Abstract

We used a confocal adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) to image the retina of subjects with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). To improve visualization of different retinal features, the size and alignment of the confocal aperture were varied. The inner retinal layers contained clearly visualized retinal vessels. In diabetic subjects there was extensive capillary remodeling despite the subjects having only mild or moderate NPDR. Details of the retinal microvasculature were readily imaged with a larger confocal aperture. Hard exudates were observed with the AOSLO in all imaging modes. Photoreceptor layer images showed regions of bright cones and dark areas, corresponding in location to overlying vascular abnormalities and retinal edema. Clinically undetected intraretinal vessel remodeling and varying blood flow patterns were found. Perifoveal capillary diameters were larger in the diabetic subjects (p<0.01), and small arteriolar walls were thickened, based on wall to lumen measurements (p<.05). The results suggest that existing clinical classifications based on lower magnification clinical assessment may not adequately measure key vascular differences among individuals with NPDR.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (6)

G. G. Deák and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the Parafoveal Capillary Network in Diabetes,” Curr. Diab. Rep. 13(4), 469–475 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, M. Stirpe, and G. Lombardo, “Analysis of retinal capillaries in patients with type 1 diabetes and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy using adaptive optics imaging,” Retina 33(8), 1630–1639 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. Chui, T. J. Gast, and S. A. Burns, “Imaging of vascular wall fine structure in the human retina using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(10), 7115–7124 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Ikram, C. Y. Cheung, M. Lorenzi, R. Klein, T. L. Z. Jones, T. Y. Wong, N. J. W. Retinal, and NIH/JDRF Workshop on Retinal Biomarker for Diabetes Group, “Retinal Vascular Caliber as a Biomarker for Diabetes Microvascular Complications,” Diabetes Care 36(3), 750–759 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, T. J. Gast, and S. A. Burns, “Imaging of Vascular Wall Fine Structure in the Human Retina Using Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(10), 7115–7124 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Scoles, Y. N. Sulai, and A. Dubra, “In vivo dark-field imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium cell mosaic,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(9), 1710–1723 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (9)

T. Y. P. Chui, D. A. Vannasdale, and S. A. Burns, “The use of forward scatter to improve retinal vascular imaging with an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(10), 2537–2549 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bedggood and A. Metha, “Direct visualization and characterization of erythrocyte flow in human retinal capillaries,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(12), 3264–3277 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. D. Nguyen, D. M. Brown, D. M. Marcus, D. S. Boyer, S. Patel, L. Feiner, A. Gibson, J. Sy, A. C. Rundle, J. J. Hopkins, R. G. Rubio, J. S. Ehrlich, and RISE and RIDE Research Group, “Ranibizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema: Results from 2 Phase III Randomized Trials: RISE and RIDE,” Ophthalmology 119(4), 789–801 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Antonetti, R. Klein, and T. W. Gardner, “Diabetic Retinopathy,” N. Engl. J. Med. 366(13), 1227–1239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. R. Burrows, I. A. Hora, Y. F. Li, and J. B. Saaddine, “Self-Reported Visual Impairment Among Persons With Diagnosed Diabetes-United States, 1997-2010 (Reprinted from MMWR, vol 60, pg 1549-1553, 2011),” JAMA 307, 25–27 (2012).

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, B. J. Lujan, R. N. Johnson, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Subclinical Capillary Changes in Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), E692–E703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zambelli-Weiner, J. E. Crews, and D. S. Friedman, “Disparities in Adult Vision Health in the United States,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 154(6Suppl), S23–S30 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Huang, X. Qi, T. Y. Chui, Z. Zhong, and S. A. Burns, “A clinical planning module for adaptive optics SLO imaging,” Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry. 89, 593–601 (2012).

T. Y. P. Chui, Z. Y. Zhong, H. X. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Foveal Avascular Zone and Its Relationship to Foveal Pit Shape,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), 602–610 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (11)

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, S. Manzanera, S. Barez, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Disruption of the Retinal Parafoveal Capillary Network in Type 2 Diabetes before the Onset of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(12), 9257–9266 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tam and A. Roorda, “Speed quantification and tracking of moving objects in adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(3), 036002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, J. Bruestle, R. S. Jonnal, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging Retinal Capillaries Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography and Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(9), 6292–6299 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Zhong, H. X. Song, T. Y. P. Chui, B. L. Petrig, and S. A. Burns, “Noninvasive Measurements and Analysis of Blood Velocity Profiles in Human Retinal Vessels,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(7), 4151–4157 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Popovic, P. Knutsson, J. Thaung, M. Owner-Petersen, and J. Sjöstrand, “Noninvasive Imaging of Human Foveal Capillary Network Using Dual-Conjugate Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(5), 2649–2655 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Song, T. Y. Chui, Z. Zhong, A. E. Elsner, and S. A. Burns, “Variation of cone photoreceptor packing density with retinal eccentricity and age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(10), 7376–7384 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, Z. Y. Zhong, and S. A. Burns, “The relationship between peripapillary crescent and axial length: Implications for differential eye growth,” Vision Res. 51(19), 2132–2138 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, R. S. Jonnal, Q. Wang, S. Y. Lee, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging retinal nerve fiber bundles using optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics,” Vision Res. 51(16), 1835–1844 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. Yamanari, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “Comprehensive in vivo micro-vascular imaging of the human eye by dual-beam-scan Doppler optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1271–1283 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubra, Y. Sulai, J. L. Norris, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, D. R. Williams, and J. Carroll, “Noninvasive imaging of the human rod photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 1864–1876 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Zou, X. F. Qi, and S. A. Burns, “Woofer-tweeter adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopic imaging based on Lagrange-multiplier damped least-squares algorithm,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 1986–2004 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

R. D. Ferguson, Z. Y. Zhong, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. H. Patel, C. Deng, W. Y. Zou, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with integrated wide-field retinal imaging and tracking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 265–277 (2010).

L. An, J. Qin, and R. K. Wang, “Ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography for in vivo imaging of microcirculations within human skin tissue beds,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8220–8228 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Rossi and A. Roorda, “The relationship between visual resolution and cone spacing in the human fovea,” Nat. Neurosci. 13(2), 156–157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Z. Zhang, J. B. Saaddine, C. F. Chou, M. F. Cotch, Y. J. Cheng, L. S. Geiss, E. W. Gregg, A. L. Albright, B. E. K. Klein, and R. Klein, “Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in the United States, 2005-2008,” JAMA 304(6), 649–656 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Scholl, J. Kirchhof, and A. J. Augustin, “Pathophysiology of Macular Edema,” Ophthalmologica 224(Suppl 1), 8–15 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2008 (6)

2007 (2)

A. Roorda, Y. H. Zhang, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of the RPE mosaic in eyes with retinal disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(5), 2297–2303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Jonnal, J. Rha, Y. Zhang, B. Cense, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “In vivo functional imaging of human cone photoreceptors,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16141–16160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(5), 2080–2092 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: An alternate cause of color blindness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(22), 8461–8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Kempen, B. J. O’Colmain, M. C. Leske, S. M. Haffner, R. Klein, S. E. Moss, H. R. Taylor, R. F. Hamman, S. K. West, J. J. Wang, N. G. Congdon, D. S. Friedman, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 552–563 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

A. Roorda, A. B. Metha, P. Lennie, and D. R. Williams, “Packing arrangement of the three cone classes in primate retina,” Vision Res. 41(10-11), 1291–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, “Detecting AMD with Multiply Scattered Light Tomography,” Int. Ophthalmol. 23(4/6), 245–250 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

C. C. Bailey, J. M. Sparrow, R. H. B. Grey, and H. Cheng, “The National Diabetic Retinopathy Laser Treatment Audit. I. Maculopathy,” Eye (Lond.) 12(1), 69–76 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, “Infrared imaging of sub-retinal structures in the human ocular fundus,” Vision Res. 36(1), 191–205 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

A. Garner, “Histopathology of diabetic retinopathy in man,” Eye (Lond.) 7(2), 250–253 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group, “Grading Diabetic Retinopathy from Stereoscopic Color Fundus Photographs--An Extension of the Modified Airlie House Classification. ETDRS Report Number 10,” Ophthalmology 98(5Suppl), 786–806 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

D. R. Abrahamson, “Recent Studies On The Structure And Pathology Of Basement Membranes,” J. Pathol. 149(4), 257–278 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (2)

G. de Venecia, M. Davis, and R. Engerman, “Clinicopathologic correlations in diabetic retinopathy. I. Histology and fluorescein angiography of microaneurysms,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 94(10), 1766–1773 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. S. R. Group and The Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group, “Preliminary report on effects of photocoagulation therapy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 81(4), 383–396 (1976).
[PubMed]

Abrahamson, D. R.

D. R. Abrahamson, “Recent Studies On The Structure And Pathology Of Basement Membranes,” J. Pathol. 149(4), 257–278 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adams, A. J.

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, B. J. Lujan, R. N. Johnson, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Subclinical Capillary Changes in Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), E692–E703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, S. Manzanera, S. Barez, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Disruption of the Retinal Parafoveal Capillary Network in Type 2 Diabetes before the Onset of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(12), 9257–9266 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albright, A. L.

X. Z. Zhang, J. B. Saaddine, C. F. Chou, M. F. Cotch, Y. J. Cheng, L. S. Geiss, E. W. Gregg, A. L. Albright, B. E. K. Klein, and R. Klein, “Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in the United States, 2005-2008,” JAMA 304(6), 649–656 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altaweel, M. M.

D. J. Browning, M. M. Altaweel, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, I. U. Scott, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Diabetic Macular Edema: What Is Focal and What Is Diffuse?” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 146(5), 649–655 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

An, L.

Antonetti, D. A.

D. A. Antonetti, R. Klein, and T. W. Gardner, “Diabetic Retinopathy,” N. Engl. J. Med. 366(13), 1227–1239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Augustin, A. J.

S. Scholl, J. Kirchhof, and A. J. Augustin, “Pathophysiology of Macular Edema,” Ophthalmologica 224(Suppl 1), 8–15 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bailey, C. C.

C. C. Bailey, J. M. Sparrow, R. H. B. Grey, and H. Cheng, “The National Diabetic Retinopathy Laser Treatment Audit. I. Maculopathy,” Eye (Lond.) 12(1), 69–76 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barez, S.

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, S. Manzanera, S. Barez, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Disruption of the Retinal Parafoveal Capillary Network in Type 2 Diabetes before the Onset of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(12), 9257–9266 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bearse, M. A.

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, B. J. Lujan, R. N. Johnson, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Subclinical Capillary Changes in Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), E692–E703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, S. Manzanera, S. Barez, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Disruption of the Retinal Parafoveal Capillary Network in Type 2 Diabetes before the Onset of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(12), 9257–9266 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beck, F.

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, “Detecting AMD with Multiply Scattered Light Tomography,” Int. Ophthalmol. 23(4/6), 245–250 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bedggood, P.

Bhagat, N.

N. Bhagat, R. A. Grigorian, A. Tutela, and M. A. Zarbin, “Diabetic Macular Edema: Pathogenesis and Treatment,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 54(1), 1–32 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyer, D. S.

Q. D. Nguyen, D. M. Brown, D. M. Marcus, D. S. Boyer, S. Patel, L. Feiner, A. Gibson, J. Sy, A. C. Rundle, J. J. Hopkins, R. G. Rubio, J. S. Ehrlich, and RISE and RIDE Research Group, “Ranibizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema: Results from 2 Phase III Randomized Trials: RISE and RIDE,” Ophthalmology 119(4), 789–801 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bressler, N. M.

D. J. Browning, M. M. Altaweel, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, I. U. Scott, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Diabetic Macular Edema: What Is Focal and What Is Diffuse?” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 146(5), 649–655 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bressler, S. B.

D. J. Browning, M. M. Altaweel, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, I. U. Scott, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Diabetic Macular Edema: What Is Focal and What Is Diffuse?” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 146(5), 649–655 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, D. M.

Q. D. Nguyen, D. M. Brown, D. M. Marcus, D. S. Boyer, S. Patel, L. Feiner, A. Gibson, J. Sy, A. C. Rundle, J. J. Hopkins, R. G. Rubio, J. S. Ehrlich, and RISE and RIDE Research Group, “Ranibizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema: Results from 2 Phase III Randomized Trials: RISE and RIDE,” Ophthalmology 119(4), 789–801 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Browning, D. J.

D. J. Browning, M. M. Altaweel, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, I. U. Scott, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Diabetic Macular Edema: What Is Focal and What Is Diffuse?” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 146(5), 649–655 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruestle, J.

Q. Wang, O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, J. Bruestle, R. S. Jonnal, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging Retinal Capillaries Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography and Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(9), 6292–6299 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burns, S. A.

T. Y. Chui, T. J. Gast, and S. A. Burns, “Imaging of vascular wall fine structure in the human retina using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(10), 7115–7124 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, T. J. Gast, and S. A. Burns, “Imaging of Vascular Wall Fine Structure in the Human Retina Using Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(10), 7115–7124 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, Z. Y. Zhong, H. X. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Foveal Avascular Zone and Its Relationship to Foveal Pit Shape,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), 602–610 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, D. A. Vannasdale, and S. A. Burns, “The use of forward scatter to improve retinal vascular imaging with an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(10), 2537–2549 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Huang, X. Qi, T. Y. Chui, Z. Zhong, and S. A. Burns, “A clinical planning module for adaptive optics SLO imaging,” Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry. 89, 593–601 (2012).

T. Y. P. Chui, Z. Y. Zhong, and S. A. Burns, “The relationship between peripapillary crescent and axial length: Implications for differential eye growth,” Vision Res. 51(19), 2132–2138 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Song, T. Y. Chui, Z. Zhong, A. E. Elsner, and S. A. Burns, “Variation of cone photoreceptor packing density with retinal eccentricity and age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(10), 7376–7384 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Zou, X. F. Qi, and S. A. Burns, “Woofer-tweeter adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopic imaging based on Lagrange-multiplier damped least-squares algorithm,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 1986–2004 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Zhong, H. X. Song, T. Y. P. Chui, B. L. Petrig, and S. A. Burns, “Noninvasive Measurements and Analysis of Blood Velocity Profiles in Human Retinal Vessels,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(7), 4151–4157 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Ferguson, Z. Y. Zhong, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. H. Patel, C. Deng, W. Y. Zou, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with integrated wide-field retinal imaging and tracking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 265–277 (2010).

Z. Y. Zhong, B. L. Petrig, X. F. Qi, and S. A. Burns, “In vivo measurement of erythrocyte velocity and retinal blood flow using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12746–12756 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zou, X. Qi, and S. A. Burns, “Wavefront-aberration sorting and correction for a dual-deformable-mirror adaptive-optics system,” Opt. Lett. 33(22), 2602–2604 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, H. X. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive-optics imaging of human cone photoreceptor distribution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(12), 3021–3029 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, “Detecting AMD with Multiply Scattered Light Tomography,” Int. Ophthalmol. 23(4/6), 245–250 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, “Infrared imaging of sub-retinal structures in the human ocular fundus,” Vision Res. 36(1), 191–205 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burrows, N. R.

N. R. Burrows, I. A. Hora, Y. F. Li, and J. B. Saaddine, “Self-Reported Visual Impairment Among Persons With Diagnosed Diabetes-United States, 1997-2010 (Reprinted from MMWR, vol 60, pg 1549-1553, 2011),” JAMA 307, 25–27 (2012).

Carroll, J.

A. Dubra, Y. Sulai, J. L. Norris, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, D. R. Williams, and J. Carroll, “Noninvasive imaging of the human rod photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 1864–1876 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: An alternate cause of color blindness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(22), 8461–8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, R. S. Jonnal, Q. Wang, S. Y. Lee, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging retinal nerve fiber bundles using optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics,” Vision Res. 51(16), 1835–1844 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, J. Bruestle, R. S. Jonnal, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging Retinal Capillaries Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography and Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(9), 6292–6299 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Jonnal, J. Rha, Y. Zhang, B. Cense, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “In vivo functional imaging of human cone photoreceptors,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16141–16160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, H.

C. C. Bailey, J. M. Sparrow, R. H. B. Grey, and H. Cheng, “The National Diabetic Retinopathy Laser Treatment Audit. I. Maculopathy,” Eye (Lond.) 12(1), 69–76 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y. J.

X. Z. Zhang, J. B. Saaddine, C. F. Chou, M. F. Cotch, Y. J. Cheng, L. S. Geiss, E. W. Gregg, A. L. Albright, B. E. K. Klein, and R. Klein, “Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in the United States, 2005-2008,” JAMA 304(6), 649–656 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheung, C. Y.

M. K. Ikram, C. Y. Cheung, M. Lorenzi, R. Klein, T. L. Z. Jones, T. Y. Wong, N. J. W. Retinal, and NIH/JDRF Workshop on Retinal Biomarker for Diabetes Group, “Retinal Vascular Caliber as a Biomarker for Diabetes Microvascular Complications,” Diabetes Care 36(3), 750–759 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, S. S.

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(5), 2080–2092 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chou, C. F.

X. Z. Zhang, J. B. Saaddine, C. F. Chou, M. F. Cotch, Y. J. Cheng, L. S. Geiss, E. W. Gregg, A. L. Albright, B. E. K. Klein, and R. Klein, “Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in the United States, 2005-2008,” JAMA 304(6), 649–656 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chui, T. Y.

T. Y. Chui, T. J. Gast, and S. A. Burns, “Imaging of vascular wall fine structure in the human retina using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(10), 7115–7124 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Huang, X. Qi, T. Y. Chui, Z. Zhong, and S. A. Burns, “A clinical planning module for adaptive optics SLO imaging,” Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry. 89, 593–601 (2012).

H. Song, T. Y. Chui, Z. Zhong, A. E. Elsner, and S. A. Burns, “Variation of cone photoreceptor packing density with retinal eccentricity and age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(10), 7376–7384 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chui, T. Y. P.

T. Y. P. Chui, T. J. Gast, and S. A. Burns, “Imaging of Vascular Wall Fine Structure in the Human Retina Using Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(10), 7115–7124 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, D. A. Vannasdale, and S. A. Burns, “The use of forward scatter to improve retinal vascular imaging with an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(10), 2537–2549 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, Z. Y. Zhong, H. X. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Foveal Avascular Zone and Its Relationship to Foveal Pit Shape,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), 602–610 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Zhong, H. X. Song, T. Y. P. Chui, B. L. Petrig, and S. A. Burns, “Noninvasive Measurements and Analysis of Blood Velocity Profiles in Human Retinal Vessels,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(7), 4151–4157 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, Z. Y. Zhong, and S. A. Burns, “The relationship between peripapillary crescent and axial length: Implications for differential eye growth,” Vision Res. 51(19), 2132–2138 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, H. X. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive-optics imaging of human cone photoreceptor distribution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(12), 3021–3029 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Congdon, N. G.

J. H. Kempen, B. J. O’Colmain, M. C. Leske, S. M. Haffner, R. Klein, S. E. Moss, H. R. Taylor, R. F. Hamman, S. K. West, J. J. Wang, N. G. Congdon, D. S. Friedman, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 552–563 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, R. F.

Cotch, M. F.

X. Z. Zhang, J. B. Saaddine, C. F. Chou, M. F. Cotch, Y. J. Cheng, L. S. Geiss, E. W. Gregg, A. L. Albright, B. E. K. Klein, and R. Klein, “Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in the United States, 2005-2008,” JAMA 304(6), 649–656 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crews, J. E.

A. Zambelli-Weiner, J. E. Crews, and D. S. Friedman, “Disparities in Adult Vision Health in the United States,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 154(6Suppl), S23–S30 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, M.

G. de Venecia, M. Davis, and R. Engerman, “Clinicopathologic correlations in diabetic retinopathy. I. Histology and fluorescein angiography of microaneurysms,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 94(10), 1766–1773 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Venecia, G.

G. de Venecia, M. Davis, and R. Engerman, “Clinicopathologic correlations in diabetic retinopathy. I. Histology and fluorescein angiography of microaneurysms,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 94(10), 1766–1773 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deák, G. G.

G. G. Deák and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the Parafoveal Capillary Network in Diabetes,” Curr. Diab. Rep. 13(4), 469–475 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delori, F. C.

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, “Infrared imaging of sub-retinal structures in the human ocular fundus,” Vision Res. 36(1), 191–205 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deng, C.

R. D. Ferguson, Z. Y. Zhong, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. H. Patel, C. Deng, W. Y. Zou, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with integrated wide-field retinal imaging and tracking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 265–277 (2010).

Dhamdhere, K. P.

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, B. J. Lujan, R. N. Johnson, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Subclinical Capillary Changes in Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), E692–E703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, S. Manzanera, S. Barez, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Disruption of the Retinal Parafoveal Capillary Network in Type 2 Diabetes before the Onset of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(12), 9257–9266 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doble, N.

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(5), 2080–2092 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dreher, A. W.

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, “Detecting AMD with Multiply Scattered Light Tomography,” Int. Ophthalmol. 23(4/6), 245–250 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubis, A. M.

Dubra, A.

Ducoli, P.

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, M. Stirpe, and G. Lombardo, “Analysis of retinal capillaries in patients with type 1 diabetes and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy using adaptive optics imaging,” Retina 33(8), 1630–1639 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duncan, J. L.

A. Roorda, Y. H. Zhang, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of the RPE mosaic in eyes with retinal disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(5), 2297–2303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ehrlich, J. S.

Q. D. Nguyen, D. M. Brown, D. M. Marcus, D. S. Boyer, S. Patel, L. Feiner, A. Gibson, J. Sy, A. C. Rundle, J. J. Hopkins, R. G. Rubio, J. S. Ehrlich, and RISE and RIDE Research Group, “Ranibizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema: Results from 2 Phase III Randomized Trials: RISE and RIDE,” Ophthalmology 119(4), 789–801 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elsner, A. E.

H. Song, T. Y. Chui, Z. Zhong, A. E. Elsner, and S. A. Burns, “Variation of cone photoreceptor packing density with retinal eccentricity and age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(10), 7376–7384 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, “Detecting AMD with Multiply Scattered Light Tomography,” Int. Ophthalmol. 23(4/6), 245–250 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, “Infrared imaging of sub-retinal structures in the human ocular fundus,” Vision Res. 36(1), 191–205 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engerman, R.

G. de Venecia, M. Davis, and R. Engerman, “Clinicopathologic correlations in diabetic retinopathy. I. Histology and fluorescein angiography of microaneurysms,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 94(10), 1766–1773 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feiner, L.

Q. D. Nguyen, D. M. Brown, D. M. Marcus, D. S. Boyer, S. Patel, L. Feiner, A. Gibson, J. Sy, A. C. Rundle, J. J. Hopkins, R. G. Rubio, J. S. Ehrlich, and RISE and RIDE Research Group, “Ranibizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema: Results from 2 Phase III Randomized Trials: RISE and RIDE,” Ophthalmology 119(4), 789–801 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferguson, R. D.

R. D. Ferguson, Z. Y. Zhong, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. H. Patel, C. Deng, W. Y. Zou, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with integrated wide-field retinal imaging and tracking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 265–277 (2010).

Fingler, J.

Fraser, S. E.

Friedman, D. S.

A. Zambelli-Weiner, J. E. Crews, and D. S. Friedman, “Disparities in Adult Vision Health in the United States,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 154(6Suppl), S23–S30 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Kempen, B. J. O’Colmain, M. C. Leske, S. M. Haffner, R. Klein, S. E. Moss, H. R. Taylor, R. F. Hamman, S. K. West, J. J. Wang, N. G. Congdon, D. S. Friedman, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 552–563 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, W. H.

O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, R. S. Jonnal, Q. Wang, S. Y. Lee, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging retinal nerve fiber bundles using optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics,” Vision Res. 51(16), 1835–1844 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, J. Bruestle, R. S. Jonnal, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging Retinal Capillaries Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography and Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(9), 6292–6299 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Jonnal, J. Rha, Y. Zhang, B. Cense, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “In vivo functional imaging of human cone photoreceptors,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16141–16160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, T. W.

D. A. Antonetti, R. Klein, and T. W. Gardner, “Diabetic Retinopathy,” N. Engl. J. Med. 366(13), 1227–1239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Y. Chui, T. J. Gast, and S. A. Burns, “Imaging of vascular wall fine structure in the human retina using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(10), 7115–7124 (2013).
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T. Y. P. Chui, T. J. Gast, and S. A. Burns, “Imaging of Vascular Wall Fine Structure in the Human Retina Using Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(10), 7115–7124 (2013).
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Geiss, L. S.

X. Z. Zhang, J. B. Saaddine, C. F. Chou, M. F. Cotch, Y. J. Cheng, L. S. Geiss, E. W. Gregg, A. L. Albright, B. E. K. Klein, and R. Klein, “Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in the United States, 2005-2008,” JAMA 304(6), 649–656 (2010).
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Gibson, A.

Q. D. Nguyen, D. M. Brown, D. M. Marcus, D. S. Boyer, S. Patel, L. Feiner, A. Gibson, J. Sy, A. C. Rundle, J. J. Hopkins, R. G. Rubio, J. S. Ehrlich, and RISE and RIDE Research Group, “Ranibizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema: Results from 2 Phase III Randomized Trials: RISE and RIDE,” Ophthalmology 119(4), 789–801 (2012).
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Gregg, E. W.

X. Z. Zhang, J. B. Saaddine, C. F. Chou, M. F. Cotch, Y. J. Cheng, L. S. Geiss, E. W. Gregg, A. L. Albright, B. E. K. Klein, and R. Klein, “Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in the United States, 2005-2008,” JAMA 304(6), 649–656 (2010).
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Grey, R. H. B.

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N. Bhagat, R. A. Grigorian, A. Tutela, and M. A. Zarbin, “Diabetic Macular Edema: Pathogenesis and Treatment,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 54(1), 1–32 (2009).
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Haffner, S. M.

J. H. Kempen, B. J. O’Colmain, M. C. Leske, S. M. Haffner, R. Klein, S. E. Moss, H. R. Taylor, R. F. Hamman, S. K. West, J. J. Wang, N. G. Congdon, D. S. Friedman, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 552–563 (2004).
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J. H. Kempen, B. J. O’Colmain, M. C. Leske, S. M. Haffner, R. Klein, S. E. Moss, H. R. Taylor, R. F. Hamman, S. K. West, J. J. Wang, N. G. Congdon, D. S. Friedman, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 552–563 (2004).
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Hammer, D. X.

R. D. Ferguson, Z. Y. Zhong, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. H. Patel, C. Deng, W. Y. Zou, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with integrated wide-field retinal imaging and tracking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 265–277 (2010).

Hardy, J. L.

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(5), 2080–2092 (2006).
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Hofer, H.

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: An alternate cause of color blindness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(22), 8461–8466 (2004).
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Hopkins, J. J.

Q. D. Nguyen, D. M. Brown, D. M. Marcus, D. S. Boyer, S. Patel, L. Feiner, A. Gibson, J. Sy, A. C. Rundle, J. J. Hopkins, R. G. Rubio, J. S. Ehrlich, and RISE and RIDE Research Group, “Ranibizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema: Results from 2 Phase III Randomized Trials: RISE and RIDE,” Ophthalmology 119(4), 789–801 (2012).
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N. R. Burrows, I. A. Hora, Y. F. Li, and J. B. Saaddine, “Self-Reported Visual Impairment Among Persons With Diagnosed Diabetes-United States, 1997-2010 (Reprinted from MMWR, vol 60, pg 1549-1553, 2011),” JAMA 307, 25–27 (2012).

Huang, G.

G. Huang, X. Qi, T. Y. Chui, Z. Zhong, and S. A. Burns, “A clinical planning module for adaptive optics SLO imaging,” Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry. 89, 593–601 (2012).

Ikram, M. K.

M. K. Ikram, C. Y. Cheung, M. Lorenzi, R. Klein, T. L. Z. Jones, T. Y. Wong, N. J. W. Retinal, and NIH/JDRF Workshop on Retinal Biomarker for Diabetes Group, “Retinal Vascular Caliber as a Biomarker for Diabetes Microvascular Complications,” Diabetes Care 36(3), 750–759 (2013).
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Jaillon, F.

Johnson, R. N.

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, B. J. Lujan, R. N. Johnson, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Subclinical Capillary Changes in Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), E692–E703 (2012).
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Jones, S. M.

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(5), 2080–2092 (2006).
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Jones, T. L. Z.

M. K. Ikram, C. Y. Cheung, M. Lorenzi, R. Klein, T. L. Z. Jones, T. Y. Wong, N. J. W. Retinal, and NIH/JDRF Workshop on Retinal Biomarker for Diabetes Group, “Retinal Vascular Caliber as a Biomarker for Diabetes Microvascular Complications,” Diabetes Care 36(3), 750–759 (2013).
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Jonnal, R. S.

O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, R. S. Jonnal, Q. Wang, S. Y. Lee, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging retinal nerve fiber bundles using optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics,” Vision Res. 51(16), 1835–1844 (2011).
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Q. Wang, O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, J. Bruestle, R. S. Jonnal, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging Retinal Capillaries Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography and Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(9), 6292–6299 (2011).
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R. S. Jonnal, J. Rha, Y. Zhang, B. Cense, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “In vivo functional imaging of human cone photoreceptors,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16141–16160 (2007).
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Keltner, J. L.

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(5), 2080–2092 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kempen, J. H.

J. H. Kempen, B. J. O’Colmain, M. C. Leske, S. M. Haffner, R. Klein, S. E. Moss, H. R. Taylor, R. F. Hamman, S. K. West, J. J. Wang, N. G. Congdon, D. S. Friedman, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 552–563 (2004).
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S. Scholl, J. Kirchhof, and A. J. Augustin, “Pathophysiology of Macular Edema,” Ophthalmologica 224(Suppl 1), 8–15 (2010).
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Klein, B. E. K.

X. Z. Zhang, J. B. Saaddine, C. F. Chou, M. F. Cotch, Y. J. Cheng, L. S. Geiss, E. W. Gregg, A. L. Albright, B. E. K. Klein, and R. Klein, “Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in the United States, 2005-2008,” JAMA 304(6), 649–656 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klein, R.

M. K. Ikram, C. Y. Cheung, M. Lorenzi, R. Klein, T. L. Z. Jones, T. Y. Wong, N. J. W. Retinal, and NIH/JDRF Workshop on Retinal Biomarker for Diabetes Group, “Retinal Vascular Caliber as a Biomarker for Diabetes Microvascular Complications,” Diabetes Care 36(3), 750–759 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Antonetti, R. Klein, and T. W. Gardner, “Diabetic Retinopathy,” N. Engl. J. Med. 366(13), 1227–1239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Z. Zhang, J. B. Saaddine, C. F. Chou, M. F. Cotch, Y. J. Cheng, L. S. Geiss, E. W. Gregg, A. L. Albright, B. E. K. Klein, and R. Klein, “Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in the United States, 2005-2008,” JAMA 304(6), 649–656 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Kempen, B. J. O’Colmain, M. C. Leske, S. M. Haffner, R. Klein, S. E. Moss, H. R. Taylor, R. F. Hamman, S. K. West, J. J. Wang, N. G. Congdon, D. S. Friedman, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 552–563 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knutsson, P.

Z. Popovic, P. Knutsson, J. Thaung, M. Owner-Petersen, and J. Sjöstrand, “Noninvasive Imaging of Human Foveal Capillary Network Using Dual-Conjugate Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(5), 2649–2655 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kocaoglu, O. P.

Q. Wang, O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, J. Bruestle, R. S. Jonnal, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging Retinal Capillaries Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography and Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(9), 6292–6299 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, R. S. Jonnal, Q. Wang, S. Y. Lee, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging retinal nerve fiber bundles using optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics,” Vision Res. 51(16), 1835–1844 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. Y.

O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, R. S. Jonnal, Q. Wang, S. Y. Lee, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging retinal nerve fiber bundles using optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics,” Vision Res. 51(16), 1835–1844 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lennie, P.

A. Roorda, A. B. Metha, P. Lennie, and D. R. Williams, “Packing arrangement of the three cone classes in primate retina,” Vision Res. 41(10-11), 1291–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leske, M. C.

J. H. Kempen, B. J. O’Colmain, M. C. Leske, S. M. Haffner, R. Klein, S. E. Moss, H. R. Taylor, R. F. Hamman, S. K. West, J. J. Wang, N. G. Congdon, D. S. Friedman, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 552–563 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y. F.

N. R. Burrows, I. A. Hora, Y. F. Li, and J. B. Saaddine, “Self-Reported Visual Impairment Among Persons With Diagnosed Diabetes-United States, 1997-2010 (Reprinted from MMWR, vol 60, pg 1549-1553, 2011),” JAMA 307, 25–27 (2012).

Liang, J.

Lombardo, G.

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, M. Stirpe, and G. Lombardo, “Analysis of retinal capillaries in patients with type 1 diabetes and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy using adaptive optics imaging,” Retina 33(8), 1630–1639 (2013).
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Lombardo, M.

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, M. Stirpe, and G. Lombardo, “Analysis of retinal capillaries in patients with type 1 diabetes and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy using adaptive optics imaging,” Retina 33(8), 1630–1639 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lorenzi, M.

M. K. Ikram, C. Y. Cheung, M. Lorenzi, R. Klein, T. L. Z. Jones, T. Y. Wong, N. J. W. Retinal, and NIH/JDRF Workshop on Retinal Biomarker for Diabetes Group, “Retinal Vascular Caliber as a Biomarker for Diabetes Microvascular Complications,” Diabetes Care 36(3), 750–759 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lujan, B. J.

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, B. J. Lujan, R. N. Johnson, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Subclinical Capillary Changes in Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), E692–E703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Makita, S.

Manzanera, S.

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, S. Manzanera, S. Barez, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Disruption of the Retinal Parafoveal Capillary Network in Type 2 Diabetes before the Onset of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(12), 9257–9266 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcus, D. M.

Q. D. Nguyen, D. M. Brown, D. M. Marcus, D. S. Boyer, S. Patel, L. Feiner, A. Gibson, J. Sy, A. C. Rundle, J. J. Hopkins, R. G. Rubio, J. S. Ehrlich, and RISE and RIDE Research Group, “Ranibizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema: Results from 2 Phase III Randomized Trials: RISE and RIDE,” Ophthalmology 119(4), 789–801 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merigan, W. H.

J. I. W. Morgan, A. Dubra, R. Wolfe, W. H. Merigan, and D. R. Williams, “In Vivo Autofluorescence Imaging of the Human and Macaque Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Mosaic,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(3), 1350–1359 (2008).
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Metha, A.

Metha, A. B.

A. Roorda, A. B. Metha, P. Lennie, and D. R. Williams, “Packing arrangement of the three cone classes in primate retina,” Vision Res. 41(10-11), 1291–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, D. T.

Q. Wang, O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, J. Bruestle, R. S. Jonnal, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging Retinal Capillaries Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography and Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(9), 6292–6299 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, R. S. Jonnal, Q. Wang, S. Y. Lee, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging retinal nerve fiber bundles using optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics,” Vision Res. 51(16), 1835–1844 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Jonnal, J. Rha, Y. Zhang, B. Cense, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “In vivo functional imaging of human cone photoreceptors,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16141–16160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, “Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(11), 2884–2892 (1997).
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Miura, M.

Morgan, J. I. W.

J. I. W. Morgan, A. Dubra, R. Wolfe, W. H. Merigan, and D. R. Williams, “In Vivo Autofluorescence Imaging of the Human and Macaque Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Mosaic,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(3), 1350–1359 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moss, S. E.

J. H. Kempen, B. J. O’Colmain, M. C. Leske, S. M. Haffner, R. Klein, S. E. Moss, H. R. Taylor, R. F. Hamman, S. K. West, J. J. Wang, N. G. Congdon, D. S. Friedman, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 552–563 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mujat, M.

R. D. Ferguson, Z. Y. Zhong, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. H. Patel, C. Deng, W. Y. Zou, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with integrated wide-field retinal imaging and tracking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 265–277 (2010).

Neitz, J.

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: An alternate cause of color blindness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(22), 8461–8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neitz, M.

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: An alternate cause of color blindness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(22), 8461–8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, Q. D.

Q. D. Nguyen, D. M. Brown, D. M. Marcus, D. S. Boyer, S. Patel, L. Feiner, A. Gibson, J. Sy, A. C. Rundle, J. J. Hopkins, R. G. Rubio, J. S. Ehrlich, and RISE and RIDE Research Group, “Ranibizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema: Results from 2 Phase III Randomized Trials: RISE and RIDE,” Ophthalmology 119(4), 789–801 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norris, J. L.

O’Colmain, B. J.

J. H. Kempen, B. J. O’Colmain, M. C. Leske, S. M. Haffner, R. Klein, S. E. Moss, H. R. Taylor, R. F. Hamman, S. K. West, J. J. Wang, N. G. Congdon, D. S. Friedman, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 552–563 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olivier, S. S.

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(5), 2080–2092 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Owner-Petersen, M.

Z. Popovic, P. Knutsson, J. Thaung, M. Owner-Petersen, and J. Sjöstrand, “Noninvasive Imaging of Human Foveal Capillary Network Using Dual-Conjugate Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(5), 2649–2655 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parravano, M.

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, M. Stirpe, and G. Lombardo, “Analysis of retinal capillaries in patients with type 1 diabetes and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy using adaptive optics imaging,” Retina 33(8), 1630–1639 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, A. H.

R. D. Ferguson, Z. Y. Zhong, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. H. Patel, C. Deng, W. Y. Zou, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with integrated wide-field retinal imaging and tracking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 265–277 (2010).

Patel, S.

Q. D. Nguyen, D. M. Brown, D. M. Marcus, D. S. Boyer, S. Patel, L. Feiner, A. Gibson, J. Sy, A. C. Rundle, J. J. Hopkins, R. G. Rubio, J. S. Ehrlich, and RISE and RIDE Research Group, “Ranibizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema: Results from 2 Phase III Randomized Trials: RISE and RIDE,” Ophthalmology 119(4), 789–801 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrig, B. L.

Z. Y. Zhong, H. X. Song, T. Y. P. Chui, B. L. Petrig, and S. A. Burns, “Noninvasive Measurements and Analysis of Blood Velocity Profiles in Human Retinal Vessels,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(7), 4151–4157 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Zhong, B. L. Petrig, X. F. Qi, and S. A. Burns, “In vivo measurement of erythrocyte velocity and retinal blood flow using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12746–12756 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popovic, Z.

Z. Popovic, P. Knutsson, J. Thaung, M. Owner-Petersen, and J. Sjöstrand, “Noninvasive Imaging of Human Foveal Capillary Network Using Dual-Conjugate Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(5), 2649–2655 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, X.

G. Huang, X. Qi, T. Y. Chui, Z. Zhong, and S. A. Burns, “A clinical planning module for adaptive optics SLO imaging,” Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry. 89, 593–601 (2012).

W. Zou, X. Qi, and S. A. Burns, “Wavefront-aberration sorting and correction for a dual-deformable-mirror adaptive-optics system,” Opt. Lett. 33(22), 2602–2604 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, X. F.

Qin, J.

Retinal, N. J. W.

M. K. Ikram, C. Y. Cheung, M. Lorenzi, R. Klein, T. L. Z. Jones, T. Y. Wong, N. J. W. Retinal, and NIH/JDRF Workshop on Retinal Biomarker for Diabetes Group, “Retinal Vascular Caliber as a Biomarker for Diabetes Microvascular Complications,” Diabetes Care 36(3), 750–759 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rha, J.

Roorda, A.

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, B. J. Lujan, R. N. Johnson, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Subclinical Capillary Changes in Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), E692–E703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tam and A. Roorda, “Speed quantification and tracking of moving objects in adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(3), 036002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, S. Manzanera, S. Barez, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Disruption of the Retinal Parafoveal Capillary Network in Type 2 Diabetes before the Onset of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(12), 9257–9266 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Rossi and A. Roorda, “The relationship between visual resolution and cone spacing in the human fovea,” Nat. Neurosci. 13(2), 156–157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, Y. H. Zhang, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of the RPE mosaic in eyes with retinal disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(5), 2297–2303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, A. B. Metha, P. Lennie, and D. R. Williams, “Packing arrangement of the three cone classes in primate retina,” Vision Res. 41(10-11), 1291–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rossi, E. A.

E. A. Rossi and A. Roorda, “The relationship between visual resolution and cone spacing in the human fovea,” Nat. Neurosci. 13(2), 156–157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubio, R. G.

Q. D. Nguyen, D. M. Brown, D. M. Marcus, D. S. Boyer, S. Patel, L. Feiner, A. Gibson, J. Sy, A. C. Rundle, J. J. Hopkins, R. G. Rubio, J. S. Ehrlich, and RISE and RIDE Research Group, “Ranibizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema: Results from 2 Phase III Randomized Trials: RISE and RIDE,” Ophthalmology 119(4), 789–801 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rundle, A. C.

Q. D. Nguyen, D. M. Brown, D. M. Marcus, D. S. Boyer, S. Patel, L. Feiner, A. Gibson, J. Sy, A. C. Rundle, J. J. Hopkins, R. G. Rubio, J. S. Ehrlich, and RISE and RIDE Research Group, “Ranibizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema: Results from 2 Phase III Randomized Trials: RISE and RIDE,” Ophthalmology 119(4), 789–801 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saaddine, J. B.

N. R. Burrows, I. A. Hora, Y. F. Li, and J. B. Saaddine, “Self-Reported Visual Impairment Among Persons With Diagnosed Diabetes-United States, 1997-2010 (Reprinted from MMWR, vol 60, pg 1549-1553, 2011),” JAMA 307, 25–27 (2012).

X. Z. Zhang, J. B. Saaddine, C. F. Chou, M. F. Cotch, Y. J. Cheng, L. S. Geiss, E. W. Gregg, A. L. Albright, B. E. K. Klein, and R. Klein, “Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in the United States, 2005-2008,” JAMA 304(6), 649–656 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt-Erfurth, U.

G. G. Deák and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the Parafoveal Capillary Network in Diabetes,” Curr. Diab. Rep. 13(4), 469–475 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scholl, S.

S. Scholl, J. Kirchhof, and A. J. Augustin, “Pathophysiology of Macular Edema,” Ophthalmologica 224(Suppl 1), 8–15 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartz, D.

Scoles, D.

Scott, I. U.

D. J. Browning, M. M. Altaweel, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, I. U. Scott, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Diabetic Macular Edema: What Is Focal and What Is Diffuse?” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 146(5), 649–655 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serrao, S.

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, M. Stirpe, and G. Lombardo, “Analysis of retinal capillaries in patients with type 1 diabetes and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy using adaptive optics imaging,” Retina 33(8), 1630–1639 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sjöstrand, J.

Z. Popovic, P. Knutsson, J. Thaung, M. Owner-Petersen, and J. Sjöstrand, “Noninvasive Imaging of Human Foveal Capillary Network Using Dual-Conjugate Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(5), 2649–2655 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, H.

H. Song, T. Y. Chui, Z. Zhong, A. E. Elsner, and S. A. Burns, “Variation of cone photoreceptor packing density with retinal eccentricity and age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(10), 7376–7384 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, H. X.

T. Y. P. Chui, Z. Y. Zhong, H. X. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Foveal Avascular Zone and Its Relationship to Foveal Pit Shape,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), 602–610 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Zhong, H. X. Song, T. Y. P. Chui, B. L. Petrig, and S. A. Burns, “Noninvasive Measurements and Analysis of Blood Velocity Profiles in Human Retinal Vessels,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(7), 4151–4157 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, H. X. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive-optics imaging of human cone photoreceptor distribution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(12), 3021–3029 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sparrow, J. M.

C. C. Bailey, J. M. Sparrow, R. H. B. Grey, and H. Cheng, “The National Diabetic Retinopathy Laser Treatment Audit. I. Maculopathy,” Eye (Lond.) 12(1), 69–76 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stirpe, M.

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, M. Stirpe, and G. Lombardo, “Analysis of retinal capillaries in patients with type 1 diabetes and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy using adaptive optics imaging,” Retina 33(8), 1630–1639 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sulai, Y.

Sulai, Y. N.

Sy, J.

Q. D. Nguyen, D. M. Brown, D. M. Marcus, D. S. Boyer, S. Patel, L. Feiner, A. Gibson, J. Sy, A. C. Rundle, J. J. Hopkins, R. G. Rubio, J. S. Ehrlich, and RISE and RIDE Research Group, “Ranibizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema: Results from 2 Phase III Randomized Trials: RISE and RIDE,” Ophthalmology 119(4), 789–801 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tam, J.

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, B. J. Lujan, R. N. Johnson, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Subclinical Capillary Changes in Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), E692–E703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tam and A. Roorda, “Speed quantification and tracking of moving objects in adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(3), 036002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, S. Manzanera, S. Barez, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Disruption of the Retinal Parafoveal Capillary Network in Type 2 Diabetes before the Onset of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(12), 9257–9266 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, H. R.

J. H. Kempen, B. J. O’Colmain, M. C. Leske, S. M. Haffner, R. Klein, S. E. Moss, H. R. Taylor, R. F. Hamman, S. K. West, J. J. Wang, N. G. Congdon, D. S. Friedman, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 552–563 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thaung, J.

Z. Popovic, P. Knutsson, J. Thaung, M. Owner-Petersen, and J. Sjöstrand, “Noninvasive Imaging of Human Foveal Capillary Network Using Dual-Conjugate Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(5), 2649–2655 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tiruveedhula, P.

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, B. J. Lujan, R. N. Johnson, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Subclinical Capillary Changes in Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), E692–E703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, S. Manzanera, S. Barez, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Disruption of the Retinal Parafoveal Capillary Network in Type 2 Diabetes before the Onset of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(12), 9257–9266 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tornambe, P. E.

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, “Detecting AMD with Multiply Scattered Light Tomography,” Int. Ophthalmol. 23(4/6), 245–250 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tutela, A.

N. Bhagat, R. A. Grigorian, A. Tutela, and M. A. Zarbin, “Diabetic Macular Edema: Pathogenesis and Treatment,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 54(1), 1–32 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vannasdale, D. A.

Wang, J. J.

J. H. Kempen, B. J. O’Colmain, M. C. Leske, S. M. Haffner, R. Klein, S. E. Moss, H. R. Taylor, R. F. Hamman, S. K. West, J. J. Wang, N. G. Congdon, D. S. Friedman, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 552–563 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, R. S. Jonnal, Q. Wang, S. Y. Lee, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging retinal nerve fiber bundles using optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics,” Vision Res. 51(16), 1835–1844 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, J. Bruestle, R. S. Jonnal, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging Retinal Capillaries Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography and Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(9), 6292–6299 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

Weiter, J. J.

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, “Detecting AMD with Multiply Scattered Light Tomography,” Int. Ophthalmol. 23(4/6), 245–250 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, “Infrared imaging of sub-retinal structures in the human ocular fundus,” Vision Res. 36(1), 191–205 (1996).
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Werner, J. S.

J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, D. Schwartz, and S. E. Fraser, “Volumetric microvascular imaging of human retina using optical coherence tomography with a novel motion contrast technique,” Opt. Express 17(24), 22190–22200 (2009).
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S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(5), 2080–2092 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

West, S. K.

J. H. Kempen, B. J. O’Colmain, M. C. Leske, S. M. Haffner, R. Klein, S. E. Moss, H. R. Taylor, R. F. Hamman, S. K. West, J. J. Wang, N. G. Congdon, D. S. Friedman, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 552–563 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, D. R.

A. Dubra, Y. Sulai, J. L. Norris, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, D. R. Williams, and J. Carroll, “Noninvasive imaging of the human rod photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 1864–1876 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. W. Morgan, A. Dubra, R. Wolfe, W. H. Merigan, and D. R. Williams, “In Vivo Autofluorescence Imaging of the Human and Macaque Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Mosaic,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(3), 1350–1359 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: An alternate cause of color blindness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(22), 8461–8466 (2004).
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A. Roorda, A. B. Metha, P. Lennie, and D. R. Williams, “Packing arrangement of the three cone classes in primate retina,” Vision Res. 41(10-11), 1291–1306 (2001).
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J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, “Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(11), 2884–2892 (1997).
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Wolfe, R.

J. I. W. Morgan, A. Dubra, R. Wolfe, W. H. Merigan, and D. R. Williams, “In Vivo Autofluorescence Imaging of the Human and Macaque Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Mosaic,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(3), 1350–1359 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, T. Y.

M. K. Ikram, C. Y. Cheung, M. Lorenzi, R. Klein, T. L. Z. Jones, T. Y. Wong, N. J. W. Retinal, and NIH/JDRF Workshop on Retinal Biomarker for Diabetes Group, “Retinal Vascular Caliber as a Biomarker for Diabetes Microvascular Complications,” Diabetes Care 36(3), 750–759 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamanari, M.

Yasuno, Y.

Zambelli-Weiner, A.

A. Zambelli-Weiner, J. E. Crews, and D. S. Friedman, “Disparities in Adult Vision Health in the United States,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 154(6Suppl), S23–S30 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zarbin, M. A.

N. Bhagat, R. A. Grigorian, A. Tutela, and M. A. Zarbin, “Diabetic Macular Edema: Pathogenesis and Treatment,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 54(1), 1–32 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zhang, X. Z.

X. Z. Zhang, J. B. Saaddine, C. F. Chou, M. F. Cotch, Y. J. Cheng, L. S. Geiss, E. W. Gregg, A. L. Albright, B. E. K. Klein, and R. Klein, “Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in the United States, 2005-2008,” JAMA 304(6), 649–656 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Zhang, Y. H.

A. Roorda, Y. H. Zhang, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of the RPE mosaic in eyes with retinal disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(5), 2297–2303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhong, Z.

G. Huang, X. Qi, T. Y. Chui, Z. Zhong, and S. A. Burns, “A clinical planning module for adaptive optics SLO imaging,” Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry. 89, 593–601 (2012).

H. Song, T. Y. Chui, Z. Zhong, A. E. Elsner, and S. A. Burns, “Variation of cone photoreceptor packing density with retinal eccentricity and age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(10), 7376–7384 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhong, Z. Y.

T. Y. P. Chui, Z. Y. Zhong, H. X. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Foveal Avascular Zone and Its Relationship to Foveal Pit Shape,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), 602–610 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Zhong, H. X. Song, T. Y. P. Chui, B. L. Petrig, and S. A. Burns, “Noninvasive Measurements and Analysis of Blood Velocity Profiles in Human Retinal Vessels,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(7), 4151–4157 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, Z. Y. Zhong, and S. A. Burns, “The relationship between peripapillary crescent and axial length: Implications for differential eye growth,” Vision Res. 51(19), 2132–2138 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Ferguson, Z. Y. Zhong, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. H. Patel, C. Deng, W. Y. Zou, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with integrated wide-field retinal imaging and tracking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 265–277 (2010).

Z. Y. Zhong, B. L. Petrig, X. F. Qi, and S. A. Burns, “In vivo measurement of erythrocyte velocity and retinal blood flow using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12746–12756 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, Q.

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, “Detecting AMD with Multiply Scattered Light Tomography,” Int. Ophthalmol. 23(4/6), 245–250 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zou, W.

Zou, W. Y.

W. Y. Zou, X. F. Qi, and S. A. Burns, “Woofer-tweeter adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopic imaging based on Lagrange-multiplier damped least-squares algorithm,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 1986–2004 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Ferguson, Z. Y. Zhong, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. H. Patel, C. Deng, W. Y. Zou, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with integrated wide-field retinal imaging and tracking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 265–277 (2010).

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (3)

A. Zambelli-Weiner, J. E. Crews, and D. S. Friedman, “Disparities in Adult Vision Health in the United States,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 154(6Suppl), S23–S30 (2012).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (2)

J. H. Kempen, B. J. O’Colmain, M. C. Leske, S. M. Haffner, R. Klein, S. E. Moss, H. R. Taylor, R. F. Hamman, S. K. West, J. J. Wang, N. G. Congdon, D. S. Friedman, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 552–563 (2004).
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Biomed. Opt. Express (5)

Curr. Diab. Rep. (1)

G. G. Deák and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the Parafoveal Capillary Network in Diabetes,” Curr. Diab. Rep. 13(4), 469–475 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diabetes Care (1)

M. K. Ikram, C. Y. Cheung, M. Lorenzi, R. Klein, T. L. Z. Jones, T. Y. Wong, N. J. W. Retinal, and NIH/JDRF Workshop on Retinal Biomarker for Diabetes Group, “Retinal Vascular Caliber as a Biomarker for Diabetes Microvascular Complications,” Diabetes Care 36(3), 750–759 (2013).
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A. Garner, “Histopathology of diabetic retinopathy in man,” Eye (Lond.) 7(2), 250–253 (1993).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. Ophthalmol. (1)

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, “Detecting AMD with Multiply Scattered Light Tomography,” Int. Ophthalmol. 23(4/6), 245–250 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (10)

T. Y. Chui, T. J. Gast, and S. A. Burns, “Imaging of vascular wall fine structure in the human retina using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(10), 7115–7124 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, J. Bruestle, R. S. Jonnal, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging Retinal Capillaries Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography and Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(9), 6292–6299 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Zhong, H. X. Song, T. Y. P. Chui, B. L. Petrig, and S. A. Burns, “Noninvasive Measurements and Analysis of Blood Velocity Profiles in Human Retinal Vessels,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(7), 4151–4157 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Popovic, P. Knutsson, J. Thaung, M. Owner-Petersen, and J. Sjöstrand, “Noninvasive Imaging of Human Foveal Capillary Network Using Dual-Conjugate Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(5), 2649–2655 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, S. Manzanera, S. Barez, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Disruption of the Retinal Parafoveal Capillary Network in Type 2 Diabetes before the Onset of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(12), 9257–9266 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(5), 2080–2092 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Song, T. Y. Chui, Z. Zhong, A. E. Elsner, and S. A. Burns, “Variation of cone photoreceptor packing density with retinal eccentricity and age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(10), 7376–7384 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, Y. H. Zhang, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of the RPE mosaic in eyes with retinal disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(5), 2297–2303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. W. Morgan, A. Dubra, R. Wolfe, W. H. Merigan, and D. R. Williams, “In Vivo Autofluorescence Imaging of the Human and Macaque Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Mosaic,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(3), 1350–1359 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, T. J. Gast, and S. A. Burns, “Imaging of Vascular Wall Fine Structure in the Human Retina Using Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(10), 7115–7124 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

J. Tam and A. Roorda, “Speed quantification and tracking of moving objects in adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(3), 036002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

R. D. Ferguson, Z. Y. Zhong, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. H. Patel, C. Deng, W. Y. Zou, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with integrated wide-field retinal imaging and tracking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 265–277 (2010).

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, “Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(11), 2884–2892 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, H. X. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive-optics imaging of human cone photoreceptor distribution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(12), 3021–3029 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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N. R. Burrows, I. A. Hora, Y. F. Li, and J. B. Saaddine, “Self-Reported Visual Impairment Among Persons With Diagnosed Diabetes-United States, 1997-2010 (Reprinted from MMWR, vol 60, pg 1549-1553, 2011),” JAMA 307, 25–27 (2012).

X. Z. Zhang, J. B. Saaddine, C. F. Chou, M. F. Cotch, Y. J. Cheng, L. S. Geiss, E. W. Gregg, A. L. Albright, B. E. K. Klein, and R. Klein, “Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in the United States, 2005-2008,” JAMA 304(6), 649–656 (2010).
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N. Engl. J. Med. (1)

D. A. Antonetti, R. Klein, and T. W. Gardner, “Diabetic Retinopathy,” N. Engl. J. Med. 366(13), 1227–1239 (2012).
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Ophthalmologica (1)

S. Scholl, J. Kirchhof, and A. J. Augustin, “Pathophysiology of Macular Edema,” Ophthalmologica 224(Suppl 1), 8–15 (2010).
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Ophthalmology (2)

Q. D. Nguyen, D. M. Brown, D. M. Marcus, D. S. Boyer, S. Patel, L. Feiner, A. Gibson, J. Sy, A. C. Rundle, J. J. Hopkins, R. G. Rubio, J. S. Ehrlich, and RISE and RIDE Research Group, “Ranibizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema: Results from 2 Phase III Randomized Trials: RISE and RIDE,” Ophthalmology 119(4), 789–801 (2012).
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Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optom. Vis. Sci. (2)

T. Y. P. Chui, Z. Y. Zhong, H. X. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Foveal Avascular Zone and Its Relationship to Foveal Pit Shape,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), 602–610 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, B. J. Lujan, R. N. Johnson, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Subclinical Capillary Changes in Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), E692–E703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry. (1)

G. Huang, X. Qi, T. Y. Chui, Z. Zhong, and S. A. Burns, “A clinical planning module for adaptive optics SLO imaging,” Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry. 89, 593–601 (2012).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: An alternate cause of color blindness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(22), 8461–8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Retina (1)

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, M. Stirpe, and G. Lombardo, “Analysis of retinal capillaries in patients with type 1 diabetes and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy using adaptive optics imaging,” Retina 33(8), 1630–1639 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surv. Ophthalmol. (1)

N. Bhagat, R. A. Grigorian, A. Tutela, and M. A. Zarbin, “Diabetic Macular Edema: Pathogenesis and Treatment,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 54(1), 1–32 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (4)

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, “Infrared imaging of sub-retinal structures in the human ocular fundus,” Vision Res. 36(1), 191–205 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, A. B. Metha, P. Lennie, and D. R. Williams, “Packing arrangement of the three cone classes in primate retina,” Vision Res. 41(10-11), 1291–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, Z. Y. Zhong, and S. A. Burns, “The relationship between peripapillary crescent and axial length: Implications for differential eye growth,” Vision Res. 51(19), 2132–2138 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, R. S. Jonnal, Q. Wang, S. Y. Lee, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging retinal nerve fiber bundles using optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics,” Vision Res. 51(16), 1835–1844 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

M. Al-Latayfeh, P. S. Silva, J. K. Sun, and L. P. Aiello, “Antiangiogenic Therapy for Ischemic Retinopathies,” Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine 2 (2012).

T. J. Wolfensberger and Z. J. Gregor, “Macular Edema - Rationale for Therapy,” in Macular Edema: A Practical Approach, G. Coscas, J. CunhaVaz, A. Loewenstein, and G. Soubrane, eds. (2010), pp. 49–58.

Supplementary Material (5)

» Media 1: AVI (3588 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (2991 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (3986 KB)     
» Media 4: AVI (3986 KB)     
» Media 5: AVI (1391 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Retinal images from 35-year-old control subject (C 01), comparing a wide-field SLO en-face image, SDOCT cross section, and AOSLO high resolution montage. (A), 30 x 30 deg. wide-field SLO en-face image showing the region of interest. (B), SDOCT cross section, with the location as indicated by the black arrow in A. (C), Montage of AOSLO reflectance images, corresponding to the white rectangle in A. Scale bar = 100 μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Retinal images from 31-year-old diabetic subject (D 01) with moderate NPDR. (A), 30 x 30 deg wide-field SLO en-face image. (B), SDOCT cross section, with the location as indicated by the black arrow in A, demonstrating the lack of visible edema or hard exudate. (C), Montage of AOSLO reflectance images, corresponding to the white rectangle in A, showing diffuse capillary remodeling and vessel loops (white arrow), vessel lumen changes, and hard exudates (black arrow). (D). Blow up from region of arrow showing a vessel loop as well as changes in small blood vessel wall appearance over space (white arrow). Scale bar = 100 µm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

AOSLO montage from the same subject (D 01) in Fig. 2, sampled from a different retinal location (black box in Fig. 2(A)). (A), The appearance of the photoreceptor layer beneath the retinal microvascular changes over space and are often darker (arrows) under regions of vascular remodeling, but not always, (note the top left region of the images to the right of the letters). (B). Numerous vessel abnormalities are visible, in particular capillary loops (long white arrow, Media 1), vessel doubling (long black arrow), vessel loop (short white arrow), and non-perfused / ghost capillary (short black arrow, Media 2). Scale bar = 100 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Retinal images from 47-year-old diabetic subject with mild NPDR and clinically significant macular edema. (A), 30 x 30 deg wide field SLO image showing hard exudates and edema. (B), SDOCT cross section, with the location as indicated by the black arrow in A, showing extensive hard exudates and intraretinal fluid. (C), montage of AOSLO reflectance image also showing corresponding extensive hard exudates (white arrows), and in addition surrounding numerous capillary abnormalities including vessel looping (black arrow). The dark region in the lower right corner is a typical appearance of loss of reflectivity due to the accumulation of fluid. Scale bar = 100 µm. (D), Enlargement of region of multiple hard exudates, showing sizes as small as 5 μm. (E), comparison of a region of edema as indicated by cysts in the inner retina, top- imaging focused on photoreceptors using a 2x Airy disc aperture, bottom- same region with offset aperture focused on blood vessels. For C scale bar = 100 μm, for D and E Scale bar = 50 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

AOSLO reflectance images (left column, Panels A, B, C, D, and E) and corresponding perfusion maps (right column, Panels F, G, H, I, and J), in a control subject (top row) and 4 diabetic subjects obtained during the directed portion of the imaging session. A and F, 49-year-old normal subject, showing relatively uniform capillary network and vessel diameters, except in the lower left corner where the normal low density of capillaries at the foveal center occurs (Media 3). B and G, 50-year-old diabetic subject with mild NPDR, showing microaneurysms of varying sizes that differ in the degree of perfusion. These microaneurysms had a wide range of apparent blood flow velocities including stasis (Media 4). C and H, Capillary doubling (black arrow) with distinct blood flow in each branch. D and I, Dilated capillary with fusiform shape (black arrow). The video (Media 5) shows a pressure wave that occurred at approximately 1 second intervals in the corresponding capillary. E and J, Structural image and perfusion map of an unusually large microaneurysm surrounded by dilated capillaries. Scale bars = 50 μm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(A). AOSLO reflectance images showing thickened arteriole walls (white arrow) and widespread tissue changes (apparently roughened surface). Panel A is an image from the same region of the subject shown in Fig. 3. Scale bar = 50 μm. B, C microaneurysms and capillary remodeling including loops and hairpins. The layering of cells surrounding microaneurysms can be seen (black arrows) as well as capillary remodeling (white arrows). Scale bar = 25 μm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Subject information. M: male. F: female. HbA1c: Hemoglobin A1c. CD: capillary diameter. WLR: average wall to lumen ratio for subject.

Metrics