Abstract

We used a confocal adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) to image the retina of subjects with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). To improve visualization of different retinal features, the size and alignment of the confocal aperture were varied. The inner retinal layers contained clearly visualized retinal vessels. In diabetic subjects there was extensive capillary remodeling despite the subjects having only mild or moderate NPDR. Details of the retinal microvasculature were readily imaged with a larger confocal aperture. Hard exudates were observed with the AOSLO in all imaging modes. Photoreceptor layer images showed regions of bright cones and dark areas, corresponding in location to overlying vascular abnormalities and retinal edema. Clinically undetected intraretinal vessel remodeling and varying blood flow patterns were found. Perifoveal capillary diameters were larger in the diabetic subjects (p<0.01), and small arteriolar walls were thickened, based on wall to lumen measurements (p<.05). The results suggest that existing clinical classifications based on lower magnification clinical assessment may not adequately measure key vascular differences among individuals with NPDR.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, “Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A14(11), 2884–2892 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Roorda, A. B. Metha, P. Lennie, and D. R. Williams, “Packing arrangement of the three cone classes in primate retina,” Vision Res.41(10-11), 1291–1306 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: An alternate cause of color blindness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(22), 8461–8466 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(5), 2080–2092 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. S. Jonnal, J. Rha, Y. Zhang, B. Cense, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “In vivo functional imaging of human cone photoreceptors,” Opt. Express15(24), 16141–16160 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Y. P. Chui, H. X. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive-optics imaging of human cone photoreceptor distribution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A25(12), 3021–3029 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. A. Rossi and A. Roorda, “The relationship between visual resolution and cone spacing in the human fovea,” Nat. Neurosci.13(2), 156–157 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Dubra, Y. Sulai, J. L. Norris, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, D. R. Williams, and J. Carroll, “Noninvasive imaging of the human rod photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(7), 1864–1876 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. Song, T. Y. Chui, Z. Zhong, A. E. Elsner, and S. A. Burns, “Variation of cone photoreceptor packing density with retinal eccentricity and age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(10), 7376–7384 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Roorda, Y. H. Zhang, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of the RPE mosaic in eyes with retinal disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(5), 2297–2303 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. I. W. Morgan, A. Dubra, R. Wolfe, W. H. Merigan, and D. R. Williams, “In Vivo Autofluorescence Imaging of the Human and Macaque Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Mosaic,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(3), 1350–1359 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. Scoles, Y. N. Sulai, and A. Dubra, “In vivo dark-field imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium cell mosaic,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(9), 1710–1723 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. T. Y. P. Chui, Z. Y. Zhong, and S. A. Burns, “The relationship between peripapillary crescent and axial length: Implications for differential eye growth,” Vision Res.51(19), 2132–2138 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, R. S. Jonnal, Q. Wang, S. Y. Lee, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging retinal nerve fiber bundles using optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics,” Vision Res.51(16), 1835–1844 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. G. Huang, X. Qi, T. Y. Chui, Z. Zhong, and S. A. Burns, “A clinical planning module for adaptive optics SLO imaging,” Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry.89, 593–601 (2012).
  16. Z. Y. Zhong, B. L. Petrig, X. F. Qi, and S. A. Burns, “In vivo measurement of erythrocyte velocity and retinal blood flow using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express16(17), 12746–12756 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Z. Y. Zhong, H. X. Song, T. Y. P. Chui, B. L. Petrig, and S. A. Burns, “Noninvasive Measurements and Analysis of Blood Velocity Profiles in Human Retinal Vessels,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 4151–4157 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. T. Y. P. Chui, D. A. Vannasdale, and S. A. Burns, “The use of forward scatter to improve retinal vascular imaging with an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(10), 2537–2549 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. P. Bedggood and A. Metha, “Direct visualization and characterization of erythrocyte flow in human retinal capillaries,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(12), 3264–3277 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Z. Popovic, P. Knutsson, J. Thaung, M. Owner-Petersen, and J. Sjöstrand, “Noninvasive Imaging of Human Foveal Capillary Network Using Dual-Conjugate Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(5), 2649–2655 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. T. Y. P. Chui, Z. Y. Zhong, H. X. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Foveal Avascular Zone and Its Relationship to Foveal Pit Shape,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), 602–610 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, S. Manzanera, S. Barez, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Disruption of the Retinal Parafoveal Capillary Network in Type 2 Diabetes before the Onset of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(12), 9257–9266 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. Tam and A. Roorda, “Speed quantification and tracking of moving objects in adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(3), 036002 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Q. Wang, O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, J. Bruestle, R. S. Jonnal, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging Retinal Capillaries Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography and Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(9), 6292–6299 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, B. J. Lujan, R. N. Johnson, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Subclinical Capillary Changes in Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), E692–E703 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. G. G. Deák and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the Parafoveal Capillary Network in Diabetes,” Curr. Diab. Rep.13(4), 469–475 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, M. Stirpe, and G. Lombardo, “Analysis of retinal capillaries in patients with type 1 diabetes and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy using adaptive optics imaging,” Retina33(8), 1630–1639 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. T. Y. Chui, T. J. Gast, and S. A. Burns, “Imaging of vascular wall fine structure in the human retina using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(10), 7115–7124 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. J. H. Kempen, B. J. O’Colmain, M. C. Leske, S. M. Haffner, R. Klein, S. E. Moss, H. R. Taylor, R. F. Hamman, S. K. West, J. J. Wang, N. G. Congdon, D. S. Friedman, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(4), 552–563 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. N. R. Burrows, I. A. Hora, Y. F. Li, and J. B. Saaddine, “Self-Reported Visual Impairment Among Persons With Diagnosed Diabetes-United States, 1997-2010 (Reprinted from MMWR, vol 60, pg 1549-1553, 2011),” JAMA307, 25–27 (2012).
  31. X. Z. Zhang, J. B. Saaddine, C. F. Chou, M. F. Cotch, Y. J. Cheng, L. S. Geiss, E. W. Gregg, A. L. Albright, B. E. K. Klein, and R. Klein, “Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in the United States, 2005-2008,” JAMA304(6), 649–656 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. A. Zambelli-Weiner, J. E. Crews, and D. S. Friedman, “Disparities in Adult Vision Health in the United States,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.154(6Suppl), S23–S30 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. M. K. Ikram, C. Y. Cheung, M. Lorenzi, R. Klein, T. L. Z. Jones, T. Y. Wong, N. J. W. Retinal, and NIH/JDRF Workshop on Retinal Biomarker for Diabetes Group, “Retinal Vascular Caliber as a Biomarker for Diabetes Microvascular Complications,” Diabetes Care36(3), 750–759 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. T. J. Wolfensberger and Z. J. Gregor, “Macular Edema - Rationale for Therapy,” in Macular Edema: A Practical Approach, G. Coscas, J. CunhaVaz, A. Loewenstein, and G. Soubrane, eds. (2010), pp. 49–58.
  35. G. de Venecia, M. Davis, and R. Engerman, “Clinicopathologic correlations in diabetic retinopathy. I. Histology and fluorescein angiography of microaneurysms,” Arch. Ophthalmol.94(10), 1766–1773 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. S. Scholl, J. Kirchhof, and A. J. Augustin, “Pathophysiology of Macular Edema,” Ophthalmologica224(Suppl 1), 8–15 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. A. Garner, “Histopathology of diabetic retinopathy in man,” Eye (Lond.)7(2), 250–253 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. N. Bhagat, R. A. Grigorian, A. Tutela, and M. A. Zarbin, “Diabetic Macular Edema: Pathogenesis and Treatment,” Surv. Ophthalmol.54(1), 1–32 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. D. A. Antonetti, R. Klein, and T. W. Gardner, “Diabetic Retinopathy,” N. Engl. J. Med.366(13), 1227–1239 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. D. R. S. R. Group and The Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group, “Preliminary report on effects of photocoagulation therapy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.81(4), 383–396 (1976).
    [PubMed]
  41. A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, “Infrared imaging of sub-retinal structures in the human ocular fundus,” Vision Res.36(1), 191–205 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. T. Y. P. Chui, T. J. Gast, and S. A. Burns, “Imaging of Vascular Wall Fine Structure in the Human Retina Using Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(10), 7115–7124 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. R. D. Ferguson, Z. Y. Zhong, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. H. Patel, C. Deng, W. Y. Zou, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with integrated wide-field retinal imaging and tracking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27, 265–277 (2010).
  44. W. Zou, X. Qi, and S. A. Burns, “Wavefront-aberration sorting and correction for a dual-deformable-mirror adaptive-optics system,” Opt. Lett.33(22), 2602–2604 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. W. Y. Zou, X. F. Qi, and S. A. Burns, “Woofer-tweeter adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopic imaging based on Lagrange-multiplier damped least-squares algorithm,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(7), 1986–2004 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, “Detecting AMD with Multiply Scattered Light Tomography,” Int. Ophthalmol.23(4/6), 245–250 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. D. R. Abrahamson, “Recent Studies On The Structure And Pathology Of Basement Membranes,” J. Pathol.149(4), 257–278 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  48. Q. D. Nguyen, D. M. Brown, D. M. Marcus, D. S. Boyer, S. Patel, L. Feiner, A. Gibson, J. Sy, A. C. Rundle, J. J. Hopkins, R. G. Rubio, J. S. Ehrlich, and RISE and RIDE Research Group, “Ranibizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema: Results from 2 Phase III Randomized Trials: RISE and RIDE,” Ophthalmology119(4), 789–801 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  49. M. Al-Latayfeh, P. S. Silva, J. K. Sun, and L. P. Aiello, “Antiangiogenic Therapy for Ischemic Retinopathies,” Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine 2 (2012).
  50. L. An, J. Qin, and R. K. Wang, “Ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography for in vivo imaging of microcirculations within human skin tissue beds,” Opt. Express18(8), 8220–8228 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  51. J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, D. Schwartz, and S. E. Fraser, “Volumetric microvascular imaging of human retina using optical coherence tomography with a novel motion contrast technique,” Opt. Express17(24), 22190–22200 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  52. L. An and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express16(15), 11438–11452 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  53. S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. Yamanari, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “Comprehensive in vivo micro-vascular imaging of the human eye by dual-beam-scan Doppler optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express19(2), 1271–1283 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  54. C. C. Bailey, J. M. Sparrow, R. H. B. Grey, and H. Cheng, “The National Diabetic Retinopathy Laser Treatment Audit. I. Maculopathy,” Eye (Lond.)12(1), 69–76 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  55. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group, “Grading Diabetic Retinopathy from Stereoscopic Color Fundus Photographs--An Extension of the Modified Airlie House Classification. ETDRS Report Number 10,” Ophthalmology98(5Suppl), 786–806 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  56. D. J. Browning, M. M. Altaweel, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, I. U. Scott, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Diabetic Macular Edema: What Is Focal and What Is Diffuse?” Am. J. Ophthalmol.146(5), 649–655 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (6)

D. Scoles, Y. N. Sulai, and A. Dubra, “In vivo dark-field imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium cell mosaic,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(9), 1710–1723 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Deák and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the Parafoveal Capillary Network in Diabetes,” Curr. Diab. Rep.13(4), 469–475 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, M. Stirpe, and G. Lombardo, “Analysis of retinal capillaries in patients with type 1 diabetes and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy using adaptive optics imaging,” Retina33(8), 1630–1639 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. Chui, T. J. Gast, and S. A. Burns, “Imaging of vascular wall fine structure in the human retina using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(10), 7115–7124 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Ikram, C. Y. Cheung, M. Lorenzi, R. Klein, T. L. Z. Jones, T. Y. Wong, N. J. W. Retinal, and NIH/JDRF Workshop on Retinal Biomarker for Diabetes Group, “Retinal Vascular Caliber as a Biomarker for Diabetes Microvascular Complications,” Diabetes Care36(3), 750–759 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, T. J. Gast, and S. A. Burns, “Imaging of Vascular Wall Fine Structure in the Human Retina Using Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(10), 7115–7124 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (9)

A. Zambelli-Weiner, J. E. Crews, and D. S. Friedman, “Disparities in Adult Vision Health in the United States,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.154(6Suppl), S23–S30 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Antonetti, R. Klein, and T. W. Gardner, “Diabetic Retinopathy,” N. Engl. J. Med.366(13), 1227–1239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. D. Nguyen, D. M. Brown, D. M. Marcus, D. S. Boyer, S. Patel, L. Feiner, A. Gibson, J. Sy, A. C. Rundle, J. J. Hopkins, R. G. Rubio, J. S. Ehrlich, and RISE and RIDE Research Group, “Ranibizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema: Results from 2 Phase III Randomized Trials: RISE and RIDE,” Ophthalmology119(4), 789–801 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, B. J. Lujan, R. N. Johnson, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Subclinical Capillary Changes in Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), E692–E703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. R. Burrows, I. A. Hora, Y. F. Li, and J. B. Saaddine, “Self-Reported Visual Impairment Among Persons With Diagnosed Diabetes-United States, 1997-2010 (Reprinted from MMWR, vol 60, pg 1549-1553, 2011),” JAMA307, 25–27 (2012).

T. Y. P. Chui, Z. Y. Zhong, H. X. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Foveal Avascular Zone and Its Relationship to Foveal Pit Shape,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), 602–610 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Huang, X. Qi, T. Y. Chui, Z. Zhong, and S. A. Burns, “A clinical planning module for adaptive optics SLO imaging,” Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry.89, 593–601 (2012).

T. Y. P. Chui, D. A. Vannasdale, and S. A. Burns, “The use of forward scatter to improve retinal vascular imaging with an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(10), 2537–2549 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bedggood and A. Metha, “Direct visualization and characterization of erythrocyte flow in human retinal capillaries,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(12), 3264–3277 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (11)

Z. Popovic, P. Knutsson, J. Thaung, M. Owner-Petersen, and J. Sjöstrand, “Noninvasive Imaging of Human Foveal Capillary Network Using Dual-Conjugate Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(5), 2649–2655 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, Z. Y. Zhong, and S. A. Burns, “The relationship between peripapillary crescent and axial length: Implications for differential eye growth,” Vision Res.51(19), 2132–2138 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, R. S. Jonnal, Q. Wang, S. Y. Lee, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging retinal nerve fiber bundles using optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics,” Vision Res.51(16), 1835–1844 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubra, Y. Sulai, J. L. Norris, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, D. R. Williams, and J. Carroll, “Noninvasive imaging of the human rod photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(7), 1864–1876 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Song, T. Y. Chui, Z. Zhong, A. E. Elsner, and S. A. Burns, “Variation of cone photoreceptor packing density with retinal eccentricity and age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(10), 7376–7384 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, S. Manzanera, S. Barez, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Disruption of the Retinal Parafoveal Capillary Network in Type 2 Diabetes before the Onset of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(12), 9257–9266 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tam and A. Roorda, “Speed quantification and tracking of moving objects in adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(3), 036002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, J. Bruestle, R. S. Jonnal, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging Retinal Capillaries Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography and Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(9), 6292–6299 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Zhong, H. X. Song, T. Y. P. Chui, B. L. Petrig, and S. A. Burns, “Noninvasive Measurements and Analysis of Blood Velocity Profiles in Human Retinal Vessels,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 4151–4157 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. Yamanari, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “Comprehensive in vivo micro-vascular imaging of the human eye by dual-beam-scan Doppler optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express19(2), 1271–1283 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Zou, X. F. Qi, and S. A. Burns, “Woofer-tweeter adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopic imaging based on Lagrange-multiplier damped least-squares algorithm,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(7), 1986–2004 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

R. D. Ferguson, Z. Y. Zhong, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. H. Patel, C. Deng, W. Y. Zou, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with integrated wide-field retinal imaging and tracking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27, 265–277 (2010).

L. An, J. Qin, and R. K. Wang, “Ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography for in vivo imaging of microcirculations within human skin tissue beds,” Opt. Express18(8), 8220–8228 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Z. Zhang, J. B. Saaddine, C. F. Chou, M. F. Cotch, Y. J. Cheng, L. S. Geiss, E. W. Gregg, A. L. Albright, B. E. K. Klein, and R. Klein, “Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in the United States, 2005-2008,” JAMA304(6), 649–656 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Scholl, J. Kirchhof, and A. J. Augustin, “Pathophysiology of Macular Edema,” Ophthalmologica224(Suppl 1), 8–15 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Rossi and A. Roorda, “The relationship between visual resolution and cone spacing in the human fovea,” Nat. Neurosci.13(2), 156–157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2008 (6)

2007 (2)

R. S. Jonnal, J. Rha, Y. Zhang, B. Cense, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “In vivo functional imaging of human cone photoreceptors,” Opt. Express15(24), 16141–16160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda, Y. H. Zhang, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of the RPE mosaic in eyes with retinal disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(5), 2297–2303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(5), 2080–2092 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: An alternate cause of color blindness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(22), 8461–8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Kempen, B. J. O’Colmain, M. C. Leske, S. M. Haffner, R. Klein, S. E. Moss, H. R. Taylor, R. F. Hamman, S. K. West, J. J. Wang, N. G. Congdon, D. S. Friedman, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(4), 552–563 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

A. Roorda, A. B. Metha, P. Lennie, and D. R. Williams, “Packing arrangement of the three cone classes in primate retina,” Vision Res.41(10-11), 1291–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, “Detecting AMD with Multiply Scattered Light Tomography,” Int. Ophthalmol.23(4/6), 245–250 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

C. C. Bailey, J. M. Sparrow, R. H. B. Grey, and H. Cheng, “The National Diabetic Retinopathy Laser Treatment Audit. I. Maculopathy,” Eye (Lond.)12(1), 69–76 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, “Infrared imaging of sub-retinal structures in the human ocular fundus,” Vision Res.36(1), 191–205 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

A. Garner, “Histopathology of diabetic retinopathy in man,” Eye (Lond.)7(2), 250–253 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group, “Grading Diabetic Retinopathy from Stereoscopic Color Fundus Photographs--An Extension of the Modified Airlie House Classification. ETDRS Report Number 10,” Ophthalmology98(5Suppl), 786–806 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

D. R. Abrahamson, “Recent Studies On The Structure And Pathology Of Basement Membranes,” J. Pathol.149(4), 257–278 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (2)

D. R. S. R. Group and The Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group, “Preliminary report on effects of photocoagulation therapy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.81(4), 383–396 (1976).
[PubMed]

G. de Venecia, M. Davis, and R. Engerman, “Clinicopathologic correlations in diabetic retinopathy. I. Histology and fluorescein angiography of microaneurysms,” Arch. Ophthalmol.94(10), 1766–1773 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abrahamson, D. R.

D. R. Abrahamson, “Recent Studies On The Structure And Pathology Of Basement Membranes,” J. Pathol.149(4), 257–278 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adams, A. J.

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, B. J. Lujan, R. N. Johnson, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Subclinical Capillary Changes in Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), E692–E703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, S. Manzanera, S. Barez, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Disruption of the Retinal Parafoveal Capillary Network in Type 2 Diabetes before the Onset of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(12), 9257–9266 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albright, A. L.

X. Z. Zhang, J. B. Saaddine, C. F. Chou, M. F. Cotch, Y. J. Cheng, L. S. Geiss, E. W. Gregg, A. L. Albright, B. E. K. Klein, and R. Klein, “Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in the United States, 2005-2008,” JAMA304(6), 649–656 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altaweel, M. M.

D. J. Browning, M. M. Altaweel, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, I. U. Scott, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Diabetic Macular Edema: What Is Focal and What Is Diffuse?” Am. J. Ophthalmol.146(5), 649–655 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

An, L.

Antonetti, D. A.

D. A. Antonetti, R. Klein, and T. W. Gardner, “Diabetic Retinopathy,” N. Engl. J. Med.366(13), 1227–1239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Augustin, A. J.

S. Scholl, J. Kirchhof, and A. J. Augustin, “Pathophysiology of Macular Edema,” Ophthalmologica224(Suppl 1), 8–15 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bailey, C. C.

C. C. Bailey, J. M. Sparrow, R. H. B. Grey, and H. Cheng, “The National Diabetic Retinopathy Laser Treatment Audit. I. Maculopathy,” Eye (Lond.)12(1), 69–76 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barez, S.

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, S. Manzanera, S. Barez, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Disruption of the Retinal Parafoveal Capillary Network in Type 2 Diabetes before the Onset of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(12), 9257–9266 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bearse, M. A.

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, B. J. Lujan, R. N. Johnson, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Subclinical Capillary Changes in Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), E692–E703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, S. Manzanera, S. Barez, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Disruption of the Retinal Parafoveal Capillary Network in Type 2 Diabetes before the Onset of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(12), 9257–9266 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beck, F.

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, “Detecting AMD with Multiply Scattered Light Tomography,” Int. Ophthalmol.23(4/6), 245–250 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bedggood, P.

Bhagat, N.

N. Bhagat, R. A. Grigorian, A. Tutela, and M. A. Zarbin, “Diabetic Macular Edema: Pathogenesis and Treatment,” Surv. Ophthalmol.54(1), 1–32 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyer, D. S.

Q. D. Nguyen, D. M. Brown, D. M. Marcus, D. S. Boyer, S. Patel, L. Feiner, A. Gibson, J. Sy, A. C. Rundle, J. J. Hopkins, R. G. Rubio, J. S. Ehrlich, and RISE and RIDE Research Group, “Ranibizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema: Results from 2 Phase III Randomized Trials: RISE and RIDE,” Ophthalmology119(4), 789–801 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bressler, N. M.

D. J. Browning, M. M. Altaweel, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, I. U. Scott, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Diabetic Macular Edema: What Is Focal and What Is Diffuse?” Am. J. Ophthalmol.146(5), 649–655 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bressler, S. B.

D. J. Browning, M. M. Altaweel, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, I. U. Scott, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Diabetic Macular Edema: What Is Focal and What Is Diffuse?” Am. J. Ophthalmol.146(5), 649–655 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, D. M.

Q. D. Nguyen, D. M. Brown, D. M. Marcus, D. S. Boyer, S. Patel, L. Feiner, A. Gibson, J. Sy, A. C. Rundle, J. J. Hopkins, R. G. Rubio, J. S. Ehrlich, and RISE and RIDE Research Group, “Ranibizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema: Results from 2 Phase III Randomized Trials: RISE and RIDE,” Ophthalmology119(4), 789–801 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Browning, D. J.

D. J. Browning, M. M. Altaweel, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, I. U. Scott, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Diabetic Macular Edema: What Is Focal and What Is Diffuse?” Am. J. Ophthalmol.146(5), 649–655 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruestle, J.

Q. Wang, O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, J. Bruestle, R. S. Jonnal, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging Retinal Capillaries Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography and Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(9), 6292–6299 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burns, S. A.

T. Y. Chui, T. J. Gast, and S. A. Burns, “Imaging of vascular wall fine structure in the human retina using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(10), 7115–7124 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, T. J. Gast, and S. A. Burns, “Imaging of Vascular Wall Fine Structure in the Human Retina Using Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(10), 7115–7124 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, D. A. Vannasdale, and S. A. Burns, “The use of forward scatter to improve retinal vascular imaging with an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(10), 2537–2549 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, Z. Y. Zhong, H. X. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Foveal Avascular Zone and Its Relationship to Foveal Pit Shape,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), 602–610 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Huang, X. Qi, T. Y. Chui, Z. Zhong, and S. A. Burns, “A clinical planning module for adaptive optics SLO imaging,” Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry.89, 593–601 (2012).

H. Song, T. Y. Chui, Z. Zhong, A. E. Elsner, and S. A. Burns, “Variation of cone photoreceptor packing density with retinal eccentricity and age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(10), 7376–7384 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, Z. Y. Zhong, and S. A. Burns, “The relationship between peripapillary crescent and axial length: Implications for differential eye growth,” Vision Res.51(19), 2132–2138 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Zhong, H. X. Song, T. Y. P. Chui, B. L. Petrig, and S. A. Burns, “Noninvasive Measurements and Analysis of Blood Velocity Profiles in Human Retinal Vessels,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 4151–4157 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Zou, X. F. Qi, and S. A. Burns, “Woofer-tweeter adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopic imaging based on Lagrange-multiplier damped least-squares algorithm,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(7), 1986–2004 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Ferguson, Z. Y. Zhong, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. H. Patel, C. Deng, W. Y. Zou, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with integrated wide-field retinal imaging and tracking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27, 265–277 (2010).

W. Zou, X. Qi, and S. A. Burns, “Wavefront-aberration sorting and correction for a dual-deformable-mirror adaptive-optics system,” Opt. Lett.33(22), 2602–2604 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Zhong, B. L. Petrig, X. F. Qi, and S. A. Burns, “In vivo measurement of erythrocyte velocity and retinal blood flow using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express16(17), 12746–12756 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, H. X. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive-optics imaging of human cone photoreceptor distribution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A25(12), 3021–3029 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, “Detecting AMD with Multiply Scattered Light Tomography,” Int. Ophthalmol.23(4/6), 245–250 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, “Infrared imaging of sub-retinal structures in the human ocular fundus,” Vision Res.36(1), 191–205 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burrows, N. R.

N. R. Burrows, I. A. Hora, Y. F. Li, and J. B. Saaddine, “Self-Reported Visual Impairment Among Persons With Diagnosed Diabetes-United States, 1997-2010 (Reprinted from MMWR, vol 60, pg 1549-1553, 2011),” JAMA307, 25–27 (2012).

Carroll, J.

A. Dubra, Y. Sulai, J. L. Norris, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, D. R. Williams, and J. Carroll, “Noninvasive imaging of the human rod photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(7), 1864–1876 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: An alternate cause of color blindness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(22), 8461–8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, R. S. Jonnal, Q. Wang, S. Y. Lee, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging retinal nerve fiber bundles using optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics,” Vision Res.51(16), 1835–1844 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, J. Bruestle, R. S. Jonnal, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging Retinal Capillaries Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography and Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(9), 6292–6299 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Jonnal, J. Rha, Y. Zhang, B. Cense, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “In vivo functional imaging of human cone photoreceptors,” Opt. Express15(24), 16141–16160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, H.

C. C. Bailey, J. M. Sparrow, R. H. B. Grey, and H. Cheng, “The National Diabetic Retinopathy Laser Treatment Audit. I. Maculopathy,” Eye (Lond.)12(1), 69–76 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y. J.

X. Z. Zhang, J. B. Saaddine, C. F. Chou, M. F. Cotch, Y. J. Cheng, L. S. Geiss, E. W. Gregg, A. L. Albright, B. E. K. Klein, and R. Klein, “Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in the United States, 2005-2008,” JAMA304(6), 649–656 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheung, C. Y.

M. K. Ikram, C. Y. Cheung, M. Lorenzi, R. Klein, T. L. Z. Jones, T. Y. Wong, N. J. W. Retinal, and NIH/JDRF Workshop on Retinal Biomarker for Diabetes Group, “Retinal Vascular Caliber as a Biomarker for Diabetes Microvascular Complications,” Diabetes Care36(3), 750–759 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, S. S.

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(5), 2080–2092 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chou, C. F.

X. Z. Zhang, J. B. Saaddine, C. F. Chou, M. F. Cotch, Y. J. Cheng, L. S. Geiss, E. W. Gregg, A. L. Albright, B. E. K. Klein, and R. Klein, “Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in the United States, 2005-2008,” JAMA304(6), 649–656 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chui, T. Y.

T. Y. Chui, T. J. Gast, and S. A. Burns, “Imaging of vascular wall fine structure in the human retina using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(10), 7115–7124 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Huang, X. Qi, T. Y. Chui, Z. Zhong, and S. A. Burns, “A clinical planning module for adaptive optics SLO imaging,” Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry.89, 593–601 (2012).

H. Song, T. Y. Chui, Z. Zhong, A. E. Elsner, and S. A. Burns, “Variation of cone photoreceptor packing density with retinal eccentricity and age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(10), 7376–7384 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chui, T. Y. P.

T. Y. P. Chui, T. J. Gast, and S. A. Burns, “Imaging of Vascular Wall Fine Structure in the Human Retina Using Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(10), 7115–7124 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, D. A. Vannasdale, and S. A. Burns, “The use of forward scatter to improve retinal vascular imaging with an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(10), 2537–2549 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, Z. Y. Zhong, H. X. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Foveal Avascular Zone and Its Relationship to Foveal Pit Shape,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), 602–610 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Zhong, H. X. Song, T. Y. P. Chui, B. L. Petrig, and S. A. Burns, “Noninvasive Measurements and Analysis of Blood Velocity Profiles in Human Retinal Vessels,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 4151–4157 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, Z. Y. Zhong, and S. A. Burns, “The relationship between peripapillary crescent and axial length: Implications for differential eye growth,” Vision Res.51(19), 2132–2138 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, H. X. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive-optics imaging of human cone photoreceptor distribution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A25(12), 3021–3029 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Congdon, N. G.

J. H. Kempen, B. J. O’Colmain, M. C. Leske, S. M. Haffner, R. Klein, S. E. Moss, H. R. Taylor, R. F. Hamman, S. K. West, J. J. Wang, N. G. Congdon, D. S. Friedman, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(4), 552–563 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, R. F.

Cotch, M. F.

X. Z. Zhang, J. B. Saaddine, C. F. Chou, M. F. Cotch, Y. J. Cheng, L. S. Geiss, E. W. Gregg, A. L. Albright, B. E. K. Klein, and R. Klein, “Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in the United States, 2005-2008,” JAMA304(6), 649–656 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crews, J. E.

A. Zambelli-Weiner, J. E. Crews, and D. S. Friedman, “Disparities in Adult Vision Health in the United States,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.154(6Suppl), S23–S30 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, M.

G. de Venecia, M. Davis, and R. Engerman, “Clinicopathologic correlations in diabetic retinopathy. I. Histology and fluorescein angiography of microaneurysms,” Arch. Ophthalmol.94(10), 1766–1773 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Venecia, G.

G. de Venecia, M. Davis, and R. Engerman, “Clinicopathologic correlations in diabetic retinopathy. I. Histology and fluorescein angiography of microaneurysms,” Arch. Ophthalmol.94(10), 1766–1773 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deák, G. G.

G. G. Deák and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the Parafoveal Capillary Network in Diabetes,” Curr. Diab. Rep.13(4), 469–475 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delori, F. C.

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, “Infrared imaging of sub-retinal structures in the human ocular fundus,” Vision Res.36(1), 191–205 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deng, C.

R. D. Ferguson, Z. Y. Zhong, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. H. Patel, C. Deng, W. Y. Zou, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with integrated wide-field retinal imaging and tracking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27, 265–277 (2010).

Dhamdhere, K. P.

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, B. J. Lujan, R. N. Johnson, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Subclinical Capillary Changes in Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), E692–E703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, S. Manzanera, S. Barez, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Disruption of the Retinal Parafoveal Capillary Network in Type 2 Diabetes before the Onset of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(12), 9257–9266 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doble, N.

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(5), 2080–2092 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dreher, A. W.

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, “Detecting AMD with Multiply Scattered Light Tomography,” Int. Ophthalmol.23(4/6), 245–250 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubis, A. M.

Dubra, A.

Ducoli, P.

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, M. Stirpe, and G. Lombardo, “Analysis of retinal capillaries in patients with type 1 diabetes and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy using adaptive optics imaging,” Retina33(8), 1630–1639 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duncan, J. L.

A. Roorda, Y. H. Zhang, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of the RPE mosaic in eyes with retinal disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(5), 2297–2303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ehrlich, J. S.

Q. D. Nguyen, D. M. Brown, D. M. Marcus, D. S. Boyer, S. Patel, L. Feiner, A. Gibson, J. Sy, A. C. Rundle, J. J. Hopkins, R. G. Rubio, J. S. Ehrlich, and RISE and RIDE Research Group, “Ranibizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema: Results from 2 Phase III Randomized Trials: RISE and RIDE,” Ophthalmology119(4), 789–801 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elsner, A. E.

H. Song, T. Y. Chui, Z. Zhong, A. E. Elsner, and S. A. Burns, “Variation of cone photoreceptor packing density with retinal eccentricity and age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(10), 7376–7384 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, “Detecting AMD with Multiply Scattered Light Tomography,” Int. Ophthalmol.23(4/6), 245–250 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, “Infrared imaging of sub-retinal structures in the human ocular fundus,” Vision Res.36(1), 191–205 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engerman, R.

G. de Venecia, M. Davis, and R. Engerman, “Clinicopathologic correlations in diabetic retinopathy. I. Histology and fluorescein angiography of microaneurysms,” Arch. Ophthalmol.94(10), 1766–1773 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feiner, L.

Q. D. Nguyen, D. M. Brown, D. M. Marcus, D. S. Boyer, S. Patel, L. Feiner, A. Gibson, J. Sy, A. C. Rundle, J. J. Hopkins, R. G. Rubio, J. S. Ehrlich, and RISE and RIDE Research Group, “Ranibizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema: Results from 2 Phase III Randomized Trials: RISE and RIDE,” Ophthalmology119(4), 789–801 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferguson, R. D.

R. D. Ferguson, Z. Y. Zhong, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. H. Patel, C. Deng, W. Y. Zou, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with integrated wide-field retinal imaging and tracking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27, 265–277 (2010).

Fingler, J.

Fraser, S. E.

Friedman, D. S.

A. Zambelli-Weiner, J. E. Crews, and D. S. Friedman, “Disparities in Adult Vision Health in the United States,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.154(6Suppl), S23–S30 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Kempen, B. J. O’Colmain, M. C. Leske, S. M. Haffner, R. Klein, S. E. Moss, H. R. Taylor, R. F. Hamman, S. K. West, J. J. Wang, N. G. Congdon, D. S. Friedman, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(4), 552–563 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, W. H.

Q. Wang, O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, J. Bruestle, R. S. Jonnal, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging Retinal Capillaries Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography and Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(9), 6292–6299 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, R. S. Jonnal, Q. Wang, S. Y. Lee, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging retinal nerve fiber bundles using optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics,” Vision Res.51(16), 1835–1844 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Jonnal, J. Rha, Y. Zhang, B. Cense, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “In vivo functional imaging of human cone photoreceptors,” Opt. Express15(24), 16141–16160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, T. W.

D. A. Antonetti, R. Klein, and T. W. Gardner, “Diabetic Retinopathy,” N. Engl. J. Med.366(13), 1227–1239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garner, A.

A. Garner, “Histopathology of diabetic retinopathy in man,” Eye (Lond.)7(2), 250–253 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gast, T. J.

T. Y. P. Chui, T. J. Gast, and S. A. Burns, “Imaging of Vascular Wall Fine Structure in the Human Retina Using Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(10), 7115–7124 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. Chui, T. J. Gast, and S. A. Burns, “Imaging of vascular wall fine structure in the human retina using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(10), 7115–7124 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geiss, L. S.

X. Z. Zhang, J. B. Saaddine, C. F. Chou, M. F. Cotch, Y. J. Cheng, L. S. Geiss, E. W. Gregg, A. L. Albright, B. E. K. Klein, and R. Klein, “Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in the United States, 2005-2008,” JAMA304(6), 649–656 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, A.

Q. D. Nguyen, D. M. Brown, D. M. Marcus, D. S. Boyer, S. Patel, L. Feiner, A. Gibson, J. Sy, A. C. Rundle, J. J. Hopkins, R. G. Rubio, J. S. Ehrlich, and RISE and RIDE Research Group, “Ranibizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema: Results from 2 Phase III Randomized Trials: RISE and RIDE,” Ophthalmology119(4), 789–801 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregg, E. W.

X. Z. Zhang, J. B. Saaddine, C. F. Chou, M. F. Cotch, Y. J. Cheng, L. S. Geiss, E. W. Gregg, A. L. Albright, B. E. K. Klein, and R. Klein, “Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in the United States, 2005-2008,” JAMA304(6), 649–656 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grey, R. H. B.

C. C. Bailey, J. M. Sparrow, R. H. B. Grey, and H. Cheng, “The National Diabetic Retinopathy Laser Treatment Audit. I. Maculopathy,” Eye (Lond.)12(1), 69–76 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grigorian, R. A.

N. Bhagat, R. A. Grigorian, A. Tutela, and M. A. Zarbin, “Diabetic Macular Edema: Pathogenesis and Treatment,” Surv. Ophthalmol.54(1), 1–32 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Group, D. R. S. R.

D. R. S. R. Group and The Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group, “Preliminary report on effects of photocoagulation therapy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.81(4), 383–396 (1976).
[PubMed]

Haffner, S. M.

J. H. Kempen, B. J. O’Colmain, M. C. Leske, S. M. Haffner, R. Klein, S. E. Moss, H. R. Taylor, R. F. Hamman, S. K. West, J. J. Wang, N. G. Congdon, D. S. Friedman, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(4), 552–563 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamman, R. F.

J. H. Kempen, B. J. O’Colmain, M. C. Leske, S. M. Haffner, R. Klein, S. E. Moss, H. R. Taylor, R. F. Hamman, S. K. West, J. J. Wang, N. G. Congdon, D. S. Friedman, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(4), 552–563 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hammer, D. X.

R. D. Ferguson, Z. Y. Zhong, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. H. Patel, C. Deng, W. Y. Zou, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with integrated wide-field retinal imaging and tracking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27, 265–277 (2010).

Hardy, J. L.

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(5), 2080–2092 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofer, H.

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: An alternate cause of color blindness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(22), 8461–8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hopkins, J. J.

Q. D. Nguyen, D. M. Brown, D. M. Marcus, D. S. Boyer, S. Patel, L. Feiner, A. Gibson, J. Sy, A. C. Rundle, J. J. Hopkins, R. G. Rubio, J. S. Ehrlich, and RISE and RIDE Research Group, “Ranibizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema: Results from 2 Phase III Randomized Trials: RISE and RIDE,” Ophthalmology119(4), 789–801 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hora, I. A.

N. R. Burrows, I. A. Hora, Y. F. Li, and J. B. Saaddine, “Self-Reported Visual Impairment Among Persons With Diagnosed Diabetes-United States, 1997-2010 (Reprinted from MMWR, vol 60, pg 1549-1553, 2011),” JAMA307, 25–27 (2012).

Huang, G.

G. Huang, X. Qi, T. Y. Chui, Z. Zhong, and S. A. Burns, “A clinical planning module for adaptive optics SLO imaging,” Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry.89, 593–601 (2012).

Ikram, M. K.

M. K. Ikram, C. Y. Cheung, M. Lorenzi, R. Klein, T. L. Z. Jones, T. Y. Wong, N. J. W. Retinal, and NIH/JDRF Workshop on Retinal Biomarker for Diabetes Group, “Retinal Vascular Caliber as a Biomarker for Diabetes Microvascular Complications,” Diabetes Care36(3), 750–759 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaillon, F.

Johnson, R. N.

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, B. J. Lujan, R. N. Johnson, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Subclinical Capillary Changes in Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), E692–E703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, S. M.

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(5), 2080–2092 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, T. L. Z.

M. K. Ikram, C. Y. Cheung, M. Lorenzi, R. Klein, T. L. Z. Jones, T. Y. Wong, N. J. W. Retinal, and NIH/JDRF Workshop on Retinal Biomarker for Diabetes Group, “Retinal Vascular Caliber as a Biomarker for Diabetes Microvascular Complications,” Diabetes Care36(3), 750–759 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jonnal, R. S.

O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, R. S. Jonnal, Q. Wang, S. Y. Lee, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging retinal nerve fiber bundles using optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics,” Vision Res.51(16), 1835–1844 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, J. Bruestle, R. S. Jonnal, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging Retinal Capillaries Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography and Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(9), 6292–6299 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Jonnal, J. Rha, Y. Zhang, B. Cense, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “In vivo functional imaging of human cone photoreceptors,” Opt. Express15(24), 16141–16160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Keltner, J. L.

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(5), 2080–2092 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kempen, J. H.

J. H. Kempen, B. J. O’Colmain, M. C. Leske, S. M. Haffner, R. Klein, S. E. Moss, H. R. Taylor, R. F. Hamman, S. K. West, J. J. Wang, N. G. Congdon, D. S. Friedman, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(4), 552–563 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirchhof, J.

S. Scholl, J. Kirchhof, and A. J. Augustin, “Pathophysiology of Macular Edema,” Ophthalmologica224(Suppl 1), 8–15 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klein, B. E. K.

X. Z. Zhang, J. B. Saaddine, C. F. Chou, M. F. Cotch, Y. J. Cheng, L. S. Geiss, E. W. Gregg, A. L. Albright, B. E. K. Klein, and R. Klein, “Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in the United States, 2005-2008,” JAMA304(6), 649–656 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klein, R.

M. K. Ikram, C. Y. Cheung, M. Lorenzi, R. Klein, T. L. Z. Jones, T. Y. Wong, N. J. W. Retinal, and NIH/JDRF Workshop on Retinal Biomarker for Diabetes Group, “Retinal Vascular Caliber as a Biomarker for Diabetes Microvascular Complications,” Diabetes Care36(3), 750–759 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Antonetti, R. Klein, and T. W. Gardner, “Diabetic Retinopathy,” N. Engl. J. Med.366(13), 1227–1239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Z. Zhang, J. B. Saaddine, C. F. Chou, M. F. Cotch, Y. J. Cheng, L. S. Geiss, E. W. Gregg, A. L. Albright, B. E. K. Klein, and R. Klein, “Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in the United States, 2005-2008,” JAMA304(6), 649–656 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Kempen, B. J. O’Colmain, M. C. Leske, S. M. Haffner, R. Klein, S. E. Moss, H. R. Taylor, R. F. Hamman, S. K. West, J. J. Wang, N. G. Congdon, D. S. Friedman, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(4), 552–563 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knutsson, P.

Z. Popovic, P. Knutsson, J. Thaung, M. Owner-Petersen, and J. Sjöstrand, “Noninvasive Imaging of Human Foveal Capillary Network Using Dual-Conjugate Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(5), 2649–2655 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kocaoglu, O. P.

Q. Wang, O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, J. Bruestle, R. S. Jonnal, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging Retinal Capillaries Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography and Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(9), 6292–6299 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, R. S. Jonnal, Q. Wang, S. Y. Lee, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging retinal nerve fiber bundles using optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics,” Vision Res.51(16), 1835–1844 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. Y.

O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, R. S. Jonnal, Q. Wang, S. Y. Lee, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging retinal nerve fiber bundles using optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics,” Vision Res.51(16), 1835–1844 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lennie, P.

A. Roorda, A. B. Metha, P. Lennie, and D. R. Williams, “Packing arrangement of the three cone classes in primate retina,” Vision Res.41(10-11), 1291–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leske, M. C.

J. H. Kempen, B. J. O’Colmain, M. C. Leske, S. M. Haffner, R. Klein, S. E. Moss, H. R. Taylor, R. F. Hamman, S. K. West, J. J. Wang, N. G. Congdon, D. S. Friedman, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(4), 552–563 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y. F.

N. R. Burrows, I. A. Hora, Y. F. Li, and J. B. Saaddine, “Self-Reported Visual Impairment Among Persons With Diagnosed Diabetes-United States, 1997-2010 (Reprinted from MMWR, vol 60, pg 1549-1553, 2011),” JAMA307, 25–27 (2012).

Liang, J.

Lombardo, G.

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, M. Stirpe, and G. Lombardo, “Analysis of retinal capillaries in patients with type 1 diabetes and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy using adaptive optics imaging,” Retina33(8), 1630–1639 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lombardo, M.

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, M. Stirpe, and G. Lombardo, “Analysis of retinal capillaries in patients with type 1 diabetes and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy using adaptive optics imaging,” Retina33(8), 1630–1639 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lorenzi, M.

M. K. Ikram, C. Y. Cheung, M. Lorenzi, R. Klein, T. L. Z. Jones, T. Y. Wong, N. J. W. Retinal, and NIH/JDRF Workshop on Retinal Biomarker for Diabetes Group, “Retinal Vascular Caliber as a Biomarker for Diabetes Microvascular Complications,” Diabetes Care36(3), 750–759 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lujan, B. J.

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, B. J. Lujan, R. N. Johnson, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Subclinical Capillary Changes in Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), E692–E703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Makita, S.

Manzanera, S.

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, S. Manzanera, S. Barez, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Disruption of the Retinal Parafoveal Capillary Network in Type 2 Diabetes before the Onset of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(12), 9257–9266 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcus, D. M.

Q. D. Nguyen, D. M. Brown, D. M. Marcus, D. S. Boyer, S. Patel, L. Feiner, A. Gibson, J. Sy, A. C. Rundle, J. J. Hopkins, R. G. Rubio, J. S. Ehrlich, and RISE and RIDE Research Group, “Ranibizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema: Results from 2 Phase III Randomized Trials: RISE and RIDE,” Ophthalmology119(4), 789–801 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merigan, W. H.

J. I. W. Morgan, A. Dubra, R. Wolfe, W. H. Merigan, and D. R. Williams, “In Vivo Autofluorescence Imaging of the Human and Macaque Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Mosaic,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(3), 1350–1359 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Metha, A.

Metha, A. B.

A. Roorda, A. B. Metha, P. Lennie, and D. R. Williams, “Packing arrangement of the three cone classes in primate retina,” Vision Res.41(10-11), 1291–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, D. T.

O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, R. S. Jonnal, Q. Wang, S. Y. Lee, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging retinal nerve fiber bundles using optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics,” Vision Res.51(16), 1835–1844 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, J. Bruestle, R. S. Jonnal, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging Retinal Capillaries Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography and Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(9), 6292–6299 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Jonnal, J. Rha, Y. Zhang, B. Cense, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “In vivo functional imaging of human cone photoreceptors,” Opt. Express15(24), 16141–16160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, “Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A14(11), 2884–2892 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miura, M.

Morgan, J. I. W.

J. I. W. Morgan, A. Dubra, R. Wolfe, W. H. Merigan, and D. R. Williams, “In Vivo Autofluorescence Imaging of the Human and Macaque Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Mosaic,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(3), 1350–1359 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moss, S. E.

J. H. Kempen, B. J. O’Colmain, M. C. Leske, S. M. Haffner, R. Klein, S. E. Moss, H. R. Taylor, R. F. Hamman, S. K. West, J. J. Wang, N. G. Congdon, D. S. Friedman, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(4), 552–563 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mujat, M.

R. D. Ferguson, Z. Y. Zhong, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. H. Patel, C. Deng, W. Y. Zou, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with integrated wide-field retinal imaging and tracking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27, 265–277 (2010).

Neitz, J.

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: An alternate cause of color blindness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(22), 8461–8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neitz, M.

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: An alternate cause of color blindness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(22), 8461–8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, Q. D.

Q. D. Nguyen, D. M. Brown, D. M. Marcus, D. S. Boyer, S. Patel, L. Feiner, A. Gibson, J. Sy, A. C. Rundle, J. J. Hopkins, R. G. Rubio, J. S. Ehrlich, and RISE and RIDE Research Group, “Ranibizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema: Results from 2 Phase III Randomized Trials: RISE and RIDE,” Ophthalmology119(4), 789–801 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norris, J. L.

O’Colmain, B. J.

J. H. Kempen, B. J. O’Colmain, M. C. Leske, S. M. Haffner, R. Klein, S. E. Moss, H. R. Taylor, R. F. Hamman, S. K. West, J. J. Wang, N. G. Congdon, D. S. Friedman, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(4), 552–563 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olivier, S. S.

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(5), 2080–2092 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Owner-Petersen, M.

Z. Popovic, P. Knutsson, J. Thaung, M. Owner-Petersen, and J. Sjöstrand, “Noninvasive Imaging of Human Foveal Capillary Network Using Dual-Conjugate Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(5), 2649–2655 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parravano, M.

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, M. Stirpe, and G. Lombardo, “Analysis of retinal capillaries in patients with type 1 diabetes and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy using adaptive optics imaging,” Retina33(8), 1630–1639 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, A. H.

R. D. Ferguson, Z. Y. Zhong, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. H. Patel, C. Deng, W. Y. Zou, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with integrated wide-field retinal imaging and tracking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27, 265–277 (2010).

Patel, S.

Q. D. Nguyen, D. M. Brown, D. M. Marcus, D. S. Boyer, S. Patel, L. Feiner, A. Gibson, J. Sy, A. C. Rundle, J. J. Hopkins, R. G. Rubio, J. S. Ehrlich, and RISE and RIDE Research Group, “Ranibizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema: Results from 2 Phase III Randomized Trials: RISE and RIDE,” Ophthalmology119(4), 789–801 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrig, B. L.

Z. Y. Zhong, H. X. Song, T. Y. P. Chui, B. L. Petrig, and S. A. Burns, “Noninvasive Measurements and Analysis of Blood Velocity Profiles in Human Retinal Vessels,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 4151–4157 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Zhong, B. L. Petrig, X. F. Qi, and S. A. Burns, “In vivo measurement of erythrocyte velocity and retinal blood flow using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express16(17), 12746–12756 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popovic, Z.

Z. Popovic, P. Knutsson, J. Thaung, M. Owner-Petersen, and J. Sjöstrand, “Noninvasive Imaging of Human Foveal Capillary Network Using Dual-Conjugate Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(5), 2649–2655 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, X.

G. Huang, X. Qi, T. Y. Chui, Z. Zhong, and S. A. Burns, “A clinical planning module for adaptive optics SLO imaging,” Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry.89, 593–601 (2012).

W. Zou, X. Qi, and S. A. Burns, “Wavefront-aberration sorting and correction for a dual-deformable-mirror adaptive-optics system,” Opt. Lett.33(22), 2602–2604 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, X. F.

Qin, J.

Retinal, N. J. W.

M. K. Ikram, C. Y. Cheung, M. Lorenzi, R. Klein, T. L. Z. Jones, T. Y. Wong, N. J. W. Retinal, and NIH/JDRF Workshop on Retinal Biomarker for Diabetes Group, “Retinal Vascular Caliber as a Biomarker for Diabetes Microvascular Complications,” Diabetes Care36(3), 750–759 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rha, J.

Roorda, A.

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, B. J. Lujan, R. N. Johnson, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Subclinical Capillary Changes in Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), E692–E703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tam and A. Roorda, “Speed quantification and tracking of moving objects in adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(3), 036002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, S. Manzanera, S. Barez, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Disruption of the Retinal Parafoveal Capillary Network in Type 2 Diabetes before the Onset of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(12), 9257–9266 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Rossi and A. Roorda, “The relationship between visual resolution and cone spacing in the human fovea,” Nat. Neurosci.13(2), 156–157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, Y. H. Zhang, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of the RPE mosaic in eyes with retinal disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(5), 2297–2303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, A. B. Metha, P. Lennie, and D. R. Williams, “Packing arrangement of the three cone classes in primate retina,” Vision Res.41(10-11), 1291–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rossi, E. A.

E. A. Rossi and A. Roorda, “The relationship between visual resolution and cone spacing in the human fovea,” Nat. Neurosci.13(2), 156–157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubio, R. G.

Q. D. Nguyen, D. M. Brown, D. M. Marcus, D. S. Boyer, S. Patel, L. Feiner, A. Gibson, J. Sy, A. C. Rundle, J. J. Hopkins, R. G. Rubio, J. S. Ehrlich, and RISE and RIDE Research Group, “Ranibizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema: Results from 2 Phase III Randomized Trials: RISE and RIDE,” Ophthalmology119(4), 789–801 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rundle, A. C.

Q. D. Nguyen, D. M. Brown, D. M. Marcus, D. S. Boyer, S. Patel, L. Feiner, A. Gibson, J. Sy, A. C. Rundle, J. J. Hopkins, R. G. Rubio, J. S. Ehrlich, and RISE and RIDE Research Group, “Ranibizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema: Results from 2 Phase III Randomized Trials: RISE and RIDE,” Ophthalmology119(4), 789–801 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saaddine, J. B.

N. R. Burrows, I. A. Hora, Y. F. Li, and J. B. Saaddine, “Self-Reported Visual Impairment Among Persons With Diagnosed Diabetes-United States, 1997-2010 (Reprinted from MMWR, vol 60, pg 1549-1553, 2011),” JAMA307, 25–27 (2012).

X. Z. Zhang, J. B. Saaddine, C. F. Chou, M. F. Cotch, Y. J. Cheng, L. S. Geiss, E. W. Gregg, A. L. Albright, B. E. K. Klein, and R. Klein, “Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in the United States, 2005-2008,” JAMA304(6), 649–656 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt-Erfurth, U.

G. G. Deák and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the Parafoveal Capillary Network in Diabetes,” Curr. Diab. Rep.13(4), 469–475 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scholl, S.

S. Scholl, J. Kirchhof, and A. J. Augustin, “Pathophysiology of Macular Edema,” Ophthalmologica224(Suppl 1), 8–15 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartz, D.

Scoles, D.

Scott, I. U.

D. J. Browning, M. M. Altaweel, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, I. U. Scott, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Diabetic Macular Edema: What Is Focal and What Is Diffuse?” Am. J. Ophthalmol.146(5), 649–655 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serrao, S.

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, M. Stirpe, and G. Lombardo, “Analysis of retinal capillaries in patients with type 1 diabetes and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy using adaptive optics imaging,” Retina33(8), 1630–1639 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sjöstrand, J.

Z. Popovic, P. Knutsson, J. Thaung, M. Owner-Petersen, and J. Sjöstrand, “Noninvasive Imaging of Human Foveal Capillary Network Using Dual-Conjugate Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(5), 2649–2655 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, H.

H. Song, T. Y. Chui, Z. Zhong, A. E. Elsner, and S. A. Burns, “Variation of cone photoreceptor packing density with retinal eccentricity and age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(10), 7376–7384 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, H. X.

T. Y. P. Chui, Z. Y. Zhong, H. X. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Foveal Avascular Zone and Its Relationship to Foveal Pit Shape,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), 602–610 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Zhong, H. X. Song, T. Y. P. Chui, B. L. Petrig, and S. A. Burns, “Noninvasive Measurements and Analysis of Blood Velocity Profiles in Human Retinal Vessels,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 4151–4157 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, H. X. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive-optics imaging of human cone photoreceptor distribution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A25(12), 3021–3029 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sparrow, J. M.

C. C. Bailey, J. M. Sparrow, R. H. B. Grey, and H. Cheng, “The National Diabetic Retinopathy Laser Treatment Audit. I. Maculopathy,” Eye (Lond.)12(1), 69–76 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stirpe, M.

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, M. Stirpe, and G. Lombardo, “Analysis of retinal capillaries in patients with type 1 diabetes and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy using adaptive optics imaging,” Retina33(8), 1630–1639 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sulai, Y.

Sulai, Y. N.

Sy, J.

Q. D. Nguyen, D. M. Brown, D. M. Marcus, D. S. Boyer, S. Patel, L. Feiner, A. Gibson, J. Sy, A. C. Rundle, J. J. Hopkins, R. G. Rubio, J. S. Ehrlich, and RISE and RIDE Research Group, “Ranibizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema: Results from 2 Phase III Randomized Trials: RISE and RIDE,” Ophthalmology119(4), 789–801 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tam, J.

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, B. J. Lujan, R. N. Johnson, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Subclinical Capillary Changes in Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), E692–E703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tam and A. Roorda, “Speed quantification and tracking of moving objects in adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(3), 036002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, S. Manzanera, S. Barez, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Disruption of the Retinal Parafoveal Capillary Network in Type 2 Diabetes before the Onset of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(12), 9257–9266 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, H. R.

J. H. Kempen, B. J. O’Colmain, M. C. Leske, S. M. Haffner, R. Klein, S. E. Moss, H. R. Taylor, R. F. Hamman, S. K. West, J. J. Wang, N. G. Congdon, D. S. Friedman, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(4), 552–563 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thaung, J.

Z. Popovic, P. Knutsson, J. Thaung, M. Owner-Petersen, and J. Sjöstrand, “Noninvasive Imaging of Human Foveal Capillary Network Using Dual-Conjugate Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(5), 2649–2655 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tiruveedhula, P.

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, B. J. Lujan, R. N. Johnson, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Subclinical Capillary Changes in Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), E692–E703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, S. Manzanera, S. Barez, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Disruption of the Retinal Parafoveal Capillary Network in Type 2 Diabetes before the Onset of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(12), 9257–9266 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tornambe, P. E.

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, “Detecting AMD with Multiply Scattered Light Tomography,” Int. Ophthalmol.23(4/6), 245–250 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tutela, A.

N. Bhagat, R. A. Grigorian, A. Tutela, and M. A. Zarbin, “Diabetic Macular Edema: Pathogenesis and Treatment,” Surv. Ophthalmol.54(1), 1–32 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vannasdale, D. A.

Wang, J. J.

J. H. Kempen, B. J. O’Colmain, M. C. Leske, S. M. Haffner, R. Klein, S. E. Moss, H. R. Taylor, R. F. Hamman, S. K. West, J. J. Wang, N. G. Congdon, D. S. Friedman, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(4), 552–563 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang, O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, J. Bruestle, R. S. Jonnal, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging Retinal Capillaries Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography and Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(9), 6292–6299 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, R. S. Jonnal, Q. Wang, S. Y. Lee, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging retinal nerve fiber bundles using optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics,” Vision Res.51(16), 1835–1844 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

Weiter, J. J.

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, “Detecting AMD with Multiply Scattered Light Tomography,” Int. Ophthalmol.23(4/6), 245–250 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, “Infrared imaging of sub-retinal structures in the human ocular fundus,” Vision Res.36(1), 191–205 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, J. S.

J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, D. Schwartz, and S. E. Fraser, “Volumetric microvascular imaging of human retina using optical coherence tomography with a novel motion contrast technique,” Opt. Express17(24), 22190–22200 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(5), 2080–2092 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

West, S. K.

J. H. Kempen, B. J. O’Colmain, M. C. Leske, S. M. Haffner, R. Klein, S. E. Moss, H. R. Taylor, R. F. Hamman, S. K. West, J. J. Wang, N. G. Congdon, D. S. Friedman, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(4), 552–563 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, D. R.

A. Dubra, Y. Sulai, J. L. Norris, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, D. R. Williams, and J. Carroll, “Noninvasive imaging of the human rod photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(7), 1864–1876 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. W. Morgan, A. Dubra, R. Wolfe, W. H. Merigan, and D. R. Williams, “In Vivo Autofluorescence Imaging of the Human and Macaque Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Mosaic,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(3), 1350–1359 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: An alternate cause of color blindness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(22), 8461–8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, A. B. Metha, P. Lennie, and D. R. Williams, “Packing arrangement of the three cone classes in primate retina,” Vision Res.41(10-11), 1291–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, “Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A14(11), 2884–2892 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolfe, R.

J. I. W. Morgan, A. Dubra, R. Wolfe, W. H. Merigan, and D. R. Williams, “In Vivo Autofluorescence Imaging of the Human and Macaque Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Mosaic,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(3), 1350–1359 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, T. Y.

M. K. Ikram, C. Y. Cheung, M. Lorenzi, R. Klein, T. L. Z. Jones, T. Y. Wong, N. J. W. Retinal, and NIH/JDRF Workshop on Retinal Biomarker for Diabetes Group, “Retinal Vascular Caliber as a Biomarker for Diabetes Microvascular Complications,” Diabetes Care36(3), 750–759 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamanari, M.

Yasuno, Y.

Zambelli-Weiner, A.

A. Zambelli-Weiner, J. E. Crews, and D. S. Friedman, “Disparities in Adult Vision Health in the United States,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.154(6Suppl), S23–S30 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zarbin, M. A.

N. Bhagat, R. A. Grigorian, A. Tutela, and M. A. Zarbin, “Diabetic Macular Edema: Pathogenesis and Treatment,” Surv. Ophthalmol.54(1), 1–32 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zhang, X. Z.

X. Z. Zhang, J. B. Saaddine, C. F. Chou, M. F. Cotch, Y. J. Cheng, L. S. Geiss, E. W. Gregg, A. L. Albright, B. E. K. Klein, and R. Klein, “Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in the United States, 2005-2008,” JAMA304(6), 649–656 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Zhang, Y. H.

A. Roorda, Y. H. Zhang, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of the RPE mosaic in eyes with retinal disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(5), 2297–2303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhong, Z.

G. Huang, X. Qi, T. Y. Chui, Z. Zhong, and S. A. Burns, “A clinical planning module for adaptive optics SLO imaging,” Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry.89, 593–601 (2012).

H. Song, T. Y. Chui, Z. Zhong, A. E. Elsner, and S. A. Burns, “Variation of cone photoreceptor packing density with retinal eccentricity and age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(10), 7376–7384 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhong, Z. Y.

T. Y. P. Chui, Z. Y. Zhong, H. X. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Foveal Avascular Zone and Its Relationship to Foveal Pit Shape,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), 602–610 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Zhong, H. X. Song, T. Y. P. Chui, B. L. Petrig, and S. A. Burns, “Noninvasive Measurements and Analysis of Blood Velocity Profiles in Human Retinal Vessels,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 4151–4157 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, Z. Y. Zhong, and S. A. Burns, “The relationship between peripapillary crescent and axial length: Implications for differential eye growth,” Vision Res.51(19), 2132–2138 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Ferguson, Z. Y. Zhong, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. H. Patel, C. Deng, W. Y. Zou, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with integrated wide-field retinal imaging and tracking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27, 265–277 (2010).

Z. Y. Zhong, B. L. Petrig, X. F. Qi, and S. A. Burns, “In vivo measurement of erythrocyte velocity and retinal blood flow using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express16(17), 12746–12756 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, Q.

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, “Detecting AMD with Multiply Scattered Light Tomography,” Int. Ophthalmol.23(4/6), 245–250 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zou, W.

Zou, W. Y.

W. Y. Zou, X. F. Qi, and S. A. Burns, “Woofer-tweeter adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopic imaging based on Lagrange-multiplier damped least-squares algorithm,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(7), 1986–2004 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Ferguson, Z. Y. Zhong, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. H. Patel, C. Deng, W. Y. Zou, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with integrated wide-field retinal imaging and tracking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27, 265–277 (2010).

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (3)

A. Zambelli-Weiner, J. E. Crews, and D. S. Friedman, “Disparities in Adult Vision Health in the United States,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.154(6Suppl), S23–S30 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. S. R. Group and The Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group, “Preliminary report on effects of photocoagulation therapy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.81(4), 383–396 (1976).
[PubMed]

D. J. Browning, M. M. Altaweel, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, I. U. Scott, and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Diabetic Macular Edema: What Is Focal and What Is Diffuse?” Am. J. Ophthalmol.146(5), 649–655 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (2)

G. de Venecia, M. Davis, and R. Engerman, “Clinicopathologic correlations in diabetic retinopathy. I. Histology and fluorescein angiography of microaneurysms,” Arch. Ophthalmol.94(10), 1766–1773 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Kempen, B. J. O’Colmain, M. C. Leske, S. M. Haffner, R. Klein, S. E. Moss, H. R. Taylor, R. F. Hamman, S. K. West, J. J. Wang, N. G. Congdon, D. S. Friedman, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(4), 552–563 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (5)

Curr. Diab. Rep. (1)

G. G. Deák and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the Parafoveal Capillary Network in Diabetes,” Curr. Diab. Rep.13(4), 469–475 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diabetes Care (1)

M. K. Ikram, C. Y. Cheung, M. Lorenzi, R. Klein, T. L. Z. Jones, T. Y. Wong, N. J. W. Retinal, and NIH/JDRF Workshop on Retinal Biomarker for Diabetes Group, “Retinal Vascular Caliber as a Biomarker for Diabetes Microvascular Complications,” Diabetes Care36(3), 750–759 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eye (Lond.) (2)

A. Garner, “Histopathology of diabetic retinopathy in man,” Eye (Lond.)7(2), 250–253 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Bailey, J. M. Sparrow, R. H. B. Grey, and H. Cheng, “The National Diabetic Retinopathy Laser Treatment Audit. I. Maculopathy,” Eye (Lond.)12(1), 69–76 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. Ophthalmol. (1)

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, “Detecting AMD with Multiply Scattered Light Tomography,” Int. Ophthalmol.23(4/6), 245–250 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (10)

T. Y. Chui, T. J. Gast, and S. A. Burns, “Imaging of vascular wall fine structure in the human retina using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(10), 7115–7124 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, T. J. Gast, and S. A. Burns, “Imaging of Vascular Wall Fine Structure in the Human Retina Using Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(10), 7115–7124 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Popovic, P. Knutsson, J. Thaung, M. Owner-Petersen, and J. Sjöstrand, “Noninvasive Imaging of Human Foveal Capillary Network Using Dual-Conjugate Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(5), 2649–2655 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, S. Manzanera, S. Barez, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Disruption of the Retinal Parafoveal Capillary Network in Type 2 Diabetes before the Onset of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(12), 9257–9266 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, J. Bruestle, R. S. Jonnal, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging Retinal Capillaries Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography and Adaptive Optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(9), 6292–6299 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Zhong, H. X. Song, T. Y. P. Chui, B. L. Petrig, and S. A. Burns, “Noninvasive Measurements and Analysis of Blood Velocity Profiles in Human Retinal Vessels,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 4151–4157 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Song, T. Y. Chui, Z. Zhong, A. E. Elsner, and S. A. Burns, “Variation of cone photoreceptor packing density with retinal eccentricity and age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(10), 7376–7384 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, Y. H. Zhang, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of the RPE mosaic in eyes with retinal disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(5), 2297–2303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. W. Morgan, A. Dubra, R. Wolfe, W. H. Merigan, and D. R. Williams, “In Vivo Autofluorescence Imaging of the Human and Macaque Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Mosaic,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(3), 1350–1359 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(5), 2080–2092 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

J. Tam and A. Roorda, “Speed quantification and tracking of moving objects in adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(3), 036002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, “Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A14(11), 2884–2892 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, H. X. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive-optics imaging of human cone photoreceptor distribution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A25(12), 3021–3029 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Ferguson, Z. Y. Zhong, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. H. Patel, C. Deng, W. Y. Zou, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with integrated wide-field retinal imaging and tracking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27, 265–277 (2010).

J. Pathol. (1)

D. R. Abrahamson, “Recent Studies On The Structure And Pathology Of Basement Membranes,” J. Pathol.149(4), 257–278 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

JAMA (2)

N. R. Burrows, I. A. Hora, Y. F. Li, and J. B. Saaddine, “Self-Reported Visual Impairment Among Persons With Diagnosed Diabetes-United States, 1997-2010 (Reprinted from MMWR, vol 60, pg 1549-1553, 2011),” JAMA307, 25–27 (2012).

X. Z. Zhang, J. B. Saaddine, C. F. Chou, M. F. Cotch, Y. J. Cheng, L. S. Geiss, E. W. Gregg, A. L. Albright, B. E. K. Klein, and R. Klein, “Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in the United States, 2005-2008,” JAMA304(6), 649–656 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Engl. J. Med. (1)

D. A. Antonetti, R. Klein, and T. W. Gardner, “Diabetic Retinopathy,” N. Engl. J. Med.366(13), 1227–1239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Neurosci. (1)

E. A. Rossi and A. Roorda, “The relationship between visual resolution and cone spacing in the human fovea,” Nat. Neurosci.13(2), 156–157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmologica (1)

S. Scholl, J. Kirchhof, and A. J. Augustin, “Pathophysiology of Macular Edema,” Ophthalmologica224(Suppl 1), 8–15 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (2)

Q. D. Nguyen, D. M. Brown, D. M. Marcus, D. S. Boyer, S. Patel, L. Feiner, A. Gibson, J. Sy, A. C. Rundle, J. J. Hopkins, R. G. Rubio, J. S. Ehrlich, and RISE and RIDE Research Group, “Ranibizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema: Results from 2 Phase III Randomized Trials: RISE and RIDE,” Ophthalmology119(4), 789–801 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group, “Grading Diabetic Retinopathy from Stereoscopic Color Fundus Photographs--An Extension of the Modified Airlie House Classification. ETDRS Report Number 10,” Ophthalmology98(5Suppl), 786–806 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optom. Vis. Sci. (2)

J. Tam, K. P. Dhamdhere, P. Tiruveedhula, B. J. Lujan, R. N. Johnson, M. A. Bearse, A. J. Adams, and A. Roorda, “Subclinical Capillary Changes in Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), E692–E703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, Z. Y. Zhong, H. X. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Foveal Avascular Zone and Its Relationship to Foveal Pit Shape,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), 602–610 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry. (1)

G. Huang, X. Qi, T. Y. Chui, Z. Zhong, and S. A. Burns, “A clinical planning module for adaptive optics SLO imaging,” Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry.89, 593–601 (2012).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: An alternate cause of color blindness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(22), 8461–8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Retina (1)

M. Lombardo, M. Parravano, S. Serrao, P. Ducoli, M. Stirpe, and G. Lombardo, “Analysis of retinal capillaries in patients with type 1 diabetes and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy using adaptive optics imaging,” Retina33(8), 1630–1639 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surv. Ophthalmol. (1)

N. Bhagat, R. A. Grigorian, A. Tutela, and M. A. Zarbin, “Diabetic Macular Edema: Pathogenesis and Treatment,” Surv. Ophthalmol.54(1), 1–32 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (4)

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, “Infrared imaging of sub-retinal structures in the human ocular fundus,” Vision Res.36(1), 191–205 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, Z. Y. Zhong, and S. A. Burns, “The relationship between peripapillary crescent and axial length: Implications for differential eye growth,” Vision Res.51(19), 2132–2138 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, R. S. Jonnal, Q. Wang, S. Y. Lee, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging retinal nerve fiber bundles using optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics,” Vision Res.51(16), 1835–1844 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, A. B. Metha, P. Lennie, and D. R. Williams, “Packing arrangement of the three cone classes in primate retina,” Vision Res.41(10-11), 1291–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

T. J. Wolfensberger and Z. J. Gregor, “Macular Edema - Rationale for Therapy,” in Macular Edema: A Practical Approach, G. Coscas, J. CunhaVaz, A. Loewenstein, and G. Soubrane, eds. (2010), pp. 49–58.

M. Al-Latayfeh, P. S. Silva, J. K. Sun, and L. P. Aiello, “Antiangiogenic Therapy for Ischemic Retinopathies,” Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine 2 (2012).

Supplementary Material (5)

» Media 1: AVI (3588 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (2991 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (3986 KB)     
» Media 4: AVI (3986 KB)     
» Media 5: AVI (1391 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Retinal images from 35-year-old control subject (C 01), comparing a wide-field SLO en-face image, SDOCT cross section, and AOSLO high resolution montage. (A), 30 x 30 deg. wide-field SLO en-face image showing the region of interest. (B), SDOCT cross section, with the location as indicated by the black arrow in A. (C), Montage of AOSLO reflectance images, corresponding to the white rectangle in A. Scale bar = 100 μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Retinal images from 31-year-old diabetic subject (D 01) with moderate NPDR. (A), 30 x 30 deg wide-field SLO en-face image. (B), SDOCT cross section, with the location as indicated by the black arrow in A, demonstrating the lack of visible edema or hard exudate. (C), Montage of AOSLO reflectance images, corresponding to the white rectangle in A, showing diffuse capillary remodeling and vessel loops (white arrow), vessel lumen changes, and hard exudates (black arrow). (D). Blow up from region of arrow showing a vessel loop as well as changes in small blood vessel wall appearance over space (white arrow). Scale bar = 100 µm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

AOSLO montage from the same subject (D 01) in Fig. 2, sampled from a different retinal location (black box in Fig. 2(A)). (A), The appearance of the photoreceptor layer beneath the retinal microvascular changes over space and are often darker (arrows) under regions of vascular remodeling, but not always, (note the top left region of the images to the right of the letters). (B). Numerous vessel abnormalities are visible, in particular capillary loops (long white arrow, Media 1), vessel doubling (long black arrow), vessel loop (short white arrow), and non-perfused / ghost capillary (short black arrow, Media 2). Scale bar = 100 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Retinal images from 47-year-old diabetic subject with mild NPDR and clinically significant macular edema. (A), 30 x 30 deg wide field SLO image showing hard exudates and edema. (B), SDOCT cross section, with the location as indicated by the black arrow in A, showing extensive hard exudates and intraretinal fluid. (C), montage of AOSLO reflectance image also showing corresponding extensive hard exudates (white arrows), and in addition surrounding numerous capillary abnormalities including vessel looping (black arrow). The dark region in the lower right corner is a typical appearance of loss of reflectivity due to the accumulation of fluid. Scale bar = 100 µm. (D), Enlargement of region of multiple hard exudates, showing sizes as small as 5 μm. (E), comparison of a region of edema as indicated by cysts in the inner retina, top- imaging focused on photoreceptors using a 2x Airy disc aperture, bottom- same region with offset aperture focused on blood vessels. For C scale bar = 100 μm, for D and E Scale bar = 50 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

AOSLO reflectance images (left column, Panels A, B, C, D, and E) and corresponding perfusion maps (right column, Panels F, G, H, I, and J), in a control subject (top row) and 4 diabetic subjects obtained during the directed portion of the imaging session. A and F, 49-year-old normal subject, showing relatively uniform capillary network and vessel diameters, except in the lower left corner where the normal low density of capillaries at the foveal center occurs (Media 3). B and G, 50-year-old diabetic subject with mild NPDR, showing microaneurysms of varying sizes that differ in the degree of perfusion. These microaneurysms had a wide range of apparent blood flow velocities including stasis (Media 4). C and H, Capillary doubling (black arrow) with distinct blood flow in each branch. D and I, Dilated capillary with fusiform shape (black arrow). The video (Media 5) shows a pressure wave that occurred at approximately 1 second intervals in the corresponding capillary. E and J, Structural image and perfusion map of an unusually large microaneurysm surrounded by dilated capillaries. Scale bars = 50 μm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(A). AOSLO reflectance images showing thickened arteriole walls (white arrow) and widespread tissue changes (apparently roughened surface). Panel A is an image from the same region of the subject shown in Fig. 3. Scale bar = 50 μm. B, C microaneurysms and capillary remodeling including loops and hairpins. The layering of cells surrounding microaneurysms can be seen (black arrows) as well as capillary remodeling (white arrows). Scale bar = 25 μm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Subject information. M: male. F: female. HbA1c: Hemoglobin A1c. CD: capillary diameter. WLR: average wall to lumen ratio for subject.

Metrics