Abstract

Cardiac electrophysiology plays a critical role in the development and function of the heart. Studies of early embryonic electrical activity have lacked a viable point stimulation technique to pace in vitro samples. Here, optical pacing by high-precision infrared stimulation is used to pace excised embryonic hearts, allowing electrophysiological parameters to be quantified during pacing at varying rates with optical mapping. Combined optical pacing and optical mapping enables electrophysiological studies in embryos under more physiological conditions and at varying heart rates, allowing detection of abnormal conduction and comparisons between normal and pathological electrical activity during development in various models.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. N. C. Chi, M. Bussen, K. Brand-Arzamendi, C. Ding, J. E. Olgin, R. M. Shaw, G. R. Martin, and D. Y. R. Stainier, “Cardiac conduction is required to preserve cardiac chamber morphology,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(33), 14662–14667 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Radisic, H. Park, H. Shing, T. Consi, F. J. Schoen, R. Langer, L. E. Freed, and G. Vunjak-Novakovic, “Functional assembly of engineered myocardium by electrical stimulation of cardiac myocytes cultured on scaffolds,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(52), 18129–18134 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. T. Granados-Riveron and J. D. Brook, “The impact of mechanical forces in heart morphogenesis,” Circ Cardiovasc Genet5(1), 132–142 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. Sankova, J. Benes, E. Krejci, L. Dupays, M. Theveniau-Ruissy, L. Miquerol, and D. Sedmera, “The effect of connexin40 deficiency on ventricular conduction system function during development,” Cardiovasc. Res.95(4), 469–479 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. W. Benson, “Genetics of atrioventricular conduction disease in humans,” Anat. Rec. A Discov. Mol. Cell. Evol. Biol.280(2), 934–939 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. P. P. Smits, M. W. Veldkamp, and A. A. M. Wilde, “Mechanisms of inherited cardiac conduction disease,” Europace7(2), 122–137 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. I. R. Efimov, V. P. Nikolski, and G. Salama, “Optical imaging of the heart,” Circ. Res.95(1), 21–33 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. V. Elharrar and B. Surawicz, “Cycle length effect on restitution of action potential duration in dog cardiac fibers,” Am. J. Physiol.244(6), H782–H792 (1983).
    [PubMed]
  10. B. C. Eloff, D. L. Lerner, K. A. Yamada, R. B. Schuessler, J. E. Saffitz, and D. S. Rosenbaum, “High resolution optical mapping reveals conduction slowing in connexin43 deficient mice,” Cardiovasc. Res.51(4), 681–690 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. E. Josephson, L. N. Horowitz, A. Farshidi, J. F. Spear, J. A. Kastor, and E. N. Moore, “Recurrent sustained ventricular tachycardia. 2. Endocardial mapping,” Circulation57(3), 440–447 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. Kamino, “Optical approaches to ontogeny of electrical activity and related functional organization during early heart development,” Physiol. Rev.71(1), 53–91 (1991).
    [PubMed]
  13. S. Rentschler, D. M. Vaidya, H. Tamaddon, K. Degenhardt, D. Sassoon, G. E. Morley, J. Jalife, and G. I. Fishman, “Visualization and functional characterization of the developing murine cardiac conduction system,” Development128(10), 1785–1792 (2001).
    [PubMed]
  14. M. Reckova, C. Rosengarten, A. deAlmeida, C. P. Stanley, A. Wessels, R. G. Gourdie, R. P. Thompson, and D. Sedmera, “Hemodynamics is a key epigenetic factor in development of the cardiac conduction system,” Circ. Res.93(1), 77–85 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. Sedmera, M. Reckova, C. Rosengarten, M. I. Torres, R. G. Gourdie, and R. P. Thompson, “Optical mapping of electrical activation in the developing heart,” Microsc. Microanal.11(3), 209–215 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. F. Rothenberg, M. Watanabe, B. Eloff, and D. Rosenbaum, “Emerging patterns of cardiac conduction in the chick embryo: waveform analysis with photodiode array-based optical imaging,” Dev. Dyn.233(2), 456–465 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. A. Werdich, A. Brzezinski, D. Jeyaraj, M. Khaled Sabeh, E. Ficker, X. Wan, B. M. McDermott, C. A. Macrae, and D. S. Rosenbaum, “The zebrafish as a novel animal model to study the molecular mechanisms of mechano-electrical feedback in the heart,” Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol.110(2-3), 154–165 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. Bressan, G. Liu, and T. Mikawa, “Early mesodermal cues assign avian cardiac pacemaker fate potential in a tertiary heart field,” Science340(6133), 744–748 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. B. McCreery, W. F. Agnew, T. G. Yuen, and L. Bullara, “Charge density and charge per phase as cofactors in neural injury induced by electrical stimulation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.37(10), 996–1001 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. Weidmann, “The electrical constants of Purkinje fibres,” J. Physiol.118(3), 348–360 (1952).
    [PubMed]
  21. S. Weidmann, “Electrical constants of trabecular muscle from mammalian heart,” J. Physiol.210(4), 1041–1054 (1970).
    [PubMed]
  22. F. G. Akar, B. J. Roth, and D. S. Rosenbaum, “Optical measurement of cell-to-cell coupling in intact heart using subthreshold electrical stimulation,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.281(2), H533–H542 (2001).
    [PubMed]
  23. C. R. Butson and C. C. McIntyre, “Role of electrode design on the volume of tissue activated during deep brain stimulation,” J. Neural Eng.3(1), 1–8 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. Wells, C. Kao, E. D. Jansen, P. Konrad, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Application of infrared light for in vivo neural stimulation,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(6), 064003 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical mechanisms of transient optical stimulation of peripheral nerve,” Biophys. J.93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. N. M. Fried, G. A. Lagoda, N. J. Scott, L.-M. Su, and A. L. Burnett, “Noncontact stimulation of the cavernous nerves in the rat prostate using a tunable-wavelength thulium fiber laser,” J. Endourol.22(3), 409–414 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C.-P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J.94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, H. K. Young, B. Badofsky, S. M. Rajguru, S. Stock, and C.-P. Richter, “Behavioral and electrophysiological responses evoked by chronic infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea,” PLoS ONE8(3), e58189 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. J. M. Cayce, R. M. Friedman, G. Chen, E. D. Jansen, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and A. W. Roe, “Infrared neural stimulation of primary visual cortex in non-human primates,” Neuroimage84, 181–190 (2014).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. E. J. Peterson and D. J. Tyler, “Motor neuron activation in peripheral nerves using infrared neural stimulation,” J. Neural Eng.11(1), 016001 (2014).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. S. M. Rajguru, C.-P. Richter, A. I. Matic, G. R. Holstein, S. M. Highstein, G. M. Dittami, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Infrared photostimulation of the crista ampullaris,” J. Physiol.589(6), 1283–1294 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. G. M. Dittami, S. M. Rajguru, R. A. Lasher, R. W. Hitchcock, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Intracellular calcium transients evoked by pulsed infrared radiation in neonatal cardiomyocytes,” J. Physiol.589(6), 1295–1306 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 623–626 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. M. W. Jenkins, Y. T. Wang, Y. Q. Doughman, M. Watanabe, Y. Cheng, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the adult rabbit heart,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(9), 1626–1635 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C.-P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat Commun3, 736 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. V. Hamburger and H. L. Hamilton, “A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo,” J. Morphol.88(1), 49–92 (1951).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. E. S. Boyden, F. Zhang, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, and K. Deisseroth, “Millisecond-timescale, genetically targeted optical control of neural activity,” Nat. Neurosci.8(9), 1263–1268 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. G. Nagel, T. Szellas, W. Huhn, S. Kateriya, N. Adeishvili, P. Berthold, D. Ollig, P. Hegemann, and E. Bamberg, “Channelrhodopsin-2, a directly light-gated cation-selective membrane channel,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(24), 13940–13945 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. L. M. Loew, L. B. Cohen, J. Dix, E. N. Fluhler, V. Montana, G. Salama, and J. Y. Wu, “A naphthyl analog of the aminostyryl pyridinium class of potentiometric membrane dyes shows consistent sensitivity in a variety of tissue, cell, and model membrane preparations,” J. Membr. Biol.130(1), 1–10 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. M. L. Rein and J. M. Deussing, “The optogenetic (r)evolution,” Mol. Genet. Genomics287(2), 95–109 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. T. Bruegmann, D. Malan, M. Hesse, T. Beiert, C. J. Fuegemann, B. K. Fleischmann, and P. Sasse, “Optogenetic control of heart muscle in vitro and in vivo,” Nat. Methods7(11), 897–900 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. L. Kou, D. Labrie, and P. Chylek, “Refractive indices of water and ice in the 0.65- to 2.5-µm spectral range,” Appl. Opt.32(19), 3531–3540 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. K. Oyama, A. Mizuno, S. A. Shintani, H. Itoh, T. Serizawa, N. Fukuda, M. Suzuki, and S. Ishiwata, “Microscopic heat pulses induce contraction of cardiomyocytes without calcium transients,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.417(1), 607–612 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. K. Shoji, K. Ohashi, K. Sampei, M. Oikawa, and K. Mizuno, “Cytochalasin D acts as an inhibitor of the actin-cofilin interaction,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.424(1), 52–57 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. J. P. Gordon, R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. P. S. Porto, and J. R. Whinnery, “Long-Transient Effects in Lasers with Inserted Liquid Samples,” J. Appl. Phys.36(1), 3 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  46. S. Lévy, B. Pouget, J. Clementy, M. Bemurat, and H. Bricaud, “Pacing-induced alternate Wenckebach periods: incidence and clinical significance,” Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol.2(6), 614–623 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. M. L. Young, H. Gelband, and G. S. Wolff, “Atrial pacing-induced alternating Wenckebach periodicity and multilevel conduction block in children,” Am. J. Cardiol.57(1), 135–141 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  48. D. Friedman, Lj. Duncanson, J. Glickstein, and J. Buyon, “A review of congenital heart block,” Images Paediatr. Cardiol.5(3), 36–48 (2003).
    [PubMed]

2014 (2)

J. M. Cayce, R. M. Friedman, G. Chen, E. D. Jansen, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and A. W. Roe, “Infrared neural stimulation of primary visual cortex in non-human primates,” Neuroimage84, 181–190 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Peterson and D. J. Tyler, “Motor neuron activation in peripheral nerves using infrared neural stimulation,” J. Neural Eng.11(1), 016001 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bressan, G. Liu, and T. Mikawa, “Early mesodermal cues assign avian cardiac pacemaker fate potential in a tertiary heart field,” Science340(6133), 744–748 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, H. K. Young, B. Badofsky, S. M. Rajguru, S. Stock, and C.-P. Richter, “Behavioral and electrophysiological responses evoked by chronic infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea,” PLoS ONE8(3), e58189 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Jenkins, Y. T. Wang, Y. Q. Doughman, M. Watanabe, Y. Cheng, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the adult rabbit heart,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(9), 1626–1635 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (7)

M. L. Rein and J. M. Deussing, “The optogenetic (r)evolution,” Mol. Genet. Genomics287(2), 95–109 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Oyama, A. Mizuno, S. A. Shintani, H. Itoh, T. Serizawa, N. Fukuda, M. Suzuki, and S. Ishiwata, “Microscopic heat pulses induce contraction of cardiomyocytes without calcium transients,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.417(1), 607–612 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Shoji, K. Ohashi, K. Sampei, M. Oikawa, and K. Mizuno, “Cytochalasin D acts as an inhibitor of the actin-cofilin interaction,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.424(1), 52–57 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Granados-Riveron and J. D. Brook, “The impact of mechanical forces in heart morphogenesis,” Circ Cardiovasc Genet5(1), 132–142 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sankova, J. Benes, E. Krejci, L. Dupays, M. Theveniau-Ruissy, L. Miquerol, and D. Sedmera, “The effect of connexin40 deficiency on ventricular conduction system function during development,” Cardiovasc. Res.95(4), 469–479 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C.-P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat Commun3, 736 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Werdich, A. Brzezinski, D. Jeyaraj, M. Khaled Sabeh, E. Ficker, X. Wan, B. M. McDermott, C. A. Macrae, and D. S. Rosenbaum, “The zebrafish as a novel animal model to study the molecular mechanisms of mechano-electrical feedback in the heart,” Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol.110(2-3), 154–165 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

S. M. Rajguru, C.-P. Richter, A. I. Matic, G. R. Holstein, S. M. Highstein, G. M. Dittami, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Infrared photostimulation of the crista ampullaris,” J. Physiol.589(6), 1283–1294 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Dittami, S. M. Rajguru, R. A. Lasher, R. W. Hitchcock, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Intracellular calcium transients evoked by pulsed infrared radiation in neonatal cardiomyocytes,” J. Physiol.589(6), 1295–1306 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. C. Chi, M. Bussen, K. Brand-Arzamendi, C. Ding, J. E. Olgin, R. M. Shaw, G. R. Martin, and D. Y. R. Stainier, “Cardiac conduction is required to preserve cardiac chamber morphology,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(33), 14662–14667 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Bruegmann, D. Malan, M. Hesse, T. Beiert, C. J. Fuegemann, B. K. Fleischmann, and P. Sasse, “Optogenetic control of heart muscle in vitro and in vivo,” Nat. Methods7(11), 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

N. M. Fried, G. A. Lagoda, N. J. Scott, L.-M. Su, and A. L. Burnett, “Noncontact stimulation of the cavernous nerves in the rat prostate using a tunable-wavelength thulium fiber laser,” J. Endourol.22(3), 409–414 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C.-P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J.94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical mechanisms of transient optical stimulation of peripheral nerve,” Biophys. J.93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

C. R. Butson and C. C. McIntyre, “Role of electrode design on the volume of tissue activated during deep brain stimulation,” J. Neural Eng.3(1), 1–8 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

J. Wells, C. Kao, E. D. Jansen, P. Konrad, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Application of infrared light for in vivo neural stimulation,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(6), 064003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Boyden, F. Zhang, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, and K. Deisseroth, “Millisecond-timescale, genetically targeted optical control of neural activity,” Nat. Neurosci.8(9), 1263–1268 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Sedmera, M. Reckova, C. Rosengarten, M. I. Torres, R. G. Gourdie, and R. P. Thompson, “Optical mapping of electrical activation in the developing heart,” Microsc. Microanal.11(3), 209–215 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Rothenberg, M. Watanabe, B. Eloff, and D. Rosenbaum, “Emerging patterns of cardiac conduction in the chick embryo: waveform analysis with photodiode array-based optical imaging,” Dev. Dyn.233(2), 456–465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. P. Smits, M. W. Veldkamp, and A. A. M. Wilde, “Mechanisms of inherited cardiac conduction disease,” Europace7(2), 122–137 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

M. Radisic, H. Park, H. Shing, T. Consi, F. J. Schoen, R. Langer, L. E. Freed, and G. Vunjak-Novakovic, “Functional assembly of engineered myocardium by electrical stimulation of cardiac myocytes cultured on scaffolds,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(52), 18129–18134 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Benson, “Genetics of atrioventricular conduction disease in humans,” Anat. Rec. A Discov. Mol. Cell. Evol. Biol.280(2), 934–939 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. R. Efimov, V. P. Nikolski, and G. Salama, “Optical imaging of the heart,” Circ. Res.95(1), 21–33 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

M. Reckova, C. Rosengarten, A. deAlmeida, C. P. Stanley, A. Wessels, R. G. Gourdie, R. P. Thompson, and D. Sedmera, “Hemodynamics is a key epigenetic factor in development of the cardiac conduction system,” Circ. Res.93(1), 77–85 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Nagel, T. Szellas, W. Huhn, S. Kateriya, N. Adeishvili, P. Berthold, D. Ollig, P. Hegemann, and E. Bamberg, “Channelrhodopsin-2, a directly light-gated cation-selective membrane channel,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(24), 13940–13945 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Friedman, Lj. Duncanson, J. Glickstein, and J. Buyon, “A review of congenital heart block,” Images Paediatr. Cardiol.5(3), 36–48 (2003).
[PubMed]

2001 (3)

F. G. Akar, B. J. Roth, and D. S. Rosenbaum, “Optical measurement of cell-to-cell coupling in intact heart using subthreshold electrical stimulation,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.281(2), H533–H542 (2001).
[PubMed]

S. Rentschler, D. M. Vaidya, H. Tamaddon, K. Degenhardt, D. Sassoon, G. E. Morley, J. Jalife, and G. I. Fishman, “Visualization and functional characterization of the developing murine cardiac conduction system,” Development128(10), 1785–1792 (2001).
[PubMed]

B. C. Eloff, D. L. Lerner, K. A. Yamada, R. B. Schuessler, J. E. Saffitz, and D. S. Rosenbaum, “High resolution optical mapping reveals conduction slowing in connexin43 deficient mice,” Cardiovasc. Res.51(4), 681–690 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

L. M. Loew, L. B. Cohen, J. Dix, E. N. Fluhler, V. Montana, G. Salama, and J. Y. Wu, “A naphthyl analog of the aminostyryl pyridinium class of potentiometric membrane dyes shows consistent sensitivity in a variety of tissue, cell, and model membrane preparations,” J. Membr. Biol.130(1), 1–10 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

K. Kamino, “Optical approaches to ontogeny of electrical activity and related functional organization during early heart development,” Physiol. Rev.71(1), 53–91 (1991).
[PubMed]

1990 (1)

D. B. McCreery, W. F. Agnew, T. G. Yuen, and L. Bullara, “Charge density and charge per phase as cofactors in neural injury induced by electrical stimulation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.37(10), 996–1001 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

M. L. Young, H. Gelband, and G. S. Wolff, “Atrial pacing-induced alternating Wenckebach periodicity and multilevel conduction block in children,” Am. J. Cardiol.57(1), 135–141 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

V. Elharrar and B. Surawicz, “Cycle length effect on restitution of action potential duration in dog cardiac fibers,” Am. J. Physiol.244(6), H782–H792 (1983).
[PubMed]

1979 (1)

S. Lévy, B. Pouget, J. Clementy, M. Bemurat, and H. Bricaud, “Pacing-induced alternate Wenckebach periods: incidence and clinical significance,” Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol.2(6), 614–623 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

M. E. Josephson, L. N. Horowitz, A. Farshidi, J. F. Spear, J. A. Kastor, and E. N. Moore, “Recurrent sustained ventricular tachycardia. 2. Endocardial mapping,” Circulation57(3), 440–447 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970 (1)

S. Weidmann, “Electrical constants of trabecular muscle from mammalian heart,” J. Physiol.210(4), 1041–1054 (1970).
[PubMed]

1965 (1)

J. P. Gordon, R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. P. S. Porto, and J. R. Whinnery, “Long-Transient Effects in Lasers with Inserted Liquid Samples,” J. Appl. Phys.36(1), 3 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1952 (1)

S. Weidmann, “The electrical constants of Purkinje fibres,” J. Physiol.118(3), 348–360 (1952).
[PubMed]

1951 (1)

V. Hamburger and H. L. Hamilton, “A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo,” J. Morphol.88(1), 49–92 (1951).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adeishvili, N.

G. Nagel, T. Szellas, W. Huhn, S. Kateriya, N. Adeishvili, P. Berthold, D. Ollig, P. Hegemann, and E. Bamberg, “Channelrhodopsin-2, a directly light-gated cation-selective membrane channel,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(24), 13940–13945 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agnew, W. F.

D. B. McCreery, W. F. Agnew, T. G. Yuen, and L. Bullara, “Charge density and charge per phase as cofactors in neural injury induced by electrical stimulation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.37(10), 996–1001 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akar, F. G.

F. G. Akar, B. J. Roth, and D. S. Rosenbaum, “Optical measurement of cell-to-cell coupling in intact heart using subthreshold electrical stimulation,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.281(2), H533–H542 (2001).
[PubMed]

Badofsky, B.

A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, H. K. Young, B. Badofsky, S. M. Rajguru, S. Stock, and C.-P. Richter, “Behavioral and electrophysiological responses evoked by chronic infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea,” PLoS ONE8(3), e58189 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bamberg, E.

E. S. Boyden, F. Zhang, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, and K. Deisseroth, “Millisecond-timescale, genetically targeted optical control of neural activity,” Nat. Neurosci.8(9), 1263–1268 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Nagel, T. Szellas, W. Huhn, S. Kateriya, N. Adeishvili, P. Berthold, D. Ollig, P. Hegemann, and E. Bamberg, “Channelrhodopsin-2, a directly light-gated cation-selective membrane channel,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(24), 13940–13945 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beiert, T.

T. Bruegmann, D. Malan, M. Hesse, T. Beiert, C. J. Fuegemann, B. K. Fleischmann, and P. Sasse, “Optogenetic control of heart muscle in vitro and in vivo,” Nat. Methods7(11), 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bemurat, M.

S. Lévy, B. Pouget, J. Clementy, M. Bemurat, and H. Bricaud, “Pacing-induced alternate Wenckebach periods: incidence and clinical significance,” Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol.2(6), 614–623 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bendett, M.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C.-P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J.94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benes, J.

B. Sankova, J. Benes, E. Krejci, L. Dupays, M. Theveniau-Ruissy, L. Miquerol, and D. Sedmera, “The effect of connexin40 deficiency on ventricular conduction system function during development,” Cardiovasc. Res.95(4), 469–479 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benjamin, E. J.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benson, D. W.

D. W. Benson, “Genetics of atrioventricular conduction disease in humans,” Anat. Rec. A Discov. Mol. Cell. Evol. Biol.280(2), 934–939 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berry, J. D.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berthold, P.

G. Nagel, T. Szellas, W. Huhn, S. Kateriya, N. Adeishvili, P. Berthold, D. Ollig, P. Hegemann, and E. Bamberg, “Channelrhodopsin-2, a directly light-gated cation-selective membrane channel,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(24), 13940–13945 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bezanilla, F.

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C.-P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat Commun3, 736 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borden, W. B.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyden, E. S.

E. S. Boyden, F. Zhang, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, and K. Deisseroth, “Millisecond-timescale, genetically targeted optical control of neural activity,” Nat. Neurosci.8(9), 1263–1268 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brand-Arzamendi, K.

N. C. Chi, M. Bussen, K. Brand-Arzamendi, C. Ding, J. E. Olgin, R. M. Shaw, G. R. Martin, and D. Y. R. Stainier, “Cardiac conduction is required to preserve cardiac chamber morphology,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(33), 14662–14667 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bravata, D. M.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bressan, M.

M. Bressan, G. Liu, and T. Mikawa, “Early mesodermal cues assign avian cardiac pacemaker fate potential in a tertiary heart field,” Science340(6133), 744–748 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bricaud, H.

S. Lévy, B. Pouget, J. Clementy, M. Bemurat, and H. Bricaud, “Pacing-induced alternate Wenckebach periods: incidence and clinical significance,” Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol.2(6), 614–623 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brook, J. D.

J. T. Granados-Riveron and J. D. Brook, “The impact of mechanical forces in heart morphogenesis,” Circ Cardiovasc Genet5(1), 132–142 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruegmann, T.

T. Bruegmann, D. Malan, M. Hesse, T. Beiert, C. J. Fuegemann, B. K. Fleischmann, and P. Sasse, “Optogenetic control of heart muscle in vitro and in vivo,” Nat. Methods7(11), 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brzezinski, A.

A. A. Werdich, A. Brzezinski, D. Jeyaraj, M. Khaled Sabeh, E. Ficker, X. Wan, B. M. McDermott, C. A. Macrae, and D. S. Rosenbaum, “The zebrafish as a novel animal model to study the molecular mechanisms of mechano-electrical feedback in the heart,” Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol.110(2-3), 154–165 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bullara, L.

D. B. McCreery, W. F. Agnew, T. G. Yuen, and L. Bullara, “Charge density and charge per phase as cofactors in neural injury induced by electrical stimulation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.37(10), 996–1001 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnett, A. L.

N. M. Fried, G. A. Lagoda, N. J. Scott, L.-M. Su, and A. L. Burnett, “Noncontact stimulation of the cavernous nerves in the rat prostate using a tunable-wavelength thulium fiber laser,” J. Endourol.22(3), 409–414 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bussen, M.

N. C. Chi, M. Bussen, K. Brand-Arzamendi, C. Ding, J. E. Olgin, R. M. Shaw, G. R. Martin, and D. Y. R. Stainier, “Cardiac conduction is required to preserve cardiac chamber morphology,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(33), 14662–14667 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Butson, C. R.

C. R. Butson and C. C. McIntyre, “Role of electrode design on the volume of tissue activated during deep brain stimulation,” J. Neural Eng.3(1), 1–8 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buyon, J.

D. Friedman, Lj. Duncanson, J. Glickstein, and J. Buyon, “A review of congenital heart block,” Images Paediatr. Cardiol.5(3), 36–48 (2003).
[PubMed]

Cayce, J. M.

J. M. Cayce, R. M. Friedman, G. Chen, E. D. Jansen, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and A. W. Roe, “Infrared neural stimulation of primary visual cortex in non-human primates,” Neuroimage84, 181–190 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

J. M. Cayce, R. M. Friedman, G. Chen, E. D. Jansen, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and A. W. Roe, “Infrared neural stimulation of primary visual cortex in non-human primates,” Neuroimage84, 181–190 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y.

Chi, N. C.

N. C. Chi, M. Bussen, K. Brand-Arzamendi, C. Ding, J. E. Olgin, R. M. Shaw, G. R. Martin, and D. Y. R. Stainier, “Cardiac conduction is required to preserve cardiac chamber morphology,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(33), 14662–14667 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiel, H. J.

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chylek, P.

Clementy, J.

S. Lévy, B. Pouget, J. Clementy, M. Bemurat, and H. Bricaud, “Pacing-induced alternate Wenckebach periods: incidence and clinical significance,” Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol.2(6), 614–623 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, L. B.

L. M. Loew, L. B. Cohen, J. Dix, E. N. Fluhler, V. Montana, G. Salama, and J. Y. Wu, “A naphthyl analog of the aminostyryl pyridinium class of potentiometric membrane dyes shows consistent sensitivity in a variety of tissue, cell, and model membrane preparations,” J. Membr. Biol.130(1), 1–10 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Consi, T.

M. Radisic, H. Park, H. Shing, T. Consi, F. J. Schoen, R. Langer, L. E. Freed, and G. Vunjak-Novakovic, “Functional assembly of engineered myocardium by electrical stimulation of cardiac myocytes cultured on scaffolds,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(52), 18129–18134 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, S.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

deAlmeida, A.

M. Reckova, C. Rosengarten, A. deAlmeida, C. P. Stanley, A. Wessels, R. G. Gourdie, R. P. Thompson, and D. Sedmera, “Hemodynamics is a key epigenetic factor in development of the cardiac conduction system,” Circ. Res.93(1), 77–85 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Degenhardt, K.

S. Rentschler, D. M. Vaidya, H. Tamaddon, K. Degenhardt, D. Sassoon, G. E. Morley, J. Jalife, and G. I. Fishman, “Visualization and functional characterization of the developing murine cardiac conduction system,” Development128(10), 1785–1792 (2001).
[PubMed]

Deisseroth, K.

E. S. Boyden, F. Zhang, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, and K. Deisseroth, “Millisecond-timescale, genetically targeted optical control of neural activity,” Nat. Neurosci.8(9), 1263–1268 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deussing, J. M.

M. L. Rein and J. M. Deussing, “The optogenetic (r)evolution,” Mol. Genet. Genomics287(2), 95–109 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, C.

N. C. Chi, M. Bussen, K. Brand-Arzamendi, C. Ding, J. E. Olgin, R. M. Shaw, G. R. Martin, and D. Y. R. Stainier, “Cardiac conduction is required to preserve cardiac chamber morphology,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(33), 14662–14667 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dittami, G. M.

S. M. Rajguru, C.-P. Richter, A. I. Matic, G. R. Holstein, S. M. Highstein, G. M. Dittami, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Infrared photostimulation of the crista ampullaris,” J. Physiol.589(6), 1283–1294 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Dittami, S. M. Rajguru, R. A. Lasher, R. W. Hitchcock, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Intracellular calcium transients evoked by pulsed infrared radiation in neonatal cardiomyocytes,” J. Physiol.589(6), 1295–1306 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dix, J.

L. M. Loew, L. B. Cohen, J. Dix, E. N. Fluhler, V. Montana, G. Salama, and J. Y. Wu, “A naphthyl analog of the aminostyryl pyridinium class of potentiometric membrane dyes shows consistent sensitivity in a variety of tissue, cell, and model membrane preparations,” J. Membr. Biol.130(1), 1–10 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doughman, Y. Q.

Duke, A. R.

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duncanson, Lj.

D. Friedman, Lj. Duncanson, J. Glickstein, and J. Buyon, “A review of congenital heart block,” Images Paediatr. Cardiol.5(3), 36–48 (2003).
[PubMed]

Dupays, L.

B. Sankova, J. Benes, E. Krejci, L. Dupays, M. Theveniau-Ruissy, L. Miquerol, and D. Sedmera, “The effect of connexin40 deficiency on ventricular conduction system function during development,” Cardiovasc. Res.95(4), 469–479 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Efimov, I. R.

I. R. Efimov, V. P. Nikolski, and G. Salama, “Optical imaging of the heart,” Circ. Res.95(1), 21–33 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elharrar, V.

V. Elharrar and B. Surawicz, “Cycle length effect on restitution of action potential duration in dog cardiac fibers,” Am. J. Physiol.244(6), H782–H792 (1983).
[PubMed]

Eloff, B.

F. Rothenberg, M. Watanabe, B. Eloff, and D. Rosenbaum, “Emerging patterns of cardiac conduction in the chick embryo: waveform analysis with photodiode array-based optical imaging,” Dev. Dyn.233(2), 456–465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eloff, B. C.

B. C. Eloff, D. L. Lerner, K. A. Yamada, R. B. Schuessler, J. E. Saffitz, and D. S. Rosenbaum, “High resolution optical mapping reveals conduction slowing in connexin43 deficient mice,” Cardiovasc. Res.51(4), 681–690 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farshidi, A.

M. E. Josephson, L. N. Horowitz, A. Farshidi, J. F. Spear, J. A. Kastor, and E. N. Moore, “Recurrent sustained ventricular tachycardia. 2. Endocardial mapping,” Circulation57(3), 440–447 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ficker, E.

A. A. Werdich, A. Brzezinski, D. Jeyaraj, M. Khaled Sabeh, E. Ficker, X. Wan, B. M. McDermott, C. A. Macrae, and D. S. Rosenbaum, “The zebrafish as a novel animal model to study the molecular mechanisms of mechano-electrical feedback in the heart,” Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol.110(2-3), 154–165 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fishman, G. I.

S. Rentschler, D. M. Vaidya, H. Tamaddon, K. Degenhardt, D. Sassoon, G. E. Morley, J. Jalife, and G. I. Fishman, “Visualization and functional characterization of the developing murine cardiac conduction system,” Development128(10), 1785–1792 (2001).
[PubMed]

Fleischmann, B. K.

T. Bruegmann, D. Malan, M. Hesse, T. Beiert, C. J. Fuegemann, B. K. Fleischmann, and P. Sasse, “Optogenetic control of heart muscle in vitro and in vivo,” Nat. Methods7(11), 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fluhler, E. N.

L. M. Loew, L. B. Cohen, J. Dix, E. N. Fluhler, V. Montana, G. Salama, and J. Y. Wu, “A naphthyl analog of the aminostyryl pyridinium class of potentiometric membrane dyes shows consistent sensitivity in a variety of tissue, cell, and model membrane preparations,” J. Membr. Biol.130(1), 1–10 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ford, E. S.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fox, C. S.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franco, S.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freed, L. E.

M. Radisic, H. Park, H. Shing, T. Consi, F. J. Schoen, R. Langer, L. E. Freed, and G. Vunjak-Novakovic, “Functional assembly of engineered myocardium by electrical stimulation of cardiac myocytes cultured on scaffolds,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(52), 18129–18134 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fried, N. M.

N. M. Fried, G. A. Lagoda, N. J. Scott, L.-M. Su, and A. L. Burnett, “Noncontact stimulation of the cavernous nerves in the rat prostate using a tunable-wavelength thulium fiber laser,” J. Endourol.22(3), 409–414 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friedman, D.

D. Friedman, Lj. Duncanson, J. Glickstein, and J. Buyon, “A review of congenital heart block,” Images Paediatr. Cardiol.5(3), 36–48 (2003).
[PubMed]

Friedman, R. M.

J. M. Cayce, R. M. Friedman, G. Chen, E. D. Jansen, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and A. W. Roe, “Infrared neural stimulation of primary visual cortex in non-human primates,” Neuroimage84, 181–190 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuegemann, C. J.

T. Bruegmann, D. Malan, M. Hesse, T. Beiert, C. J. Fuegemann, B. K. Fleischmann, and P. Sasse, “Optogenetic control of heart muscle in vitro and in vivo,” Nat. Methods7(11), 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujioka, H.

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukuda, N.

K. Oyama, A. Mizuno, S. A. Shintani, H. Itoh, T. Serizawa, N. Fukuda, M. Suzuki, and S. Ishiwata, “Microscopic heat pulses induce contraction of cardiomyocytes without calcium transients,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.417(1), 607–612 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fullerton, H. J.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelband, H.

M. L. Young, H. Gelband, and G. S. Wolff, “Atrial pacing-induced alternating Wenckebach periodicity and multilevel conduction block in children,” Am. J. Cardiol.57(1), 135–141 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillespie, C.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glickstein, J.

D. Friedman, Lj. Duncanson, J. Glickstein, and J. Buyon, “A review of congenital heart block,” Images Paediatr. Cardiol.5(3), 36–48 (2003).
[PubMed]

Go, A. S.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, J. P.

J. P. Gordon, R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. P. S. Porto, and J. R. Whinnery, “Long-Transient Effects in Lasers with Inserted Liquid Samples,” J. Appl. Phys.36(1), 3 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Gourdie, R. G.

D. Sedmera, M. Reckova, C. Rosengarten, M. I. Torres, R. G. Gourdie, and R. P. Thompson, “Optical mapping of electrical activation in the developing heart,” Microsc. Microanal.11(3), 209–215 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Reckova, C. Rosengarten, A. deAlmeida, C. P. Stanley, A. Wessels, R. G. Gourdie, R. P. Thompson, and D. Sedmera, “Hemodynamics is a key epigenetic factor in development of the cardiac conduction system,” Circ. Res.93(1), 77–85 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Granados-Riveron, J. T.

J. T. Granados-Riveron and J. D. Brook, “The impact of mechanical forces in heart morphogenesis,” Circ Cardiovasc Genet5(1), 132–142 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, S.

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hailpern, S. M.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamburger, V.

V. Hamburger and H. L. Hamilton, “A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo,” J. Morphol.88(1), 49–92 (1951).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamilton, H. L.

V. Hamburger and H. L. Hamilton, “A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo,” J. Morphol.88(1), 49–92 (1951).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hegemann, P.

G. Nagel, T. Szellas, W. Huhn, S. Kateriya, N. Adeishvili, P. Berthold, D. Ollig, P. Hegemann, and E. Bamberg, “Channelrhodopsin-2, a directly light-gated cation-selective membrane channel,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(24), 13940–13945 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heit, J. A.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hesse, M.

T. Bruegmann, D. Malan, M. Hesse, T. Beiert, C. J. Fuegemann, B. K. Fleischmann, and P. Sasse, “Optogenetic control of heart muscle in vitro and in vivo,” Nat. Methods7(11), 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Highstein, S. M.

S. M. Rajguru, C.-P. Richter, A. I. Matic, G. R. Holstein, S. M. Highstein, G. M. Dittami, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Infrared photostimulation of the crista ampullaris,” J. Physiol.589(6), 1283–1294 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitchcock, R. W.

G. M. Dittami, S. M. Rajguru, R. A. Lasher, R. W. Hitchcock, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Intracellular calcium transients evoked by pulsed infrared radiation in neonatal cardiomyocytes,” J. Physiol.589(6), 1295–1306 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holstein, G. R.

S. M. Rajguru, C.-P. Richter, A. I. Matic, G. R. Holstein, S. M. Highstein, G. M. Dittami, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Infrared photostimulation of the crista ampullaris,” J. Physiol.589(6), 1283–1294 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Homma, K.

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C.-P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat Commun3, 736 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horowitz, L. N.

M. E. Josephson, L. N. Horowitz, A. Farshidi, J. F. Spear, J. A. Kastor, and E. N. Moore, “Recurrent sustained ventricular tachycardia. 2. Endocardial mapping,” Circulation57(3), 440–447 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howard, V. J.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huffman, M. D.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huhn, W.

G. Nagel, T. Szellas, W. Huhn, S. Kateriya, N. Adeishvili, P. Berthold, D. Ollig, P. Hegemann, and E. Bamberg, “Channelrhodopsin-2, a directly light-gated cation-selective membrane channel,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(24), 13940–13945 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishiwata, S.

K. Oyama, A. Mizuno, S. A. Shintani, H. Itoh, T. Serizawa, N. Fukuda, M. Suzuki, and S. Ishiwata, “Microscopic heat pulses induce contraction of cardiomyocytes without calcium transients,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.417(1), 607–612 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itoh, H.

K. Oyama, A. Mizuno, S. A. Shintani, H. Itoh, T. Serizawa, N. Fukuda, M. Suzuki, and S. Ishiwata, “Microscopic heat pulses induce contraction of cardiomyocytes without calcium transients,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.417(1), 607–612 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izzo, A. D.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C.-P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J.94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jalife, J.

S. Rentschler, D. M. Vaidya, H. Tamaddon, K. Degenhardt, D. Sassoon, G. E. Morley, J. Jalife, and G. I. Fishman, “Visualization and functional characterization of the developing murine cardiac conduction system,” Development128(10), 1785–1792 (2001).
[PubMed]

Jansen, E. D.

J. M. Cayce, R. M. Friedman, G. Chen, E. D. Jansen, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and A. W. Roe, “Infrared neural stimulation of primary visual cortex in non-human primates,” Neuroimage84, 181–190 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical mechanisms of transient optical stimulation of peripheral nerve,” Biophys. J.93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wells, C. Kao, E. D. Jansen, P. Konrad, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Application of infrared light for in vivo neural stimulation,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(6), 064003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jenkins, M. W.

M. W. Jenkins, Y. T. Wang, Y. Q. Doughman, M. Watanabe, Y. Cheng, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the adult rabbit heart,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(9), 1626–1635 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeyaraj, D.

A. A. Werdich, A. Brzezinski, D. Jeyaraj, M. Khaled Sabeh, E. Ficker, X. Wan, B. M. McDermott, C. A. Macrae, and D. S. Rosenbaum, “The zebrafish as a novel animal model to study the molecular mechanisms of mechano-electrical feedback in the heart,” Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol.110(2-3), 154–165 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Josephson, M. E.

M. E. Josephson, L. N. Horowitz, A. Farshidi, J. F. Spear, J. A. Kastor, and E. N. Moore, “Recurrent sustained ventricular tachycardia. 2. Endocardial mapping,” Circulation57(3), 440–447 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamino, K.

K. Kamino, “Optical approaches to ontogeny of electrical activity and related functional organization during early heart development,” Physiol. Rev.71(1), 53–91 (1991).
[PubMed]

Kao, C.

J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical mechanisms of transient optical stimulation of peripheral nerve,” Biophys. J.93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wells, C. Kao, E. D. Jansen, P. Konrad, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Application of infrared light for in vivo neural stimulation,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(6), 064003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kastor, J. A.

M. E. Josephson, L. N. Horowitz, A. Farshidi, J. F. Spear, J. A. Kastor, and E. N. Moore, “Recurrent sustained ventricular tachycardia. 2. Endocardial mapping,” Circulation57(3), 440–447 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kateriya, S.

G. Nagel, T. Szellas, W. Huhn, S. Kateriya, N. Adeishvili, P. Berthold, D. Ollig, P. Hegemann, and E. Bamberg, “Channelrhodopsin-2, a directly light-gated cation-selective membrane channel,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(24), 13940–13945 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khaled Sabeh, M.

A. A. Werdich, A. Brzezinski, D. Jeyaraj, M. Khaled Sabeh, E. Ficker, X. Wan, B. M. McDermott, C. A. Macrae, and D. S. Rosenbaum, “The zebrafish as a novel animal model to study the molecular mechanisms of mechano-electrical feedback in the heart,” Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol.110(2-3), 154–165 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical mechanisms of transient optical stimulation of peripheral nerve,” Biophys. J.93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kissela, B. M.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kittner, S. J.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konrad, P.

J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical mechanisms of transient optical stimulation of peripheral nerve,” Biophys. J.93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wells, C. Kao, E. D. Jansen, P. Konrad, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Application of infrared light for in vivo neural stimulation,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(6), 064003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kou, L.

Krejci, E.

B. Sankova, J. Benes, E. Krejci, L. Dupays, M. Theveniau-Ruissy, L. Miquerol, and D. Sedmera, “The effect of connexin40 deficiency on ventricular conduction system function during development,” Cardiovasc. Res.95(4), 469–479 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Labrie, D.

Lackland, D. T.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lagoda, G. A.

N. M. Fried, G. A. Lagoda, N. J. Scott, L.-M. Su, and A. L. Burnett, “Noncontact stimulation of the cavernous nerves in the rat prostate using a tunable-wavelength thulium fiber laser,” J. Endourol.22(3), 409–414 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langer, R.

M. Radisic, H. Park, H. Shing, T. Consi, F. J. Schoen, R. Langer, L. E. Freed, and G. Vunjak-Novakovic, “Functional assembly of engineered myocardium by electrical stimulation of cardiac myocytes cultured on scaffolds,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(52), 18129–18134 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasher, R. A.

G. M. Dittami, S. M. Rajguru, R. A. Lasher, R. W. Hitchcock, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Intracellular calcium transients evoked by pulsed infrared radiation in neonatal cardiomyocytes,” J. Physiol.589(6), 1295–1306 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leite, R. C. C.

J. P. Gordon, R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. P. S. Porto, and J. R. Whinnery, “Long-Transient Effects in Lasers with Inserted Liquid Samples,” J. Appl. Phys.36(1), 3 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Lerner, D. L.

B. C. Eloff, D. L. Lerner, K. A. Yamada, R. B. Schuessler, J. E. Saffitz, and D. S. Rosenbaum, “High resolution optical mapping reveals conduction slowing in connexin43 deficient mice,” Cardiovasc. Res.51(4), 681–690 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lévy, S.

S. Lévy, B. Pouget, J. Clementy, M. Bemurat, and H. Bricaud, “Pacing-induced alternate Wenckebach periods: incidence and clinical significance,” Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol.2(6), 614–623 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lichtman, J. H.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lisabeth, L. D.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

M. Bressan, G. Liu, and T. Mikawa, “Early mesodermal cues assign avian cardiac pacemaker fate potential in a tertiary heart field,” Science340(6133), 744–748 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loew, L. M.

L. M. Loew, L. B. Cohen, J. Dix, E. N. Fluhler, V. Montana, G. Salama, and J. Y. Wu, “A naphthyl analog of the aminostyryl pyridinium class of potentiometric membrane dyes shows consistent sensitivity in a variety of tissue, cell, and model membrane preparations,” J. Membr. Biol.130(1), 1–10 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macrae, C. A.

A. A. Werdich, A. Brzezinski, D. Jeyaraj, M. Khaled Sabeh, E. Ficker, X. Wan, B. M. McDermott, C. A. Macrae, and D. S. Rosenbaum, “The zebrafish as a novel animal model to study the molecular mechanisms of mechano-electrical feedback in the heart,” Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol.110(2-3), 154–165 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magid, D.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

J. M. Cayce, R. M. Friedman, G. Chen, E. D. Jansen, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and A. W. Roe, “Infrared neural stimulation of primary visual cortex in non-human primates,” Neuroimage84, 181–190 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical mechanisms of transient optical stimulation of peripheral nerve,” Biophys. J.93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wells, C. Kao, E. D. Jansen, P. Konrad, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Application of infrared light for in vivo neural stimulation,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(6), 064003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malan, D.

T. Bruegmann, D. Malan, M. Hesse, T. Beiert, C. J. Fuegemann, B. K. Fleischmann, and P. Sasse, “Optogenetic control of heart muscle in vitro and in vivo,” Nat. Methods7(11), 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcus, G. M.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marelli, A.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, G. R.

N. C. Chi, M. Bussen, K. Brand-Arzamendi, C. Ding, J. E. Olgin, R. M. Shaw, G. R. Martin, and D. Y. R. Stainier, “Cardiac conduction is required to preserve cardiac chamber morphology,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(33), 14662–14667 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matchar, D. B.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matic, A. I.

A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, H. K. Young, B. Badofsky, S. M. Rajguru, S. Stock, and C.-P. Richter, “Behavioral and electrophysiological responses evoked by chronic infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea,” PLoS ONE8(3), e58189 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Rajguru, C.-P. Richter, A. I. Matic, G. R. Holstein, S. M. Highstein, G. M. Dittami, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Infrared photostimulation of the crista ampullaris,” J. Physiol.589(6), 1283–1294 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCreery, D. B.

D. B. McCreery, W. F. Agnew, T. G. Yuen, and L. Bullara, “Charge density and charge per phase as cofactors in neural injury induced by electrical stimulation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.37(10), 996–1001 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDermott, B. M.

A. A. Werdich, A. Brzezinski, D. Jeyaraj, M. Khaled Sabeh, E. Ficker, X. Wan, B. M. McDermott, C. A. Macrae, and D. S. Rosenbaum, “The zebrafish as a novel animal model to study the molecular mechanisms of mechano-electrical feedback in the heart,” Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol.110(2-3), 154–165 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGuire, D. K.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McIntyre, C. C.

C. R. Butson and C. C. McIntyre, “Role of electrode design on the volume of tissue activated during deep brain stimulation,” J. Neural Eng.3(1), 1–8 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mikawa, T.

M. Bressan, G. Liu, and T. Mikawa, “Early mesodermal cues assign avian cardiac pacemaker fate potential in a tertiary heart field,” Science340(6133), 744–748 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milner, T.

J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical mechanisms of transient optical stimulation of peripheral nerve,” Biophys. J.93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miquerol, L.

B. Sankova, J. Benes, E. Krejci, L. Dupays, M. Theveniau-Ruissy, L. Miquerol, and D. Sedmera, “The effect of connexin40 deficiency on ventricular conduction system function during development,” Cardiovasc. Res.95(4), 469–479 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mizuno, A.

K. Oyama, A. Mizuno, S. A. Shintani, H. Itoh, T. Serizawa, N. Fukuda, M. Suzuki, and S. Ishiwata, “Microscopic heat pulses induce contraction of cardiomyocytes without calcium transients,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.417(1), 607–612 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mizuno, K.

K. Shoji, K. Ohashi, K. Sampei, M. Oikawa, and K. Mizuno, “Cytochalasin D acts as an inhibitor of the actin-cofilin interaction,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.424(1), 52–57 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohler, E. R.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montana, V.

L. M. Loew, L. B. Cohen, J. Dix, E. N. Fluhler, V. Montana, G. Salama, and J. Y. Wu, “A naphthyl analog of the aminostyryl pyridinium class of potentiometric membrane dyes shows consistent sensitivity in a variety of tissue, cell, and model membrane preparations,” J. Membr. Biol.130(1), 1–10 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, E. N.

M. E. Josephson, L. N. Horowitz, A. Farshidi, J. F. Spear, J. A. Kastor, and E. N. Moore, “Recurrent sustained ventricular tachycardia. 2. Endocardial mapping,” Circulation57(3), 440–447 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, R. S.

J. P. Gordon, R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. P. S. Porto, and J. R. Whinnery, “Long-Transient Effects in Lasers with Inserted Liquid Samples,” J. Appl. Phys.36(1), 3 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Morley, G. E.

S. Rentschler, D. M. Vaidya, H. Tamaddon, K. Degenhardt, D. Sassoon, G. E. Morley, J. Jalife, and G. I. Fishman, “Visualization and functional characterization of the developing murine cardiac conduction system,” Development128(10), 1785–1792 (2001).
[PubMed]

Moy, C. S.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mozaffarian, D.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mussolino, M. E.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagel, G.

E. S. Boyden, F. Zhang, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, and K. Deisseroth, “Millisecond-timescale, genetically targeted optical control of neural activity,” Nat. Neurosci.8(9), 1263–1268 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Nagel, T. Szellas, W. Huhn, S. Kateriya, N. Adeishvili, P. Berthold, D. Ollig, P. Hegemann, and E. Bamberg, “Channelrhodopsin-2, a directly light-gated cation-selective membrane channel,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(24), 13940–13945 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nichol, G.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikolski, V. P.

I. R. Efimov, V. P. Nikolski, and G. Salama, “Optical imaging of the heart,” Circ. Res.95(1), 21–33 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohashi, K.

K. Shoji, K. Ohashi, K. Sampei, M. Oikawa, and K. Mizuno, “Cytochalasin D acts as an inhibitor of the actin-cofilin interaction,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.424(1), 52–57 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oikawa, M.

K. Shoji, K. Ohashi, K. Sampei, M. Oikawa, and K. Mizuno, “Cytochalasin D acts as an inhibitor of the actin-cofilin interaction,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.424(1), 52–57 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olgin, J. E.

N. C. Chi, M. Bussen, K. Brand-Arzamendi, C. Ding, J. E. Olgin, R. M. Shaw, G. R. Martin, and D. Y. R. Stainier, “Cardiac conduction is required to preserve cardiac chamber morphology,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(33), 14662–14667 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ollig, D.

G. Nagel, T. Szellas, W. Huhn, S. Kateriya, N. Adeishvili, P. Berthold, D. Ollig, P. Hegemann, and E. Bamberg, “Channelrhodopsin-2, a directly light-gated cation-selective membrane channel,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(24), 13940–13945 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oyama, K.

K. Oyama, A. Mizuno, S. A. Shintani, H. Itoh, T. Serizawa, N. Fukuda, M. Suzuki, and S. Ishiwata, “Microscopic heat pulses induce contraction of cardiomyocytes without calcium transients,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.417(1), 607–612 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, H.

M. Radisic, H. Park, H. Shing, T. Consi, F. J. Schoen, R. Langer, L. E. Freed, and G. Vunjak-Novakovic, “Functional assembly of engineered myocardium by electrical stimulation of cardiac myocytes cultured on scaffolds,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(52), 18129–18134 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paynter, N. P.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peterson, E. J.

E. J. Peterson and D. J. Tyler, “Motor neuron activation in peripheral nerves using infrared neural stimulation,” J. Neural Eng.11(1), 016001 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Porto, S. P. S.

J. P. Gordon, R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. P. S. Porto, and J. R. Whinnery, “Long-Transient Effects in Lasers with Inserted Liquid Samples,” J. Appl. Phys.36(1), 3 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Pouget, B.

S. Lévy, B. Pouget, J. Clementy, M. Bemurat, and H. Bricaud, “Pacing-induced alternate Wenckebach periods: incidence and clinical significance,” Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol.2(6), 614–623 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rabbitt, R. D.

S. M. Rajguru, C.-P. Richter, A. I. Matic, G. R. Holstein, S. M. Highstein, G. M. Dittami, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Infrared photostimulation of the crista ampullaris,” J. Physiol.589(6), 1283–1294 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Dittami, S. M. Rajguru, R. A. Lasher, R. W. Hitchcock, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Intracellular calcium transients evoked by pulsed infrared radiation in neonatal cardiomyocytes,” J. Physiol.589(6), 1295–1306 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radisic, M.

M. Radisic, H. Park, H. Shing, T. Consi, F. J. Schoen, R. Langer, L. E. Freed, and G. Vunjak-Novakovic, “Functional assembly of engineered myocardium by electrical stimulation of cardiac myocytes cultured on scaffolds,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(52), 18129–18134 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajguru, S. M.

A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, H. K. Young, B. Badofsky, S. M. Rajguru, S. Stock, and C.-P. Richter, “Behavioral and electrophysiological responses evoked by chronic infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea,” PLoS ONE8(3), e58189 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Rajguru, C.-P. Richter, A. I. Matic, G. R. Holstein, S. M. Highstein, G. M. Dittami, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Infrared photostimulation of the crista ampullaris,” J. Physiol.589(6), 1283–1294 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Dittami, S. M. Rajguru, R. A. Lasher, R. W. Hitchcock, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Intracellular calcium transients evoked by pulsed infrared radiation in neonatal cardiomyocytes,” J. Physiol.589(6), 1295–1306 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ralph, H.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C.-P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J.94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reckova, M.

D. Sedmera, M. Reckova, C. Rosengarten, M. I. Torres, R. G. Gourdie, and R. P. Thompson, “Optical mapping of electrical activation in the developing heart,” Microsc. Microanal.11(3), 209–215 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Reckova, C. Rosengarten, A. deAlmeida, C. P. Stanley, A. Wessels, R. G. Gourdie, R. P. Thompson, and D. Sedmera, “Hemodynamics is a key epigenetic factor in development of the cardiac conduction system,” Circ. Res.93(1), 77–85 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rein, M. L.

M. L. Rein and J. M. Deussing, “The optogenetic (r)evolution,” Mol. Genet. Genomics287(2), 95–109 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rentschler, S.

S. Rentschler, D. M. Vaidya, H. Tamaddon, K. Degenhardt, D. Sassoon, G. E. Morley, J. Jalife, and G. I. Fishman, “Visualization and functional characterization of the developing murine cardiac conduction system,” Development128(10), 1785–1792 (2001).
[PubMed]

Richter, C.-P.

A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, H. K. Young, B. Badofsky, S. M. Rajguru, S. Stock, and C.-P. Richter, “Behavioral and electrophysiological responses evoked by chronic infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea,” PLoS ONE8(3), e58189 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C.-P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat Commun3, 736 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Rajguru, C.-P. Richter, A. I. Matic, G. R. Holstein, S. M. Highstein, G. M. Dittami, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Infrared photostimulation of the crista ampullaris,” J. Physiol.589(6), 1283–1294 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C.-P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J.94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, A. M.

A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, H. K. Young, B. Badofsky, S. M. Rajguru, S. Stock, and C.-P. Richter, “Behavioral and electrophysiological responses evoked by chronic infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea,” PLoS ONE8(3), e58189 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roe, A. W.

J. M. Cayce, R. M. Friedman, G. Chen, E. D. Jansen, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and A. W. Roe, “Infrared neural stimulation of primary visual cortex in non-human primates,” Neuroimage84, 181–190 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roger, V. L.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

M. W. Jenkins, Y. T. Wang, Y. Q. Doughman, M. Watanabe, Y. Cheng, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the adult rabbit heart,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(9), 1626–1635 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenbaum, D.

F. Rothenberg, M. Watanabe, B. Eloff, and D. Rosenbaum, “Emerging patterns of cardiac conduction in the chick embryo: waveform analysis with photodiode array-based optical imaging,” Dev. Dyn.233(2), 456–465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenbaum, D. S.

A. A. Werdich, A. Brzezinski, D. Jeyaraj, M. Khaled Sabeh, E. Ficker, X. Wan, B. M. McDermott, C. A. Macrae, and D. S. Rosenbaum, “The zebrafish as a novel animal model to study the molecular mechanisms of mechano-electrical feedback in the heart,” Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol.110(2-3), 154–165 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Eloff, D. L. Lerner, K. A. Yamada, R. B. Schuessler, J. E. Saffitz, and D. S. Rosenbaum, “High resolution optical mapping reveals conduction slowing in connexin43 deficient mice,” Cardiovasc. Res.51(4), 681–690 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Akar, B. J. Roth, and D. S. Rosenbaum, “Optical measurement of cell-to-cell coupling in intact heart using subthreshold electrical stimulation,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.281(2), H533–H542 (2001).
[PubMed]

Rosengarten, C.

D. Sedmera, M. Reckova, C. Rosengarten, M. I. Torres, R. G. Gourdie, and R. P. Thompson, “Optical mapping of electrical activation in the developing heart,” Microsc. Microanal.11(3), 209–215 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Reckova, C. Rosengarten, A. deAlmeida, C. P. Stanley, A. Wessels, R. G. Gourdie, R. P. Thompson, and D. Sedmera, “Hemodynamics is a key epigenetic factor in development of the cardiac conduction system,” Circ. Res.93(1), 77–85 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roth, B. J.

F. G. Akar, B. J. Roth, and D. S. Rosenbaum, “Optical measurement of cell-to-cell coupling in intact heart using subthreshold electrical stimulation,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.281(2), H533–H542 (2001).
[PubMed]

Rothenberg, F.

F. Rothenberg, M. Watanabe, B. Eloff, and D. Rosenbaum, “Emerging patterns of cardiac conduction in the chick embryo: waveform analysis with photodiode array-based optical imaging,” Dev. Dyn.233(2), 456–465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saffitz, J. E.

B. C. Eloff, D. L. Lerner, K. A. Yamada, R. B. Schuessler, J. E. Saffitz, and D. S. Rosenbaum, “High resolution optical mapping reveals conduction slowing in connexin43 deficient mice,” Cardiovasc. Res.51(4), 681–690 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salama, G.

I. R. Efimov, V. P. Nikolski, and G. Salama, “Optical imaging of the heart,” Circ. Res.95(1), 21–33 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Loew, L. B. Cohen, J. Dix, E. N. Fluhler, V. Montana, G. Salama, and J. Y. Wu, “A naphthyl analog of the aminostyryl pyridinium class of potentiometric membrane dyes shows consistent sensitivity in a variety of tissue, cell, and model membrane preparations,” J. Membr. Biol.130(1), 1–10 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sampei, K.

K. Shoji, K. Ohashi, K. Sampei, M. Oikawa, and K. Mizuno, “Cytochalasin D acts as an inhibitor of the actin-cofilin interaction,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.424(1), 52–57 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sankova, B.

B. Sankova, J. Benes, E. Krejci, L. Dupays, M. Theveniau-Ruissy, L. Miquerol, and D. Sedmera, “The effect of connexin40 deficiency on ventricular conduction system function during development,” Cardiovasc. Res.95(4), 469–479 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasse, P.

T. Bruegmann, D. Malan, M. Hesse, T. Beiert, C. J. Fuegemann, B. K. Fleischmann, and P. Sasse, “Optogenetic control of heart muscle in vitro and in vivo,” Nat. Methods7(11), 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sassoon, D.

S. Rentschler, D. M. Vaidya, H. Tamaddon, K. Degenhardt, D. Sassoon, G. E. Morley, J. Jalife, and G. I. Fishman, “Visualization and functional characterization of the developing murine cardiac conduction system,” Development128(10), 1785–1792 (2001).
[PubMed]

Schoen, F. J.

M. Radisic, H. Park, H. Shing, T. Consi, F. J. Schoen, R. Langer, L. E. Freed, and G. Vunjak-Novakovic, “Functional assembly of engineered myocardium by electrical stimulation of cardiac myocytes cultured on scaffolds,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(52), 18129–18134 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schreiner, P. J.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuessler, R. B.

B. C. Eloff, D. L. Lerner, K. A. Yamada, R. B. Schuessler, J. E. Saffitz, and D. S. Rosenbaum, “High resolution optical mapping reveals conduction slowing in connexin43 deficient mice,” Cardiovasc. Res.51(4), 681–690 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scott, N. J.

N. M. Fried, G. A. Lagoda, N. J. Scott, L.-M. Su, and A. L. Burnett, “Noncontact stimulation of the cavernous nerves in the rat prostate using a tunable-wavelength thulium fiber laser,” J. Endourol.22(3), 409–414 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sedmera, D.

B. Sankova, J. Benes, E. Krejci, L. Dupays, M. Theveniau-Ruissy, L. Miquerol, and D. Sedmera, “The effect of connexin40 deficiency on ventricular conduction system function during development,” Cardiovasc. Res.95(4), 469–479 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Sedmera, M. Reckova, C. Rosengarten, M. I. Torres, R. G. Gourdie, and R. P. Thompson, “Optical mapping of electrical activation in the developing heart,” Microsc. Microanal.11(3), 209–215 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Reckova, C. Rosengarten, A. deAlmeida, C. P. Stanley, A. Wessels, R. G. Gourdie, R. P. Thompson, and D. Sedmera, “Hemodynamics is a key epigenetic factor in development of the cardiac conduction system,” Circ. Res.93(1), 77–85 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serizawa, T.

K. Oyama, A. Mizuno, S. A. Shintani, H. Itoh, T. Serizawa, N. Fukuda, M. Suzuki, and S. Ishiwata, “Microscopic heat pulses induce contraction of cardiomyocytes without calcium transients,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.417(1), 607–612 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shapiro, M. G.

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C.-P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat Commun3, 736 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaw, R. M.

N. C. Chi, M. Bussen, K. Brand-Arzamendi, C. Ding, J. E. Olgin, R. M. Shaw, G. R. Martin, and D. Y. R. Stainier, “Cardiac conduction is required to preserve cardiac chamber morphology,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(33), 14662–14667 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shing, H.

M. Radisic, H. Park, H. Shing, T. Consi, F. J. Schoen, R. Langer, L. E. Freed, and G. Vunjak-Novakovic, “Functional assembly of engineered myocardium by electrical stimulation of cardiac myocytes cultured on scaffolds,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(52), 18129–18134 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shintani, S. A.

K. Oyama, A. Mizuno, S. A. Shintani, H. Itoh, T. Serizawa, N. Fukuda, M. Suzuki, and S. Ishiwata, “Microscopic heat pulses induce contraction of cardiomyocytes without calcium transients,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.417(1), 607–612 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shoji, K.

K. Shoji, K. Ohashi, K. Sampei, M. Oikawa, and K. Mizuno, “Cytochalasin D acts as an inhibitor of the actin-cofilin interaction,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.424(1), 52–57 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smits, J. P. P.

J. P. P. Smits, M. W. Veldkamp, and A. A. M. Wilde, “Mechanisms of inherited cardiac conduction disease,” Europace7(2), 122–137 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorlie, P. D.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spear, J. F.

M. E. Josephson, L. N. Horowitz, A. Farshidi, J. F. Spear, J. A. Kastor, and E. N. Moore, “Recurrent sustained ventricular tachycardia. 2. Endocardial mapping,” Circulation57(3), 440–447 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stainier, D. Y. R.

N. C. Chi, M. Bussen, K. Brand-Arzamendi, C. Ding, J. E. Olgin, R. M. Shaw, G. R. Martin, and D. Y. R. Stainier, “Cardiac conduction is required to preserve cardiac chamber morphology,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(33), 14662–14667 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stanley, C. P.

M. Reckova, C. Rosengarten, A. deAlmeida, C. P. Stanley, A. Wessels, R. G. Gourdie, R. P. Thompson, and D. Sedmera, “Hemodynamics is a key epigenetic factor in development of the cardiac conduction system,” Circ. Res.93(1), 77–85 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stein, J.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stock, S.

A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, H. K. Young, B. Badofsky, S. M. Rajguru, S. Stock, and C.-P. Richter, “Behavioral and electrophysiological responses evoked by chronic infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea,” PLoS ONE8(3), e58189 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, L.-M.

N. M. Fried, G. A. Lagoda, N. J. Scott, L.-M. Su, and A. L. Burnett, “Noncontact stimulation of the cavernous nerves in the rat prostate using a tunable-wavelength thulium fiber laser,” J. Endourol.22(3), 409–414 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surawicz, B.

V. Elharrar and B. Surawicz, “Cycle length effect on restitution of action potential duration in dog cardiac fibers,” Am. J. Physiol.244(6), H782–H792 (1983).
[PubMed]

Suzuki, M.

K. Oyama, A. Mizuno, S. A. Shintani, H. Itoh, T. Serizawa, N. Fukuda, M. Suzuki, and S. Ishiwata, “Microscopic heat pulses induce contraction of cardiomyocytes without calcium transients,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.417(1), 607–612 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szellas, T.

G. Nagel, T. Szellas, W. Huhn, S. Kateriya, N. Adeishvili, P. Berthold, D. Ollig, P. Hegemann, and E. Bamberg, “Channelrhodopsin-2, a directly light-gated cation-selective membrane channel,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(24), 13940–13945 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamaddon, H.

S. Rentschler, D. M. Vaidya, H. Tamaddon, K. Degenhardt, D. Sassoon, G. E. Morley, J. Jalife, and G. I. Fishman, “Visualization and functional characterization of the developing murine cardiac conduction system,” Development128(10), 1785–1792 (2001).
[PubMed]

Theveniau-Ruissy, M.

B. Sankova, J. Benes, E. Krejci, L. Dupays, M. Theveniau-Ruissy, L. Miquerol, and D. Sedmera, “The effect of connexin40 deficiency on ventricular conduction system function during development,” Cardiovasc. Res.95(4), 469–479 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, R. P.

D. Sedmera, M. Reckova, C. Rosengarten, M. I. Torres, R. G. Gourdie, and R. P. Thompson, “Optical mapping of electrical activation in the developing heart,” Microsc. Microanal.11(3), 209–215 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Reckova, C. Rosengarten, A. deAlmeida, C. P. Stanley, A. Wessels, R. G. Gourdie, R. P. Thompson, and D. Sedmera, “Hemodynamics is a key epigenetic factor in development of the cardiac conduction system,” Circ. Res.93(1), 77–85 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torres, M. I.

D. Sedmera, M. Reckova, C. Rosengarten, M. I. Torres, R. G. Gourdie, and R. P. Thompson, “Optical mapping of electrical activation in the developing heart,” Microsc. Microanal.11(3), 209–215 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turan, T. N.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner, M. B.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tyler, D. J.

E. J. Peterson and D. J. Tyler, “Motor neuron activation in peripheral nerves using infrared neural stimulation,” J. Neural Eng.11(1), 016001 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaidya, D. M.

S. Rentschler, D. M. Vaidya, H. Tamaddon, K. Degenhardt, D. Sassoon, G. E. Morley, J. Jalife, and G. I. Fishman, “Visualization and functional characterization of the developing murine cardiac conduction system,” Development128(10), 1785–1792 (2001).
[PubMed]

Veldkamp, M. W.

J. P. P. Smits, M. W. Veldkamp, and A. A. M. Wilde, “Mechanisms of inherited cardiac conduction disease,” Europace7(2), 122–137 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villarreal, S.

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C.-P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat Commun3, 736 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Virani, S. S.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vunjak-Novakovic, G.

M. Radisic, H. Park, H. Shing, T. Consi, F. J. Schoen, R. Langer, L. E. Freed, and G. Vunjak-Novakovic, “Functional assembly of engineered myocardium by electrical stimulation of cardiac myocytes cultured on scaffolds,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(52), 18129–18134 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsh, J. T.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C.-P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J.94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wan, X.

A. A. Werdich, A. Brzezinski, D. Jeyaraj, M. Khaled Sabeh, E. Ficker, X. Wan, B. M. McDermott, C. A. Macrae, and D. S. Rosenbaum, “The zebrafish as a novel animal model to study the molecular mechanisms of mechano-electrical feedback in the heart,” Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol.110(2-3), 154–165 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y. T.

Watanabe, M.

M. W. Jenkins, Y. T. Wang, Y. Q. Doughman, M. Watanabe, Y. Cheng, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the adult rabbit heart,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(9), 1626–1635 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Rothenberg, M. Watanabe, B. Eloff, and D. Rosenbaum, “Emerging patterns of cardiac conduction in the chick embryo: waveform analysis with photodiode array-based optical imaging,” Dev. Dyn.233(2), 456–465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, J.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C.-P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J.94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weidmann, S.

S. Weidmann, “Electrical constants of trabecular muscle from mammalian heart,” J. Physiol.210(4), 1041–1054 (1970).
[PubMed]

S. Weidmann, “The electrical constants of Purkinje fibres,” J. Physiol.118(3), 348–360 (1952).
[PubMed]

Wells, J.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C.-P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J.94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical mechanisms of transient optical stimulation of peripheral nerve,” Biophys. J.93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wells, C. Kao, E. D. Jansen, P. Konrad, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Application of infrared light for in vivo neural stimulation,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(6), 064003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werdich, A. A.

A. A. Werdich, A. Brzezinski, D. Jeyaraj, M. Khaled Sabeh, E. Ficker, X. Wan, B. M. McDermott, C. A. Macrae, and D. S. Rosenbaum, “The zebrafish as a novel animal model to study the molecular mechanisms of mechano-electrical feedback in the heart,” Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol.110(2-3), 154–165 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wessels, A.

M. Reckova, C. Rosengarten, A. deAlmeida, C. P. Stanley, A. Wessels, R. G. Gourdie, R. P. Thompson, and D. Sedmera, “Hemodynamics is a key epigenetic factor in development of the cardiac conduction system,” Circ. Res.93(1), 77–85 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whinnery, J. R.

J. P. Gordon, R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. P. S. Porto, and J. R. Whinnery, “Long-Transient Effects in Lasers with Inserted Liquid Samples,” J. Appl. Phys.36(1), 3 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Wilde, A. A. M.

J. P. P. Smits, M. W. Veldkamp, and A. A. M. Wilde, “Mechanisms of inherited cardiac conduction disease,” Europace7(2), 122–137 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolff, G. S.

M. L. Young, H. Gelband, and G. S. Wolff, “Atrial pacing-induced alternating Wenckebach periodicity and multilevel conduction block in children,” Am. J. Cardiol.57(1), 135–141 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, N. D.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woo, D.

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, J. Y.

L. M. Loew, L. B. Cohen, J. Dix, E. N. Fluhler, V. Montana, G. Salama, and J. Y. Wu, “A naphthyl analog of the aminostyryl pyridinium class of potentiometric membrane dyes shows consistent sensitivity in a variety of tissue, cell, and model membrane preparations,” J. Membr. Biol.130(1), 1–10 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, K. A.

B. C. Eloff, D. L. Lerner, K. A. Yamada, R. B. Schuessler, J. E. Saffitz, and D. S. Rosenbaum, “High resolution optical mapping reveals conduction slowing in connexin43 deficient mice,” Cardiovasc. Res.51(4), 681–690 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, H. K.

A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, H. K. Young, B. Badofsky, S. M. Rajguru, S. Stock, and C.-P. Richter, “Behavioral and electrophysiological responses evoked by chronic infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea,” PLoS ONE8(3), e58189 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, M. L.

M. L. Young, H. Gelband, and G. S. Wolff, “Atrial pacing-induced alternating Wenckebach periodicity and multilevel conduction block in children,” Am. J. Cardiol.57(1), 135–141 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuen, T. G.

D. B. McCreery, W. F. Agnew, T. G. Yuen, and L. Bullara, “Charge density and charge per phase as cofactors in neural injury induced by electrical stimulation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.37(10), 996–1001 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, F.

E. S. Boyden, F. Zhang, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, and K. Deisseroth, “Millisecond-timescale, genetically targeted optical control of neural activity,” Nat. Neurosci.8(9), 1263–1268 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Cardiol. (1)

M. L. Young, H. Gelband, and G. S. Wolff, “Atrial pacing-induced alternating Wenckebach periodicity and multilevel conduction block in children,” Am. J. Cardiol.57(1), 135–141 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Physiol. (1)

V. Elharrar and B. Surawicz, “Cycle length effect on restitution of action potential duration in dog cardiac fibers,” Am. J. Physiol.244(6), H782–H792 (1983).
[PubMed]

Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (1)

F. G. Akar, B. J. Roth, and D. S. Rosenbaum, “Optical measurement of cell-to-cell coupling in intact heart using subthreshold electrical stimulation,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.281(2), H533–H542 (2001).
[PubMed]

Anat. Rec. A Discov. Mol. Cell. Evol. Biol. (1)

D. W. Benson, “Genetics of atrioventricular conduction disease in humans,” Anat. Rec. A Discov. Mol. Cell. Evol. Biol.280(2), 934–939 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2)

K. Oyama, A. Mizuno, S. A. Shintani, H. Itoh, T. Serizawa, N. Fukuda, M. Suzuki, and S. Ishiwata, “Microscopic heat pulses induce contraction of cardiomyocytes without calcium transients,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.417(1), 607–612 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Shoji, K. Ohashi, K. Sampei, M. Oikawa, and K. Mizuno, “Cytochalasin D acts as an inhibitor of the actin-cofilin interaction,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.424(1), 52–57 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Biophys. J. (2)

J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical mechanisms of transient optical stimulation of peripheral nerve,” Biophys. J.93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C.-P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J.94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cardiovasc. Res. (2)

B. Sankova, J. Benes, E. Krejci, L. Dupays, M. Theveniau-Ruissy, L. Miquerol, and D. Sedmera, “The effect of connexin40 deficiency on ventricular conduction system function during development,” Cardiovasc. Res.95(4), 469–479 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Eloff, D. L. Lerner, K. A. Yamada, R. B. Schuessler, J. E. Saffitz, and D. S. Rosenbaum, “High resolution optical mapping reveals conduction slowing in connexin43 deficient mice,” Cardiovasc. Res.51(4), 681–690 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Circ Cardiovasc Genet (1)

J. T. Granados-Riveron and J. D. Brook, “The impact of mechanical forces in heart morphogenesis,” Circ Cardiovasc Genet5(1), 132–142 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Circ. Res. (2)

I. R. Efimov, V. P. Nikolski, and G. Salama, “Optical imaging of the heart,” Circ. Res.95(1), 21–33 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Reckova, C. Rosengarten, A. deAlmeida, C. P. Stanley, A. Wessels, R. G. Gourdie, R. P. Thompson, and D. Sedmera, “Hemodynamics is a key epigenetic factor in development of the cardiac conduction system,” Circ. Res.93(1), 77–85 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Circulation (2)

M. E. Josephson, L. N. Horowitz, A. Farshidi, J. F. Spear, J. A. Kastor, and E. N. Moore, “Recurrent sustained ventricular tachycardia. 2. Endocardial mapping,” Circulation57(3), 440–447 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, W. B. Borden, D. M. Bravata, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, V. J. Howard, M. D. Huffman, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisabeth, D. Magid, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, D. K. McGuire, E. R. Mohler, C. S. Moy, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, P. J. Schreiner, P. D. Sorlie, J. Stein, T. N. Turan, S. S. Virani, N. D. Wong, D. Woo, M. B. Turner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation127(1), e6–e245 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dev. Dyn. (1)

F. Rothenberg, M. Watanabe, B. Eloff, and D. Rosenbaum, “Emerging patterns of cardiac conduction in the chick embryo: waveform analysis with photodiode array-based optical imaging,” Dev. Dyn.233(2), 456–465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Development (1)

S. Rentschler, D. M. Vaidya, H. Tamaddon, K. Degenhardt, D. Sassoon, G. E. Morley, J. Jalife, and G. I. Fishman, “Visualization and functional characterization of the developing murine cardiac conduction system,” Development128(10), 1785–1792 (2001).
[PubMed]

Europace (1)

J. P. P. Smits, M. W. Veldkamp, and A. A. M. Wilde, “Mechanisms of inherited cardiac conduction disease,” Europace7(2), 122–137 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

D. B. McCreery, W. F. Agnew, T. G. Yuen, and L. Bullara, “Charge density and charge per phase as cofactors in neural injury induced by electrical stimulation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.37(10), 996–1001 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Images Paediatr. Cardiol. (1)

D. Friedman, Lj. Duncanson, J. Glickstein, and J. Buyon, “A review of congenital heart block,” Images Paediatr. Cardiol.5(3), 36–48 (2003).
[PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. P. Gordon, R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. P. S. Porto, and J. R. Whinnery, “Long-Transient Effects in Lasers with Inserted Liquid Samples,” J. Appl. Phys.36(1), 3 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

J. Wells, C. Kao, E. D. Jansen, P. Konrad, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Application of infrared light for in vivo neural stimulation,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(6), 064003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Endourol. (1)

N. M. Fried, G. A. Lagoda, N. J. Scott, L.-M. Su, and A. L. Burnett, “Noncontact stimulation of the cavernous nerves in the rat prostate using a tunable-wavelength thulium fiber laser,” J. Endourol.22(3), 409–414 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Membr. Biol. (1)

L. M. Loew, L. B. Cohen, J. Dix, E. N. Fluhler, V. Montana, G. Salama, and J. Y. Wu, “A naphthyl analog of the aminostyryl pyridinium class of potentiometric membrane dyes shows consistent sensitivity in a variety of tissue, cell, and model membrane preparations,” J. Membr. Biol.130(1), 1–10 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Morphol. (1)

V. Hamburger and H. L. Hamilton, “A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo,” J. Morphol.88(1), 49–92 (1951).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neural Eng. (2)

C. R. Butson and C. C. McIntyre, “Role of electrode design on the volume of tissue activated during deep brain stimulation,” J. Neural Eng.3(1), 1–8 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Peterson and D. J. Tyler, “Motor neuron activation in peripheral nerves using infrared neural stimulation,” J. Neural Eng.11(1), 016001 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Physiol. (4)

S. M. Rajguru, C.-P. Richter, A. I. Matic, G. R. Holstein, S. M. Highstein, G. M. Dittami, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Infrared photostimulation of the crista ampullaris,” J. Physiol.589(6), 1283–1294 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Dittami, S. M. Rajguru, R. A. Lasher, R. W. Hitchcock, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Intracellular calcium transients evoked by pulsed infrared radiation in neonatal cardiomyocytes,” J. Physiol.589(6), 1295–1306 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Weidmann, “The electrical constants of Purkinje fibres,” J. Physiol.118(3), 348–360 (1952).
[PubMed]

S. Weidmann, “Electrical constants of trabecular muscle from mammalian heart,” J. Physiol.210(4), 1041–1054 (1970).
[PubMed]

Microsc. Microanal. (1)

D. Sedmera, M. Reckova, C. Rosengarten, M. I. Torres, R. G. Gourdie, and R. P. Thompson, “Optical mapping of electrical activation in the developing heart,” Microsc. Microanal.11(3), 209–215 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mol. Genet. Genomics (1)

M. L. Rein and J. M. Deussing, “The optogenetic (r)evolution,” Mol. Genet. Genomics287(2), 95–109 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat Commun (1)

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C.-P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat Commun3, 736 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

T. Bruegmann, D. Malan, M. Hesse, T. Beiert, C. J. Fuegemann, B. K. Fleischmann, and P. Sasse, “Optogenetic control of heart muscle in vitro and in vivo,” Nat. Methods7(11), 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Neurosci. (1)

E. S. Boyden, F. Zhang, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, and K. Deisseroth, “Millisecond-timescale, genetically targeted optical control of neural activity,” Nat. Neurosci.8(9), 1263–1268 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuroimage (1)

J. M. Cayce, R. M. Friedman, G. Chen, E. D. Jansen, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and A. W. Roe, “Infrared neural stimulation of primary visual cortex in non-human primates,” Neuroimage84, 181–190 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol. (1)

S. Lévy, B. Pouget, J. Clementy, M. Bemurat, and H. Bricaud, “Pacing-induced alternate Wenckebach periods: incidence and clinical significance,” Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol.2(6), 614–623 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physiol. Rev. (1)

K. Kamino, “Optical approaches to ontogeny of electrical activity and related functional organization during early heart development,” Physiol. Rev.71(1), 53–91 (1991).
[PubMed]

PLoS ONE (1)

A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, H. K. Young, B. Badofsky, S. M. Rajguru, S. Stock, and C.-P. Richter, “Behavioral and electrophysiological responses evoked by chronic infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea,” PLoS ONE8(3), e58189 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (3)

N. C. Chi, M. Bussen, K. Brand-Arzamendi, C. Ding, J. E. Olgin, R. M. Shaw, G. R. Martin, and D. Y. R. Stainier, “Cardiac conduction is required to preserve cardiac chamber morphology,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(33), 14662–14667 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Radisic, H. Park, H. Shing, T. Consi, F. J. Schoen, R. Langer, L. E. Freed, and G. Vunjak-Novakovic, “Functional assembly of engineered myocardium by electrical stimulation of cardiac myocytes cultured on scaffolds,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(52), 18129–18134 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Nagel, T. Szellas, W. Huhn, S. Kateriya, N. Adeishvili, P. Berthold, D. Ollig, P. Hegemann, and E. Bamberg, “Channelrhodopsin-2, a directly light-gated cation-selective membrane channel,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(24), 13940–13945 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. (1)

A. A. Werdich, A. Brzezinski, D. Jeyaraj, M. Khaled Sabeh, E. Ficker, X. Wan, B. M. McDermott, C. A. Macrae, and D. S. Rosenbaum, “The zebrafish as a novel animal model to study the molecular mechanisms of mechano-electrical feedback in the heart,” Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol.110(2-3), 154–165 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

M. Bressan, G. Liu, and T. Mikawa, “Early mesodermal cues assign avian cardiac pacemaker fate potential in a tertiary heart field,” Science340(6133), 744–748 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MP4 (3451 KB)     
» Media 2: MP4 (3805 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics