Abstract

There is an increasing interest in the application of fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) for medical diagnosis. Central to the clinical translation of FLIM technology is the development of compact and high-speed clinically compatible systems. We present a handheld probe design consisting of a small maneuverable box fitted with a rigid endoscope, capable of continuous lifetime imaging at multiple emission bands simultaneously. The system was characterized using standard fluorescent dyes. The performance was then further demonstrated by imaging a hamster cheek pouch in vivo, and oral mucosa tissue both ex vivo and in vivo, all using safe and permissible exposure levels. Such a design can greatly facilitate the evaluation of FLIM for oral cancer imaging in vivo.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

S. Cheng, J. J. Rico-Jimenez, J. Jabbour, B. Malik, K. C. Maitland, J. Wright, Y. S. Cheng, and J. A. Jo, “Flexible endoscope for continuous in vivo multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging,” Opt. Lett.38(9), 1515–1517 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, D. R. Rivera, W. W. Webb, J. Bentley, and C. Xu, “Miniature varifocal objective lens for endomicroscopy,” Opt. Lett.38(16), 3103–3106 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yuvaraj, K. Udayakumar, V. Jayanth, A. Prakasa Rao, G. Bharanidharan, D. Koteeswaran, B. D. Munusamy, C. Murali Krishna, and S. Ganesan, “Fluorescence spectroscopic characterization of salivary metabolites of oral cancer patients,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B130C, 153–160 (2013).
[PubMed]

Z. Nie, R. An, J. E. Hayward, T. J. Farrell, and Q. Fang, “Hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime imaging for optical biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(9), 096001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, J. E. Phipps, J. Meier, N. Hatami, B. Poirier, D. S. Elson, D. G. Farwell, and L. Marcu, “Endoscopic Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging for In Vivo Intraoperative Diagnosis of Oral Carcinoma,” Microsc. Microanal.19(4), 791–798 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

H. Xie, J. Bec, J. Liu, Y. Sun, M. Lam, D. R. Yankelevich, and L. Marcu, “Multispectral scanning time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) technique for intravascular diagnosis,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(7), 1521–1533 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, H. Xie, J. Liu, M. Lam, A. J. Chaudhari, F. Zhou, J. Bec, D. R. Yankelevich, A. Dobbie, S. L. Tinling, R. F. Gandour-Edwards, W. L. Monsky, D. G. Farwell, and L. Marcu, “In vivo validation of a bimodal technique combining time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrasonic backscatter microscopy for diagnosis of oral carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(11), 116003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

G. T. Kennedy, S. Coda, A. J. Thompson, D. S. Elson, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. Stamp, A. Thillainayagam, B. Viellerobe, F. Lacombe, C. Dunsby, and P. M. W. French, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging endoscopy,” Proc. SPIE7893, 789308 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Pande and J. A. Jo, “Automated analysis of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) data based on the Laguerre deconvolution method,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.58(1), 172–181 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

2007 (1)

D. S. Elson, J. A. Jo, and L. Marcu, “Miniaturized side-viewing imaging probe for fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM): validation with fluorescence dyes, tissue structural proteins and tissue specimens,” New J. Phys.9(5), 127 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

I. Munro, J. McGinty, N. Galletly, J. Requejo-Isidro, P. M. P. Lanigan, D. S. Elson, C. Dunsby, M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Lever, G. W. H. Stamp, and P. M. W. French, “Toward the clinical application of time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(5), 051403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, C. You, T. C. Hsiao, and C. Y. Wang, “Time-resolved autofluorescence spectroscopy for classifying normal and premalignant oral tissues,” Lasers Surg. Med.37(1), 37–45 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

1999 (1)

J. Mizeret, T. Stepinac, M. Hansroul, A. Studzinski, H. van den Bergh, and G. Wagnieres, “Instrumentation for real-time fluorescence lifetime imaging in endoscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70(12), 4689–4701 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ameer-Beg, S.

An, R.

Z. Nie, R. An, J. E. Hayward, T. J. Farrell, and Q. Fang, “Hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime imaging for optical biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(9), 096001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Applegate, B. E.

Bec, J.

Y. Sun, H. Xie, J. Liu, M. Lam, A. J. Chaudhari, F. Zhou, J. Bec, D. R. Yankelevich, A. Dobbie, S. L. Tinling, R. F. Gandour-Edwards, W. L. Monsky, D. G. Farwell, and L. Marcu, “In vivo validation of a bimodal technique combining time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrasonic backscatter microscopy for diagnosis of oral carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(11), 116003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xie, J. Bec, J. Liu, Y. Sun, M. Lam, D. R. Yankelevich, and L. Marcu, “Multispectral scanning time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) technique for intravascular diagnosis,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(7), 1521–1533 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bentley, J.

Bharanidharan, G.

M. Yuvaraj, K. Udayakumar, V. Jayanth, A. Prakasa Rao, G. Bharanidharan, D. Koteeswaran, B. D. Munusamy, C. Murali Krishna, and S. Ganesan, “Fluorescence spectroscopic characterization of salivary metabolites of oral cancer patients,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B130C, 153–160 (2013).
[PubMed]

Chaudhari, A. J.

Y. Sun, H. Xie, J. Liu, M. Lam, A. J. Chaudhari, F. Zhou, J. Bec, D. R. Yankelevich, A. Dobbie, S. L. Tinling, R. F. Gandour-Edwards, W. L. Monsky, D. G. Farwell, and L. Marcu, “In vivo validation of a bimodal technique combining time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrasonic backscatter microscopy for diagnosis of oral carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(11), 116003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H. M.

H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, C. You, T. C. Hsiao, and C. Y. Wang, “Time-resolved autofluorescence spectroscopy for classifying normal and premalignant oral tissues,” Lasers Surg. Med.37(1), 37–45 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, S.

Cheng, Y. S.

Chiang, C. P.

H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, C. You, T. C. Hsiao, and C. Y. Wang, “Time-resolved autofluorescence spectroscopy for classifying normal and premalignant oral tissues,” Lasers Surg. Med.37(1), 37–45 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coda, S.

G. T. Kennedy, S. Coda, A. J. Thompson, D. S. Elson, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. Stamp, A. Thillainayagam, B. Viellerobe, F. Lacombe, C. Dunsby, and P. M. W. French, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging endoscopy,” Proc. SPIE7893, 789308 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cook, R.

Dobbie, A.

Y. Sun, H. Xie, J. Liu, M. Lam, A. J. Chaudhari, F. Zhou, J. Bec, D. R. Yankelevich, A. Dobbie, S. L. Tinling, R. F. Gandour-Edwards, W. L. Monsky, D. G. Farwell, and L. Marcu, “In vivo validation of a bimodal technique combining time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrasonic backscatter microscopy for diagnosis of oral carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(11), 116003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunsby, C.

G. T. Kennedy, S. Coda, A. J. Thompson, D. S. Elson, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. Stamp, A. Thillainayagam, B. Viellerobe, F. Lacombe, C. Dunsby, and P. M. W. French, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging endoscopy,” Proc. SPIE7893, 789308 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Kennedy, H. B. Manning, D. S. Elson, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. Stamp, B. Viellerobe, F. Lacombe, C. Dunsby, and P. M. W. French, “A fluorescence lifetime imaging scanning confocal endomicroscope,” J. Biophotonics3(1-2), 103–107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Munro, J. McGinty, N. Galletly, J. Requejo-Isidro, P. M. P. Lanigan, D. S. Elson, C. Dunsby, M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Lever, G. W. H. Stamp, and P. M. W. French, “Toward the clinical application of time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(5), 051403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dymoke-Bradshaw, A. K. L.

Elson, D. S.

Y. Sun, J. E. Phipps, J. Meier, N. Hatami, B. Poirier, D. S. Elson, D. G. Farwell, and L. Marcu, “Endoscopic Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging for In Vivo Intraoperative Diagnosis of Oral Carcinoma,” Microsc. Microanal.19(4), 791–798 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. T. Kennedy, S. Coda, A. J. Thompson, D. S. Elson, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. Stamp, A. Thillainayagam, B. Viellerobe, F. Lacombe, C. Dunsby, and P. M. W. French, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging endoscopy,” Proc. SPIE7893, 789308 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Kennedy, H. B. Manning, D. S. Elson, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. Stamp, B. Viellerobe, F. Lacombe, C. Dunsby, and P. M. W. French, “A fluorescence lifetime imaging scanning confocal endomicroscope,” J. Biophotonics3(1-2), 103–107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Elson, J. A. Jo, and L. Marcu, “Miniaturized side-viewing imaging probe for fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM): validation with fluorescence dyes, tissue structural proteins and tissue specimens,” New J. Phys.9(5), 127 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Munro, J. McGinty, N. Galletly, J. Requejo-Isidro, P. M. P. Lanigan, D. S. Elson, C. Dunsby, M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Lever, G. W. H. Stamp, and P. M. W. French, “Toward the clinical application of time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(5), 051403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Requejo-Isidro, J. McGinty, I. Munro, D. S. Elson, N. P. Galletly, M. J. Lever, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. H. Stamp, P. M. W. French, P. A. Kellett, J. D. Hares, and A. K. L. Dymoke-Bradshaw, “High-speed wide-field time-gated endoscopic fluorescence-lifetime imaging,” Opt. Lett.29(19), 2249–2251 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, Q.

Z. Nie, R. An, J. E. Hayward, T. J. Farrell, and Q. Fang, “Hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime imaging for optical biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(9), 096001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farrell, T. J.

Z. Nie, R. An, J. E. Hayward, T. J. Farrell, and Q. Fang, “Hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime imaging for optical biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(9), 096001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farwell, D. G.

Y. Sun, J. E. Phipps, J. Meier, N. Hatami, B. Poirier, D. S. Elson, D. G. Farwell, and L. Marcu, “Endoscopic Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging for In Vivo Intraoperative Diagnosis of Oral Carcinoma,” Microsc. Microanal.19(4), 791–798 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, H. Xie, J. Liu, M. Lam, A. J. Chaudhari, F. Zhou, J. Bec, D. R. Yankelevich, A. Dobbie, S. L. Tinling, R. F. Gandour-Edwards, W. L. Monsky, D. G. Farwell, and L. Marcu, “In vivo validation of a bimodal technique combining time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrasonic backscatter microscopy for diagnosis of oral carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(11), 116003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Festy, F.

French, P. M. W.

G. T. Kennedy, S. Coda, A. J. Thompson, D. S. Elson, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. Stamp, A. Thillainayagam, B. Viellerobe, F. Lacombe, C. Dunsby, and P. M. W. French, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging endoscopy,” Proc. SPIE7893, 789308 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Kennedy, H. B. Manning, D. S. Elson, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. Stamp, B. Viellerobe, F. Lacombe, C. Dunsby, and P. M. W. French, “A fluorescence lifetime imaging scanning confocal endomicroscope,” J. Biophotonics3(1-2), 103–107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Munro, J. McGinty, N. Galletly, J. Requejo-Isidro, P. M. P. Lanigan, D. S. Elson, C. Dunsby, M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Lever, G. W. H. Stamp, and P. M. W. French, “Toward the clinical application of time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(5), 051403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Requejo-Isidro, J. McGinty, I. Munro, D. S. Elson, N. P. Galletly, M. J. Lever, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. H. Stamp, P. M. W. French, P. A. Kellett, J. D. Hares, and A. K. L. Dymoke-Bradshaw, “High-speed wide-field time-gated endoscopic fluorescence-lifetime imaging,” Opt. Lett.29(19), 2249–2251 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fruhwirth, G. O.

Galletly, N.

I. Munro, J. McGinty, N. Galletly, J. Requejo-Isidro, P. M. P. Lanigan, D. S. Elson, C. Dunsby, M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Lever, G. W. H. Stamp, and P. M. W. French, “Toward the clinical application of time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(5), 051403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galletly, N. P.

Gandour-Edwards, R. F.

Y. Sun, H. Xie, J. Liu, M. Lam, A. J. Chaudhari, F. Zhou, J. Bec, D. R. Yankelevich, A. Dobbie, S. L. Tinling, R. F. Gandour-Edwards, W. L. Monsky, D. G. Farwell, and L. Marcu, “In vivo validation of a bimodal technique combining time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrasonic backscatter microscopy for diagnosis of oral carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(11), 116003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ganesan, S.

M. Yuvaraj, K. Udayakumar, V. Jayanth, A. Prakasa Rao, G. Bharanidharan, D. Koteeswaran, B. D. Munusamy, C. Murali Krishna, and S. Ganesan, “Fluorescence spectroscopic characterization of salivary metabolites of oral cancer patients,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B130C, 153–160 (2013).
[PubMed]

Hansroul, M.

J. Mizeret, T. Stepinac, M. Hansroul, A. Studzinski, H. van den Bergh, and G. Wagnieres, “Instrumentation for real-time fluorescence lifetime imaging in endoscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70(12), 4689–4701 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hares, J. D.

Hatami, N.

Y. Sun, J. E. Phipps, J. Meier, N. Hatami, B. Poirier, D. S. Elson, D. G. Farwell, and L. Marcu, “Endoscopic Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging for In Vivo Intraoperative Diagnosis of Oral Carcinoma,” Microsc. Microanal.19(4), 791–798 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayward, J. E.

Z. Nie, R. An, J. E. Hayward, T. J. Farrell, and Q. Fang, “Hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime imaging for optical biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(9), 096001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsiao, T. C.

H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, C. You, T. C. Hsiao, and C. Y. Wang, “Time-resolved autofluorescence spectroscopy for classifying normal and premalignant oral tissues,” Lasers Surg. Med.37(1), 37–45 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jabbour, J.

Jayanth, V.

M. Yuvaraj, K. Udayakumar, V. Jayanth, A. Prakasa Rao, G. Bharanidharan, D. Koteeswaran, B. D. Munusamy, C. Murali Krishna, and S. Ganesan, “Fluorescence spectroscopic characterization of salivary metabolites of oral cancer patients,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B130C, 153–160 (2013).
[PubMed]

Jo, J. A.

S. Cheng, J. J. Rico-Jimenez, J. Jabbour, B. Malik, K. C. Maitland, J. Wright, Y. S. Cheng, and J. A. Jo, “Flexible endoscope for continuous in vivo multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging,” Opt. Lett.38(9), 1515–1517 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Pande and J. A. Jo, “Automated analysis of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) data based on the Laguerre deconvolution method,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.58(1), 172–181 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Shrestha, B. E. Applegate, J. Park, X. Xiao, P. Pande, and J. A. Jo, “High-speed multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging implementation for in vivo applications,” Opt. Lett.35(15), 2558–2560 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Elson, J. A. Jo, and L. Marcu, “Miniaturized side-viewing imaging probe for fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM): validation with fluorescence dyes, tissue structural proteins and tissue specimens,” New J. Phys.9(5), 127 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kellett, P. A.

Kennedy, G. T.

G. T. Kennedy, S. Coda, A. J. Thompson, D. S. Elson, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. Stamp, A. Thillainayagam, B. Viellerobe, F. Lacombe, C. Dunsby, and P. M. W. French, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging endoscopy,” Proc. SPIE7893, 789308 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Kennedy, H. B. Manning, D. S. Elson, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. Stamp, B. Viellerobe, F. Lacombe, C. Dunsby, and P. M. W. French, “A fluorescence lifetime imaging scanning confocal endomicroscope,” J. Biophotonics3(1-2), 103–107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koteeswaran, D.

M. Yuvaraj, K. Udayakumar, V. Jayanth, A. Prakasa Rao, G. Bharanidharan, D. Koteeswaran, B. D. Munusamy, C. Murali Krishna, and S. Ganesan, “Fluorescence spectroscopic characterization of salivary metabolites of oral cancer patients,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B130C, 153–160 (2013).
[PubMed]

Lacombe, F.

G. T. Kennedy, S. Coda, A. J. Thompson, D. S. Elson, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. Stamp, A. Thillainayagam, B. Viellerobe, F. Lacombe, C. Dunsby, and P. M. W. French, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging endoscopy,” Proc. SPIE7893, 789308 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Kennedy, H. B. Manning, D. S. Elson, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. Stamp, B. Viellerobe, F. Lacombe, C. Dunsby, and P. M. W. French, “A fluorescence lifetime imaging scanning confocal endomicroscope,” J. Biophotonics3(1-2), 103–107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lam, M.

H. Xie, J. Bec, J. Liu, Y. Sun, M. Lam, D. R. Yankelevich, and L. Marcu, “Multispectral scanning time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) technique for intravascular diagnosis,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(7), 1521–1533 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, H. Xie, J. Liu, M. Lam, A. J. Chaudhari, F. Zhou, J. Bec, D. R. Yankelevich, A. Dobbie, S. L. Tinling, R. F. Gandour-Edwards, W. L. Monsky, D. G. Farwell, and L. Marcu, “In vivo validation of a bimodal technique combining time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrasonic backscatter microscopy for diagnosis of oral carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(11), 116003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lanigan, P. M. P.

I. Munro, J. McGinty, N. Galletly, J. Requejo-Isidro, P. M. P. Lanigan, D. S. Elson, C. Dunsby, M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Lever, G. W. H. Stamp, and P. M. W. French, “Toward the clinical application of time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(5), 051403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lever, M. J.

I. Munro, J. McGinty, N. Galletly, J. Requejo-Isidro, P. M. P. Lanigan, D. S. Elson, C. Dunsby, M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Lever, G. W. H. Stamp, and P. M. W. French, “Toward the clinical application of time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(5), 051403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Requejo-Isidro, J. McGinty, I. Munro, D. S. Elson, N. P. Galletly, M. J. Lever, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. H. Stamp, P. M. W. French, P. A. Kellett, J. D. Hares, and A. K. L. Dymoke-Bradshaw, “High-speed wide-field time-gated endoscopic fluorescence-lifetime imaging,” Opt. Lett.29(19), 2249–2251 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

H. Xie, J. Bec, J. Liu, Y. Sun, M. Lam, D. R. Yankelevich, and L. Marcu, “Multispectral scanning time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) technique for intravascular diagnosis,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(7), 1521–1533 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, H. Xie, J. Liu, M. Lam, A. J. Chaudhari, F. Zhou, J. Bec, D. R. Yankelevich, A. Dobbie, S. L. Tinling, R. F. Gandour-Edwards, W. L. Monsky, D. G. Farwell, and L. Marcu, “In vivo validation of a bimodal technique combining time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrasonic backscatter microscopy for diagnosis of oral carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(11), 116003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maitland, K. C.

Malik, B.

Manning, H. B.

G. T. Kennedy, H. B. Manning, D. S. Elson, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. Stamp, B. Viellerobe, F. Lacombe, C. Dunsby, and P. M. W. French, “A fluorescence lifetime imaging scanning confocal endomicroscope,” J. Biophotonics3(1-2), 103–107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcu, L.

Y. Sun, J. E. Phipps, J. Meier, N. Hatami, B. Poirier, D. S. Elson, D. G. Farwell, and L. Marcu, “Endoscopic Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging for In Vivo Intraoperative Diagnosis of Oral Carcinoma,” Microsc. Microanal.19(4), 791–798 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xie, J. Bec, J. Liu, Y. Sun, M. Lam, D. R. Yankelevich, and L. Marcu, “Multispectral scanning time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) technique for intravascular diagnosis,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(7), 1521–1533 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, H. Xie, J. Liu, M. Lam, A. J. Chaudhari, F. Zhou, J. Bec, D. R. Yankelevich, A. Dobbie, S. L. Tinling, R. F. Gandour-Edwards, W. L. Monsky, D. G. Farwell, and L. Marcu, “In vivo validation of a bimodal technique combining time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrasonic backscatter microscopy for diagnosis of oral carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(11), 116003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Elson, J. A. Jo, and L. Marcu, “Miniaturized side-viewing imaging probe for fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM): validation with fluorescence dyes, tissue structural proteins and tissue specimens,” New J. Phys.9(5), 127 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGinty, J.

I. Munro, J. McGinty, N. Galletly, J. Requejo-Isidro, P. M. P. Lanigan, D. S. Elson, C. Dunsby, M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Lever, G. W. H. Stamp, and P. M. W. French, “Toward the clinical application of time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(5), 051403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Requejo-Isidro, J. McGinty, I. Munro, D. S. Elson, N. P. Galletly, M. J. Lever, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. H. Stamp, P. M. W. French, P. A. Kellett, J. D. Hares, and A. K. L. Dymoke-Bradshaw, “High-speed wide-field time-gated endoscopic fluorescence-lifetime imaging,” Opt. Lett.29(19), 2249–2251 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meier, J.

Y. Sun, J. E. Phipps, J. Meier, N. Hatami, B. Poirier, D. S. Elson, D. G. Farwell, and L. Marcu, “Endoscopic Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging for In Vivo Intraoperative Diagnosis of Oral Carcinoma,” Microsc. Microanal.19(4), 791–798 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mizeret, J.

J. Mizeret, T. Stepinac, M. Hansroul, A. Studzinski, H. van den Bergh, and G. Wagnieres, “Instrumentation for real-time fluorescence lifetime imaging in endoscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70(12), 4689–4701 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Monsky, W. L.

Y. Sun, H. Xie, J. Liu, M. Lam, A. J. Chaudhari, F. Zhou, J. Bec, D. R. Yankelevich, A. Dobbie, S. L. Tinling, R. F. Gandour-Edwards, W. L. Monsky, D. G. Farwell, and L. Marcu, “In vivo validation of a bimodal technique combining time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrasonic backscatter microscopy for diagnosis of oral carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(11), 116003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munro, I.

I. Munro, J. McGinty, N. Galletly, J. Requejo-Isidro, P. M. P. Lanigan, D. S. Elson, C. Dunsby, M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Lever, G. W. H. Stamp, and P. M. W. French, “Toward the clinical application of time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(5), 051403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Requejo-Isidro, J. McGinty, I. Munro, D. S. Elson, N. P. Galletly, M. J. Lever, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. H. Stamp, P. M. W. French, P. A. Kellett, J. D. Hares, and A. K. L. Dymoke-Bradshaw, “High-speed wide-field time-gated endoscopic fluorescence-lifetime imaging,” Opt. Lett.29(19), 2249–2251 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munusamy, B. D.

M. Yuvaraj, K. Udayakumar, V. Jayanth, A. Prakasa Rao, G. Bharanidharan, D. Koteeswaran, B. D. Munusamy, C. Murali Krishna, and S. Ganesan, “Fluorescence spectroscopic characterization of salivary metabolites of oral cancer patients,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B130C, 153–160 (2013).
[PubMed]

Murali Krishna, C.

M. Yuvaraj, K. Udayakumar, V. Jayanth, A. Prakasa Rao, G. Bharanidharan, D. Koteeswaran, B. D. Munusamy, C. Murali Krishna, and S. Ganesan, “Fluorescence spectroscopic characterization of salivary metabolites of oral cancer patients,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B130C, 153–160 (2013).
[PubMed]

Neil, M. A. A.

G. T. Kennedy, S. Coda, A. J. Thompson, D. S. Elson, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. Stamp, A. Thillainayagam, B. Viellerobe, F. Lacombe, C. Dunsby, and P. M. W. French, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging endoscopy,” Proc. SPIE7893, 789308 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Kennedy, H. B. Manning, D. S. Elson, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. Stamp, B. Viellerobe, F. Lacombe, C. Dunsby, and P. M. W. French, “A fluorescence lifetime imaging scanning confocal endomicroscope,” J. Biophotonics3(1-2), 103–107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Munro, J. McGinty, N. Galletly, J. Requejo-Isidro, P. M. P. Lanigan, D. S. Elson, C. Dunsby, M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Lever, G. W. H. Stamp, and P. M. W. French, “Toward the clinical application of time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(5), 051403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Requejo-Isidro, J. McGinty, I. Munro, D. S. Elson, N. P. Galletly, M. J. Lever, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. H. Stamp, P. M. W. French, P. A. Kellett, J. D. Hares, and A. K. L. Dymoke-Bradshaw, “High-speed wide-field time-gated endoscopic fluorescence-lifetime imaging,” Opt. Lett.29(19), 2249–2251 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ng, T.

Nie, Z.

Z. Nie, R. An, J. E. Hayward, T. J. Farrell, and Q. Fang, “Hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime imaging for optical biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(9), 096001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ouzounov, D. G.

Pande, P.

P. Pande and J. A. Jo, “Automated analysis of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) data based on the Laguerre deconvolution method,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.58(1), 172–181 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Shrestha, B. E. Applegate, J. Park, X. Xiao, P. Pande, and J. A. Jo, “High-speed multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging implementation for in vivo applications,” Opt. Lett.35(15), 2558–2560 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J.

Phipps, J. E.

Y. Sun, J. E. Phipps, J. Meier, N. Hatami, B. Poirier, D. S. Elson, D. G. Farwell, and L. Marcu, “Endoscopic Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging for In Vivo Intraoperative Diagnosis of Oral Carcinoma,” Microsc. Microanal.19(4), 791–798 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poirier, B.

Y. Sun, J. E. Phipps, J. Meier, N. Hatami, B. Poirier, D. S. Elson, D. G. Farwell, and L. Marcu, “Endoscopic Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging for In Vivo Intraoperative Diagnosis of Oral Carcinoma,” Microsc. Microanal.19(4), 791–798 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prakasa Rao, A.

M. Yuvaraj, K. Udayakumar, V. Jayanth, A. Prakasa Rao, G. Bharanidharan, D. Koteeswaran, B. D. Munusamy, C. Murali Krishna, and S. Ganesan, “Fluorescence spectroscopic characterization of salivary metabolites of oral cancer patients,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B130C, 153–160 (2013).
[PubMed]

Requejo-Isidro, J.

I. Munro, J. McGinty, N. Galletly, J. Requejo-Isidro, P. M. P. Lanigan, D. S. Elson, C. Dunsby, M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Lever, G. W. H. Stamp, and P. M. W. French, “Toward the clinical application of time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(5), 051403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Requejo-Isidro, J. McGinty, I. Munro, D. S. Elson, N. P. Galletly, M. J. Lever, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. H. Stamp, P. M. W. French, P. A. Kellett, J. D. Hares, and A. K. L. Dymoke-Bradshaw, “High-speed wide-field time-gated endoscopic fluorescence-lifetime imaging,” Opt. Lett.29(19), 2249–2251 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rico-Jimenez, J. J.

Rivera, D. R.

Shrestha, S.

Stamp, G. W.

G. T. Kennedy, S. Coda, A. J. Thompson, D. S. Elson, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. Stamp, A. Thillainayagam, B. Viellerobe, F. Lacombe, C. Dunsby, and P. M. W. French, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging endoscopy,” Proc. SPIE7893, 789308 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Kennedy, H. B. Manning, D. S. Elson, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. Stamp, B. Viellerobe, F. Lacombe, C. Dunsby, and P. M. W. French, “A fluorescence lifetime imaging scanning confocal endomicroscope,” J. Biophotonics3(1-2), 103–107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stamp, G. W. H.

I. Munro, J. McGinty, N. Galletly, J. Requejo-Isidro, P. M. P. Lanigan, D. S. Elson, C. Dunsby, M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Lever, G. W. H. Stamp, and P. M. W. French, “Toward the clinical application of time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(5), 051403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Requejo-Isidro, J. McGinty, I. Munro, D. S. Elson, N. P. Galletly, M. J. Lever, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. H. Stamp, P. M. W. French, P. A. Kellett, J. D. Hares, and A. K. L. Dymoke-Bradshaw, “High-speed wide-field time-gated endoscopic fluorescence-lifetime imaging,” Opt. Lett.29(19), 2249–2251 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stepinac, T.

J. Mizeret, T. Stepinac, M. Hansroul, A. Studzinski, H. van den Bergh, and G. Wagnieres, “Instrumentation for real-time fluorescence lifetime imaging in endoscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70(12), 4689–4701 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Studzinski, A.

J. Mizeret, T. Stepinac, M. Hansroul, A. Studzinski, H. van den Bergh, and G. Wagnieres, “Instrumentation for real-time fluorescence lifetime imaging in endoscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70(12), 4689–4701 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, J. E. Phipps, J. Meier, N. Hatami, B. Poirier, D. S. Elson, D. G. Farwell, and L. Marcu, “Endoscopic Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging for In Vivo Intraoperative Diagnosis of Oral Carcinoma,” Microsc. Microanal.19(4), 791–798 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, H. Xie, J. Liu, M. Lam, A. J. Chaudhari, F. Zhou, J. Bec, D. R. Yankelevich, A. Dobbie, S. L. Tinling, R. F. Gandour-Edwards, W. L. Monsky, D. G. Farwell, and L. Marcu, “In vivo validation of a bimodal technique combining time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrasonic backscatter microscopy for diagnosis of oral carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(11), 116003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xie, J. Bec, J. Liu, Y. Sun, M. Lam, D. R. Yankelevich, and L. Marcu, “Multispectral scanning time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) technique for intravascular diagnosis,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(7), 1521–1533 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thillainayagam, A.

G. T. Kennedy, S. Coda, A. J. Thompson, D. S. Elson, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. Stamp, A. Thillainayagam, B. Viellerobe, F. Lacombe, C. Dunsby, and P. M. W. French, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging endoscopy,” Proc. SPIE7893, 789308 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, A. J.

G. T. Kennedy, S. Coda, A. J. Thompson, D. S. Elson, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. Stamp, A. Thillainayagam, B. Viellerobe, F. Lacombe, C. Dunsby, and P. M. W. French, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging endoscopy,” Proc. SPIE7893, 789308 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tinling, S. L.

Y. Sun, H. Xie, J. Liu, M. Lam, A. J. Chaudhari, F. Zhou, J. Bec, D. R. Yankelevich, A. Dobbie, S. L. Tinling, R. F. Gandour-Edwards, W. L. Monsky, D. G. Farwell, and L. Marcu, “In vivo validation of a bimodal technique combining time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrasonic backscatter microscopy for diagnosis of oral carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(11), 116003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udayakumar, K.

M. Yuvaraj, K. Udayakumar, V. Jayanth, A. Prakasa Rao, G. Bharanidharan, D. Koteeswaran, B. D. Munusamy, C. Murali Krishna, and S. Ganesan, “Fluorescence spectroscopic characterization of salivary metabolites of oral cancer patients,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B130C, 153–160 (2013).
[PubMed]

van den Bergh, H.

J. Mizeret, T. Stepinac, M. Hansroul, A. Studzinski, H. van den Bergh, and G. Wagnieres, “Instrumentation for real-time fluorescence lifetime imaging in endoscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70(12), 4689–4701 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Viellerobe, B.

G. T. Kennedy, S. Coda, A. J. Thompson, D. S. Elson, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. Stamp, A. Thillainayagam, B. Viellerobe, F. Lacombe, C. Dunsby, and P. M. W. French, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging endoscopy,” Proc. SPIE7893, 789308 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Kennedy, H. B. Manning, D. S. Elson, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. Stamp, B. Viellerobe, F. Lacombe, C. Dunsby, and P. M. W. French, “A fluorescence lifetime imaging scanning confocal endomicroscope,” J. Biophotonics3(1-2), 103–107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagnieres, G.

J. Mizeret, T. Stepinac, M. Hansroul, A. Studzinski, H. van den Bergh, and G. Wagnieres, “Instrumentation for real-time fluorescence lifetime imaging in endoscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70(12), 4689–4701 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. Y.

H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, C. You, T. C. Hsiao, and C. Y. Wang, “Time-resolved autofluorescence spectroscopy for classifying normal and premalignant oral tissues,” Lasers Surg. Med.37(1), 37–45 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watson, T.

Webb, W. W.

Wright, J.

Xiao, X.

Xie, H.

Y. Sun, H. Xie, J. Liu, M. Lam, A. J. Chaudhari, F. Zhou, J. Bec, D. R. Yankelevich, A. Dobbie, S. L. Tinling, R. F. Gandour-Edwards, W. L. Monsky, D. G. Farwell, and L. Marcu, “In vivo validation of a bimodal technique combining time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrasonic backscatter microscopy for diagnosis of oral carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(11), 116003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xie, J. Bec, J. Liu, Y. Sun, M. Lam, D. R. Yankelevich, and L. Marcu, “Multispectral scanning time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) technique for intravascular diagnosis,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(7), 1521–1533 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, C.

Yankelevich, D. R.

Y. Sun, H. Xie, J. Liu, M. Lam, A. J. Chaudhari, F. Zhou, J. Bec, D. R. Yankelevich, A. Dobbie, S. L. Tinling, R. F. Gandour-Edwards, W. L. Monsky, D. G. Farwell, and L. Marcu, “In vivo validation of a bimodal technique combining time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrasonic backscatter microscopy for diagnosis of oral carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(11), 116003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xie, J. Bec, J. Liu, Y. Sun, M. Lam, D. R. Yankelevich, and L. Marcu, “Multispectral scanning time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) technique for intravascular diagnosis,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(7), 1521–1533 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

You, C.

H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, C. You, T. C. Hsiao, and C. Y. Wang, “Time-resolved autofluorescence spectroscopy for classifying normal and premalignant oral tissues,” Lasers Surg. Med.37(1), 37–45 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuvaraj, M.

M. Yuvaraj, K. Udayakumar, V. Jayanth, A. Prakasa Rao, G. Bharanidharan, D. Koteeswaran, B. D. Munusamy, C. Murali Krishna, and S. Ganesan, “Fluorescence spectroscopic characterization of salivary metabolites of oral cancer patients,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B130C, 153–160 (2013).
[PubMed]

Zhou, F.

Y. Sun, H. Xie, J. Liu, M. Lam, A. J. Chaudhari, F. Zhou, J. Bec, D. R. Yankelevich, A. Dobbie, S. L. Tinling, R. F. Gandour-Edwards, W. L. Monsky, D. G. Farwell, and L. Marcu, “In vivo validation of a bimodal technique combining time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrasonic backscatter microscopy for diagnosis of oral carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(11), 116003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

P. Pande and J. A. Jo, “Automated analysis of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) data based on the Laguerre deconvolution method,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.58(1), 172–181 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

Y. Sun, H. Xie, J. Liu, M. Lam, A. J. Chaudhari, F. Zhou, J. Bec, D. R. Yankelevich, A. Dobbie, S. L. Tinling, R. F. Gandour-Edwards, W. L. Monsky, D. G. Farwell, and L. Marcu, “In vivo validation of a bimodal technique combining time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrasonic backscatter microscopy for diagnosis of oral carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(11), 116003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Munro, J. McGinty, N. Galletly, J. Requejo-Isidro, P. M. P. Lanigan, D. S. Elson, C. Dunsby, M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Lever, G. W. H. Stamp, and P. M. W. French, “Toward the clinical application of time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(5), 051403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Nie, R. An, J. E. Hayward, T. J. Farrell, and Q. Fang, “Hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime imaging for optical biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(9), 096001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biophotonics (1)

G. T. Kennedy, H. B. Manning, D. S. Elson, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. Stamp, B. Viellerobe, F. Lacombe, C. Dunsby, and P. M. W. French, “A fluorescence lifetime imaging scanning confocal endomicroscope,” J. Biophotonics3(1-2), 103–107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. B (1)

M. Yuvaraj, K. Udayakumar, V. Jayanth, A. Prakasa Rao, G. Bharanidharan, D. Koteeswaran, B. D. Munusamy, C. Murali Krishna, and S. Ganesan, “Fluorescence spectroscopic characterization of salivary metabolites of oral cancer patients,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B130C, 153–160 (2013).
[PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, C. You, T. C. Hsiao, and C. Y. Wang, “Time-resolved autofluorescence spectroscopy for classifying normal and premalignant oral tissues,” Lasers Surg. Med.37(1), 37–45 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microsc. Microanal. (1)

Y. Sun, J. E. Phipps, J. Meier, N. Hatami, B. Poirier, D. S. Elson, D. G. Farwell, and L. Marcu, “Endoscopic Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging for In Vivo Intraoperative Diagnosis of Oral Carcinoma,” Microsc. Microanal.19(4), 791–798 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

D. S. Elson, J. A. Jo, and L. Marcu, “Miniaturized side-viewing imaging probe for fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM): validation with fluorescence dyes, tissue structural proteins and tissue specimens,” New J. Phys.9(5), 127 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. T. Kennedy, S. Coda, A. J. Thompson, D. S. Elson, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. Stamp, A. Thillainayagam, B. Viellerobe, F. Lacombe, C. Dunsby, and P. M. W. French, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging endoscopy,” Proc. SPIE7893, 789308 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. Mizeret, T. Stepinac, M. Hansroul, A. Studzinski, H. van den Bergh, and G. Wagnieres, “Instrumentation for real-time fluorescence lifetime imaging in endoscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70(12), 4689–4701 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Springer, New York, 2006).

American National Standards Institute, Safe Use of Lasers, ANSI Z136.1–2007, (Laser Institute of America, 2007).

J. Bec, D. M. Ma, D. R. Yankelevich, J. Liu, W. T. Ferrier, J. Southard, and L. Marcu, “Multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging system for intravascular diagnostics with ultrasound guidance: in vivo validation in swine arteries,” J. Biophotonics doi: (2013).
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: AVI (396 KB)     
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Photograph of the handheld rigid endoscope. (b) Schematic of the multispectral FLIM rigid endoscope system. DM: Dichroic mirror, L: Lens, F: Filter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

In vitro validation imaging of quartz capillaries loaded with FAD, NADH, and POPOP: (a) Normalized fluorescence intensity maps, and (b) Fluorescence lifetime maps. Continuous imaging of the capillaries was also demonstrated (Media 1). FOV: 5x5 mm2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

In vivo validation imaging of a normal hamster cheek pouch: (a) Absolute integrated fluorescence intensity maps, (b) Normalized integrated fluorescence intensity maps, and (c) Fluorescence lifetime maps. Continuous in vivo imaging of the cheek pouch was also demonstrated (Media 2). FOV: 10 × 10 mm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ex vivo human oral biopsy: (a) Absolute integrated fluorescence intensity maps, (b) Normalized integrated fluorescence intensity maps, and (c) Fluorescence lifetime maps. FOV: 10 × 10 mm2. The thread at the bottom of (a), (b) and (c) was the suture used to mark the tissue orientation for histology study. (d) Histology image for the position marked in (c) as Region 1 which was diagnosed as superficial invasive squamous cell carcinoma. (e) Histology image for the position marked in (c) as Region 2 which was diagnosed as dysplasia. Both Region 1 and Region 2 are squares of 600um by 600um. The scale bars in both (d) and (e) represent 200 µm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

In vivo imaging of the ventral tongue from a normal human volunteer: (a) Absolute integrated fluorescence intensity maps, (b) Normalized integrated fluorescence intensity maps, and (c) Fluorescence lifetime maps. FOV: 10 × 10 mm2.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of resolution and FOV with different focal length objectives and excitation fiber core diameters

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Table 2 Comparison of offline and online fluorescence lifetime estimations (mean ± standard deviation)

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