Abstract

Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) with a fiber-optic probe can noninvasively quantify the optical properties of epithelial tissues and has shown the potential as a cost-effective, fast and sensitive tool for diagnosis of early precancerous changes in the cervix and oral cavity. However, current DRS systems are susceptible to several sources of systematic and random errors, such as uncontrolled probe-to-tissue pressure and lack of a real-time calibration that can significantly impair the measurement accuracy, reliability and validity of this technology as well as its clinical utility. In addition, such systems use bulky, high power and expensive optical components which impede their widespread use in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where epithelial cancer related death is disproportionately high. In this paper we report a portable, easy-to-use and low cost, yet accurate and reliable DRS device that can aid in the screening and diagnosis of oral and cervical cancer. The device uses an innovative smart fiber-optic probe to eliminate operator bias, state-of-the-art photonics components to reduce size and power consumption, and automated software to reduce the need of operator training. The device showed a mean error of 1.4 ± 0.5% and 6.8 ± 1.7% for extraction of phantom absorption and reduced scattering coefficients, respectively. A clinical study on healthy volunteers indicated that a pressure below 1.0 psi is desired for oral mucosal tissues to minimize the probe effects on tissue physiology and morphology.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2011 (3)

S. F. Bish, N. Rajaram, B. Nichols, and J. W. Tunnell, “Development of a noncontact diffuse optical spectroscopy probe for measuring tissue optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(12), 120505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yu, H. L. Fu, and N. Ramanujam, “Instrument independent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 011010 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. T.-C. Chang, D. Merisier, B. Yu, D. K. Walmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Towards a field-compatible optical spectroscopic device for cervical cancer screening in resource-limited settings: effects of calibration and pressure,” Opt. Express19(19), 17908–17924 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (4)

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. D. Atencio, E. E. O. Guillén, S. V. y. Montiel, M. C. Rodríguez, J. C. Ramos, J. L. Gutiérrez, and F. Martínez, “Influence of probe pressure on human skin diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements,” Opt. Mem. Neural. Networks18(1), 6–14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. T. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. C. Bentley, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo through optical spectroscopy,” Neoplasia11(4), 325–332 (2009).
[PubMed]

I. Pavlova, C. R. Weber, R. A. Schwarz, M. D. Williams, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of oral tissue: Monte Carlo modeling with site-specific tissue properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(1), 014009 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ti and W. C. Lin, “Effects of probe contact pressure on in vivo optical spectroscopy,” Opt. Express16(6), 4250–4262 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. Roodenburg, and M. J. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol.44(1), 65–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rahman, P. Chaturvedi, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Low-cost, multimodal, portable screening system for early detection of oral cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 030502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, D. Daye, M. D. Williams, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of oral epithelial tissue using a depth-sensitive fiber-optic probe,” Appl. Opt.47(6), 825–834 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yu, H. Fu, T. Bydlon, J. E. Bender, and N. Ramanujam, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with a self-calibrating fiber optic probe,” Opt. Lett.33(16), 1783–1785 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (6)

S. C. Gebhart, R. C. Thompson, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Liquid-crystal tunable filter spectral imaging for brain tumor demarcation,” Appl. Opt.46(10), 1896–1910 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Skala, G. M. Palmer, K. M. Vrotsos, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and N. Ramanujam, “Comparison of a physical model and principal component analysis for the diagnosis of epithelial neoplasias in vivo using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Opt. Express15(12), 7863–7875 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. K. Adams, N. Breen, and P. J. Joski, “Impact of the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program on mammography and Pap test utilization among white, Hispanic, and African American women: 1996-2000,” Cancer109(S2), 348–358 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cardenas-Turanzas, J. A. Freeberg, J. L. Benedet, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, R. Richards-Kortum, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and S. B. Cantor, “The clinical effectiveness of optical spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: where are we?” Gynecol. Oncol.107(1Suppl 1), S138–S146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Freeberg, J. L. Benedet, C. MacAulay, L. A. West, and M. Follen, “The performance of fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of cervical neoplasia; point probe versus multispectral approaches,” Gynecol. Oncol.107(1Suppl 1), S248–S255 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wang, V. Nammalavar, and R. Drezek, “Targeting spectral signatures of progressively dysplastic stratified epithelia using angularly variable fiber geometry in reflectance Monte Carlo simulations,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 044012 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (8)

D. Arifler, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Spatially resolved reflectance spectroscopy for diagnosis of cervical precancer: Monte Carlo modeling and comparison to clinical measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(6), 064027 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Lane, T. Gilhuly, P. Whitehead, H. Zeng, C. F. Poh, S. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, M. P. Rosin, and C. E. MacAulay, “Simple device for the direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 024006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liu and N. Ramanujam, “Sequential estimation of optical properties of a two-layered epithelial tissue model from depth-resolved ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectra,” Appl. Opt.45(19), 4776–4790 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Kujan, A. M. Glenny, R. J. Oliver, N. Thakker, and P. Sloan, “Screening programmes for the early detection and prevention of oral cancer,” Cochrane Database Syst. Rev.3(3), CD004150 (2006).
[PubMed]

A. Sharwani, W. Jerjes, V. Salih, B. Swinson, I. J. Bigio, M. El-Maaytah, and C. Hopper, “Assessment of oral premalignancy using elastic scattering spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol.42(4), 343–349 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Subhash, J. R. Mallia, S. S. Thomas, A. Mathews, P. Sebastian, and J. Madhavan, “Oral cancer detection using diffuse reflectance spectral ratio R540/R575 of oxygenated hemoglobin bands,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(1), 014018 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Marín, N. MacKinnon, C. MacAulay, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, D. Serachitopol, B. Pikkula, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Calibration standards for multicenter clinical trials of fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(1), 014010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, “Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part I: Theory and validation on synthetic phantoms,” Appl. Opt.45(5), 1062–1071 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (9)

W. Chen, R. Liu, K. Xu, and R. K. Wang, “Influence of contact state on NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in vivo,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(15), 2691–2695 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Yu, A. Wang, G. Pickrell, and J. Xu, “Tunable-optical-filter-based white-light interferometry for sensing,” Opt. Lett.30(12), 1452–1454 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Follen, S. Crain, C. MacAulay, K. Basen-Engquist, S. B. Cantor, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, N. MacKinnon, M. Guillaud, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optical technologies for cervical neoplasia: update of an NCI program project grant,” Clin. Adv. Hematol. Oncol.3(1), 41–53 (2005).
[PubMed]

N. M. Marín, A. Milbourne, H. Rhodes, T. Ehlen, D. Miller, L. Benedet, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Diffuse reflectance patterns in cervical spectroscopy,” Gynecol. Oncol.99(3Suppl 1), S116–S120 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sankaranarayanan, K. Ramadas, G. Thomas, R. Muwonge, S. Thara, B. Mathew, B. Rajan, and Trivandrum Oral Cancer Screening Study Group, “Effect of screening on oral cancer mortality in Kerala, India: a cluster-randomised controlled trial,” Lancet365(9475), 1927–1933 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, and N. Ramanujam, “Use of a multiseparation fiber optic probe for the optical diagnosis of breast cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024032 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. Witjes, R. P. Duin, H. J. Sterenborg, and J. L. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med.36(5), 356–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Arifler, R. A. Schwarz, S. K. Chang, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for diagnosis of epithelial precancer: model-based analysis of fiber-optic probe designs to resolve spectral information from epithelium and stroma,” Appl. Opt.44(20), 4291–4305 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

A. Nath, K. Rivoire, S. Chang, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Effect of probe pressure on cervical fluorescence spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(3), 523–533 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Rivoire, A. Nath, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “The effects of repeated spectroscopic pressure measurements on fluorescence intensity in the cervix,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.191(5), 1606–1617 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Xu, G. R. Pickrell, B. Yu, M. Han, Y. Zhu, X. Wang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “Epoxy-free high temperature fiber optic pressure sensors for gas turbine engine applications,” Proc. SPIE5590, 1 (2004).

2003 (7)

B. Yu, D. W. Kim, J. Deng, H. Xiao, and A. Wang, “Fiber Fabry-Perot Sensors for Detection of Partial Discharges in Power Transformers,” Appl. Opt.42(16), 3241–3250 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, “Novel data processing techniques for dispersive white light interferometer,” Opt. Eng.42(11), 3165–3171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Utzinger and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber optic probes for biomedical optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(1), 121–147 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, “In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 495–503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yu, D. W. Kim, J. Deng, H. Xiao, and A. Wang, “Fiber Fabry-Perot sensors for detection of partial discharges in power transformers,” Appl. Opt.42(16), 3241–3250 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Saslow, C. D. Runowicz, D. Solomon, A. B. Moscicki, R. A. Smith, H. J. Eyre, and C. Cohen, “American Cancer Society Guideline for the Early Detection of Cervical Neoplasia and Cancer,” J. Low. Genit. Tract Dis.7(2), 67–86 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

Y. N. Mirabal, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(4), 587–594 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Müller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.186(3), 374–382 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

R. Hasina and M. W. Lingen, “Angiogenesis in oral cancer,” J. Dent. Educ.65(11), 1282–1290 (2001).
[PubMed]

J. Sherris, C. Herdman, and C. Elias, “Cervical cancer in the developing world,” West. J. Med.175(4), 231–233 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Utzinger, M. Brewer, E. Silva, D. Gershenson, R. C. Blast, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo characterization of ovarian tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med.28(1), 56–66 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

H. W. Lawson, R. Henson, J. K. Bobo, and M. K. Kaeser, “Implementing recommendations for the early detection of breast and cervical cancer among low-income women,” MMWR Recomm. Rep.49(RR-2), 37–55 (2000).
[PubMed]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

H. Shangguan, S. A. Prahl, S. L. Jacques, and L. W. Casperson, “Pressure effects on soft tissues monitored by changes in tissue,” Proc. SPIE3254, 366 (1998).

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

A’Amar, O.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adams, E. K.

E. K. Adams, N. Breen, and P. J. Joski, “Impact of the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program on mammography and Pap test utilization among white, Hispanic, and African American women: 1996-2000,” Cancer109(S2), 348–358 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amelink, A.

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. Roodenburg, and M. J. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol.44(1), 65–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amorosino, M. S.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arifler, D.

D. Arifler, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Spatially resolved reflectance spectroscopy for diagnosis of cervical precancer: Monte Carlo modeling and comparison to clinical measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(6), 064027 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Arifler, R. A. Schwarz, S. K. Chang, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for diagnosis of epithelial precancer: model-based analysis of fiber-optic probe designs to resolve spectral information from epithelium and stroma,” Appl. Opt.44(20), 4291–4305 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atencio, J. A. D.

J. A. D. Atencio, E. E. O. Guillén, S. V. y. Montiel, M. C. Rodríguez, J. C. Ramos, J. L. Gutiérrez, and F. Martínez, “Influence of probe pressure on human skin diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements,” Opt. Mem. Neural. Networks18(1), 6–14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, E. N.

M. Cardenas-Turanzas, J. A. Freeberg, J. L. Benedet, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, R. Richards-Kortum, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and S. B. Cantor, “The clinical effectiveness of optical spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: where are we?” Gynecol. Oncol.107(1Suppl 1), S138–S146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Marín, N. MacKinnon, C. MacAulay, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, D. Serachitopol, B. Pikkula, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Calibration standards for multicenter clinical trials of fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(1), 014010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Follen, S. Crain, C. MacAulay, K. Basen-Engquist, S. B. Cantor, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, N. MacKinnon, M. Guillaud, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optical technologies for cervical neoplasia: update of an NCI program project grant,” Clin. Adv. Hematol. Oncol.3(1), 41–53 (2005).
[PubMed]

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Nath, K. Rivoire, S. Chang, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Effect of probe pressure on cervical fluorescence spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(3), 523–533 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Rivoire, A. Nath, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “The effects of repeated spectroscopic pressure measurements on fluorescence intensity in the cervix,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.191(5), 1606–1617 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. N. Mirabal, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(4), 587–594 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ayers, F. R.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

S. Ruderman, A. J. Gomes, V. Stoyneva, J. D. Rogers, A. J. Fought, B. D. Jovanovic, and V. Backman, “Analysis of pressure, angle and temporal effects on tissue optical properties from polarization-gated spectroscopic probe measurements,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(2), 489–499 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Müller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.186(3), 374–382 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt.38(31), 6628–6637 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badizadegan, K.

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Müller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.186(3), 374–382 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basen-Engquist, K.

M. Follen, S. Crain, C. MacAulay, K. Basen-Engquist, S. B. Cantor, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, N. MacKinnon, M. Guillaud, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optical technologies for cervical neoplasia: update of an NCI program project grant,” Clin. Adv. Hematol. Oncol.3(1), 41–53 (2005).
[PubMed]

Bean, S. M.

V. T. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. C. Bentley, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo through optical spectroscopy,” Neoplasia11(4), 325–332 (2009).
[PubMed]

Bender, J. E.

Benedet, J. L.

M. Cardenas-Turanzas, J. A. Freeberg, J. L. Benedet, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, R. Richards-Kortum, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and S. B. Cantor, “The clinical effectiveness of optical spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: where are we?” Gynecol. Oncol.107(1Suppl 1), S138–S146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Freeberg, J. L. Benedet, C. MacAulay, L. A. West, and M. Follen, “The performance of fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of cervical neoplasia; point probe versus multispectral approaches,” Gynecol. Oncol.107(1Suppl 1), S248–S255 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benedet, L.

N. M. Marín, A. Milbourne, H. Rhodes, T. Ehlen, D. Miller, L. Benedet, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Diffuse reflectance patterns in cervical spectroscopy,” Gynecol. Oncol.99(3Suppl 1), S116–S120 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bentley, R. C.

V. T. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. C. Bentley, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo through optical spectroscopy,” Neoplasia11(4), 325–332 (2009).
[PubMed]

Bevilacqua, F.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, “In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 495–503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigio, I. J.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sharwani, W. Jerjes, V. Salih, B. Swinson, I. J. Bigio, M. El-Maaytah, and C. Hopper, “Assessment of oral premalignancy using elastic scattering spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol.42(4), 343–349 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bish, S. F.

S. F. Bish, N. Rajaram, B. Nichols, and J. W. Tunnell, “Development of a noncontact diffuse optical spectroscopy probe for measuring tissue optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(12), 120505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blast, R. C.

U. Utzinger, M. Brewer, E. Silva, D. Gershenson, R. C. Blast, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo characterization of ovarian tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med.28(1), 56–66 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bobo, J. K.

H. W. Lawson, R. Henson, J. K. Bobo, and M. K. Kaeser, “Implementing recommendations for the early detection of breast and cervical cancer among low-income women,” MMWR Recomm. Rep.49(RR-2), 37–55 (2000).
[PubMed]

Boone, C. W.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breen, N.

E. K. Adams, N. Breen, and P. J. Joski, “Impact of the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program on mammography and Pap test utilization among white, Hispanic, and African American women: 1996-2000,” Cancer109(S2), 348–358 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breslin, T. M.

C. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, and N. Ramanujam, “Use of a multiseparation fiber optic probe for the optical diagnosis of breast cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024032 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brewer, M.

U. Utzinger, M. Brewer, E. Silva, D. Gershenson, R. C. Blast, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo characterization of ovarian tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med.28(1), 56–66 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bydlon, T.

Calabro, K. W.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cantor, S. B.

M. Cardenas-Turanzas, J. A. Freeberg, J. L. Benedet, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, R. Richards-Kortum, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and S. B. Cantor, “The clinical effectiveness of optical spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: where are we?” Gynecol. Oncol.107(1Suppl 1), S138–S146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Follen, S. Crain, C. MacAulay, K. Basen-Engquist, S. B. Cantor, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, N. MacKinnon, M. Guillaud, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optical technologies for cervical neoplasia: update of an NCI program project grant,” Clin. Adv. Hematol. Oncol.3(1), 41–53 (2005).
[PubMed]

Cardenas-Turanzas, M.

M. Cardenas-Turanzas, J. A. Freeberg, J. L. Benedet, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, R. Richards-Kortum, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and S. B. Cantor, “The clinical effectiveness of optical spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: where are we?” Gynecol. Oncol.107(1Suppl 1), S138–S146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cartwright, P. S.

V. T. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. C. Bentley, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo through optical spectroscopy,” Neoplasia11(4), 325–332 (2009).
[PubMed]

Casperson, L. W.

H. Shangguan, S. A. Prahl, S. L. Jacques, and L. W. Casperson, “Pressure effects on soft tissues monitored by changes in tissue,” Proc. SPIE3254, 366 (1998).

Chan, E. K.

E. K. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, and A. J. Welch, “Effects of compression on soft tissue optical properties,” IEEE J. Sel. Top Quantum Electron.2(4), 943–950 (1996).

Chang, S.

A. Nath, K. Rivoire, S. Chang, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Effect of probe pressure on cervical fluorescence spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(3), 523–533 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S. K.

N. M. Marín, N. MacKinnon, C. MacAulay, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, D. Serachitopol, B. Pikkula, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Calibration standards for multicenter clinical trials of fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(1), 014010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Arifler, R. A. Schwarz, S. K. Chang, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for diagnosis of epithelial precancer: model-based analysis of fiber-optic probe designs to resolve spectral information from epithelium and stroma,” Appl. Opt.44(20), 4291–4305 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. N. Mirabal, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(4), 587–594 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, V. T.

V. T. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. C. Bentley, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo through optical spectroscopy,” Neoplasia11(4), 325–332 (2009).
[PubMed]

Chang, V. T.-C.

Charvet, I.

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, “In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 495–503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaturvedi, P.

M. Rahman, P. Chaturvedi, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Low-cost, multimodal, portable screening system for early detection of oral cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 030502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

W. Chen, R. Liu, K. Xu, and R. K. Wang, “Influence of contact state on NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in vivo,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(15), 2691–2695 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, C.

D. Saslow, C. D. Runowicz, D. Solomon, A. B. Moscicki, R. A. Smith, H. J. Eyre, and C. Cohen, “American Cancer Society Guideline for the Early Detection of Cervical Neoplasia and Cancer,” J. Low. Genit. Tract Dis.7(2), 67–86 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, K. L.

J. Xu, G. R. Pickrell, B. Yu, M. Han, Y. Zhu, X. Wang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “Epoxy-free high temperature fiber optic pressure sensors for gas turbine engine applications,” Proc. SPIE5590, 1 (2004).

Cox, D.

N. M. Marín, N. MacKinnon, C. MacAulay, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, D. Serachitopol, B. Pikkula, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Calibration standards for multicenter clinical trials of fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(1), 014010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Follen, S. Crain, C. MacAulay, K. Basen-Engquist, S. B. Cantor, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, N. MacKinnon, M. Guillaud, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optical technologies for cervical neoplasia: update of an NCI program project grant,” Clin. Adv. Hematol. Oncol.3(1), 41–53 (2005).
[PubMed]

A. Nath, K. Rivoire, S. Chang, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Effect of probe pressure on cervical fluorescence spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(3), 523–533 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Rivoire, A. Nath, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “The effects of repeated spectroscopic pressure measurements on fluorescence intensity in the cervix,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.191(5), 1606–1617 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, D. D.

M. Cardenas-Turanzas, J. A. Freeberg, J. L. Benedet, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, R. Richards-Kortum, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and S. B. Cantor, “The clinical effectiveness of optical spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: where are we?” Gynecol. Oncol.107(1Suppl 1), S138–S146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crain, S.

M. Follen, S. Crain, C. MacAulay, K. Basen-Engquist, S. B. Cantor, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, N. MacKinnon, M. Guillaud, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optical technologies for cervical neoplasia: update of an NCI program project grant,” Clin. Adv. Hematol. Oncol.3(1), 41–53 (2005).
[PubMed]

Crum, C. P.

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Müller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.186(3), 374–382 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuccia, D. J.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Müller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.186(3), 374–382 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daye, D.

de Veld, D. C.

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U. Utzinger, M. Brewer, E. Silva, D. Gershenson, R. C. Blast, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo characterization of ovarian tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med.28(1), 56–66 (2001).
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I. Pavlova, C. R. Weber, R. A. Schwarz, M. D. Williams, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of oral tissue: Monte Carlo modeling with site-specific tissue properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(1), 014009 (2009).
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R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, D. Daye, M. D. Williams, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of oral epithelial tissue using a depth-sensitive fiber-optic probe,” Appl. Opt.47(6), 825–834 (2008).
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A. Sharwani, W. Jerjes, V. Salih, B. Swinson, I. J. Bigio, M. El-Maaytah, and C. Hopper, “Assessment of oral premalignancy using elastic scattering spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol.42(4), 343–349 (2006).
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A. Sharwani, W. Jerjes, V. Salih, B. Swinson, I. J. Bigio, M. El-Maaytah, and C. Hopper, “Assessment of oral premalignancy using elastic scattering spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol.42(4), 343–349 (2006).
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H. W. Lawson, R. Henson, J. K. Bobo, and M. K. Kaeser, “Implementing recommendations for the early detection of breast and cervical cancer among low-income women,” MMWR Recomm. Rep.49(RR-2), 37–55 (2000).
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H. W. Lawson, R. Henson, J. K. Bobo, and M. K. Kaeser, “Implementing recommendations for the early detection of breast and cervical cancer among low-income women,” MMWR Recomm. Rep.49(RR-2), 37–55 (2000).
[PubMed]

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R. Hasina and M. W. Lingen, “Angiogenesis in oral cancer,” J. Dent. Educ.65(11), 1282–1290 (2001).
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J. A. Freeberg, J. L. Benedet, C. MacAulay, L. A. West, and M. Follen, “The performance of fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of cervical neoplasia; point probe versus multispectral approaches,” Gynecol. Oncol.107(1Suppl 1), S248–S255 (2007).
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M. Cardenas-Turanzas, J. A. Freeberg, J. L. Benedet, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, R. Richards-Kortum, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and S. B. Cantor, “The clinical effectiveness of optical spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: where are we?” Gynecol. Oncol.107(1Suppl 1), S138–S146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Arifler, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Spatially resolved reflectance spectroscopy for diagnosis of cervical precancer: Monte Carlo modeling and comparison to clinical measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(6), 064027 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Marín, N. MacKinnon, C. MacAulay, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, D. Serachitopol, B. Pikkula, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Calibration standards for multicenter clinical trials of fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(1), 014010 (2006).
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M. Follen, S. Crain, C. MacAulay, K. Basen-Engquist, S. B. Cantor, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, N. MacKinnon, M. Guillaud, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optical technologies for cervical neoplasia: update of an NCI program project grant,” Clin. Adv. Hematol. Oncol.3(1), 41–53 (2005).
[PubMed]

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P. M. Lane, T. Gilhuly, P. Whitehead, H. Zeng, C. F. Poh, S. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, M. P. Rosin, and C. E. MacAulay, “Simple device for the direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 024006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Follen, S. Crain, C. MacAulay, K. Basen-Engquist, S. B. Cantor, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, N. MacKinnon, M. Guillaud, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optical technologies for cervical neoplasia: update of an NCI program project grant,” Clin. Adv. Hematol. Oncol.3(1), 41–53 (2005).
[PubMed]

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Mallia, J. R.

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S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. N. Mirabal, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(4), 587–594 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manoharan, R.

Marín, N. M.

N. M. Marín, N. MacKinnon, C. MacAulay, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, D. Serachitopol, B. Pikkula, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Calibration standards for multicenter clinical trials of fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(1), 014010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Marín, A. Milbourne, H. Rhodes, T. Ehlen, D. Miller, L. Benedet, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Diffuse reflectance patterns in cervical spectroscopy,” Gynecol. Oncol.99(3Suppl 1), S116–S120 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, “In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 495–503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. A. D. Atencio, E. E. O. Guillén, S. V. y. Montiel, M. C. Rodríguez, J. C. Ramos, J. L. Gutiérrez, and F. Martínez, “Influence of probe pressure on human skin diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements,” Opt. Mem. Neural. Networks18(1), 6–14 (2009).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, “Novel data processing techniques for dispersive white light interferometer,” Opt. Eng.42(11), 3165–3171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, “In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 495–503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merisier, D.

Milbourne, A.

N. M. Marín, A. Milbourne, H. Rhodes, T. Ehlen, D. Miller, L. Benedet, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Diffuse reflectance patterns in cervical spectroscopy,” Gynecol. Oncol.99(3Suppl 1), S116–S120 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, D.

N. M. Marín, A. Milbourne, H. Rhodes, T. Ehlen, D. Miller, L. Benedet, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Diffuse reflectance patterns in cervical spectroscopy,” Gynecol. Oncol.99(3Suppl 1), S116–S120 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. N. Mirabal, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(4), 587–594 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. A. D. Atencio, E. E. O. Guillén, S. V. y. Montiel, M. C. Rodríguez, J. C. Ramos, J. L. Gutiérrez, and F. Martínez, “Influence of probe pressure on human skin diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements,” Opt. Mem. Neural. Networks18(1), 6–14 (2009).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Motamedi, M.

E. K. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, and A. J. Welch, “Effects of compression on soft tissue optical properties,” IEEE J. Sel. Top Quantum Electron.2(4), 943–950 (1996).

Müller, M. G.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Müller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.186(3), 374–382 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muwonge, R.

R. Sankaranarayanan, K. Ramadas, G. Thomas, R. Muwonge, S. Thara, B. Mathew, B. Rajan, and Trivandrum Oral Cancer Screening Study Group, “Effect of screening on oral cancer mortality in Kerala, India: a cluster-randomised controlled trial,” Lancet365(9475), 1927–1933 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nammalavar, V.

A. Wang, V. Nammalavar, and R. Drezek, “Targeting spectral signatures of progressively dysplastic stratified epithelia using angularly variable fiber geometry in reflectance Monte Carlo simulations,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 044012 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nath, A.

A. Nath, K. Rivoire, S. Chang, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Effect of probe pressure on cervical fluorescence spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(3), 523–533 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Rivoire, A. Nath, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “The effects of repeated spectroscopic pressure measurements on fluorescence intensity in the cervix,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.191(5), 1606–1617 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ng, S.

P. M. Lane, T. Gilhuly, P. Whitehead, H. Zeng, C. F. Poh, S. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, M. P. Rosin, and C. E. MacAulay, “Simple device for the direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 024006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nichols, B.

S. F. Bish, N. Rajaram, B. Nichols, and J. W. Tunnell, “Development of a noncontact diffuse optical spectroscopy probe for measuring tissue optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(12), 120505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nichols, M. G.

O’Neil, M.

E. K. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, and A. J. Welch, “Effects of compression on soft tissue optical properties,” IEEE J. Sel. Top Quantum Electron.2(4), 943–950 (1996).

Oliver, R. J.

O. Kujan, A. M. Glenny, R. J. Oliver, N. Thakker, and P. Sloan, “Screening programmes for the early detection and prevention of oral cancer,” Cochrane Database Syst. Rev.3(3), CD004150 (2006).
[PubMed]

Ory, G.

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, “In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 495–503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palmer, G. M.

V. T. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. C. Bentley, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo through optical spectroscopy,” Neoplasia11(4), 325–332 (2009).
[PubMed]

M. C. Skala, G. M. Palmer, K. M. Vrotsos, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and N. Ramanujam, “Comparison of a physical model and principal component analysis for the diagnosis of epithelial neoplasias in vivo using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Opt. Express15(12), 7863–7875 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, “Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part I: Theory and validation on synthetic phantoms,” Appl. Opt.45(5), 1062–1071 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, and N. Ramanujam, “Use of a multiseparation fiber optic probe for the optical diagnosis of breast cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024032 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

Pavlova, I.

I. Pavlova, C. R. Weber, R. A. Schwarz, M. D. Williams, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of oral tissue: Monte Carlo modeling with site-specific tissue properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(1), 014009 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, W.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, “Novel data processing techniques for dispersive white light interferometer,” Opt. Eng.42(11), 3165–3171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Perelman, L. T.

Pickrell, G.

Pickrell, G. R.

J. Xu, G. R. Pickrell, B. Yu, M. Han, Y. Zhu, X. Wang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “Epoxy-free high temperature fiber optic pressure sensors for gas turbine engine applications,” Proc. SPIE5590, 1 (2004).

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, “Novel data processing techniques for dispersive white light interferometer,” Opt. Eng.42(11), 3165–3171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pikkula, B.

N. M. Marín, N. MacKinnon, C. MacAulay, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, D. Serachitopol, B. Pikkula, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Calibration standards for multicenter clinical trials of fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(1), 014010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poh, C. F.

P. M. Lane, T. Gilhuly, P. Whitehead, H. Zeng, C. F. Poh, S. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, M. P. Rosin, and C. E. MacAulay, “Simple device for the direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 024006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prahl, S. A.

H. Shangguan, S. A. Prahl, S. L. Jacques, and L. W. Casperson, “Pressure effects on soft tissues monitored by changes in tissue,” Proc. SPIE3254, 366 (1998).

Protsenko, D.

E. K. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, and A. J. Welch, “Effects of compression on soft tissue optical properties,” IEEE J. Sel. Top Quantum Electron.2(4), 943–950 (1996).

Qi, B.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, “Novel data processing techniques for dispersive white light interferometer,” Opt. Eng.42(11), 3165–3171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rahman, M.

M. Rahman, P. Chaturvedi, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Low-cost, multimodal, portable screening system for early detection of oral cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 030502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajan, B.

R. Sankaranarayanan, K. Ramadas, G. Thomas, R. Muwonge, S. Thara, B. Mathew, B. Rajan, and Trivandrum Oral Cancer Screening Study Group, “Effect of screening on oral cancer mortality in Kerala, India: a cluster-randomised controlled trial,” Lancet365(9475), 1927–1933 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajaram, N.

S. F. Bish, N. Rajaram, B. Nichols, and J. W. Tunnell, “Development of a noncontact diffuse optical spectroscopy probe for measuring tissue optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(12), 120505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramadas, K.

R. Sankaranarayanan, K. Ramadas, G. Thomas, R. Muwonge, S. Thara, B. Mathew, B. Rajan, and Trivandrum Oral Cancer Screening Study Group, “Effect of screening on oral cancer mortality in Kerala, India: a cluster-randomised controlled trial,” Lancet365(9475), 1927–1933 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramanujam, N.

B. Yu, H. L. Fu, and N. Ramanujam, “Instrument independent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 011010 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. T.-C. Chang, D. Merisier, B. Yu, D. K. Walmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Towards a field-compatible optical spectroscopic device for cervical cancer screening in resource-limited settings: effects of calibration and pressure,” Opt. Express19(19), 17908–17924 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. T. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. C. Bentley, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo through optical spectroscopy,” Neoplasia11(4), 325–332 (2009).
[PubMed]

B. Yu, H. Fu, T. Bydlon, J. E. Bender, and N. Ramanujam, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with a self-calibrating fiber optic probe,” Opt. Lett.33(16), 1783–1785 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Skala, G. M. Palmer, K. M. Vrotsos, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and N. Ramanujam, “Comparison of a physical model and principal component analysis for the diagnosis of epithelial neoplasias in vivo using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Opt. Express15(12), 7863–7875 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, “Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part I: Theory and validation on synthetic phantoms,” Appl. Opt.45(5), 1062–1071 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liu and N. Ramanujam, “Sequential estimation of optical properties of a two-layered epithelial tissue model from depth-resolved ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectra,” Appl. Opt.45(19), 4776–4790 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, and N. Ramanujam, “Use of a multiseparation fiber optic probe for the optical diagnosis of breast cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024032 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramos, J. C.

J. A. D. Atencio, E. E. O. Guillén, S. V. y. Montiel, M. C. Rodríguez, J. C. Ramos, J. L. Gutiérrez, and F. Martínez, “Influence of probe pressure on human skin diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements,” Opt. Mem. Neural. Networks18(1), 6–14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reif, R.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rhodes, H.

N. M. Marín, A. Milbourne, H. Rhodes, T. Ehlen, D. Miller, L. Benedet, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Diffuse reflectance patterns in cervical spectroscopy,” Gynecol. Oncol.99(3Suppl 1), S116–S120 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

I. Pavlova, C. R. Weber, R. A. Schwarz, M. D. Williams, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of oral tissue: Monte Carlo modeling with site-specific tissue properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(1), 014009 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rahman, P. Chaturvedi, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Low-cost, multimodal, portable screening system for early detection of oral cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 030502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, D. Daye, M. D. Williams, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of oral epithelial tissue using a depth-sensitive fiber-optic probe,” Appl. Opt.47(6), 825–834 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cardenas-Turanzas, J. A. Freeberg, J. L. Benedet, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, R. Richards-Kortum, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and S. B. Cantor, “The clinical effectiveness of optical spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: where are we?” Gynecol. Oncol.107(1Suppl 1), S138–S146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Arifler, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Spatially resolved reflectance spectroscopy for diagnosis of cervical precancer: Monte Carlo modeling and comparison to clinical measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(6), 064027 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Marín, N. MacKinnon, C. MacAulay, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, D. Serachitopol, B. Pikkula, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Calibration standards for multicenter clinical trials of fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(1), 014010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Arifler, R. A. Schwarz, S. K. Chang, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for diagnosis of epithelial precancer: model-based analysis of fiber-optic probe designs to resolve spectral information from epithelium and stroma,” Appl. Opt.44(20), 4291–4305 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Marín, A. Milbourne, H. Rhodes, T. Ehlen, D. Miller, L. Benedet, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Diffuse reflectance patterns in cervical spectroscopy,” Gynecol. Oncol.99(3Suppl 1), S116–S120 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Follen, S. Crain, C. MacAulay, K. Basen-Engquist, S. B. Cantor, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, N. MacKinnon, M. Guillaud, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optical technologies for cervical neoplasia: update of an NCI program project grant,” Clin. Adv. Hematol. Oncol.3(1), 41–53 (2005).
[PubMed]

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Rivoire, A. Nath, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “The effects of repeated spectroscopic pressure measurements on fluorescence intensity in the cervix,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.191(5), 1606–1617 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Nath, K. Rivoire, S. Chang, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Effect of probe pressure on cervical fluorescence spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(3), 523–533 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. N. Mirabal, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(4), 587–594 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Utzinger, M. Brewer, E. Silva, D. Gershenson, R. C. Blast, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo characterization of ovarian tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med.28(1), 56–66 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R. R.

U. Utzinger and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber optic probes for biomedical optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(1), 121–147 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rivoire, K.

K. Rivoire, A. Nath, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “The effects of repeated spectroscopic pressure measurements on fluorescence intensity in the cervix,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.191(5), 1606–1617 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Nath, K. Rivoire, S. Chang, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Effect of probe pressure on cervical fluorescence spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(3), 523–533 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodríguez, M. C.

J. A. D. Atencio, E. E. O. Guillén, S. V. y. Montiel, M. C. Rodríguez, J. C. Ramos, J. L. Gutiérrez, and F. Martínez, “Influence of probe pressure on human skin diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements,” Opt. Mem. Neural. Networks18(1), 6–14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. D.

Roodenburg, J. L.

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. Roodenburg, and M. J. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol.44(1), 65–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. Witjes, R. P. Duin, H. J. Sterenborg, and J. L. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med.36(5), 356–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosin, M. P.

P. M. Lane, T. Gilhuly, P. Whitehead, H. Zeng, C. F. Poh, S. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, M. P. Rosin, and C. E. MacAulay, “Simple device for the direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 024006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruderman, S.

Runowicz, C. D.

D. Saslow, C. D. Runowicz, D. Solomon, A. B. Moscicki, R. A. Smith, H. J. Eyre, and C. Cohen, “American Cancer Society Guideline for the Early Detection of Cervical Neoplasia and Cancer,” J. Low. Genit. Tract Dis.7(2), 67–86 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salih, V.

A. Sharwani, W. Jerjes, V. Salih, B. Swinson, I. J. Bigio, M. El-Maaytah, and C. Hopper, “Assessment of oral premalignancy using elastic scattering spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol.42(4), 343–349 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sankaranarayanan, R.

R. Sankaranarayanan, K. Ramadas, G. Thomas, R. Muwonge, S. Thara, B. Mathew, B. Rajan, and Trivandrum Oral Cancer Screening Study Group, “Effect of screening on oral cancer mortality in Kerala, India: a cluster-randomised controlled trial,” Lancet365(9475), 1927–1933 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saslow, D.

D. Saslow, C. D. Runowicz, D. Solomon, A. B. Moscicki, R. A. Smith, H. J. Eyre, and C. Cohen, “American Cancer Society Guideline for the Early Detection of Cervical Neoplasia and Cancer,” J. Low. Genit. Tract Dis.7(2), 67–86 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwarz, R. A.

Sebastian, P.

N. Subhash, J. R. Mallia, S. S. Thomas, A. Mathews, P. Sebastian, and J. Madhavan, “Oral cancer detection using diffuse reflectance spectral ratio R540/R575 of oxygenated hemoglobin bands,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(1), 014018 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serachitopol, D.

N. M. Marín, N. MacKinnon, C. MacAulay, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, D. Serachitopol, B. Pikkula, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Calibration standards for multicenter clinical trials of fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(1), 014010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shangguan, H.

H. Shangguan, S. A. Prahl, S. L. Jacques, and L. W. Casperson, “Pressure effects on soft tissues monitored by changes in tissue,” Proc. SPIE3254, 366 (1998).

Shapshay, S. M.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharwani, A.

A. Sharwani, W. Jerjes, V. Salih, B. Swinson, I. J. Bigio, M. El-Maaytah, and C. Hopper, “Assessment of oral premalignancy using elastic scattering spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol.42(4), 343–349 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheets, E. E.

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Müller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.186(3), 374–382 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sherris, J.

J. Sherris, C. Herdman, and C. Elias, “Cervical cancer in the developing world,” West. J. Med.175(4), 231–233 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silva, E.

U. Utzinger, M. Brewer, E. Silva, D. Gershenson, R. C. Blast, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo characterization of ovarian tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med.28(1), 56–66 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, S. K.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skala, M. C.

Skurichina, M.

D. C. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. Witjes, R. P. Duin, H. J. Sterenborg, and J. L. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med.36(5), 356–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sloan, P.

O. Kujan, A. M. Glenny, R. J. Oliver, N. Thakker, and P. Sloan, “Screening programmes for the early detection and prevention of oral cancer,” Cochrane Database Syst. Rev.3(3), CD004150 (2006).
[PubMed]

Smith, R. A.

D. Saslow, C. D. Runowicz, D. Solomon, A. B. Moscicki, R. A. Smith, H. J. Eyre, and C. Cohen, “American Cancer Society Guideline for the Early Detection of Cervical Neoplasia and Cancer,” J. Low. Genit. Tract Dis.7(2), 67–86 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solomon, D.

D. Saslow, C. D. Runowicz, D. Solomon, A. B. Moscicki, R. A. Smith, H. J. Eyre, and C. Cohen, “American Cancer Society Guideline for the Early Detection of Cervical Neoplasia and Cancer,” J. Low. Genit. Tract Dis.7(2), 67–86 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorg, B.

E. K. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, and A. J. Welch, “Effects of compression on soft tissue optical properties,” IEEE J. Sel. Top Quantum Electron.2(4), 943–950 (1996).

St. Ghislain, M.

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, “In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 495–503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steiner, R.

Sterenborg, H. J.

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. Roodenburg, and M. J. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol.44(1), 65–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. Witjes, R. P. Duin, H. J. Sterenborg, and J. L. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med.36(5), 356–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoyneva, V.

Subhash, N.

N. Subhash, J. R. Mallia, S. S. Thomas, A. Mathews, P. Sebastian, and J. Madhavan, “Oral cancer detection using diffuse reflectance spectral ratio R540/R575 of oxygenated hemoglobin bands,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(1), 014018 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swinson, B.

A. Sharwani, W. Jerjes, V. Salih, B. Swinson, I. J. Bigio, M. El-Maaytah, and C. Hopper, “Assessment of oral premalignancy using elastic scattering spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol.42(4), 343–349 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thakker, N.

O. Kujan, A. M. Glenny, R. J. Oliver, N. Thakker, and P. Sloan, “Screening programmes for the early detection and prevention of oral cancer,” Cochrane Database Syst. Rev.3(3), CD004150 (2006).
[PubMed]

Thara, S.

R. Sankaranarayanan, K. Ramadas, G. Thomas, R. Muwonge, S. Thara, B. Mathew, B. Rajan, and Trivandrum Oral Cancer Screening Study Group, “Effect of screening on oral cancer mortality in Kerala, India: a cluster-randomised controlled trial,” Lancet365(9475), 1927–1933 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, G.

R. Sankaranarayanan, K. Ramadas, G. Thomas, R. Muwonge, S. Thara, B. Mathew, B. Rajan, and Trivandrum Oral Cancer Screening Study Group, “Effect of screening on oral cancer mortality in Kerala, India: a cluster-randomised controlled trial,” Lancet365(9475), 1927–1933 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, S. S.

N. Subhash, J. R. Mallia, S. S. Thomas, A. Mathews, P. Sebastian, and J. Madhavan, “Oral cancer detection using diffuse reflectance spectral ratio R540/R575 of oxygenated hemoglobin bands,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(1), 014018 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, R. C.

Thueler, P.

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, “In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 495–503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ti, Y.

Tromberg, B. J.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tunnell, J. W.

S. F. Bish, N. Rajaram, B. Nichols, and J. W. Tunnell, “Development of a noncontact diffuse optical spectroscopy probe for measuring tissue optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(12), 120505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Utzinger, U.

U. Utzinger and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber optic probes for biomedical optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(1), 121–147 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Utzinger, M. Brewer, E. Silva, D. Gershenson, R. C. Blast, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo characterization of ovarian tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med.28(1), 56–66 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valdez, T. A.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dam, J.

van der Wal, J. E.

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. Roodenburg, and M. J. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol.44(1), 65–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vermeulen, B.

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, “In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 495–503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vrotsos, K. M.

Walmer, D. K.

Wang, A.

A. Wang, V. Nammalavar, and R. Drezek, “Targeting spectral signatures of progressively dysplastic stratified epithelia using angularly variable fiber geometry in reflectance Monte Carlo simulations,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 044012 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yu, A. Wang, G. Pickrell, and J. Xu, “Tunable-optical-filter-based white-light interferometry for sensing,” Opt. Lett.30(12), 1452–1454 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Xu, G. R. Pickrell, B. Yu, M. Han, Y. Zhu, X. Wang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “Epoxy-free high temperature fiber optic pressure sensors for gas turbine engine applications,” Proc. SPIE5590, 1 (2004).

B. Yu, D. W. Kim, J. Deng, H. Xiao, and A. Wang, “Fiber Fabry-Perot sensors for detection of partial discharges in power transformers,” Appl. Opt.42(16), 3241–3250 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yu, D. W. Kim, J. Deng, H. Xiao, and A. Wang, “Fiber Fabry-Perot Sensors for Detection of Partial Discharges in Power Transformers,” Appl. Opt.42(16), 3241–3250 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, “Novel data processing techniques for dispersive white light interferometer,” Opt. Eng.42(11), 3165–3171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R. K.

W. Chen, R. Liu, K. Xu, and R. K. Wang, “Influence of contact state on NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in vivo,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(15), 2691–2695 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

J. Xu, G. R. Pickrell, B. Yu, M. Han, Y. Zhu, X. Wang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “Epoxy-free high temperature fiber optic pressure sensors for gas turbine engine applications,” Proc. SPIE5590, 1 (2004).

Wang, Z.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, C. R.

I. Pavlova, C. R. Weber, R. A. Schwarz, M. D. Williams, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of oral tissue: Monte Carlo modeling with site-specific tissue properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(1), 014009 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welch, A. J.

E. K. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, and A. J. Welch, “Effects of compression on soft tissue optical properties,” IEEE J. Sel. Top Quantum Electron.2(4), 943–950 (1996).

West, L. A.

J. A. Freeberg, J. L. Benedet, C. MacAulay, L. A. West, and M. Follen, “The performance of fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of cervical neoplasia; point probe versus multispectral approaches,” Gynecol. Oncol.107(1Suppl 1), S248–S255 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitehead, P.

P. M. Lane, T. Gilhuly, P. Whitehead, H. Zeng, C. F. Poh, S. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, M. P. Rosin, and C. E. MacAulay, “Simple device for the direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 024006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, M. D.

I. Pavlova, C. R. Weber, R. A. Schwarz, M. D. Williams, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of oral tissue: Monte Carlo modeling with site-specific tissue properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(1), 014009 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, D. Daye, M. D. Williams, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of oral epithelial tissue using a depth-sensitive fiber-optic probe,” Appl. Opt.47(6), 825–834 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, P. M.

P. M. Lane, T. Gilhuly, P. Whitehead, H. Zeng, C. F. Poh, S. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, M. P. Rosin, and C. E. MacAulay, “Simple device for the direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 024006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

Witjes, M. J.

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. Roodenburg, and M. J. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol.44(1), 65–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. Witjes, R. P. Duin, H. J. Sterenborg, and J. L. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med.36(5), 356–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, H.

Xu, F.

C. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, and N. Ramanujam, “Use of a multiseparation fiber optic probe for the optical diagnosis of breast cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024032 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

B. Yu, A. Wang, G. Pickrell, and J. Xu, “Tunable-optical-filter-based white-light interferometry for sensing,” Opt. Lett.30(12), 1452–1454 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Xu, G. R. Pickrell, B. Yu, M. Han, Y. Zhu, X. Wang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “Epoxy-free high temperature fiber optic pressure sensors for gas turbine engine applications,” Proc. SPIE5590, 1 (2004).

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, “Novel data processing techniques for dispersive white light interferometer,” Opt. Eng.42(11), 3165–3171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, K.

W. Chen, R. Liu, K. Xu, and R. K. Wang, “Influence of contact state on NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in vivo,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(15), 2691–2695 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, B.

Zeng, H.

P. M. Lane, T. Gilhuly, P. Whitehead, H. Zeng, C. F. Poh, S. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, M. P. Rosin, and C. E. MacAulay, “Simple device for the direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 024006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

P. M. Lane, T. Gilhuly, P. Whitehead, H. Zeng, C. F. Poh, S. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, M. P. Rosin, and C. E. MacAulay, “Simple device for the direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 024006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, P.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, “Novel data processing techniques for dispersive white light interferometer,” Opt. Eng.42(11), 3165–3171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, C.

C. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, and N. Ramanujam, “Use of a multiseparation fiber optic probe for the optical diagnosis of breast cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024032 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Y.

J. Xu, G. R. Pickrell, B. Yu, M. Han, Y. Zhu, X. Wang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “Epoxy-free high temperature fiber optic pressure sensors for gas turbine engine applications,” Proc. SPIE5590, 1 (2004).

Zonios, G.

Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (2)

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Müller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.186(3), 374–382 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Rivoire, A. Nath, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “The effects of repeated spectroscopic pressure measurements on fluorescence intensity in the cervix,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.191(5), 1606–1617 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (10)

A. Kienle, L. Lilge, M. S. Patterson, R. Hibst, R. Steiner, and B. C. Wilson, “Spatially resolved absolute diffuse reflectance measurements for noninvasive determination of the optical scattering and absorption coefficients of biological tissue,” Appl. Opt.35(13), 2304–2314 (1996).
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S. C. Gebhart, R. C. Thompson, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Liquid-crystal tunable filter spectral imaging for brain tumor demarcation,” Appl. Opt.46(10), 1896–1910 (2007).
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B. Yu, D. W. Kim, J. Deng, H. Xiao, and A. Wang, “Fiber Fabry-Perot sensors for detection of partial discharges in power transformers,” Appl. Opt.42(16), 3241–3250 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yu, D. W. Kim, J. Deng, H. Xiao, and A. Wang, “Fiber Fabry-Perot Sensors for Detection of Partial Discharges in Power Transformers,” Appl. Opt.42(16), 3241–3250 (2003).
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Q. Liu and N. Ramanujam, “Sequential estimation of optical properties of a two-layered epithelial tissue model from depth-resolved ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectra,” Appl. Opt.45(19), 4776–4790 (2006).
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G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, “Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part I: Theory and validation on synthetic phantoms,” Appl. Opt.45(5), 1062–1071 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Arifler, R. A. Schwarz, S. K. Chang, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for diagnosis of epithelial precancer: model-based analysis of fiber-optic probe designs to resolve spectral information from epithelium and stroma,” Appl. Opt.44(20), 4291–4305 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, D. Daye, M. D. Williams, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of oral epithelial tissue using a depth-sensitive fiber-optic probe,” Appl. Opt.47(6), 825–834 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Cancer (2)

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
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E. K. Adams, N. Breen, and P. J. Joski, “Impact of the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program on mammography and Pap test utilization among white, Hispanic, and African American women: 1996-2000,” Cancer109(S2), 348–358 (2007).
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Clin. Adv. Hematol. Oncol. (1)

M. Follen, S. Crain, C. MacAulay, K. Basen-Engquist, S. B. Cantor, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, N. MacKinnon, M. Guillaud, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optical technologies for cervical neoplasia: update of an NCI program project grant,” Clin. Adv. Hematol. Oncol.3(1), 41–53 (2005).
[PubMed]

Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. (1)

O. Kujan, A. M. Glenny, R. J. Oliver, N. Thakker, and P. Sloan, “Screening programmes for the early detection and prevention of oral cancer,” Cochrane Database Syst. Rev.3(3), CD004150 (2006).
[PubMed]

Gynecol. Oncol. (3)

N. M. Marín, A. Milbourne, H. Rhodes, T. Ehlen, D. Miller, L. Benedet, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Diffuse reflectance patterns in cervical spectroscopy,” Gynecol. Oncol.99(3Suppl 1), S116–S120 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cardenas-Turanzas, J. A. Freeberg, J. L. Benedet, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, R. Richards-Kortum, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and S. B. Cantor, “The clinical effectiveness of optical spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: where are we?” Gynecol. Oncol.107(1Suppl 1), S138–S146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Freeberg, J. L. Benedet, C. MacAulay, L. A. West, and M. Follen, “The performance of fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of cervical neoplasia; point probe versus multispectral approaches,” Gynecol. Oncol.107(1Suppl 1), S248–S255 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top Quantum Electron. (1)

E. K. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, and A. J. Welch, “Effects of compression on soft tissue optical properties,” IEEE J. Sel. Top Quantum Electron.2(4), 943–950 (1996).

J. Biomed. Opt. (17)

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rahman, P. Chaturvedi, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Low-cost, multimodal, portable screening system for early detection of oral cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 030502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Nath, K. Rivoire, S. Chang, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Effect of probe pressure on cervical fluorescence spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(3), 523–533 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Utzinger and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber optic probes for biomedical optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(1), 121–147 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, and N. Ramanujam, “Use of a multiseparation fiber optic probe for the optical diagnosis of breast cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024032 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wang, V. Nammalavar, and R. Drezek, “Targeting spectral signatures of progressively dysplastic stratified epithelia using angularly variable fiber geometry in reflectance Monte Carlo simulations,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 044012 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Arifler, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Spatially resolved reflectance spectroscopy for diagnosis of cervical precancer: Monte Carlo modeling and comparison to clinical measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(6), 064027 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Lane, T. Gilhuly, P. Whitehead, H. Zeng, C. F. Poh, S. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, M. P. Rosin, and C. E. MacAulay, “Simple device for the direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 024006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pavlova, C. R. Weber, R. A. Schwarz, M. D. Williams, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of oral tissue: Monte Carlo modeling with site-specific tissue properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(1), 014009 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. N. Mirabal, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(4), 587–594 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Subhash, J. R. Mallia, S. S. Thomas, A. Mathews, P. Sebastian, and J. Madhavan, “Oral cancer detection using diffuse reflectance spectral ratio R540/R575 of oxygenated hemoglobin bands,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(1), 014018 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Marín, N. MacKinnon, C. MacAulay, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, D. Serachitopol, B. Pikkula, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Calibration standards for multicenter clinical trials of fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(1), 014010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, “In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 495–503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yu, H. L. Fu, and N. Ramanujam, “Instrument independent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 011010 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Bish, N. Rajaram, B. Nichols, and J. W. Tunnell, “Development of a noncontact diffuse optical spectroscopy probe for measuring tissue optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(12), 120505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dent. Educ. (1)

R. Hasina and M. W. Lingen, “Angiogenesis in oral cancer,” J. Dent. Educ.65(11), 1282–1290 (2001).
[PubMed]

J. Low. Genit. Tract Dis. (1)

D. Saslow, C. D. Runowicz, D. Solomon, A. B. Moscicki, R. A. Smith, H. J. Eyre, and C. Cohen, “American Cancer Society Guideline for the Early Detection of Cervical Neoplasia and Cancer,” J. Low. Genit. Tract Dis.7(2), 67–86 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Chen, R. Liu, K. Xu, and R. K. Wang, “Influence of contact state on NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in vivo,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(15), 2691–2695 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lancet (1)

R. Sankaranarayanan, K. Ramadas, G. Thomas, R. Muwonge, S. Thara, B. Mathew, B. Rajan, and Trivandrum Oral Cancer Screening Study Group, “Effect of screening on oral cancer mortality in Kerala, India: a cluster-randomised controlled trial,” Lancet365(9475), 1927–1933 (2005).
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Lasers Surg. Med. (2)

D. C. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. Witjes, R. P. Duin, H. J. Sterenborg, and J. L. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med.36(5), 356–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Utzinger, M. Brewer, E. Silva, D. Gershenson, R. C. Blast, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo characterization of ovarian tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med.28(1), 56–66 (2001).
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MMWR Recomm. Rep. (1)

H. W. Lawson, R. Henson, J. K. Bobo, and M. K. Kaeser, “Implementing recommendations for the early detection of breast and cervical cancer among low-income women,” MMWR Recomm. Rep.49(RR-2), 37–55 (2000).
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Neoplasia (1)

V. T. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. C. Bentley, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo through optical spectroscopy,” Neoplasia11(4), 325–332 (2009).
[PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, “Novel data processing techniques for dispersive white light interferometer,” Opt. Eng.42(11), 3165–3171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mem. Neural. Networks (1)

J. A. D. Atencio, E. E. O. Guillén, S. V. y. Montiel, M. C. Rodríguez, J. C. Ramos, J. L. Gutiérrez, and F. Martínez, “Influence of probe pressure on human skin diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements,” Opt. Mem. Neural. Networks18(1), 6–14 (2009).
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A. Sharwani, W. Jerjes, V. Salih, B. Swinson, I. J. Bigio, M. El-Maaytah, and C. Hopper, “Assessment of oral premalignancy using elastic scattering spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol.42(4), 343–349 (2006).
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A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. Roodenburg, and M. J. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol.44(1), 65–71 (2008).
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J. Xu, G. R. Pickrell, B. Yu, M. Han, Y. Zhu, X. Wang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “Epoxy-free high temperature fiber optic pressure sensors for gas turbine engine applications,” Proc. SPIE5590, 1 (2004).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A smart optic sensor system: (a) schematic of the probe and instrument; (b) schematic of the DFPI pressure sensor head; and (c) photograph of the portable instrument and smart probe. LED – light emitting diode; Spec – spectrometer; R1 and R2 – reflection; P – external pressure; and D – diameter of the glass diaphragm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Flowchart of the LabVIEW software for instrument control and data collection and analysis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of experimental setup for pressure sensor test.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photograph of DRS measurement from the left cheek of a volunteer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Extracted v.s. expected phantom mean (a) μa; (b) μs’ and (c) THb. The errorbars were resulted from different phantom for reference.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Pressure sensor characterization: (a) an interferogram measured under room pressure and (b) measured cavity length as a function of the nitrogen pressure. The errorbar in (b) was obtained from the 10 repeated measurements under each pressure level.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Tissue HbO2, Hb, THb, SO2 and <μs’(λ)> measured from the left cheek of Vol 2 under increased probe pressure (8 pressure levels from 0.5 ± 0.5 psi to 7.5 ± 0.5 psi with 10 measurements under each pressure level).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Tissue parameters measured from the right cheek of Vol 8 under a constant probe pressure of 1-2 psi. The open circles represent experimental data and solid lines represent a 9th degree fit.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Summary of phantom THb and expected mean optical properties between 430 and 630 nm.

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Table 2 Summary of the DRS measurements on the left cheek of the 7 volunteers at various pressure levels.

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Table 3 Student T-test results for THb, SO2 and <μs’(λ)> measured with a probe pressure from 0.5 ± 0.5 psi to 4.5 ± 0.5 psi. (√: p < 0.05, x: p>0.05)

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