Abstract

Optically pumped magnetometers (OPM) are a very promising alternative to the superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) used nowadays for Magnetic Field Imaging (MFI), a new method of diagnosis based on the measurement of the magnetic field of the human heart. We present a first measurement combining a multichannel OPM-sensor with an existing MFI-system resulting in a fully functional room temperature MFI-system.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. J. Roth, J. P. Wikswo., “Electrically silent magnetic fields,” Biophys. J. 50(4), 739–745 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  3. P. Korhonen, T. Husa, I. Tierala, H. Väänänen, M. Mäkijärvi, T. Katila, L. Toivonen, “Increased Intra-QRS fragmentation in magnetocardiography as a predictor of arrhythmic events and mortality in patients with cardiac dysfunction after myocardial infarction,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 17(4), 396–401 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Dutz, M. E. Bellemann, U. Leder, J. Haueisen, “Passive vortex currents in magneto- and electrocardiography: comparison of magnetic and electric signal strengths,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(1), 145–151 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Liehr, J. Haueisen, M. Goernig, P. Seidel, J. Nenonen, T. Katila, “Vortex Shaped Current Sources in a Physical Torso Phantom,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 33(2), 240–247 (2005).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. Wyllie, M. Kauer, R. T. Wakai, T. G. Walker, “Optical magnetometer array for fetal magnetocardiography,” Opt. Lett. 37(12), 2247–2249 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. G. Bison, N. Castagna, A. Hofer, P. Knowles, J.-L. Schenker, M. Kasprzak, H. Saudan, A. Weis, “A room temperature 19-channel magnetic field mapping device for cardiac signals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 173701 (2009).
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  17. S. Groeger, G. Bison, J.-L. Schenker, R. Wynands, A. Weis, “A high-sensitivity laser-pumped Mx-magnetomter,” Eur. Phys. J. D 38(2), 239–247 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. N. Castagna, G. Bison, G. Di Domenico, A. Hofer, P. Knowles, C. Macchione, H. Saudan, A. Weis, “A large sample study of spin relaxation and magnetometric sensitivity of paraffin coated Cs vapor cells,” Appl. Phys. B 96(4), 763–772 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. W. Preston, “Doppler-free saturated absorption: Laser spectroscopy,” Am. J. Phys. 64(11), 1432 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. E. Volder, “The CORDIC Trigonometric Computing Technique,” IRE Trans. Electron. Comput. 8(3), 330–334 (1959).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

D. Sheng, S. Li, N. Dural, M. V. Romalis, “Subfemtotesla scalar atomic magnetometry using multipass cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(16), 160802 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

2010 (1)

G. Lembke, M. Stumpf, S. N. Erné, G. Bison, “Towards clinical MCG with room-temperature sensors,” IFMBE Proc. 28, 62–65 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

N. Castagna, G. Bison, G. Di Domenico, A. Hofer, P. Knowles, C. Macchione, H. Saudan, A. Weis, “A large sample study of spin relaxation and magnetometric sensitivity of paraffin coated Cs vapor cells,” Appl. Phys. B 96(4), 763–772 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Bison, N. Castagna, A. Hofer, P. Knowles, J.-L. Schenker, M. Kasprzak, H. Saudan, A. Weis, “A room temperature 19-channel magnetic field mapping device for cardiac signals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 173701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

D. Budker, M. Romalis, “Optical magnetometry,” Nat. Phys. 3(4), 227–234 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

K. Tolstrup, B. E. Madsen, J. A. Ruiz, S. D. Greenwood, J. Camacho, R. J. Siegel, H. C. Gertzen, J.-W. Park, P. A. Smars, “Non-invasive resting magnetocardiographic imaging for the rapid detection of ischemia in subjects presenting with chest pain,” Cardiology 106, 270–276 (2006).

P. Korhonen, T. Husa, I. Tierala, H. Väänänen, M. Mäkijärvi, T. Katila, L. Toivonen, “Increased Intra-QRS fragmentation in magnetocardiography as a predictor of arrhythmic events and mortality in patients with cardiac dysfunction after myocardial infarction,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 17(4), 396–401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Dutz, M. E. Bellemann, U. Leder, J. Haueisen, “Passive vortex currents in magneto- and electrocardiography: comparison of magnetic and electric signal strengths,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(1), 145–151 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Groeger, G. Bison, J.-L. Schenker, R. Wynands, A. Weis, “A high-sensitivity laser-pumped Mx-magnetomter,” Eur. Phys. J. D 38(2), 239–247 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. Liehr, J. Haueisen, M. Goernig, P. Seidel, J. Nenonen, T. Katila, “Vortex Shaped Current Sources in a Physical Torso Phantom,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 33(2), 240–247 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

D. W. Preston, “Doppler-free saturated absorption: Laser spectroscopy,” Am. J. Phys. 64(11), 1432 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

B. J. Roth, J. P. Wikswo., “Electrically silent magnetic fields,” Biophys. J. 50(4), 739–745 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

M. N. Livanov, A. N. Kozlov, A. V. Korinevskiĭ, V. P. Markin, S. E. Sinel’nikova, “[Recording of human magnetic fields],” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 238(1), 253–256 (1978).
[PubMed]

1959 (1)

J. E. Volder, “The CORDIC Trigonometric Computing Technique,” IRE Trans. Electron. Comput. 8(3), 330–334 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Bellemann, M. E.

S. Dutz, M. E. Bellemann, U. Leder, J. Haueisen, “Passive vortex currents in magneto- and electrocardiography: comparison of magnetic and electric signal strengths,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(1), 145–151 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bison, G.

G. Lembke, M. Stumpf, S. N. Erné, G. Bison, “Towards clinical MCG with room-temperature sensors,” IFMBE Proc. 28, 62–65 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Bison, N. Castagna, A. Hofer, P. Knowles, J.-L. Schenker, M. Kasprzak, H. Saudan, A. Weis, “A room temperature 19-channel magnetic field mapping device for cardiac signals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 173701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Castagna, G. Bison, G. Di Domenico, A. Hofer, P. Knowles, C. Macchione, H. Saudan, A. Weis, “A large sample study of spin relaxation and magnetometric sensitivity of paraffin coated Cs vapor cells,” Appl. Phys. B 96(4), 763–772 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Groeger, G. Bison, J.-L. Schenker, R. Wynands, A. Weis, “A high-sensitivity laser-pumped Mx-magnetomter,” Eur. Phys. J. D 38(2), 239–247 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Budker, D.

D. Budker, M. Romalis, “Optical magnetometry,” Nat. Phys. 3(4), 227–234 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Camacho, J.

K. Tolstrup, B. E. Madsen, J. A. Ruiz, S. D. Greenwood, J. Camacho, R. J. Siegel, H. C. Gertzen, J.-W. Park, P. A. Smars, “Non-invasive resting magnetocardiographic imaging for the rapid detection of ischemia in subjects presenting with chest pain,” Cardiology 106, 270–276 (2006).

Castagna, N.

G. Bison, N. Castagna, A. Hofer, P. Knowles, J.-L. Schenker, M. Kasprzak, H. Saudan, A. Weis, “A room temperature 19-channel magnetic field mapping device for cardiac signals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 173701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Castagna, G. Bison, G. Di Domenico, A. Hofer, P. Knowles, C. Macchione, H. Saudan, A. Weis, “A large sample study of spin relaxation and magnetometric sensitivity of paraffin coated Cs vapor cells,” Appl. Phys. B 96(4), 763–772 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Di Domenico, G.

N. Castagna, G. Bison, G. Di Domenico, A. Hofer, P. Knowles, C. Macchione, H. Saudan, A. Weis, “A large sample study of spin relaxation and magnetometric sensitivity of paraffin coated Cs vapor cells,” Appl. Phys. B 96(4), 763–772 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dural, N.

D. Sheng, S. Li, N. Dural, M. V. Romalis, “Subfemtotesla scalar atomic magnetometry using multipass cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(16), 160802 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dutz, S.

S. Dutz, M. E. Bellemann, U. Leder, J. Haueisen, “Passive vortex currents in magneto- and electrocardiography: comparison of magnetic and electric signal strengths,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(1), 145–151 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erné, S. N.

G. Lembke, M. Stumpf, S. N. Erné, G. Bison, “Towards clinical MCG with room-temperature sensors,” IFMBE Proc. 28, 62–65 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gertzen, H. C.

K. Tolstrup, B. E. Madsen, J. A. Ruiz, S. D. Greenwood, J. Camacho, R. J. Siegel, H. C. Gertzen, J.-W. Park, P. A. Smars, “Non-invasive resting magnetocardiographic imaging for the rapid detection of ischemia in subjects presenting with chest pain,” Cardiology 106, 270–276 (2006).

Goernig, M.

M. Liehr, J. Haueisen, M. Goernig, P. Seidel, J. Nenonen, T. Katila, “Vortex Shaped Current Sources in a Physical Torso Phantom,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 33(2), 240–247 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenwood, S. D.

K. Tolstrup, B. E. Madsen, J. A. Ruiz, S. D. Greenwood, J. Camacho, R. J. Siegel, H. C. Gertzen, J.-W. Park, P. A. Smars, “Non-invasive resting magnetocardiographic imaging for the rapid detection of ischemia in subjects presenting with chest pain,” Cardiology 106, 270–276 (2006).

Groeger, S.

S. Groeger, G. Bison, J.-L. Schenker, R. Wynands, A. Weis, “A high-sensitivity laser-pumped Mx-magnetomter,” Eur. Phys. J. D 38(2), 239–247 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haueisen, J.

S. Dutz, M. E. Bellemann, U. Leder, J. Haueisen, “Passive vortex currents in magneto- and electrocardiography: comparison of magnetic and electric signal strengths,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(1), 145–151 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Liehr, J. Haueisen, M. Goernig, P. Seidel, J. Nenonen, T. Katila, “Vortex Shaped Current Sources in a Physical Torso Phantom,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 33(2), 240–247 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofer, A.

N. Castagna, G. Bison, G. Di Domenico, A. Hofer, P. Knowles, C. Macchione, H. Saudan, A. Weis, “A large sample study of spin relaxation and magnetometric sensitivity of paraffin coated Cs vapor cells,” Appl. Phys. B 96(4), 763–772 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Bison, N. Castagna, A. Hofer, P. Knowles, J.-L. Schenker, M. Kasprzak, H. Saudan, A. Weis, “A room temperature 19-channel magnetic field mapping device for cardiac signals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 173701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Husa, T.

P. Korhonen, T. Husa, I. Tierala, H. Väänänen, M. Mäkijärvi, T. Katila, L. Toivonen, “Increased Intra-QRS fragmentation in magnetocardiography as a predictor of arrhythmic events and mortality in patients with cardiac dysfunction after myocardial infarction,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 17(4), 396–401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasprzak, M.

G. Bison, N. Castagna, A. Hofer, P. Knowles, J.-L. Schenker, M. Kasprzak, H. Saudan, A. Weis, “A room temperature 19-channel magnetic field mapping device for cardiac signals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 173701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Katila, T.

P. Korhonen, T. Husa, I. Tierala, H. Väänänen, M. Mäkijärvi, T. Katila, L. Toivonen, “Increased Intra-QRS fragmentation in magnetocardiography as a predictor of arrhythmic events and mortality in patients with cardiac dysfunction after myocardial infarction,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 17(4), 396–401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Liehr, J. Haueisen, M. Goernig, P. Seidel, J. Nenonen, T. Katila, “Vortex Shaped Current Sources in a Physical Torso Phantom,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 33(2), 240–247 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kauer, M.

R. Wyllie, M. Kauer, R. T. Wakai, T. G. Walker, “Optical magnetometer array for fetal magnetocardiography,” Opt. Lett. 37(12), 2247–2249 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Wyllie, M. Kauer, G. S. Smetana, R. T. Wakai, T. G. Walker, “Magnetocardiography with a modular spin-exchange relaxation-free atomic magnetometer array,” Phys. Med. Biol. 57(9), 2619–2632 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitching, J.

Knappe, S.

Knowles, P.

G. Bison, N. Castagna, A. Hofer, P. Knowles, J.-L. Schenker, M. Kasprzak, H. Saudan, A. Weis, “A room temperature 19-channel magnetic field mapping device for cardiac signals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 173701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Castagna, G. Bison, G. Di Domenico, A. Hofer, P. Knowles, C. Macchione, H. Saudan, A. Weis, “A large sample study of spin relaxation and magnetometric sensitivity of paraffin coated Cs vapor cells,” Appl. Phys. B 96(4), 763–772 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Korhonen, P.

P. Korhonen, T. Husa, I. Tierala, H. Väänänen, M. Mäkijärvi, T. Katila, L. Toivonen, “Increased Intra-QRS fragmentation in magnetocardiography as a predictor of arrhythmic events and mortality in patients with cardiac dysfunction after myocardial infarction,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 17(4), 396–401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korinevskii, A. V.

M. N. Livanov, A. N. Kozlov, A. V. Korinevskiĭ, V. P. Markin, S. E. Sinel’nikova, “[Recording of human magnetic fields],” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 238(1), 253–256 (1978).
[PubMed]

Kozlov, A. N.

M. N. Livanov, A. N. Kozlov, A. V. Korinevskiĭ, V. P. Markin, S. E. Sinel’nikova, “[Recording of human magnetic fields],” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 238(1), 253–256 (1978).
[PubMed]

Leder, U.

S. Dutz, M. E. Bellemann, U. Leder, J. Haueisen, “Passive vortex currents in magneto- and electrocardiography: comparison of magnetic and electric signal strengths,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(1), 145–151 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lembke, G.

G. Lembke, M. Stumpf, S. N. Erné, G. Bison, “Towards clinical MCG with room-temperature sensors,” IFMBE Proc. 28, 62–65 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

D. Sheng, S. Li, N. Dural, M. V. Romalis, “Subfemtotesla scalar atomic magnetometry using multipass cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(16), 160802 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liehr, M.

M. Liehr, J. Haueisen, M. Goernig, P. Seidel, J. Nenonen, T. Katila, “Vortex Shaped Current Sources in a Physical Torso Phantom,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 33(2), 240–247 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Livanov, M. N.

M. N. Livanov, A. N. Kozlov, A. V. Korinevskiĭ, V. P. Markin, S. E. Sinel’nikova, “[Recording of human magnetic fields],” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 238(1), 253–256 (1978).
[PubMed]

Macchione, C.

N. Castagna, G. Bison, G. Di Domenico, A. Hofer, P. Knowles, C. Macchione, H. Saudan, A. Weis, “A large sample study of spin relaxation and magnetometric sensitivity of paraffin coated Cs vapor cells,” Appl. Phys. B 96(4), 763–772 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Madsen, B. E.

K. Tolstrup, B. E. Madsen, J. A. Ruiz, S. D. Greenwood, J. Camacho, R. J. Siegel, H. C. Gertzen, J.-W. Park, P. A. Smars, “Non-invasive resting magnetocardiographic imaging for the rapid detection of ischemia in subjects presenting with chest pain,” Cardiology 106, 270–276 (2006).

Mäkijärvi, M.

P. Korhonen, T. Husa, I. Tierala, H. Väänänen, M. Mäkijärvi, T. Katila, L. Toivonen, “Increased Intra-QRS fragmentation in magnetocardiography as a predictor of arrhythmic events and mortality in patients with cardiac dysfunction after myocardial infarction,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 17(4), 396–401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markin, V. P.

M. N. Livanov, A. N. Kozlov, A. V. Korinevskiĭ, V. P. Markin, S. E. Sinel’nikova, “[Recording of human magnetic fields],” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 238(1), 253–256 (1978).
[PubMed]

Mhaskar, R.

Nenonen, J.

M. Liehr, J. Haueisen, M. Goernig, P. Seidel, J. Nenonen, T. Katila, “Vortex Shaped Current Sources in a Physical Torso Phantom,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 33(2), 240–247 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J.-W.

K. Tolstrup, B. E. Madsen, J. A. Ruiz, S. D. Greenwood, J. Camacho, R. J. Siegel, H. C. Gertzen, J.-W. Park, P. A. Smars, “Non-invasive resting magnetocardiographic imaging for the rapid detection of ischemia in subjects presenting with chest pain,” Cardiology 106, 270–276 (2006).

Preston, D. W.

D. W. Preston, “Doppler-free saturated absorption: Laser spectroscopy,” Am. J. Phys. 64(11), 1432 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Preusser, J.

Romalis, M.

D. Budker, M. Romalis, “Optical magnetometry,” Nat. Phys. 3(4), 227–234 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Romalis, M. V.

D. Sheng, S. Li, N. Dural, M. V. Romalis, “Subfemtotesla scalar atomic magnetometry using multipass cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(16), 160802 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roth, B. J.

B. J. Roth, J. P. Wikswo., “Electrically silent magnetic fields,” Biophys. J. 50(4), 739–745 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruiz, J. A.

K. Tolstrup, B. E. Madsen, J. A. Ruiz, S. D. Greenwood, J. Camacho, R. J. Siegel, H. C. Gertzen, J.-W. Park, P. A. Smars, “Non-invasive resting magnetocardiographic imaging for the rapid detection of ischemia in subjects presenting with chest pain,” Cardiology 106, 270–276 (2006).

Sander, T. H.

Saudan, H.

G. Bison, N. Castagna, A. Hofer, P. Knowles, J.-L. Schenker, M. Kasprzak, H. Saudan, A. Weis, “A room temperature 19-channel magnetic field mapping device for cardiac signals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 173701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Castagna, G. Bison, G. Di Domenico, A. Hofer, P. Knowles, C. Macchione, H. Saudan, A. Weis, “A large sample study of spin relaxation and magnetometric sensitivity of paraffin coated Cs vapor cells,” Appl. Phys. B 96(4), 763–772 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schenker, J.-L.

G. Bison, N. Castagna, A. Hofer, P. Knowles, J.-L. Schenker, M. Kasprzak, H. Saudan, A. Weis, “A room temperature 19-channel magnetic field mapping device for cardiac signals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 173701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Groeger, G. Bison, J.-L. Schenker, R. Wynands, A. Weis, “A high-sensitivity laser-pumped Mx-magnetomter,” Eur. Phys. J. D 38(2), 239–247 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seidel, P.

M. Liehr, J. Haueisen, M. Goernig, P. Seidel, J. Nenonen, T. Katila, “Vortex Shaped Current Sources in a Physical Torso Phantom,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 33(2), 240–247 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheng, D.

D. Sheng, S. Li, N. Dural, M. V. Romalis, “Subfemtotesla scalar atomic magnetometry using multipass cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(16), 160802 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegel, R. J.

K. Tolstrup, B. E. Madsen, J. A. Ruiz, S. D. Greenwood, J. Camacho, R. J. Siegel, H. C. Gertzen, J.-W. Park, P. A. Smars, “Non-invasive resting magnetocardiographic imaging for the rapid detection of ischemia in subjects presenting with chest pain,” Cardiology 106, 270–276 (2006).

Sinel’nikova, S. E.

M. N. Livanov, A. N. Kozlov, A. V. Korinevskiĭ, V. P. Markin, S. E. Sinel’nikova, “[Recording of human magnetic fields],” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 238(1), 253–256 (1978).
[PubMed]

Smars, P. A.

K. Tolstrup, B. E. Madsen, J. A. Ruiz, S. D. Greenwood, J. Camacho, R. J. Siegel, H. C. Gertzen, J.-W. Park, P. A. Smars, “Non-invasive resting magnetocardiographic imaging for the rapid detection of ischemia in subjects presenting with chest pain,” Cardiology 106, 270–276 (2006).

Smetana, G. S.

R. Wyllie, M. Kauer, G. S. Smetana, R. T. Wakai, T. G. Walker, “Magnetocardiography with a modular spin-exchange relaxation-free atomic magnetometer array,” Phys. Med. Biol. 57(9), 2619–2632 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stumpf, M.

G. Lembke, M. Stumpf, S. N. Erné, G. Bison, “Towards clinical MCG with room-temperature sensors,” IFMBE Proc. 28, 62–65 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tierala, I.

P. Korhonen, T. Husa, I. Tierala, H. Väänänen, M. Mäkijärvi, T. Katila, L. Toivonen, “Increased Intra-QRS fragmentation in magnetocardiography as a predictor of arrhythmic events and mortality in patients with cardiac dysfunction after myocardial infarction,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 17(4), 396–401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toivonen, L.

P. Korhonen, T. Husa, I. Tierala, H. Väänänen, M. Mäkijärvi, T. Katila, L. Toivonen, “Increased Intra-QRS fragmentation in magnetocardiography as a predictor of arrhythmic events and mortality in patients with cardiac dysfunction after myocardial infarction,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 17(4), 396–401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tolstrup, K.

K. Tolstrup, B. E. Madsen, J. A. Ruiz, S. D. Greenwood, J. Camacho, R. J. Siegel, H. C. Gertzen, J.-W. Park, P. A. Smars, “Non-invasive resting magnetocardiographic imaging for the rapid detection of ischemia in subjects presenting with chest pain,” Cardiology 106, 270–276 (2006).

Trahms, L.

Väänänen, H.

P. Korhonen, T. Husa, I. Tierala, H. Väänänen, M. Mäkijärvi, T. Katila, L. Toivonen, “Increased Intra-QRS fragmentation in magnetocardiography as a predictor of arrhythmic events and mortality in patients with cardiac dysfunction after myocardial infarction,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 17(4), 396–401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volder, J. E.

J. E. Volder, “The CORDIC Trigonometric Computing Technique,” IRE Trans. Electron. Comput. 8(3), 330–334 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Wakai, R. T.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Left: Photo of a single module. OM: Optical module containing a lens for collimating the light, two linear polarizers for intensity adjustment and a λ/4-plate for circularly polarizing the light, PD: Photodiode, Cs-Cell: cesium-cell. FB: Indicated position of the feedback coils. Right: Photo of the lowest sensor plane.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Layout of the sensor array. Left: 3D-display of all three levels with a spacing of 70 mm. Right: Top view on lowest sensor plane. At the positions marked with + the reference sensors in the second and third level are located.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematics of the data processing. PD: photodiode, PA: preamplifier, ADC: Analog-Digital-Converter, x: Multiplier, LPF: Low-pass-filter, PI: Proportional-integral controller, DAC: Digital-Analog-Converter, FB: Feedback-coils, PC: workstation for data recording.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Root noise density of one single channel with (green) and without (red) active compensation. A square-wave signal with amplitude of 6 nT and a frequency of 1 Hz was used as test signal.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

First MFI-measurement of a healthy test person performed with the optical sensor head. The data was recorded for 10 minutes and averaged. The arrow indicates the position of the test person’s head.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Evaluation of the first optical MFI-measurement of a healthy test person. Upper part: Three channels with the averaged heart signal and magnetic field map. Upper left: Signal with maximum amplitude. Upper right: “Butterfly plot” of all relevant channels. Middle left: Channel with highest fragmentation. Middle right: Magnetic field map. Lower part: As result, the fragmentation index is displayed in comparison to the normal range of healthy test persons.

Equations (1)

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θ = θ 0 arc tan [ ω r f ω L / Γ ] .

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