Abstract

Optical stimulation of the inner ear has recently attracted attention, suggesting a higher frequency resolution compared to electrical cochlear implants due to its high spatial stimulation selectivity. Although the feasibility of the effect is shown in multiple in vivo experiments, the stimulation mechanism remains open to discussion. Here we investigate in single-cell measurements the reaction of spiral ganglion neurons and model cells to irradiation with a nanosecond-pulsed laser beam over a broad wavelength range from 420 nm up to 1950 nm using the patch clamp technique. Cell reactions were wavelength- and pulse-energy-dependent but too small to elicit action potentials in the investigated spiral ganglion neurons. As the applied radiant exposure was much higher than the reported threshold for in vivo experiments in the same laser regime, we conclude that in a stimulation paradigm with nanosecond-pulses, direct neuronal stimulation is not the main cause of optical cochlea stimulation.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. R. R. Anderson and J. A. Parrish, “Selective Photothermolysis: Precise Microsurgery by Selective Absorption of Pulsed Radiation,” Science220(4596), 524–527 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical Mechanisms of Transient Optical Stimulation of Peripheral Nerve,” Biophys. J.93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. E. S. Albert, J. M. Bec, G. Desmadryl, K. Chekroud, C. Travo, S. Gaboyard, F. Bardin, I. Marc, M. Dumas, G. Lenaers, C. Hamel, A. Muller, and C. Chabbert, “TRPV4 channels mediate the infrared laser-evoked response in sensory neurons,” J. Neurophysiol.107(12), 3227–3234 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. A. C. Thompson, S. A. Wade, W. G. A. Brown, and P. R. Stoddart, “Modeling of light absorption in tissue during infrared neural stimulation,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 0750021 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity,” Appl. Opt.36(24), 6035–6046 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

W. K. Ajith Karunarathnea, L. Giri, V. Kalyanaramana, and N. Gautama, “Optically triggering spatiotemporally confined GPCR activity in a cell and programming neurite initiation and extension,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.110(17), 1565–1574 (2013).

2012

A. Warnecke, S. Sasse, G. I. Wenzel, A. Hoffmann, G. Gross, G. Paasche, V. Scheper, U. Reich, K.-H. Esser, T. Lenarz, T. Stöver, and K. Wissel, “Stable release of BDNF from the fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 grown on silicone elastomers enhances survival of spiral ganglion cells in vitro and in vivo,” Hear. Res.289(1-2), 86–97 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Rutherford, N. M. Chapochnikov, and T. Moser, “Spike Encoding of Neurotransmitter Release Timing by Spiral Ganglion Neurons of the Cochlea,” J. Neurosci.32(14), 4773–4789 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Goyal, S. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, S. R. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Acute Damage Threshold for Infrared Neural Stimulation of the Cochlea: Functional and Histological Evaluation,” Anat. Rec. (Hoboken)295(11), 1987–1999 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Bec, E. S. Albert, I. Marc, G. Desmadryl, C. Travo, A. Muller, C. Chabbert, F. Bardin, and M. Dumas, “Characteristics of Laser Stimulation by Near Infrared Pulses of Retinal and Vestibular Primary Neurons,” Lasers Surg. Med.44(9), 736–745 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Albert, J. M. Bec, G. Desmadryl, K. Chekroud, C. Travo, S. Gaboyard, F. Bardin, I. Marc, M. Dumas, G. Lenaers, C. Hamel, A. Muller, and C. Chabbert, “TRPV4 channels mediate the infrared laser-evoked response in sensory neurons,” J. Neurophysiol.107(12), 3227–3234 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Thompson, S. A. Wade, W. G. A. Brown, and P. R. Stoddart, “Modeling of light absorption in tissue during infrared neural stimulation,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 0750021 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C. P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat. Commun.3, 736 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schultz, P. Baumhoff, H. Maier, I. U. Teudt, A. Krüger, T. Lenarz, and A. Kral, “Nanosecond laser pulse stimulation of the inner ear-a wavelength study,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(12), 3332–3345 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

C. P. Richter, S. M. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, E. L. Moreno, A. J. Fishman, A. M. Robinson, E. Suh, and J. T. Walsh., “Spread of cochlear excitation during stimulation with pulsed infrared radiation: inferior colliculus measurements,” J. Neural Eng.8(5), 056006 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. U. Teudt, H. Maier, C. P. Richter, and A. Kral, “Acoustic events and “optophonic” cochlear responses induced by pulsed near-infrared laser,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.58(6), 1648–1655 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Dittami, S. M. Rajguru, R. A. Lasher, R. W. Hitchcock, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Intracellular calcium transients evoked by pulsed infrared radiation in neonatal cardiomyocytes,” J. Physiol.589(6), 1295–1306 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

J. Yao, B. Liu, and F. Qin, “Rapid Temperature Jump by Infrared Diode Laser Irradiation for Patch-Clamp Studies,” Biophys. J.96(9), 3611–3619 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Zhang, G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, H. H. Lim, H. Lubatschowski, T. Lenarz, W. Ertmer, and G. Reuter, “Optoacoustic induced vibrations within the inner ear,” Opt. Express17(25), 23037–23043 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser Stimulation of Auditory Neurons: Effect of Shorter Pulse Duration and Penetration Depth,” Biophys. J.94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Richter, R. Bayon, A. D. Izzo, M. Otting, E. Suh, S. Goyal, J. Hotaling, and J. T. Walsh., “Optical stimulation of auditory neurons: Effects of acute and chronic deafening,” Hear. Res.242(1-2), 42–51 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Berkingali, A. Warnecke, P. Gomes, G. Paasche, J. Tack, T. Lenarz, and T. Stöver, “Neurite outgrowth on cultured spiral ganglion neurons induced by erythropoietin,” Hear. Res.243(1-2), 121–126 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical Mechanisms of Transient Optical Stimulation of Peripheral Nerve,” Biophys. J.93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

A. D. Izzo, C. P. Richter, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Laser Stimulation of the Auditory Nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(8), 745–753 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fridberger and T. Ren, “Local mechanical stimulation of the hearing organ by laser irradiation,” Neuroreport17(1), 33–37 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

P. Wefstaedt, V. Scheper, T. Lenarz, and T. Stöver, “Brain-derived neurotrophic nfactor/glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor survival effects are not limited by dexamethasone,” Neuroreport16, 2011–2014 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

S. Hebeisen, H. Heidtmann, D. Cosmelli, C. Gonzalez, B. Poser, R. Latorre, O. Alvarez, and C. Fahlke, “Anion Permeation in Human ClC-4 Channels,” Biophys. J.84(4), 2306–2318 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

J. L. Hegarty, A. R. Kay, and S. H. Green, “Trophic support of cultured spiral ganglion neurons by depolarization exceeds and is additive with that by neurotrophins or cAMP and requires elevation of [Ca2+]i within a set range,” J. Neurosci.17(6), 1959–1970 (1997).
[PubMed]

W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity,” Appl. Opt.36(24), 6035–6046 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

E. J. Moore, D. B. Hall, and T. Narahashi, “Sodium and Potassium Currents of Type I Spiral Ganglion Cells from Rat,” Acta Otolaryngol.116(4), 552–560 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

1990

G. Reuter and H. P. Zenner, “Active radial and transverse motile responses of outer hair cells in the organ of Corti,” Hear. Res.43(2-3), 219–230 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

S. K. Calderwood, M. A. Stevenson, and G. M. Hahn, “Heat Stress Stimulates Inositol Trisphosphate Release and Phosphorylation of Phosphoinositides in CHO and Balb C 3T3 Cells,” J. Cell. Physiol.130(3), 369–376 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

R. R. Anderson and J. A. Parrish, “Selective Photothermolysis: Precise Microsurgery by Selective Absorption of Pulsed Radiation,” Science220(4596), 524–527 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

O. P. Hamill, A. Marty, E. Neher, B. Sakmann, and F. J. Sigworth, “Improved patch-clamp techniques for high-resolution current recording from cells and cell-free membrane patches,” Pflugers Arch.391(2), 85–100 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ajith Karunarathnea, W. K.

W. K. Ajith Karunarathnea, L. Giri, V. Kalyanaramana, and N. Gautama, “Optically triggering spatiotemporally confined GPCR activity in a cell and programming neurite initiation and extension,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.110(17), 1565–1574 (2013).

Albert, E. S.

J. M. Bec, E. S. Albert, I. Marc, G. Desmadryl, C. Travo, A. Muller, C. Chabbert, F. Bardin, and M. Dumas, “Characteristics of Laser Stimulation by Near Infrared Pulses of Retinal and Vestibular Primary Neurons,” Lasers Surg. Med.44(9), 736–745 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Albert, J. M. Bec, G. Desmadryl, K. Chekroud, C. Travo, S. Gaboyard, F. Bardin, I. Marc, M. Dumas, G. Lenaers, C. Hamel, A. Muller, and C. Chabbert, “TRPV4 channels mediate the infrared laser-evoked response in sensory neurons,” J. Neurophysiol.107(12), 3227–3234 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alvarez, O.

S. Hebeisen, H. Heidtmann, D. Cosmelli, C. Gonzalez, B. Poser, R. Latorre, O. Alvarez, and C. Fahlke, “Anion Permeation in Human ClC-4 Channels,” Biophys. J.84(4), 2306–2318 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, R. R.

R. R. Anderson and J. A. Parrish, “Selective Photothermolysis: Precise Microsurgery by Selective Absorption of Pulsed Radiation,” Science220(4596), 524–527 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balster, S.

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Zhang, G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, H. H. Lim, H. Lubatschowski, T. Lenarz, W. Ertmer, and G. Reuter, “Optoacoustic induced vibrations within the inner ear,” Opt. Express17(25), 23037–23043 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bardin, F.

J. M. Bec, E. S. Albert, I. Marc, G. Desmadryl, C. Travo, A. Muller, C. Chabbert, F. Bardin, and M. Dumas, “Characteristics of Laser Stimulation by Near Infrared Pulses of Retinal and Vestibular Primary Neurons,” Lasers Surg. Med.44(9), 736–745 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Albert, J. M. Bec, G. Desmadryl, K. Chekroud, C. Travo, S. Gaboyard, F. Bardin, I. Marc, M. Dumas, G. Lenaers, C. Hamel, A. Muller, and C. Chabbert, “TRPV4 channels mediate the infrared laser-evoked response in sensory neurons,” J. Neurophysiol.107(12), 3227–3234 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumhoff, P.

Bayon, R.

C. P. Richter, R. Bayon, A. D. Izzo, M. Otting, E. Suh, S. Goyal, J. Hotaling, and J. T. Walsh., “Optical stimulation of auditory neurons: Effects of acute and chronic deafening,” Hear. Res.242(1-2), 42–51 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bec, J. M.

E. S. Albert, J. M. Bec, G. Desmadryl, K. Chekroud, C. Travo, S. Gaboyard, F. Bardin, I. Marc, M. Dumas, G. Lenaers, C. Hamel, A. Muller, and C. Chabbert, “TRPV4 channels mediate the infrared laser-evoked response in sensory neurons,” J. Neurophysiol.107(12), 3227–3234 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Bec, E. S. Albert, I. Marc, G. Desmadryl, C. Travo, A. Muller, C. Chabbert, F. Bardin, and M. Dumas, “Characteristics of Laser Stimulation by Near Infrared Pulses of Retinal and Vestibular Primary Neurons,” Lasers Surg. Med.44(9), 736–745 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bendett, M.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser Stimulation of Auditory Neurons: Effect of Shorter Pulse Duration and Penetration Depth,” Biophys. J.94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berkingali, N.

N. Berkingali, A. Warnecke, P. Gomes, G. Paasche, J. Tack, T. Lenarz, and T. Stöver, “Neurite outgrowth on cultured spiral ganglion neurons induced by erythropoietin,” Hear. Res.243(1-2), 121–126 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bezanilla, F.

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C. P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat. Commun.3, 736 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, W. G. A.

A. C. Thompson, S. A. Wade, W. G. A. Brown, and P. R. Stoddart, “Modeling of light absorption in tissue during infrared neural stimulation,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 0750021 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calderwood, S. K.

S. K. Calderwood, M. A. Stevenson, and G. M. Hahn, “Heat Stress Stimulates Inositol Trisphosphate Release and Phosphorylation of Phosphoinositides in CHO and Balb C 3T3 Cells,” J. Cell. Physiol.130(3), 369–376 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chabbert, C.

J. M. Bec, E. S. Albert, I. Marc, G. Desmadryl, C. Travo, A. Muller, C. Chabbert, F. Bardin, and M. Dumas, “Characteristics of Laser Stimulation by Near Infrared Pulses of Retinal and Vestibular Primary Neurons,” Lasers Surg. Med.44(9), 736–745 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Albert, J. M. Bec, G. Desmadryl, K. Chekroud, C. Travo, S. Gaboyard, F. Bardin, I. Marc, M. Dumas, G. Lenaers, C. Hamel, A. Muller, and C. Chabbert, “TRPV4 channels mediate the infrared laser-evoked response in sensory neurons,” J. Neurophysiol.107(12), 3227–3234 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chapochnikov, N. M.

M. A. Rutherford, N. M. Chapochnikov, and T. Moser, “Spike Encoding of Neurotransmitter Release Timing by Spiral Ganglion Neurons of the Cochlea,” J. Neurosci.32(14), 4773–4789 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chekroud, K.

E. S. Albert, J. M. Bec, G. Desmadryl, K. Chekroud, C. Travo, S. Gaboyard, F. Bardin, I. Marc, M. Dumas, G. Lenaers, C. Hamel, A. Muller, and C. Chabbert, “TRPV4 channels mediate the infrared laser-evoked response in sensory neurons,” J. Neurophysiol.107(12), 3227–3234 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chylek, P.

Cosmelli, D.

S. Hebeisen, H. Heidtmann, D. Cosmelli, C. Gonzalez, B. Poser, R. Latorre, O. Alvarez, and C. Fahlke, “Anion Permeation in Human ClC-4 Channels,” Biophys. J.84(4), 2306–2318 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desmadryl, G.

E. S. Albert, J. M. Bec, G. Desmadryl, K. Chekroud, C. Travo, S. Gaboyard, F. Bardin, I. Marc, M. Dumas, G. Lenaers, C. Hamel, A. Muller, and C. Chabbert, “TRPV4 channels mediate the infrared laser-evoked response in sensory neurons,” J. Neurophysiol.107(12), 3227–3234 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Bec, E. S. Albert, I. Marc, G. Desmadryl, C. Travo, A. Muller, C. Chabbert, F. Bardin, and M. Dumas, “Characteristics of Laser Stimulation by Near Infrared Pulses of Retinal and Vestibular Primary Neurons,” Lasers Surg. Med.44(9), 736–745 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dittami, G. M.

G. M. Dittami, S. M. Rajguru, R. A. Lasher, R. W. Hitchcock, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Intracellular calcium transients evoked by pulsed infrared radiation in neonatal cardiomyocytes,” J. Physiol.589(6), 1295–1306 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dumas, M.

J. M. Bec, E. S. Albert, I. Marc, G. Desmadryl, C. Travo, A. Muller, C. Chabbert, F. Bardin, and M. Dumas, “Characteristics of Laser Stimulation by Near Infrared Pulses of Retinal and Vestibular Primary Neurons,” Lasers Surg. Med.44(9), 736–745 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Albert, J. M. Bec, G. Desmadryl, K. Chekroud, C. Travo, S. Gaboyard, F. Bardin, I. Marc, M. Dumas, G. Lenaers, C. Hamel, A. Muller, and C. Chabbert, “TRPV4 channels mediate the infrared laser-evoked response in sensory neurons,” J. Neurophysiol.107(12), 3227–3234 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ertmer, W.

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Zhang, G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, H. H. Lim, H. Lubatschowski, T. Lenarz, W. Ertmer, and G. Reuter, “Optoacoustic induced vibrations within the inner ear,” Opt. Express17(25), 23037–23043 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esser, K.-H.

A. Warnecke, S. Sasse, G. I. Wenzel, A. Hoffmann, G. Gross, G. Paasche, V. Scheper, U. Reich, K.-H. Esser, T. Lenarz, T. Stöver, and K. Wissel, “Stable release of BDNF from the fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 grown on silicone elastomers enhances survival of spiral ganglion cells in vitro and in vivo,” Hear. Res.289(1-2), 86–97 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fahlke, C.

S. Hebeisen, H. Heidtmann, D. Cosmelli, C. Gonzalez, B. Poser, R. Latorre, O. Alvarez, and C. Fahlke, “Anion Permeation in Human ClC-4 Channels,” Biophys. J.84(4), 2306–2318 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fishman, A. J.

C. P. Richter, S. M. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, E. L. Moreno, A. J. Fishman, A. M. Robinson, E. Suh, and J. T. Walsh., “Spread of cochlear excitation during stimulation with pulsed infrared radiation: inferior colliculus measurements,” J. Neural Eng.8(5), 056006 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fridberger, A.

A. Fridberger and T. Ren, “Local mechanical stimulation of the hearing organ by laser irradiation,” Neuroreport17(1), 33–37 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaboyard, S.

E. S. Albert, J. M. Bec, G. Desmadryl, K. Chekroud, C. Travo, S. Gaboyard, F. Bardin, I. Marc, M. Dumas, G. Lenaers, C. Hamel, A. Muller, and C. Chabbert, “TRPV4 channels mediate the infrared laser-evoked response in sensory neurons,” J. Neurophysiol.107(12), 3227–3234 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gautama, N.

W. K. Ajith Karunarathnea, L. Giri, V. Kalyanaramana, and N. Gautama, “Optically triggering spatiotemporally confined GPCR activity in a cell and programming neurite initiation and extension,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.110(17), 1565–1574 (2013).

Giri, L.

W. K. Ajith Karunarathnea, L. Giri, V. Kalyanaramana, and N. Gautama, “Optically triggering spatiotemporally confined GPCR activity in a cell and programming neurite initiation and extension,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.110(17), 1565–1574 (2013).

Gomes, P.

N. Berkingali, A. Warnecke, P. Gomes, G. Paasche, J. Tack, T. Lenarz, and T. Stöver, “Neurite outgrowth on cultured spiral ganglion neurons induced by erythropoietin,” Hear. Res.243(1-2), 121–126 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gonzalez, C.

S. Hebeisen, H. Heidtmann, D. Cosmelli, C. Gonzalez, B. Poser, R. Latorre, O. Alvarez, and C. Fahlke, “Anion Permeation in Human ClC-4 Channels,” Biophys. J.84(4), 2306–2318 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goyal, S.

C. P. Richter, R. Bayon, A. D. Izzo, M. Otting, E. Suh, S. Goyal, J. Hotaling, and J. T. Walsh., “Optical stimulation of auditory neurons: Effects of acute and chronic deafening,” Hear. Res.242(1-2), 42–51 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goyal, V.

V. Goyal, S. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, S. R. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Acute Damage Threshold for Infrared Neural Stimulation of the Cochlea: Functional and Histological Evaluation,” Anat. Rec. (Hoboken)295(11), 1987–1999 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gray, D.

Green, S. H.

J. L. Hegarty, A. R. Kay, and S. H. Green, “Trophic support of cultured spiral ganglion neurons by depolarization exceeds and is additive with that by neurotrophins or cAMP and requires elevation of [Ca2+]i within a set range,” J. Neurosci.17(6), 1959–1970 (1997).
[PubMed]

Gross, G.

A. Warnecke, S. Sasse, G. I. Wenzel, A. Hoffmann, G. Gross, G. Paasche, V. Scheper, U. Reich, K.-H. Esser, T. Lenarz, T. Stöver, and K. Wissel, “Stable release of BDNF from the fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 grown on silicone elastomers enhances survival of spiral ganglion cells in vitro and in vivo,” Hear. Res.289(1-2), 86–97 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hahn, G. M.

S. K. Calderwood, M. A. Stevenson, and G. M. Hahn, “Heat Stress Stimulates Inositol Trisphosphate Release and Phosphorylation of Phosphoinositides in CHO and Balb C 3T3 Cells,” J. Cell. Physiol.130(3), 369–376 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, D. B.

E. J. Moore, D. B. Hall, and T. Narahashi, “Sodium and Potassium Currents of Type I Spiral Ganglion Cells from Rat,” Acta Otolaryngol.116(4), 552–560 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamel, C.

E. S. Albert, J. M. Bec, G. Desmadryl, K. Chekroud, C. Travo, S. Gaboyard, F. Bardin, I. Marc, M. Dumas, G. Lenaers, C. Hamel, A. Muller, and C. Chabbert, “TRPV4 channels mediate the infrared laser-evoked response in sensory neurons,” J. Neurophysiol.107(12), 3227–3234 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamill, O. P.

O. P. Hamill, A. Marty, E. Neher, B. Sakmann, and F. J. Sigworth, “Improved patch-clamp techniques for high-resolution current recording from cells and cell-free membrane patches,” Pflugers Arch.391(2), 85–100 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hebeisen, S.

S. Hebeisen, H. Heidtmann, D. Cosmelli, C. Gonzalez, B. Poser, R. Latorre, O. Alvarez, and C. Fahlke, “Anion Permeation in Human ClC-4 Channels,” Biophys. J.84(4), 2306–2318 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hegarty, J. L.

J. L. Hegarty, A. R. Kay, and S. H. Green, “Trophic support of cultured spiral ganglion neurons by depolarization exceeds and is additive with that by neurotrophins or cAMP and requires elevation of [Ca2+]i within a set range,” J. Neurosci.17(6), 1959–1970 (1997).
[PubMed]

Heidtmann, H.

S. Hebeisen, H. Heidtmann, D. Cosmelli, C. Gonzalez, B. Poser, R. Latorre, O. Alvarez, and C. Fahlke, “Anion Permeation in Human ClC-4 Channels,” Biophys. J.84(4), 2306–2318 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitchcock, R. W.

G. M. Dittami, S. M. Rajguru, R. A. Lasher, R. W. Hitchcock, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Intracellular calcium transients evoked by pulsed infrared radiation in neonatal cardiomyocytes,” J. Physiol.589(6), 1295–1306 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, A.

A. Warnecke, S. Sasse, G. I. Wenzel, A. Hoffmann, G. Gross, G. Paasche, V. Scheper, U. Reich, K.-H. Esser, T. Lenarz, T. Stöver, and K. Wissel, “Stable release of BDNF from the fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 grown on silicone elastomers enhances survival of spiral ganglion cells in vitro and in vivo,” Hear. Res.289(1-2), 86–97 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Homma, K.

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C. P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat. Commun.3, 736 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hotaling, J.

C. P. Richter, R. Bayon, A. D. Izzo, M. Otting, E. Suh, S. Goyal, J. Hotaling, and J. T. Walsh., “Optical stimulation of auditory neurons: Effects of acute and chronic deafening,” Hear. Res.242(1-2), 42–51 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izzo, A. D.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser Stimulation of Auditory Neurons: Effect of Shorter Pulse Duration and Penetration Depth,” Biophys. J.94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Richter, R. Bayon, A. D. Izzo, M. Otting, E. Suh, S. Goyal, J. Hotaling, and J. T. Walsh., “Optical stimulation of auditory neurons: Effects of acute and chronic deafening,” Hear. Res.242(1-2), 42–51 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, C. P. Richter, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Laser Stimulation of the Auditory Nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(8), 745–753 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jansen, E. D.

J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical Mechanisms of Transient Optical Stimulation of Peripheral Nerve,” Biophys. J.93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, C. P. Richter, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Laser Stimulation of the Auditory Nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(8), 745–753 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalyanaramana, V.

W. K. Ajith Karunarathnea, L. Giri, V. Kalyanaramana, and N. Gautama, “Optically triggering spatiotemporally confined GPCR activity in a cell and programming neurite initiation and extension,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.110(17), 1565–1574 (2013).

Kao, C.

J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical Mechanisms of Transient Optical Stimulation of Peripheral Nerve,” Biophys. J.93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kay, A. R.

J. L. Hegarty, A. R. Kay, and S. H. Green, “Trophic support of cultured spiral ganglion neurons by depolarization exceeds and is additive with that by neurotrophins or cAMP and requires elevation of [Ca2+]i within a set range,” J. Neurosci.17(6), 1959–1970 (1997).
[PubMed]

Kim, J.

J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical Mechanisms of Transient Optical Stimulation of Peripheral Nerve,” Biophys. J.93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konrad, P.

J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical Mechanisms of Transient Optical Stimulation of Peripheral Nerve,” Biophys. J.93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kou, L.

Kral, A.

M. Schultz, P. Baumhoff, H. Maier, I. U. Teudt, A. Krüger, T. Lenarz, and A. Kral, “Nanosecond laser pulse stimulation of the inner ear-a wavelength study,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(12), 3332–3345 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. U. Teudt, H. Maier, C. P. Richter, and A. Kral, “Acoustic events and “optophonic” cochlear responses induced by pulsed near-infrared laser,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.58(6), 1648–1655 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krüger, A.

Labrie, D.

Lasher, R. A.

G. M. Dittami, S. M. Rajguru, R. A. Lasher, R. W. Hitchcock, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Intracellular calcium transients evoked by pulsed infrared radiation in neonatal cardiomyocytes,” J. Physiol.589(6), 1295–1306 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Latorre, R.

S. Hebeisen, H. Heidtmann, D. Cosmelli, C. Gonzalez, B. Poser, R. Latorre, O. Alvarez, and C. Fahlke, “Anion Permeation in Human ClC-4 Channels,” Biophys. J.84(4), 2306–2318 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lenaers, G.

E. S. Albert, J. M. Bec, G. Desmadryl, K. Chekroud, C. Travo, S. Gaboyard, F. Bardin, I. Marc, M. Dumas, G. Lenaers, C. Hamel, A. Muller, and C. Chabbert, “TRPV4 channels mediate the infrared laser-evoked response in sensory neurons,” J. Neurophysiol.107(12), 3227–3234 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lenarz, T.

A. Warnecke, S. Sasse, G. I. Wenzel, A. Hoffmann, G. Gross, G. Paasche, V. Scheper, U. Reich, K.-H. Esser, T. Lenarz, T. Stöver, and K. Wissel, “Stable release of BDNF from the fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 grown on silicone elastomers enhances survival of spiral ganglion cells in vitro and in vivo,” Hear. Res.289(1-2), 86–97 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schultz, P. Baumhoff, H. Maier, I. U. Teudt, A. Krüger, T. Lenarz, and A. Kral, “Nanosecond laser pulse stimulation of the inner ear-a wavelength study,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(12), 3332–3345 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Zhang, G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, H. H. Lim, H. Lubatschowski, T. Lenarz, W. Ertmer, and G. Reuter, “Optoacoustic induced vibrations within the inner ear,” Opt. Express17(25), 23037–23043 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Berkingali, A. Warnecke, P. Gomes, G. Paasche, J. Tack, T. Lenarz, and T. Stöver, “Neurite outgrowth on cultured spiral ganglion neurons induced by erythropoietin,” Hear. Res.243(1-2), 121–126 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wefstaedt, V. Scheper, T. Lenarz, and T. Stöver, “Brain-derived neurotrophic nfactor/glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor survival effects are not limited by dexamethasone,” Neuroreport16, 2011–2014 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, H. H.

K. Y. Zhang, G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, H. H. Lim, H. Lubatschowski, T. Lenarz, W. Ertmer, and G. Reuter, “Optoacoustic induced vibrations within the inner ear,” Opt. Express17(25), 23037–23043 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, B.

J. Yao, B. Liu, and F. Qin, “Rapid Temperature Jump by Infrared Diode Laser Irradiation for Patch-Clamp Studies,” Biophys. J.96(9), 3611–3619 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lubatschowski, H.

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Zhang, G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, H. H. Lim, H. Lubatschowski, T. Lenarz, W. Ertmer, and G. Reuter, “Optoacoustic induced vibrations within the inner ear,” Opt. Express17(25), 23037–23043 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical Mechanisms of Transient Optical Stimulation of Peripheral Nerve,” Biophys. J.93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maier, H.

M. Schultz, P. Baumhoff, H. Maier, I. U. Teudt, A. Krüger, T. Lenarz, and A. Kral, “Nanosecond laser pulse stimulation of the inner ear-a wavelength study,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(12), 3332–3345 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. U. Teudt, H. Maier, C. P. Richter, and A. Kral, “Acoustic events and “optophonic” cochlear responses induced by pulsed near-infrared laser,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.58(6), 1648–1655 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marc, I.

J. M. Bec, E. S. Albert, I. Marc, G. Desmadryl, C. Travo, A. Muller, C. Chabbert, F. Bardin, and M. Dumas, “Characteristics of Laser Stimulation by Near Infrared Pulses of Retinal and Vestibular Primary Neurons,” Lasers Surg. Med.44(9), 736–745 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Albert, J. M. Bec, G. Desmadryl, K. Chekroud, C. Travo, S. Gaboyard, F. Bardin, I. Marc, M. Dumas, G. Lenaers, C. Hamel, A. Muller, and C. Chabbert, “TRPV4 channels mediate the infrared laser-evoked response in sensory neurons,” J. Neurophysiol.107(12), 3227–3234 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marty, A.

O. P. Hamill, A. Marty, E. Neher, B. Sakmann, and F. J. Sigworth, “Improved patch-clamp techniques for high-resolution current recording from cells and cell-free membrane patches,” Pflugers Arch.391(2), 85–100 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massow, O.

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matic, A. I.

V. Goyal, S. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, S. R. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Acute Damage Threshold for Infrared Neural Stimulation of the Cochlea: Functional and Histological Evaluation,” Anat. Rec. (Hoboken)295(11), 1987–1999 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Richter, S. M. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, E. L. Moreno, A. J. Fishman, A. M. Robinson, E. Suh, and J. T. Walsh., “Spread of cochlear excitation during stimulation with pulsed infrared radiation: inferior colliculus measurements,” J. Neural Eng.8(5), 056006 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milner, T.

J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical Mechanisms of Transient Optical Stimulation of Peripheral Nerve,” Biophys. J.93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, E. J.

E. J. Moore, D. B. Hall, and T. Narahashi, “Sodium and Potassium Currents of Type I Spiral Ganglion Cells from Rat,” Acta Otolaryngol.116(4), 552–560 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreno, E. L.

C. P. Richter, S. M. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, E. L. Moreno, A. J. Fishman, A. M. Robinson, E. Suh, and J. T. Walsh., “Spread of cochlear excitation during stimulation with pulsed infrared radiation: inferior colliculus measurements,” J. Neural Eng.8(5), 056006 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moser, T.

M. A. Rutherford, N. M. Chapochnikov, and T. Moser, “Spike Encoding of Neurotransmitter Release Timing by Spiral Ganglion Neurons of the Cochlea,” J. Neurosci.32(14), 4773–4789 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, A.

E. S. Albert, J. M. Bec, G. Desmadryl, K. Chekroud, C. Travo, S. Gaboyard, F. Bardin, I. Marc, M. Dumas, G. Lenaers, C. Hamel, A. Muller, and C. Chabbert, “TRPV4 channels mediate the infrared laser-evoked response in sensory neurons,” J. Neurophysiol.107(12), 3227–3234 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Bec, E. S. Albert, I. Marc, G. Desmadryl, C. Travo, A. Muller, C. Chabbert, F. Bardin, and M. Dumas, “Characteristics of Laser Stimulation by Near Infrared Pulses of Retinal and Vestibular Primary Neurons,” Lasers Surg. Med.44(9), 736–745 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narahashi, T.

E. J. Moore, D. B. Hall, and T. Narahashi, “Sodium and Potassium Currents of Type I Spiral Ganglion Cells from Rat,” Acta Otolaryngol.116(4), 552–560 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neher, E.

O. P. Hamill, A. Marty, E. Neher, B. Sakmann, and F. J. Sigworth, “Improved patch-clamp techniques for high-resolution current recording from cells and cell-free membrane patches,” Pflugers Arch.391(2), 85–100 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Otting, M.

C. P. Richter, R. Bayon, A. D. Izzo, M. Otting, E. Suh, S. Goyal, J. Hotaling, and J. T. Walsh., “Optical stimulation of auditory neurons: Effects of acute and chronic deafening,” Hear. Res.242(1-2), 42–51 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paasche, G.

A. Warnecke, S. Sasse, G. I. Wenzel, A. Hoffmann, G. Gross, G. Paasche, V. Scheper, U. Reich, K.-H. Esser, T. Lenarz, T. Stöver, and K. Wissel, “Stable release of BDNF from the fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 grown on silicone elastomers enhances survival of spiral ganglion cells in vitro and in vivo,” Hear. Res.289(1-2), 86–97 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Berkingali, A. Warnecke, P. Gomes, G. Paasche, J. Tack, T. Lenarz, and T. Stöver, “Neurite outgrowth on cultured spiral ganglion neurons induced by erythropoietin,” Hear. Res.243(1-2), 121–126 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parrish, J. A.

R. R. Anderson and J. A. Parrish, “Selective Photothermolysis: Precise Microsurgery by Selective Absorption of Pulsed Radiation,” Science220(4596), 524–527 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pegau, W. S.

Poser, B.

S. Hebeisen, H. Heidtmann, D. Cosmelli, C. Gonzalez, B. Poser, R. Latorre, O. Alvarez, and C. Fahlke, “Anion Permeation in Human ClC-4 Channels,” Biophys. J.84(4), 2306–2318 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qin, F.

J. Yao, B. Liu, and F. Qin, “Rapid Temperature Jump by Infrared Diode Laser Irradiation for Patch-Clamp Studies,” Biophys. J.96(9), 3611–3619 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rabbitt, R. D.

G. M. Dittami, S. M. Rajguru, R. A. Lasher, R. W. Hitchcock, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Intracellular calcium transients evoked by pulsed infrared radiation in neonatal cardiomyocytes,” J. Physiol.589(6), 1295–1306 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajguru, S.

V. Goyal, S. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, S. R. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Acute Damage Threshold for Infrared Neural Stimulation of the Cochlea: Functional and Histological Evaluation,” Anat. Rec. (Hoboken)295(11), 1987–1999 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajguru, S. M.

C. P. Richter, S. M. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, E. L. Moreno, A. J. Fishman, A. M. Robinson, E. Suh, and J. T. Walsh., “Spread of cochlear excitation during stimulation with pulsed infrared radiation: inferior colliculus measurements,” J. Neural Eng.8(5), 056006 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Dittami, S. M. Rajguru, R. A. Lasher, R. W. Hitchcock, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Intracellular calcium transients evoked by pulsed infrared radiation in neonatal cardiomyocytes,” J. Physiol.589(6), 1295–1306 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ralph, H.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser Stimulation of Auditory Neurons: Effect of Shorter Pulse Duration and Penetration Depth,” Biophys. J.94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reich, U.

A. Warnecke, S. Sasse, G. I. Wenzel, A. Hoffmann, G. Gross, G. Paasche, V. Scheper, U. Reich, K.-H. Esser, T. Lenarz, T. Stöver, and K. Wissel, “Stable release of BDNF from the fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 grown on silicone elastomers enhances survival of spiral ganglion cells in vitro and in vivo,” Hear. Res.289(1-2), 86–97 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, T.

A. Fridberger and T. Ren, “Local mechanical stimulation of the hearing organ by laser irradiation,” Neuroreport17(1), 33–37 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reuter, G.

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Zhang, G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, H. H. Lim, H. Lubatschowski, T. Lenarz, W. Ertmer, and G. Reuter, “Optoacoustic induced vibrations within the inner ear,” Opt. Express17(25), 23037–23043 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Reuter and H. P. Zenner, “Active radial and transverse motile responses of outer hair cells in the organ of Corti,” Hear. Res.43(2-3), 219–230 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richter, C. P.

V. Goyal, S. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, S. R. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Acute Damage Threshold for Infrared Neural Stimulation of the Cochlea: Functional and Histological Evaluation,” Anat. Rec. (Hoboken)295(11), 1987–1999 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C. P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat. Commun.3, 736 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. U. Teudt, H. Maier, C. P. Richter, and A. Kral, “Acoustic events and “optophonic” cochlear responses induced by pulsed near-infrared laser,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.58(6), 1648–1655 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Richter, S. M. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, E. L. Moreno, A. J. Fishman, A. M. Robinson, E. Suh, and J. T. Walsh., “Spread of cochlear excitation during stimulation with pulsed infrared radiation: inferior colliculus measurements,” J. Neural Eng.8(5), 056006 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser Stimulation of Auditory Neurons: Effect of Shorter Pulse Duration and Penetration Depth,” Biophys. J.94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Richter, R. Bayon, A. D. Izzo, M. Otting, E. Suh, S. Goyal, J. Hotaling, and J. T. Walsh., “Optical stimulation of auditory neurons: Effects of acute and chronic deafening,” Hear. Res.242(1-2), 42–51 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, C. P. Richter, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Laser Stimulation of the Auditory Nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(8), 745–753 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, A. M.

C. P. Richter, S. M. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, E. L. Moreno, A. J. Fishman, A. M. Robinson, E. Suh, and J. T. Walsh., “Spread of cochlear excitation during stimulation with pulsed infrared radiation: inferior colliculus measurements,” J. Neural Eng.8(5), 056006 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rutherford, M. A.

M. A. Rutherford, N. M. Chapochnikov, and T. Moser, “Spike Encoding of Neurotransmitter Release Timing by Spiral Ganglion Neurons of the Cochlea,” J. Neurosci.32(14), 4773–4789 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakmann, B.

O. P. Hamill, A. Marty, E. Neher, B. Sakmann, and F. J. Sigworth, “Improved patch-clamp techniques for high-resolution current recording from cells and cell-free membrane patches,” Pflugers Arch.391(2), 85–100 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasse, S.

A. Warnecke, S. Sasse, G. I. Wenzel, A. Hoffmann, G. Gross, G. Paasche, V. Scheper, U. Reich, K.-H. Esser, T. Lenarz, T. Stöver, and K. Wissel, “Stable release of BDNF from the fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 grown on silicone elastomers enhances survival of spiral ganglion cells in vitro and in vivo,” Hear. Res.289(1-2), 86–97 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheper, V.

A. Warnecke, S. Sasse, G. I. Wenzel, A. Hoffmann, G. Gross, G. Paasche, V. Scheper, U. Reich, K.-H. Esser, T. Lenarz, T. Stöver, and K. Wissel, “Stable release of BDNF from the fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 grown on silicone elastomers enhances survival of spiral ganglion cells in vitro and in vivo,” Hear. Res.289(1-2), 86–97 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wefstaedt, V. Scheper, T. Lenarz, and T. Stöver, “Brain-derived neurotrophic nfactor/glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor survival effects are not limited by dexamethasone,” Neuroreport16, 2011–2014 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, M.

Shapiro, M. G.

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C. P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat. Commun.3, 736 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sigworth, F. J.

O. P. Hamill, A. Marty, E. Neher, B. Sakmann, and F. J. Sigworth, “Improved patch-clamp techniques for high-resolution current recording from cells and cell-free membrane patches,” Pflugers Arch.391(2), 85–100 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stevenson, M. A.

S. K. Calderwood, M. A. Stevenson, and G. M. Hahn, “Heat Stress Stimulates Inositol Trisphosphate Release and Phosphorylation of Phosphoinositides in CHO and Balb C 3T3 Cells,” J. Cell. Physiol.130(3), 369–376 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stock, S. R.

V. Goyal, S. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, S. R. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Acute Damage Threshold for Infrared Neural Stimulation of the Cochlea: Functional and Histological Evaluation,” Anat. Rec. (Hoboken)295(11), 1987–1999 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoddart, P. R.

A. C. Thompson, S. A. Wade, W. G. A. Brown, and P. R. Stoddart, “Modeling of light absorption in tissue during infrared neural stimulation,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 0750021 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stöver, T.

A. Warnecke, S. Sasse, G. I. Wenzel, A. Hoffmann, G. Gross, G. Paasche, V. Scheper, U. Reich, K.-H. Esser, T. Lenarz, T. Stöver, and K. Wissel, “Stable release of BDNF from the fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 grown on silicone elastomers enhances survival of spiral ganglion cells in vitro and in vivo,” Hear. Res.289(1-2), 86–97 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Berkingali, A. Warnecke, P. Gomes, G. Paasche, J. Tack, T. Lenarz, and T. Stöver, “Neurite outgrowth on cultured spiral ganglion neurons induced by erythropoietin,” Hear. Res.243(1-2), 121–126 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wefstaedt, V. Scheper, T. Lenarz, and T. Stöver, “Brain-derived neurotrophic nfactor/glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor survival effects are not limited by dexamethasone,” Neuroreport16, 2011–2014 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suh, E.

C. P. Richter, S. M. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, E. L. Moreno, A. J. Fishman, A. M. Robinson, E. Suh, and J. T. Walsh., “Spread of cochlear excitation during stimulation with pulsed infrared radiation: inferior colliculus measurements,” J. Neural Eng.8(5), 056006 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Richter, R. Bayon, A. D. Izzo, M. Otting, E. Suh, S. Goyal, J. Hotaling, and J. T. Walsh., “Optical stimulation of auditory neurons: Effects of acute and chronic deafening,” Hear. Res.242(1-2), 42–51 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tack, J.

N. Berkingali, A. Warnecke, P. Gomes, G. Paasche, J. Tack, T. Lenarz, and T. Stöver, “Neurite outgrowth on cultured spiral ganglion neurons induced by erythropoietin,” Hear. Res.243(1-2), 121–126 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teudt, I. U.

M. Schultz, P. Baumhoff, H. Maier, I. U. Teudt, A. Krüger, T. Lenarz, and A. Kral, “Nanosecond laser pulse stimulation of the inner ear-a wavelength study,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(12), 3332–3345 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. U. Teudt, H. Maier, C. P. Richter, and A. Kral, “Acoustic events and “optophonic” cochlear responses induced by pulsed near-infrared laser,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.58(6), 1648–1655 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, A. C.

A. C. Thompson, S. A. Wade, W. G. A. Brown, and P. R. Stoddart, “Modeling of light absorption in tissue during infrared neural stimulation,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 0750021 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Travo, C.

J. M. Bec, E. S. Albert, I. Marc, G. Desmadryl, C. Travo, A. Muller, C. Chabbert, F. Bardin, and M. Dumas, “Characteristics of Laser Stimulation by Near Infrared Pulses of Retinal and Vestibular Primary Neurons,” Lasers Surg. Med.44(9), 736–745 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Albert, J. M. Bec, G. Desmadryl, K. Chekroud, C. Travo, S. Gaboyard, F. Bardin, I. Marc, M. Dumas, G. Lenaers, C. Hamel, A. Muller, and C. Chabbert, “TRPV4 channels mediate the infrared laser-evoked response in sensory neurons,” J. Neurophysiol.107(12), 3227–3234 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villarreal, S.

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C. P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat. Commun.3, 736 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wade, S. A.

A. C. Thompson, S. A. Wade, W. G. A. Brown, and P. R. Stoddart, “Modeling of light absorption in tissue during infrared neural stimulation,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 0750021 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsh, J. T.

C. P. Richter, S. M. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, E. L. Moreno, A. J. Fishman, A. M. Robinson, E. Suh, and J. T. Walsh., “Spread of cochlear excitation during stimulation with pulsed infrared radiation: inferior colliculus measurements,” J. Neural Eng.8(5), 056006 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser Stimulation of Auditory Neurons: Effect of Shorter Pulse Duration and Penetration Depth,” Biophys. J.94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Richter, R. Bayon, A. D. Izzo, M. Otting, E. Suh, S. Goyal, J. Hotaling, and J. T. Walsh., “Optical stimulation of auditory neurons: Effects of acute and chronic deafening,” Hear. Res.242(1-2), 42–51 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, C. P. Richter, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Laser Stimulation of the Auditory Nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(8), 745–753 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warnecke, A.

A. Warnecke, S. Sasse, G. I. Wenzel, A. Hoffmann, G. Gross, G. Paasche, V. Scheper, U. Reich, K.-H. Esser, T. Lenarz, T. Stöver, and K. Wissel, “Stable release of BDNF from the fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 grown on silicone elastomers enhances survival of spiral ganglion cells in vitro and in vivo,” Hear. Res.289(1-2), 86–97 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Berkingali, A. Warnecke, P. Gomes, G. Paasche, J. Tack, T. Lenarz, and T. Stöver, “Neurite outgrowth on cultured spiral ganglion neurons induced by erythropoietin,” Hear. Res.243(1-2), 121–126 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, J.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser Stimulation of Auditory Neurons: Effect of Shorter Pulse Duration and Penetration Depth,” Biophys. J.94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wefstaedt, P.

P. Wefstaedt, V. Scheper, T. Lenarz, and T. Stöver, “Brain-derived neurotrophic nfactor/glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor survival effects are not limited by dexamethasone,” Neuroreport16, 2011–2014 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wells, J.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser Stimulation of Auditory Neurons: Effect of Shorter Pulse Duration and Penetration Depth,” Biophys. J.94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical Mechanisms of Transient Optical Stimulation of Peripheral Nerve,” Biophys. J.93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wenzel, G. I.

A. Warnecke, S. Sasse, G. I. Wenzel, A. Hoffmann, G. Gross, G. Paasche, V. Scheper, U. Reich, K.-H. Esser, T. Lenarz, T. Stöver, and K. Wissel, “Stable release of BDNF from the fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 grown on silicone elastomers enhances survival of spiral ganglion cells in vitro and in vivo,” Hear. Res.289(1-2), 86–97 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Zhang, G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, H. H. Lim, H. Lubatschowski, T. Lenarz, W. Ertmer, and G. Reuter, “Optoacoustic induced vibrations within the inner ear,” Opt. Express17(25), 23037–23043 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wissel, K.

A. Warnecke, S. Sasse, G. I. Wenzel, A. Hoffmann, G. Gross, G. Paasche, V. Scheper, U. Reich, K.-H. Esser, T. Lenarz, T. Stöver, and K. Wissel, “Stable release of BDNF from the fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 grown on silicone elastomers enhances survival of spiral ganglion cells in vitro and in vivo,” Hear. Res.289(1-2), 86–97 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, J.

J. Yao, B. Liu, and F. Qin, “Rapid Temperature Jump by Infrared Diode Laser Irradiation for Patch-Clamp Studies,” Biophys. J.96(9), 3611–3619 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

Zenner, H. P.

G. Reuter and H. P. Zenner, “Active radial and transverse motile responses of outer hair cells in the organ of Corti,” Hear. Res.43(2-3), 219–230 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, K.

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, K. Y.

Acta Otolaryngol.

E. J. Moore, D. B. Hall, and T. Narahashi, “Sodium and Potassium Currents of Type I Spiral Ganglion Cells from Rat,” Acta Otolaryngol.116(4), 552–560 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anat. Rec. (Hoboken)

V. Goyal, S. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, S. R. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Acute Damage Threshold for Infrared Neural Stimulation of the Cochlea: Functional and Histological Evaluation,” Anat. Rec. (Hoboken)295(11), 1987–1999 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Biomed. Opt. Express

Biophys. J.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser Stimulation of Auditory Neurons: Effect of Shorter Pulse Duration and Penetration Depth,” Biophys. J.94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hebeisen, H. Heidtmann, D. Cosmelli, C. Gonzalez, B. Poser, R. Latorre, O. Alvarez, and C. Fahlke, “Anion Permeation in Human ClC-4 Channels,” Biophys. J.84(4), 2306–2318 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical Mechanisms of Transient Optical Stimulation of Peripheral Nerve,” Biophys. J.93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, B. Liu, and F. Qin, “Rapid Temperature Jump by Infrared Diode Laser Irradiation for Patch-Clamp Studies,” Biophys. J.96(9), 3611–3619 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hear. Res.

N. Berkingali, A. Warnecke, P. Gomes, G. Paasche, J. Tack, T. Lenarz, and T. Stöver, “Neurite outgrowth on cultured spiral ganglion neurons induced by erythropoietin,” Hear. Res.243(1-2), 121–126 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Reuter and H. P. Zenner, “Active radial and transverse motile responses of outer hair cells in the organ of Corti,” Hear. Res.43(2-3), 219–230 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Warnecke, S. Sasse, G. I. Wenzel, A. Hoffmann, G. Gross, G. Paasche, V. Scheper, U. Reich, K.-H. Esser, T. Lenarz, T. Stöver, and K. Wissel, “Stable release of BDNF from the fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 grown on silicone elastomers enhances survival of spiral ganglion cells in vitro and in vivo,” Hear. Res.289(1-2), 86–97 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Richter, R. Bayon, A. D. Izzo, M. Otting, E. Suh, S. Goyal, J. Hotaling, and J. T. Walsh., “Optical stimulation of auditory neurons: Effects of acute and chronic deafening,” Hear. Res.242(1-2), 42–51 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

I. U. Teudt, H. Maier, C. P. Richter, and A. Kral, “Acoustic events and “optophonic” cochlear responses induced by pulsed near-infrared laser,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.58(6), 1648–1655 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Thompson, S. A. Wade, W. G. A. Brown, and P. R. Stoddart, “Modeling of light absorption in tissue during infrared neural stimulation,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 0750021 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cell. Physiol.

S. K. Calderwood, M. A. Stevenson, and G. M. Hahn, “Heat Stress Stimulates Inositol Trisphosphate Release and Phosphorylation of Phosphoinositides in CHO and Balb C 3T3 Cells,” J. Cell. Physiol.130(3), 369–376 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neural Eng.

C. P. Richter, S. M. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, E. L. Moreno, A. J. Fishman, A. M. Robinson, E. Suh, and J. T. Walsh., “Spread of cochlear excitation during stimulation with pulsed infrared radiation: inferior colliculus measurements,” J. Neural Eng.8(5), 056006 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurophysiol.

E. S. Albert, J. M. Bec, G. Desmadryl, K. Chekroud, C. Travo, S. Gaboyard, F. Bardin, I. Marc, M. Dumas, G. Lenaers, C. Hamel, A. Muller, and C. Chabbert, “TRPV4 channels mediate the infrared laser-evoked response in sensory neurons,” J. Neurophysiol.107(12), 3227–3234 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci.

M. A. Rutherford, N. M. Chapochnikov, and T. Moser, “Spike Encoding of Neurotransmitter Release Timing by Spiral Ganglion Neurons of the Cochlea,” J. Neurosci.32(14), 4773–4789 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Hegarty, A. R. Kay, and S. H. Green, “Trophic support of cultured spiral ganglion neurons by depolarization exceeds and is additive with that by neurotrophins or cAMP and requires elevation of [Ca2+]i within a set range,” J. Neurosci.17(6), 1959–1970 (1997).
[PubMed]

J. Physiol.

G. M. Dittami, S. M. Rajguru, R. A. Lasher, R. W. Hitchcock, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Intracellular calcium transients evoked by pulsed infrared radiation in neonatal cardiomyocytes,” J. Physiol.589(6), 1295–1306 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med.

A. D. Izzo, C. P. Richter, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Laser Stimulation of the Auditory Nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(8), 745–753 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Bec, E. S. Albert, I. Marc, G. Desmadryl, C. Travo, A. Muller, C. Chabbert, F. Bardin, and M. Dumas, “Characteristics of Laser Stimulation by Near Infrared Pulses of Retinal and Vestibular Primary Neurons,” Lasers Surg. Med.44(9), 736–745 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun.

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C. P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat. Commun.3, 736 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuroreport

A. Fridberger and T. Ren, “Local mechanical stimulation of the hearing organ by laser irradiation,” Neuroreport17(1), 33–37 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wefstaedt, V. Scheper, T. Lenarz, and T. Stöver, “Brain-derived neurotrophic nfactor/glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor survival effects are not limited by dexamethasone,” Neuroreport16, 2011–2014 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Pflugers Arch.

O. P. Hamill, A. Marty, E. Neher, B. Sakmann, and F. J. Sigworth, “Improved patch-clamp techniques for high-resolution current recording from cells and cell-free membrane patches,” Pflugers Arch.391(2), 85–100 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.

W. K. Ajith Karunarathnea, L. Giri, V. Kalyanaramana, and N. Gautama, “Optically triggering spatiotemporally confined GPCR activity in a cell and programming neurite initiation and extension,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.110(17), 1565–1574 (2013).

Science

R. R. Anderson and J. A. Parrish, “Selective Photothermolysis: Precise Microsurgery by Selective Absorption of Pulsed Radiation,” Science220(4596), 524–527 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

L. V. Wang and H. Wu, Biomedical optics: principles and imaging (Wiley-Interscience, Hoboken, NJ, 2007)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Current response of a HEK-hClC4 cell in voltage-clamp configuration to irradiation with a laser pulse (1450 nm wavelength, 15 µJ pulse energy). The red arrow represents the time point of the laser irradiation. (b) Amplification of the time at which the laser light irradiates the cell.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Dependence of the current change on the holding potential (1450 nm wavelength, 15 µJ pulse energy, normalized to cell capacitance) for HEK cells. (b) Dependence of the current change on the energy of the laser pulse (1450 nm wavelength, normalized to cell capacitance). Error bars depict standard deviation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Dependence of the current change on the wavelength of the laser pulse (15 µJ pulse energy) for different cells. Each cell was measured 20 times, error bars depict standard deviation. (b) Each cell was normalized to its current change at 1450 nm and compared to the absorption coefficient of water. (c) Pooled normalized arithmetic means of all cells (n = 9) compared to the absorption coefficient of water. The grey shaded area represents the variation of the current change without laser irradiation. It is calculated from all cells and shows the arithmetic mean ± standard deviation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Spiral ganglion neuron in voltage clamp configuration. The cell was held at −60 mV near its resting potential and was depolarized for 100 ms (starting at 50 ms) to 0mV. The cell showed the expected Na+ inward current, followed by a K+ outward current. (b) The same spiral ganglion neuron in current clamp configuration. Current injection of + 300 pA for 100 ms (starting at 50 ms) generated an action potential.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Current response of a spiral ganglion neuron in voltage-clamp configuration to irradiation with a laser pulse (1450 nm wavelength, 15 µJ pulse energy). (b) Amplification of the −100 mV to −40 mV trace at the time point of the irradiation (red arrow).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Quasi steady-state current-voltage relations for different spiral ganglion neurons (currents measured at the end of the 100 ms test potentials). Each class of symbols represents one spiral ganglion neuron. (b) Dependence of the laser induced current change on the holding potential (1450 nm wavelength, 15 µJ pulse energy).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Voltage response of a spiral ganglion neuron in current-clamp configuration at resting potential to irradiation with a laser pulse (1450 nm wavelength, 25 µJ pulse energy). The red arrow represents the time point of the laser irradiation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Calibration curve of pipette current at different temperatures normalized to current at room temperature. (b) Temperature change due to irradiation with a laser beam (λ = 1450 nm, 25 µJ pulse energy), 100 µm off the optical fiber. The red arrow represents the time point of the laser irradiation.

Equations (2)

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I I 0 =exp[ a( 1 T 0 1 T ) ]
T= 1 1 T 0 1 a ln( I I 0 )

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