corneal haze following photorefractive keratectomy,” J. Refract. Surg. 11(3Suppl), S309–S313 (1995).
[PubMed]

Cavanagh, H. D.

T.  Møller-Pedersen, H. F.  Li, W. M.  Petroll, H. D.  Cavanagh, J. V.  Jester, “Confocal microscopic characterization of wound repair after photorefractive keratectomy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39(3), 487–501 (1998).
[PubMed]

Chlela, E.

A.  Fadlallah, D.  Fahed, K.  Khalil, I.  Dunia, J.  Menassa, H.  El Rami, E.  Chlela, S.  Fahed, “Transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy: clinical results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 37(10), 1852–1857 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coleman, D. J.

D. Z.  Reinstein, T. J.  Archer, M.  Gobbe, R. H.  Silverman, D. J.  Coleman, “Epithelial thickness in the normal cornea: three-dimensional display with Artemis very high-frequency digital ultrasound,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(6), 571–581 (2008).
[PubMed]

Dunia, I.

A.  Fadlallah, D.  Fahed, K.  Khalil, I.  Dunia, J.  Menassa, H.  El Rami, E.  Chlela, S.  Fahed, “Transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy: clinical results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 37(10), 1852–1857 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El Rami, H.

A.  Fadlallah, D.  Fahed, K.  Khalil, I.  Dunia, J.  Menassa, H.  El Rami, E.  Chlela, S.  Fahed, “Transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy: clinical results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 37(10), 1852–1857 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ewering, T.

M. H.  Luger, T.  Ewering, S.  Arba-Mosquera, “Consecutive myopia correction with transepithelial versus alcohol-assisted photorefractive keratectomy in contralateral eyes: one-year results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(8), 1414–1423 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fadlallah, A.

A.  Fadlallah, D.  Fahed, K.  Khalil, I.  Dunia, J.  Menassa, H.  El Rami, E.  Chlela, S.  Fahed, “Transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy: clinical results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 37(10), 1852–1857 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fagerholm, P.

M.  Panagiotopoulos, L.  Gan, P.  Fagerholm, “Stroma remodelling during healing of corneal surface irregularities induced by PTK,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 85(4), 387–394 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A.  Weber, L.  Gan, P.  Fagerholm, “Wound healing response in the presence of stromal irregularities after excimer laser treatment,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 79(4), 381–388 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fahed, D.

A.  Fadlallah, D.  Fahed, K.  Khalil, I.  Dunia, J.  Menassa, H.  El Rami, E.  Chlela, S.  Fahed, “Transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy: clinical results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 37(10), 1852–1857 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fahed, S.

A.  Fadlallah, D.  Fahed, K.  Khalil, I.  Dunia, J.  Menassa, H.  El Rami, E.  Chlela, S.  Fahed, “Transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy: clinical results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 37(10), 1852–1857 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, C. S.

J. C.  Abad, B.  An, W. J.  Power, C. S.  Foster, D. T.  Azar, J. H.  Talamo, “A prospective evaluation of alcohol-assisted versus mechanical epithelial removal before photorefractive keratectomy,” Ophthalmology 104(10), 1566–1575 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gan, L.

M.  Panagiotopoulos, L.  Gan, P.  Fagerholm, “Stroma remodelling during healing of corneal surface irregularities induced by PTK,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 85(4), 387–394 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A.  Weber, L.  Gan, P.  Fagerholm, “Wound healing response in the presence of stromal irregularities after excimer laser treatment,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 79(4), 381–388 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gobbe, M.

D. Z.  Reinstein, T. J.  Archer, M.  Gobbe, R. H.  Silverman, D. J.  Coleman, “Epithelial thickness in the normal cornea: three-dimensional display with Artemis very high-frequency digital ultrasound,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(6), 571–581 (2008).
[PubMed]

Gorczynska, I.

M.  Szkulmowski, I.  Gorczynska, D.  Szlag, M.  Sylwestrzak, A.  Kowalczyk, M.  Wojtkowski, “Efficient reduction of speckle noise in Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1337–1359 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J.  Kaluzny, J. J.  Kałuzny, A.  Szkulmowska, I.  Gorczyńska, M.  Szkulmowski, T.  Bajraszewski, M.  Wojtkowski, P.  Targowski, “Spectral optical coherence tomography: a novel technique for cornea imaging,” Cornea 25(8), 960–965 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hersh, P. S.

J. D.  Carr, R.  Patel, P. S.  Hersh, “Management of late corneal haze following photorefractive keratectomy,” J. Refract. Surg. 11(3Suppl), S309–S313 (1995).
[PubMed]

Humble, H.

K. D.  Kanitkar, J.  Camp, H.  Humble, D. J.  Shen, M. X.  Wang, “Pain after epithelial removal by ethanol-assisted mechanical versus transepithelial excimer laser debridement,” J. Refract. Surg. 16(5), 519–522 (2000).
[PubMed]

Ioannides, A.

I. M.  Aslanides, S.  Padroni, S.  Arba Mosquera, A.  Ioannides, A.  Mukherjee, “Comparison of single-step reverse transepithelial all-surface laser ablation (ASLA) to alcohol-assisted photorefractive keratectomy,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 6, 973–980 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jester, J. V.

T.  Møller-Pedersen, H. F.  Li, W. M.  Petroll, H. D.  Cavanagh, J. V.  Jester, “Confocal microscopic characterization of wound repair after photorefractive keratectomy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39(3), 487–501 (1998).
[PubMed]

Kaluzny, B.

M.  Wojtkowski, B.  Kaluzny, R. J.  Zawadzki, “New directions in ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), 524–542 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaluzny, B. J.

B. J.  Kaluzny, J. J.  Kałuzny, A.  Szkulmowska, I.  Gorczyńska, M.  Szkulmowski, T.  Bajraszewski, M.  Wojtkowski, P.  Targowski, “Spectral optical coherence tomography: a novel technique for cornea imaging,” Cornea 25(8), 960–965 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaluzny, J. J.

B. J.  Kaluzny, J. J.  Kałuzny, A.  Szkulmowska, I.  Gorczyńska, M.  Szkulmowski, T.  Bajraszewski, M.  Wojtkowski, P.  Targowski, “Spectral optical coherence tomography: a novel technique for cornea imaging,” Cornea 25(8), 960–965 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalyvianaki, M. I.

I. G.  Pallikaris, V. J.  Katsanevaki, M. I.  Kalyvianaki, I. I.  Naoumidi, “Advances in subepithelial excimer refractive surgery techniques: Epi-LASIK,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 14(4), 207–212 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanitkar, K. D.

K. D.  Kanitkar, J.  Camp, H.  Humble, D. J.  Shen, M. X.  Wang, “Pain after epithelial removal by ethanol-assisted mechanical versus transepithelial excimer laser debridement,” J. Refract. Surg. 16(5), 519–522 (2000).
[PubMed]

Katsanevaki, V. J.

I. G.  Pallikaris, V. J.  Katsanevaki, M. I.  Kalyvianaki, I. I.  Naoumidi, “Advances in subepithelial excimer refractive surgery techniques: Epi-LASIK,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 14(4), 207–212 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khalil, K.

A.  Fadlallah, D.  Fahed, K.  Khalil, I.  Dunia, J.  Menassa, H.  El Rami, E.  Chlela, S.  Fahed, “Transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy: clinical results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 37(10), 1852–1857 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, E. K.

H. K.  Lee, K. S.  Lee, J. K.  Kim, H. C.  Kim, K. R.  Seo, E. K.  Kim, “Epithelial healing and clinical outcomes in excimer laser photorefractive surgery following three epithelial removal techniques: mechanical, alcohol, and excimer laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139(1), 56–63 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H. C.

H. K.  Lee, K. S.  Lee, J. K.  Kim, H. C.  Kim, K. R.  Seo, E. K.  Kim, “Epithelial healing and clinical outcomes in excimer laser photorefractive surgery following three epithelial removal techniques: mechanical, alcohol, and excimer laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139(1), 56–63 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. K.

H. K.  Lee, K. S.  Lee, J. K.  Kim, H. C.  Kim, K. R.  Seo, E. K.  Kim, “Epithelial healing and clinical outcomes in excimer laser photorefractive surgery following three epithelial removal techniques: mechanical, alcohol, and excimer laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139(1), 56–63 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

Lee, H. K.

H. K.  Lee, K. S.  Lee, J. K.  Kim, H. C.  Kim, K. R.  Seo, E. K.  Kim, “Epithelial healing and clinical outcomes in excimer laser photorefractive surgery following three epithelial removal techniques: mechanical, alcohol, and excimer laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139(1), 56–63 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K. S.

H. K.  Lee, K. S.  Lee, J. K.  Kim, H. C.  Kim, K. R.  Seo, E. K.  Kim, “Epithelial healing and clinical outcomes in excimer laser photorefractive surgery following three epithelial removal techniques: mechanical, alcohol, and excimer laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139(1), 56–63 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, H. F.

T.  Møller-Pedersen, H. F.  Li, W. M.  Petroll, H. D.  Cavanagh, J. V.  Jester, “Confocal microscopic characterization of wound repair after photorefractive keratectomy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39(3), 487–501 (1998).
[PubMed]

Linna, T.

T.  Linna, T.  Tervo, “Real-time confocal microscopic observations on human corneal nerves and wound healing after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy,” Curr. Eye Res. 16(7), 640–649 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luger, M. H.

M. H.  Luger, T.  Ewering, S.  Arba-Mosquera, “Consecutive myopia correction with transepithelial versus alcohol-assisted photorefractive keratectomy in contralateral eyes: one-year results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(8), 1414–1423 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M, V.

C. E.  Pang, V.  M, D. T.  Tan, J. S.  Mehta, “Evaluation of Corneal Epithelial Healing Under Contact Lens with Spectral-Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT),” Open Ophthalmol. J. 5(1), 51–54 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mehta, J. S.

C. E.  Pang, V.  M, D. T.  Tan, J. S.  Mehta, “Evaluation of Corneal Epithelial Healing Under Contact Lens with Spectral-Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT),” Open Ophthalmol. J. 5(1), 51–54 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menassa, J.

A.  Fadlallah, D.  Fahed, K.  Khalil, I.  Dunia, J.  Menassa, H.  El Rami, E.  Chlela, S.  Fahed, “Transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy: clinical results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 37(10), 1852–1857 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Møller-Pedersen, T.

T.  Møller-Pedersen, H. F.  Li, W. M.  Petroll, H. D.  Cavanagh, J. V.  Jester, “Confocal microscopic characterization of wound repair after photorefractive keratectomy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39(3), 487–501 (1998).
[PubMed]

Mukherjee, A.

I. M.  Aslanides, S.  Padroni, S.  Arba Mosquera, A.  Ioannides, A.  Mukherjee, “Comparison of single-step reverse transepithelial all-surface laser ablation (ASLA) to alcohol-assisted photorefractive keratectomy,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 6, 973–980 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naoumidi, I. I.

I. G.  Pallikaris, V. J.  Katsanevaki, M. I.  Kalyvianaki, I. I.  Naoumidi, “Advances in subepithelial excimer refractive surgery techniques: Epi-LASIK,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 14(4), 207–212 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padroni, S.

I. M.  Aslanides, S.  Padroni, S.  Arba Mosquera, A.  Ioannides, A.  Mukherjee, “Comparison of single-step reverse transepithelial all-surface laser ablation (ASLA) to alcohol-assisted photorefractive keratectomy,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 6, 973–980 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pallikaris, I. G.

I. G.  Pallikaris, V. J.  Katsanevaki, M. I.  Kalyvianaki, I. I.  Naoumidi, “Advances in subepithelial excimer refractive surgery techniques: Epi-LASIK,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 14(4), 207–212 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panagiotopoulos, M.

M.  Panagiotopoulos, L.  Gan, P.  Fagerholm, “Stroma remodelling during healing of corneal surface irregularities induced by PTK,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 85(4), 387–394 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pang, C. E.

C. E.  Pang, V.  M, D. T.  Tan, J. S.  Mehta, “Evaluation of Corneal Epithelial Healing Under Contact Lens with Spectral-Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT),” Open Ophthalmol. J. 5(1), 51–54 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, R.

J. D.  Carr, R.  Patel, P. S.  Hersh, “Management of late corneal haze following photorefractive keratectomy,” J. Refract. Surg. 11(3Suppl), S309–S313 (1995).
[PubMed]

Petroll, W. M.

T.  Møller-Pedersen, H. F.  Li, W. M.  Petroll, H. D.  Cavanagh, J. V.  Jester, “Confocal microscopic characterization of wound repair after photorefractive keratectomy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39(3), 487–501 (1998).
[PubMed]

Power, W. J.

J. C.  Abad, B.  An, W. J.  Power, C. S.  Foster, D. T.  Azar, J. H.  Talamo, “A prospective evaluation of alcohol-assisted versus mechanical epithelial removal before photorefractive keratectomy,” Ophthalmology 104(10), 1566–1575 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reinstein, D. Z.

D. Z.  Reinstein, T. J.  Archer, M.  Gobbe, R. H.  Silverman, D. J.  Coleman, “Epithelial thickness in the normal cornea: three-dimensional display with Artemis very high-frequency digital ultrasound,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(6), 571–581 (2008).
[PubMed]

Seiler, T.

T.  Seiler, T.  Bende, J.  Wollensak, ““[Laser surgery of the cornea],” Fortschritte der Ophthalmologie,” Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft 84, 513–518 (1987).

Seo, K. R.

H. K.  Lee, K. S.  Lee, J. K.  Kim, H. C.  Kim, K. R.  Seo, E. K.  Kim, “Epithelial healing and clinical outcomes in excimer laser photorefractive surgery following three epithelial removal techniques: mechanical, alcohol, and excimer laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139(1), 56–63 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, D. J.

K. D.  Kanitkar, J.  Camp, H.  Humble, D. J.  Shen, M. X.  Wang, “Pain after epithelial removal by ethanol-assisted mechanical versus transepithelial excimer laser debridement,” J. Refract. Surg. 16(5), 519–522 (2000).
[PubMed]

Silverman, R. H.

D. Z.  Reinstein, T. J.  Archer, M.  Gobbe, R. H.  Silverman, D. J.  Coleman, “Epithelial thickness in the normal cornea: three-dimensional display with Artemis very high-frequency digital ultrasound,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(6), 571–581 (2008).
[PubMed]

Sylwestrzak, M.

Szkulmowska, A.

B. J.  Kaluzny, J. J.  Kałuzny, A.  Szkulmowska, I.  Gorczyńska, M.  Szkulmowski, T.  Bajraszewski, M.  Wojtkowski, P.  Targowski, “Spectral optical coherence tomography: a novel technique for cornea imaging,” Cornea 25(8), 960–965 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szkulmowski, M.

M.  Szkulmowski, I.  Gorczynska, D.  Szlag, M.  Sylwestrzak, A.  Kowalczyk, M.  Wojtkowski, “Efficient reduction of speckle noise in Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1337–1359 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J.  Kaluzny, J. J.  Kałuzny, A.  Szkulmowska, I.  Gorczyńska, M.  Szkulmowski, T.  Bajraszewski, M.  Wojtkowski, P.  Targowski, “Spectral optical coherence tomography: a novel technique for cornea imaging,” Cornea 25(8), 960–965 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szlag, D.

Talamo, J. H.

J. C.  Abad, B.  An, W. J.  Power, C. S.  Foster, D. T.  Azar, J. H.  Talamo, “A prospective evaluation of alcohol-assisted versus mechanical epithelial removal before photorefractive keratectomy,” Ophthalmology 104(10), 1566–1575 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, D. T.

C. E.  Pang, V.  M, D. T.  Tan, J. S.  Mehta, “Evaluation of Corneal Epithelial Healing Under Contact Lens with Spectral-Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT),” Open Ophthalmol. J. 5(1), 51–54 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Targowski, P.

B. J.  Kaluzny, J. J.  Kałuzny, A.  Szkulmowska, I.  Gorczyńska, M.  Szkulmowski, T.  Bajraszewski, M.  Wojtkowski, P.  Targowski, “Spectral optical coherence tomography: a novel technique for cornea imaging,” Cornea 25(8), 960–965 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tervo, T.

T.  Linna, T.  Tervo, “Real-time confocal microscopic observations on human corneal nerves and wound healing after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy,” Curr. Eye Res. 16(7), 640–649 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, M. X.

K. D.  Kanitkar, J.  Camp, H.  Humble, D. J.  Shen, M. X.  Wang, “Pain after epithelial removal by ethanol-assisted mechanical versus transepithelial excimer laser debridement,” J. Refract. Surg. 16(5), 519–522 (2000).
[PubMed]

Weber, B. A.

B. A.  Weber, L.  Gan, P.  Fagerholm, “Wound healing response in the presence of stromal irregularities after excimer laser treatment,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 79(4), 381–388 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

M.  Wojtkowski, B.  Kaluzny, R. J.  Zawadzki, “New directions in ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), 524–542 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.  Szkulmowski, I.  Gorczynska, D.  Szlag, M.  Sylwestrzak, A.  Kowalczyk, M.  Wojtkowski, “Efficient reduction of speckle noise in Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1337–1359 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J.  Kaluzny, J. J.  Kałuzny, A.  Szkulmowska, I.  Gorczyńska, M.  Szkulmowski, T.  Bajraszewski, M.  Wojtkowski, P.  Targowski, “Spectral optical coherence tomography: a novel technique for cornea imaging,” Cornea 25(8), 960–965 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wollensak, J.

T.  Seiler, T.  Bende, J.  Wollensak, ““[Laser surgery of the cornea],” Fortschritte der Ophthalmologie,” Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft 84, 513–518 (1987).

Zawadzki, R. J.

M.  Wojtkowski, B.  Kaluzny, R. J.  Zawadzki, “New directions in ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), 524–542 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. (2)

M.  Panagiotopoulos, L.  Gan, P.  Fagerholm, “Stroma remodelling during healing of corneal surface irregularities induced by PTK,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 85(4), 387–394 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A.  Weber, L.  Gan, P.  Fagerholm, “Wound healing response in the presence of stromal irregularities after excimer laser treatment,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 79(4), 381–388 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

H. K.  Lee, K. S.  Lee, J. K.  Kim, H. C.  Kim, K. R.  Seo, E. K.  Kim, “Epithelial healing and clinical outcomes in excimer laser photorefractive surgery following three epithelial removal techniques: mechanical, alcohol, and excimer laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139(1), 56–63 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Ophthalmol. (1)

I. M.  Aslanides, S.  Padroni, S.  Arba Mosquera, A.  Ioannides, A.  Mukherjee, “Comparison of single-step reverse transepithelial all-surface laser ablation (ASLA) to alcohol-assisted photorefractive keratectomy,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 6, 973–980 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornea (1)

B. J.  Kaluzny, J. J.  Kałuzny, A.  Szkulmowska, I.  Gorczyńska, M.  Szkulmowski, T.  Bajraszewski, M.  Wojtkowski, P.  Targowski, “Spectral optical coherence tomography: a novel technique for cornea imaging,” Cornea 25(8), 960–965 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Eye Res. (1)

T.  Linna, T.  Tervo, “Real-time confocal microscopic observations on human corneal nerves and wound healing after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy,” Curr. Eye Res. 16(7), 640–649 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. (1)

I. G.  Pallikaris, V. J.  Katsanevaki, M. I.  Kalyvianaki, I. I.  Naoumidi, “Advances in subepithelial excimer refractive surgery techniques: Epi-LASIK,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 14(4), 207–212 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

T.  Møller-Pedersen, H. F.  Li, W. M.  Petroll, H. D.  Cavanagh, J. V.  Jester, “Confocal microscopic characterization of wound repair after photorefractive keratectomy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39(3), 487–501 (1998).
[PubMed]

J. Cataract Refract. Surg. (2)

A.  Fadlallah, D.  Fahed, K.  Khalil, I.  Dunia, J.  Menassa, H.  El Rami, E.  Chlela, S.  Fahed, “Transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy: clinical results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 37(10), 1852–1857 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H.  Luger, T.  Ewering, S.  Arba-Mosquera, “Consecutive myopia correction with transepithelial versus alcohol-assisted photorefractive keratectomy in contralateral eyes: one-year results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(8), 1414–1423 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Refract. Surg. (4)

M.  Camellin, “Laser epithelial keratomileusis for myopia,” J. Refract. Surg. 19(6), 666–670 (2003).
[PubMed]

J. D.  Carr, R.  Patel, P. S.  Hersh, “Management of late corneal haze following photorefractive keratectomy,” J. Refract. Surg. 11(3Suppl), S309–S313 (1995).
[PubMed]

K. D.  Kanitkar, J.  Camp, H.  Humble, D. J.  Shen, M. X.  Wang, “Pain after epithelial removal by ethanol-assisted mechanical versus transepithelial excimer laser debridement,” J. Refract. Surg. 16(5), 519–522 (2000).
[PubMed]

D. Z.  Reinstein, T. J.  Archer, M.  Gobbe, R. H.  Silverman, D. J.  Coleman, “Epithelial thickness in the normal cornea: three-dimensional display with Artemis very high-frequency digital ultrasound,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(6), 571–581 (2008).
[PubMed]

Open Ophthalmol. J. (1)

C. E.  Pang, V.  M, D. T.  Tan, J. S.  Mehta, “Evaluation of Corneal Epithelial Healing Under Contact Lens with Spectral-Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT),” Open Ophthalmol. J. 5(1), 51–54 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (1)

J. C.  Abad, B.  An, W. J.  Power, C. S.  Foster, D. T.  Azar, J. H.  Talamo, “A prospective evaluation of alcohol-assisted versus mechanical epithelial removal before photorefractive keratectomy,” Ophthalmology 104(10), 1566–1575 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Optom. Vis. Sci. (1)

M.  Wojtkowski, B.  Kaluzny, R. J.  Zawadzki, “New directions in ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), 524–542 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft (1)

T.  Seiler, T.  Bende, J.  Wollensak, ““[Laser surgery of the cornea],” Fortschritte der Ophthalmologie,” Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft 84, 513–518 (1987).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the SOCT setup used in this study. Ti:Sapphire – light source; PC – polarization controller; NDF – neutral density filter; DC – dispersion compensator; CMOS – camera; L1-5 – lenses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the beam trajectory for one tomogram with reduced speckle pattern. a. Beam trajectory with marked positions of spectra acquisitions; TAscan – time span between spectra acquisitions, Tresonant – resonant scanner period and time span between spectra acquisitions with the same lateral y position. b. Schematic view of the spectra acquisition positions in a case with denser sampling in the x direction. Acquired spectra with the same lateral y position can be regarded as one of a set of parallel tomograms separated by the distance Δy in y direction. The distance Δy can be easily controlled by the operator. This set of tomograms is averaged to create one tomogram with a reduced speckle pattern.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SOCT tomograms of the central cornea and peripheral cornea with limbus, acquired before the surgery and in the first postoperative day after PRK and TransPRK. Legend: CEP – corneal epithelium, BECL – basal epithelial cell layer, BL – Bowman’s layer, ST – stroma, DM – Descemet’s membrane, LEP – limbal epithelium, CJ – conjunctiva, SC – sclera, CL – contact lens, OP – opaque epithelium, RE – regrown epithelium, EC – cut of the epithelium, IR – inflammatory response, HEP – hyperreflective epithelium, SSI – stromal surface irregularities, (stars) – artifacts caused by specular reflection. The preoperative refractive error of the eye after PRK was: −2.5Dsph −2.0Dcyl ax 172°, after TransPRK: −4.75Dsph −0.5Dcyl ax 80°. Scale bars in both direction represent 500 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SOCT tomograms of the central cornea and peripheral cornea with limbus, acquired in the first postoperative weeks and 3 months after the surgery for PRK and TransPRK. Legend: HEP – hyperreflective epithelium, IR- inflammatory response, BECL – basal epithelial cell layer, HRD – hyperreflective dots, SSI – stromal surface irregularities, (stars) – artifacts caused by specular reflection. The preoperative refractive error of the eye after PRK was: −2.5Dsph −2.0Dcyl ax 172°, after TransPRK: −4.75Dsph −0.5Dcyl ax 80°. Scale bars in both direction represent 500 µm.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Mean preoperative and postoperative central thickness of the epithelium (CET) in subgroups.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Mean preoperative and postoperative manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE) and evolution of uncorrected distant visual acuity (UDVA) in subgroups.

Metrics