Abstract

We present a system capable of measuring the total retinal blood flow using a combination of dual beam Fourier-domain Doppler optical coherence tomography with orthogonal detection planes and a fundus camera-based retinal vessel analyzer. Our results show a high degree of conformity of venous and arterial flows, which corroborates the validity of the measurements. In accordance with Murray’s law, the log-log regression coefficient between vessel diameter and blood flow was found to be ~3. The blood’s velocity scaled linearly with the vessel diameter at higher diameters (> 60 µm), but showed a clear divergence from the linear dependence at lower diameters. Good agreement with literature data and the large range and high measurement sensitivity point to a high potential for further investigations.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  35. B. Pemp, E. Polska, G. Garhofer, M. Bayerle-Eder, A. Kautzky-Willer, and L. Schmetterer, “Retinal blood flow in type 1 diabetic patients with no or mild diabetic retinopathy during euglycemic clamp,” Diabetes Care33(9), 2038–2042 (2010).
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  36. E. Polska, K. Kircher, P. Ehrlich, P. V. Vecsei, and L. Schmetterer, “RI in central retinal artery as assessed by CDI does not correspond to retinal vascular resistance,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.280(4), H1442–H1447 (2001).
    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. Y. Wang, A. Lu, J. Gil-Flamer, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Measurement of total blood flow in the normal human retina using Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.93(5), 634–637 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. Y. Wang, A. A. Fawzi, R. Varma, A. A. Sadun, X. Zhang, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Pilot study of optical coherence tomography measurement of retinal blood flow in retinal and optic nerve diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(2), 840–845 (2011).
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2013

A. P. Cherecheanu, G. Garhofer, D. Schmidl, R. Werkmeister, and L. Schmetterer, “Ocular perfusion pressure and ocular blood flow in glaucoma,” Curr. Opin. Pharmacol.13(1), 36–42 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Blatter, S. Coquoz, B. Grajciar, A. S. G. Singh, M. Bonesi, R. M. Werkmeister, L. Schmetterer, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Dove prism based rotating dual beam bidirectional Doppler OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(7), 1188–1203 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Trasischker, R. M. Werkmeister, S. Zotter, B. Baumann, T. Torzicky, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “In vitro and in vivo three-dimensional velocity vector measurement by three-beam spectral-domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(11), 116010 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Schmoll and R. A. Leitgeb, “Heart-beat-phase-coherent Doppler optical coherence tomography for measuring pulsatile ocular blood flow,” J. Biophotonics6(3), 275–282 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Secomb and A. R. Pries, “Blood viscosity in microvessels: Experiment and theory,” C. R. Phys.14(6), 470–478 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

R. M. Werkmeister, S. Palkovits, R. Told, M. Gröschl, R. A. Leitgeb, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Response of Retinal Blood Flow to Systemic Hyperoxia as Measured with Dual-Beam Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” PLoS ONE7(9), e45876 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Garhofer, R. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, and L. Schmetterer, “Retinal Blood Flow in Healthy Young Subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(2), 698–703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, S. Palkovits, R. Told, A. Boltz, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Absolute Blood Flow Velocity and Blood Flow in the Human Retina by Dual-Beam Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(10), 6062–6071 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1539–1552 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, A. A. Fawzi, R. Varma, A. A. Sadun, X. Zhang, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Pilot study of optical coherence tomography measurement of retinal blood flow in retinal and optic nerve diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(2), 840–845 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

G. Garhofer, T. Bek, A. G. Boehm, D. Gherghel, J. Grunwald, P. Jeppesen, H. Kergoat, K. Kotliar, I. Lanzl, J. V. Lovasik, E. Nagel, W. Vilser, S. Orgul, L. Schmetterer, and Ocular Blood Flow Research Association, “Use of the retinal vessel analyzer in ocular blood flow research,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)88(7), 717–722 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Pemp, E. Polska, G. Garhofer, M. Bayerle-Eder, A. Kautzky-Willer, and L. Schmetterer, “Retinal blood flow in type 1 diabetic patients with no or mild diabetic retinopathy during euglycemic clamp,” Diabetes Care33(9), 2038–2042 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. G. Singh, C. Kolbitsch, T. Schmoll, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Stable absolute flow estimation with Doppler OCT based on virtual circumpapillary scans,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(4), 1047–1058 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, S. Sakadzić, I. Gorczynska, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. A. Boas, “Quantitative cerebral blood flow with Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express18(3), 2477–2494 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

S. W. Lee, H. W. Jeong, B. M. Kim, Y. C. Ahn, W. Jung, and Z. Chen, “Optimization for Axial Resolution, Depth Range, and Sensitivity of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography at 1.3 µm,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.55(6), 2354–2360 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Schmoll, C. Kolbitsch, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultra-high-speed volumetric tomography of human retinal blood flow,” Opt. Express17(5), 4166–4176 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, A. Lu, J. Gil-Flamer, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Measurement of total blood flow in the normal human retina using Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.93(5), 634–637 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

S. Norrby, P. Piers, C. Campbell, and M. van der Mooren, “Model eyes for evaluation of intraocular lenses,” Appl. Opt.46(26), 6595–6605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Pedersen, D. Huang, M. A. Shure, and A. M. Rollins, “Measurement of absolute flow velocity vector using dual-angle, delay-encoded Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.32(5), 506–508 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2004

2003

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. Fercher, R. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(23), 3116–3121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Logean, L. Schmetterer, and C. E. Riva, “Velocity Profile of Red Blood Cells in Human Retinal Vessels using Confocal Scanning Laser Doppler Velocimetry,” Laser Phys.13, 45–51 (2003).

2002

J. P. Garcia, P. T. Garcia, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal blood flow in the normal human eye using the canon laser blood flowmeter,” Ophthalmic Res.34(5), 295–299 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

E. Polska, K. Kircher, P. Ehrlich, P. V. Vecsei, and L. Schmetterer, “RI in central retinal artery as assessed by CDI does not correspond to retinal vascular resistance,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.280(4), H1442–H1447 (2001).
[PubMed]

2000

K. Polak, G. Dorner, B. Kiss, E. Polska, O. Findl, G. Rainer, H. G. Eichler, and L. Schmetterer, “Evaluation of the Zeiss retinal vessel analyser,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.84(11), 1285–1290 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

J. E. Grunwald, J. DuPont, and C. E. Riva, “Retinal haemodynamics in patients with early diabetes mellitus,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.80(4), 327–331 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

J. E. Grunwald, C. E. Riva, J. Baine, and A. J. Brucker, “Total retinal volumetric blood flow rate in diabetic patients with poor glycemic control,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.33(2), 356–363 (1992).
[PubMed]

1989

G. T. Feke, H. Tagawa, D. M. Deupree, D. G. Goger, J. Sebag, and J. J. Weiter, “Blood flow in the normal human retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.30(1), 58–65 (1989).
[PubMed]

1987

G. T. Feke, D. G. Goger, H. Tagawa, and F. C. Delori, “Laser Doppler Technique for Absolute Measurement of Blood Speed in Retinal Vessels,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.34(9), 673–800 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, “Blood velocity and volumetric flow rate in human retinal vessels,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.26(8), 1124–1132 (1985).
[PubMed]

1979

1931

R. Fahraeus and T. Lindqvist, “The viscosity of the blood in narrow capillary tubes,” Am. J. Physiol.96, 562–568 (1931).

1926

C. D. Murray, “The Physiological Principle of Minimum Work: I. The Vascular System and the Cost of Blood Volume,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.12(3), 207–214 (1926).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, Y. C.

S. W. Lee, H. W. Jeong, B. M. Kim, Y. C. Ahn, W. Jung, and Z. Chen, “Optimization for Axial Resolution, Depth Range, and Sensitivity of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography at 1.3 µm,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.55(6), 2354–2360 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bachmann, A. H.

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baine, J.

J. E. Grunwald, C. E. Riva, J. Baine, and A. J. Brucker, “Total retinal volumetric blood flow rate in diabetic patients with poor glycemic control,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.33(2), 356–363 (1992).
[PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

Baumann, B.

W. Trasischker, R. M. Werkmeister, S. Zotter, B. Baumann, T. Torzicky, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “In vitro and in vivo three-dimensional velocity vector measurement by three-beam spectral-domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(11), 116010 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1539–1552 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bayerle-Eder, M.

B. Pemp, E. Polska, G. Garhofer, M. Bayerle-Eder, A. Kautzky-Willer, and L. Schmetterer, “Retinal blood flow in type 1 diabetic patients with no or mild diabetic retinopathy during euglycemic clamp,” Diabetes Care33(9), 2038–2042 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bek, T.

G. Garhofer, T. Bek, A. G. Boehm, D. Gherghel, J. Grunwald, P. Jeppesen, H. Kergoat, K. Kotliar, I. Lanzl, J. V. Lovasik, E. Nagel, W. Vilser, S. Orgul, L. Schmetterer, and Ocular Blood Flow Research Association, “Use of the retinal vessel analyzer in ocular blood flow research,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)88(7), 717–722 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benary, V.

Berisha, F.

Blatter, C.

C. Blatter, S. Coquoz, B. Grajciar, A. S. G. Singh, M. Bonesi, R. M. Werkmeister, L. Schmetterer, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Dove prism based rotating dual beam bidirectional Doppler OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(7), 1188–1203 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Blatter, B. Grajciar, L. Schmetterer, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Angle independent flow assessment with bidirectional Doppler OCT,” Opt. Lett.in press.

Boas, D. A.

Boehm, A. G.

G. Garhofer, T. Bek, A. G. Boehm, D. Gherghel, J. Grunwald, P. Jeppesen, H. Kergoat, K. Kotliar, I. Lanzl, J. V. Lovasik, E. Nagel, W. Vilser, S. Orgul, L. Schmetterer, and Ocular Blood Flow Research Association, “Use of the retinal vessel analyzer in ocular blood flow research,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)88(7), 717–722 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boltz, A.

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, S. Palkovits, R. Told, A. Boltz, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Absolute Blood Flow Velocity and Blood Flow in the Human Retina by Dual-Beam Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(10), 6062–6071 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonesi, M.

Bower, B. A.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(6), 064003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brucker, A. J.

J. E. Grunwald, C. E. Riva, J. Baine, and A. J. Brucker, “Total retinal volumetric blood flow rate in diabetic patients with poor glycemic control,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.33(2), 356–363 (1992).
[PubMed]

Cable, A. E.

Campbell, C.

Chen, Z.

S. W. Lee, H. W. Jeong, B. M. Kim, Y. C. Ahn, W. Jung, and Z. Chen, “Optimization for Axial Resolution, Depth Range, and Sensitivity of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography at 1.3 µm,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.55(6), 2354–2360 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cherecheanu, A. P.

A. P. Cherecheanu, G. Garhofer, D. Schmidl, R. Werkmeister, and L. Schmetterer, “Ocular perfusion pressure and ocular blood flow in glaucoma,” Curr. Opin. Pharmacol.13(1), 36–42 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coquoz, S.

Delori, F. C.

G. T. Feke, D. G. Goger, H. Tagawa, and F. C. Delori, “Laser Doppler Technique for Absolute Measurement of Blood Speed in Retinal Vessels,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.34(9), 673–800 (1987).
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Deupree, D. M.

G. T. Feke, H. Tagawa, D. M. Deupree, D. G. Goger, J. Sebag, and J. J. Weiter, “Blood flow in the normal human retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.30(1), 58–65 (1989).
[PubMed]

Dorner, G.

K. Polak, G. Dorner, B. Kiss, E. Polska, O. Findl, G. Rainer, H. G. Eichler, and L. Schmetterer, “Evaluation of the Zeiss retinal vessel analyser,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.84(11), 1285–1290 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dragostinoff, N.

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, S. Palkovits, R. Told, A. Boltz, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Absolute Blood Flow Velocity and Blood Flow in the Human Retina by Dual-Beam Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(10), 6062–6071 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Garhofer, R. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, and L. Schmetterer, “Retinal Blood Flow in Healthy Young Subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(2), 698–703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, R. A. Leitgeb, and L. Schmetterer, “Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for measurement of absolute flow velocities in human retinal vessels,” Opt. Lett.33(24), 2967–2969 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

Duker, J. S.

DuPont, J.

J. E. Grunwald, J. DuPont, and C. E. Riva, “Retinal haemodynamics in patients with early diabetes mellitus,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.80(4), 327–331 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eberli, B.

Ehrlich, P.

E. Polska, K. Kircher, P. Ehrlich, P. V. Vecsei, and L. Schmetterer, “RI in central retinal artery as assessed by CDI does not correspond to retinal vascular resistance,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.280(4), H1442–H1447 (2001).
[PubMed]

Eichler, H. G.

K. Polak, G. Dorner, B. Kiss, E. Polska, O. Findl, G. Rainer, H. G. Eichler, and L. Schmetterer, “Evaluation of the Zeiss retinal vessel analyser,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.84(11), 1285–1290 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fabritius, T.

Fahraeus, R.

R. Fahraeus and T. Lindqvist, “The viscosity of the blood in narrow capillary tubes,” Am. J. Physiol.96, 562–568 (1931).

Fawzi, A. A.

Y. Wang, A. A. Fawzi, R. Varma, A. A. Sadun, X. Zhang, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Pilot study of optical coherence tomography measurement of retinal blood flow in retinal and optic nerve diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(2), 840–845 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feke, G. T.

G. T. Feke, H. Tagawa, D. M. Deupree, D. G. Goger, J. Sebag, and J. J. Weiter, “Blood flow in the normal human retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.30(1), 58–65 (1989).
[PubMed]

G. T. Feke, D. G. Goger, H. Tagawa, and F. C. Delori, “Laser Doppler Technique for Absolute Measurement of Blood Speed in Retinal Vessels,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.34(9), 673–800 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Riva, G. T. Feke, B. Eberli, and V. Benary, “Bidirectional LDV system for absolute measurement of blood speed in retinal vessels,” Appl. Opt.18(13), 2301–2306 (1979).
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Fercher, A.

Fercher, A. F.

Ferguson, R. D.

Ferrante, A. A.

Findl, O.

K. Polak, G. Dorner, B. Kiss, E. Polska, O. Findl, G. Rainer, H. G. Eichler, and L. Schmetterer, “Evaluation of the Zeiss retinal vessel analyser,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.84(11), 1285–1290 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Garcia, J. P.

J. P. Garcia, P. T. Garcia, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal blood flow in the normal human eye using the canon laser blood flowmeter,” Ophthalmic Res.34(5), 295–299 (2002).
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Garcia, P. T.

J. P. Garcia, P. T. Garcia, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal blood flow in the normal human eye using the canon laser blood flowmeter,” Ophthalmic Res.34(5), 295–299 (2002).
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Garhofer, G.

A. P. Cherecheanu, G. Garhofer, D. Schmidl, R. Werkmeister, and L. Schmetterer, “Ocular perfusion pressure and ocular blood flow in glaucoma,” Curr. Opin. Pharmacol.13(1), 36–42 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Garhofer, R. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, and L. Schmetterer, “Retinal Blood Flow in Healthy Young Subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(2), 698–703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Pemp, E. Polska, G. Garhofer, M. Bayerle-Eder, A. Kautzky-Willer, and L. Schmetterer, “Retinal blood flow in type 1 diabetic patients with no or mild diabetic retinopathy during euglycemic clamp,” Diabetes Care33(9), 2038–2042 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Garhofer, T. Bek, A. G. Boehm, D. Gherghel, J. Grunwald, P. Jeppesen, H. Kergoat, K. Kotliar, I. Lanzl, J. V. Lovasik, E. Nagel, W. Vilser, S. Orgul, L. Schmetterer, and Ocular Blood Flow Research Association, “Use of the retinal vessel analyzer in ocular blood flow research,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)88(7), 717–722 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garhöfer, G.

R. M. Werkmeister, S. Palkovits, R. Told, M. Gröschl, R. A. Leitgeb, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Response of Retinal Blood Flow to Systemic Hyperoxia as Measured with Dual-Beam Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” PLoS ONE7(9), e45876 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, S. Palkovits, R. Told, A. Boltz, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Absolute Blood Flow Velocity and Blood Flow in the Human Retina by Dual-Beam Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(10), 6062–6071 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gherghel, D.

G. Garhofer, T. Bek, A. G. Boehm, D. Gherghel, J. Grunwald, P. Jeppesen, H. Kergoat, K. Kotliar, I. Lanzl, J. V. Lovasik, E. Nagel, W. Vilser, S. Orgul, L. Schmetterer, and Ocular Blood Flow Research Association, “Use of the retinal vessel analyzer in ocular blood flow research,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)88(7), 717–722 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gil-Flamer, J.

Y. Wang, A. Lu, J. Gil-Flamer, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Measurement of total blood flow in the normal human retina using Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.93(5), 634–637 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goger, D. G.

G. T. Feke, H. Tagawa, D. M. Deupree, D. G. Goger, J. Sebag, and J. J. Weiter, “Blood flow in the normal human retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.30(1), 58–65 (1989).
[PubMed]

G. T. Feke, D. G. Goger, H. Tagawa, and F. C. Delori, “Laser Doppler Technique for Absolute Measurement of Blood Speed in Retinal Vessels,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.34(9), 673–800 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorczynska, I.

Götzinger, E.

Grajciar, B.

Gröschl, M.

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, S. Palkovits, R. Told, A. Boltz, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Absolute Blood Flow Velocity and Blood Flow in the Human Retina by Dual-Beam Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(10), 6062–6071 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, S. Palkovits, R. Told, M. Gröschl, R. A. Leitgeb, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Response of Retinal Blood Flow to Systemic Hyperoxia as Measured with Dual-Beam Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” PLoS ONE7(9), e45876 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grunwald, J.

G. Garhofer, T. Bek, A. G. Boehm, D. Gherghel, J. Grunwald, P. Jeppesen, H. Kergoat, K. Kotliar, I. Lanzl, J. V. Lovasik, E. Nagel, W. Vilser, S. Orgul, L. Schmetterer, and Ocular Blood Flow Research Association, “Use of the retinal vessel analyzer in ocular blood flow research,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)88(7), 717–722 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grunwald, J. E.

J. E. Grunwald, J. DuPont, and C. E. Riva, “Retinal haemodynamics in patients with early diabetes mellitus,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.80(4), 327–331 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Grunwald, C. E. Riva, J. Baine, and A. J. Brucker, “Total retinal volumetric blood flow rate in diabetic patients with poor glycemic control,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.33(2), 356–363 (1992).
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C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, “Blood velocity and volumetric flow rate in human retinal vessels,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.26(8), 1124–1132 (1985).
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Hammer, D. X.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hong, Y.

Hornegger, J.

Huang, D.

B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1539–1552 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, A. A. Fawzi, R. Varma, A. A. Sadun, X. Zhang, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Pilot study of optical coherence tomography measurement of retinal blood flow in retinal and optic nerve diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(2), 840–845 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, A. Lu, J. Gil-Flamer, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Measurement of total blood flow in the normal human retina using Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.93(5), 634–637 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(6), 064003 (2008).
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C. J. Pedersen, D. Huang, M. A. Shure, and A. M. Rollins, “Measurement of absolute flow velocity vector using dual-angle, delay-encoded Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.32(5), 506–508 (2007).
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Iftimia, N. V.

Izatt, J. A.

Y. Wang, A. A. Fawzi, R. Varma, A. A. Sadun, X. Zhang, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Pilot study of optical coherence tomography measurement of retinal blood flow in retinal and optic nerve diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(2), 840–845 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, A. Lu, J. Gil-Flamer, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Measurement of total blood flow in the normal human retina using Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.93(5), 634–637 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(6), 064003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeong, H. W.

S. W. Lee, H. W. Jeong, B. M. Kim, Y. C. Ahn, W. Jung, and Z. Chen, “Optimization for Axial Resolution, Depth Range, and Sensitivity of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography at 1.3 µm,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.55(6), 2354–2360 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeppesen, P.

G. Garhofer, T. Bek, A. G. Boehm, D. Gherghel, J. Grunwald, P. Jeppesen, H. Kergoat, K. Kotliar, I. Lanzl, J. V. Lovasik, E. Nagel, W. Vilser, S. Orgul, L. Schmetterer, and Ocular Blood Flow Research Association, “Use of the retinal vessel analyzer in ocular blood flow research,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)88(7), 717–722 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, W.

S. W. Lee, H. W. Jeong, B. M. Kim, Y. C. Ahn, W. Jung, and Z. Chen, “Optimization for Axial Resolution, Depth Range, and Sensitivity of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography at 1.3 µm,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.55(6), 2354–2360 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kautzky-Willer, A.

B. Pemp, E. Polska, G. Garhofer, M. Bayerle-Eder, A. Kautzky-Willer, and L. Schmetterer, “Retinal blood flow in type 1 diabetic patients with no or mild diabetic retinopathy during euglycemic clamp,” Diabetes Care33(9), 2038–2042 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kergoat, H.

G. Garhofer, T. Bek, A. G. Boehm, D. Gherghel, J. Grunwald, P. Jeppesen, H. Kergoat, K. Kotliar, I. Lanzl, J. V. Lovasik, E. Nagel, W. Vilser, S. Orgul, L. Schmetterer, and Ocular Blood Flow Research Association, “Use of the retinal vessel analyzer in ocular blood flow research,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)88(7), 717–722 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, B. M.

S. W. Lee, H. W. Jeong, B. M. Kim, Y. C. Ahn, W. Jung, and Z. Chen, “Optimization for Axial Resolution, Depth Range, and Sensitivity of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography at 1.3 µm,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.55(6), 2354–2360 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kircher, K.

E. Polska, K. Kircher, P. Ehrlich, P. V. Vecsei, and L. Schmetterer, “RI in central retinal artery as assessed by CDI does not correspond to retinal vascular resistance,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.280(4), H1442–H1447 (2001).
[PubMed]

Kiss, B.

K. Polak, G. Dorner, B. Kiss, E. Polska, O. Findl, G. Rainer, H. G. Eichler, and L. Schmetterer, “Evaluation of the Zeiss retinal vessel analyser,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.84(11), 1285–1290 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolbitsch, C.

Kotliar, K.

G. Garhofer, T. Bek, A. G. Boehm, D. Gherghel, J. Grunwald, P. Jeppesen, H. Kergoat, K. Kotliar, I. Lanzl, J. V. Lovasik, E. Nagel, W. Vilser, S. Orgul, L. Schmetterer, and Ocular Blood Flow Research Association, “Use of the retinal vessel analyzer in ocular blood flow research,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)88(7), 717–722 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kraus, M. F.

Lanzl, I.

G. Garhofer, T. Bek, A. G. Boehm, D. Gherghel, J. Grunwald, P. Jeppesen, H. Kergoat, K. Kotliar, I. Lanzl, J. V. Lovasik, E. Nagel, W. Vilser, S. Orgul, L. Schmetterer, and Ocular Blood Flow Research Association, “Use of the retinal vessel analyzer in ocular blood flow research,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)88(7), 717–722 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasser, T.

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. W.

S. W. Lee, H. W. Jeong, B. M. Kim, Y. C. Ahn, W. Jung, and Z. Chen, “Optimization for Axial Resolution, Depth Range, and Sensitivity of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography at 1.3 µm,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.55(6), 2354–2360 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R. A.

T. Schmoll and R. A. Leitgeb, “Heart-beat-phase-coherent Doppler optical coherence tomography for measuring pulsatile ocular blood flow,” J. Biophotonics6(3), 275–282 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Blatter, S. Coquoz, B. Grajciar, A. S. G. Singh, M. Bonesi, R. M. Werkmeister, L. Schmetterer, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Dove prism based rotating dual beam bidirectional Doppler OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(7), 1188–1203 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, S. Palkovits, R. Told, A. Boltz, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Absolute Blood Flow Velocity and Blood Flow in the Human Retina by Dual-Beam Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(10), 6062–6071 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, S. Palkovits, R. Told, M. Gröschl, R. A. Leitgeb, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Response of Retinal Blood Flow to Systemic Hyperoxia as Measured with Dual-Beam Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” PLoS ONE7(9), e45876 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. G. Singh, C. Kolbitsch, T. Schmoll, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Stable absolute flow estimation with Doppler OCT based on virtual circumpapillary scans,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(4), 1047–1058 (2010).
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T. Schmoll, C. Kolbitsch, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultra-high-speed volumetric tomography of human retinal blood flow,” Opt. Express17(5), 4166–4176 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, R. A. Leitgeb, and L. Schmetterer, “Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for measurement of absolute flow velocities in human retinal vessels,” Opt. Lett.33(24), 2967–2969 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, F. Berisha, M. Wojtkowski, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time measurement of in vitro flow by Fourier-domain color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.29(2), 171–173 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. Fercher, R. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(23), 3116–3121 (2003).
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C. Blatter, B. Grajciar, L. Schmetterer, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Angle independent flow assessment with bidirectional Doppler OCT,” Opt. Lett.in press.

Lindqvist, T.

R. Fahraeus and T. Lindqvist, “The viscosity of the blood in narrow capillary tubes,” Am. J. Physiol.96, 562–568 (1931).

Liu, J. J.

Logean, E.

E. Logean, L. Schmetterer, and C. E. Riva, “Velocity Profile of Red Blood Cells in Human Retinal Vessels using Confocal Scanning Laser Doppler Velocimetry,” Laser Phys.13, 45–51 (2003).

Lovasik, J. V.

G. Garhofer, T. Bek, A. G. Boehm, D. Gherghel, J. Grunwald, P. Jeppesen, H. Kergoat, K. Kotliar, I. Lanzl, J. V. Lovasik, E. Nagel, W. Vilser, S. Orgul, L. Schmetterer, and Ocular Blood Flow Research Association, “Use of the retinal vessel analyzer in ocular blood flow research,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)88(7), 717–722 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, A.

Y. Wang, A. Lu, J. Gil-Flamer, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Measurement of total blood flow in the normal human retina using Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.93(5), 634–637 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Makita, S.

Michaely, R.

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mujat, M.

Murray, C. D.

C. D. Murray, “The Physiological Principle of Minimum Work: I. The Vascular System and the Cost of Blood Volume,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.12(3), 207–214 (1926).
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Nagel, E.

G. Garhofer, T. Bek, A. G. Boehm, D. Gherghel, J. Grunwald, P. Jeppesen, H. Kergoat, K. Kotliar, I. Lanzl, J. V. Lovasik, E. Nagel, W. Vilser, S. Orgul, L. Schmetterer, and Ocular Blood Flow Research Association, “Use of the retinal vessel analyzer in ocular blood flow research,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)88(7), 717–722 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norrby, S.

Orgul, S.

G. Garhofer, T. Bek, A. G. Boehm, D. Gherghel, J. Grunwald, P. Jeppesen, H. Kergoat, K. Kotliar, I. Lanzl, J. V. Lovasik, E. Nagel, W. Vilser, S. Orgul, L. Schmetterer, and Ocular Blood Flow Research Association, “Use of the retinal vessel analyzer in ocular blood flow research,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)88(7), 717–722 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palkovits, S.

R. M. Werkmeister, S. Palkovits, R. Told, M. Gröschl, R. A. Leitgeb, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Response of Retinal Blood Flow to Systemic Hyperoxia as Measured with Dual-Beam Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” PLoS ONE7(9), e45876 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, S. Palkovits, R. Told, A. Boltz, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Absolute Blood Flow Velocity and Blood Flow in the Human Retina by Dual-Beam Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(10), 6062–6071 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pedersen, C. J.

Pemp, B.

B. Pemp, E. Polska, G. Garhofer, M. Bayerle-Eder, A. Kautzky-Willer, and L. Schmetterer, “Retinal blood flow in type 1 diabetic patients with no or mild diabetic retinopathy during euglycemic clamp,” Diabetes Care33(9), 2038–2042 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Pemp and L. Schmetterer, “Ocular blood flow in diabetes and age-related macular degeneration,” Canadian J. Ophthalmol.43, 295–301 (2008).

Petrig, B. L.

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, “Blood velocity and volumetric flow rate in human retinal vessels,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.26(8), 1124–1132 (1985).
[PubMed]

Piers, P.

Pircher, M.

W. Trasischker, R. M. Werkmeister, S. Zotter, B. Baumann, T. Torzicky, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “In vitro and in vivo three-dimensional velocity vector measurement by three-beam spectral-domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(11), 116010 (2013).
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R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, R. A. Leitgeb, and L. Schmetterer, “Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for measurement of absolute flow velocities in human retinal vessels,” Opt. Lett.33(24), 2967–2969 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polak, K.

K. Polak, G. Dorner, B. Kiss, E. Polska, O. Findl, G. Rainer, H. G. Eichler, and L. Schmetterer, “Evaluation of the Zeiss retinal vessel analyser,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.84(11), 1285–1290 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polska, E.

B. Pemp, E. Polska, G. Garhofer, M. Bayerle-Eder, A. Kautzky-Willer, and L. Schmetterer, “Retinal blood flow in type 1 diabetic patients with no or mild diabetic retinopathy during euglycemic clamp,” Diabetes Care33(9), 2038–2042 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Polska, K. Kircher, P. Ehrlich, P. V. Vecsei, and L. Schmetterer, “RI in central retinal artery as assessed by CDI does not correspond to retinal vascular resistance,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.280(4), H1442–H1447 (2001).
[PubMed]

K. Polak, G. Dorner, B. Kiss, E. Polska, O. Findl, G. Rainer, H. G. Eichler, and L. Schmetterer, “Evaluation of the Zeiss retinal vessel analyser,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.84(11), 1285–1290 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potsaid, B.

Pries, A. R.

T. W. Secomb and A. R. Pries, “Blood viscosity in microvessels: Experiment and theory,” C. R. Phys.14(6), 470–478 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Rainer, G.

K. Polak, G. Dorner, B. Kiss, E. Polska, O. Findl, G. Rainer, H. G. Eichler, and L. Schmetterer, “Evaluation of the Zeiss retinal vessel analyser,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.84(11), 1285–1290 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riva, C. E.

E. Logean, L. Schmetterer, and C. E. Riva, “Velocity Profile of Red Blood Cells in Human Retinal Vessels using Confocal Scanning Laser Doppler Velocimetry,” Laser Phys.13, 45–51 (2003).

J. E. Grunwald, J. DuPont, and C. E. Riva, “Retinal haemodynamics in patients with early diabetes mellitus,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.80(4), 327–331 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Grunwald, C. E. Riva, J. Baine, and A. J. Brucker, “Total retinal volumetric blood flow rate in diabetic patients with poor glycemic control,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.33(2), 356–363 (1992).
[PubMed]

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, “Blood velocity and volumetric flow rate in human retinal vessels,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.26(8), 1124–1132 (1985).
[PubMed]

C. E. Riva, G. T. Feke, B. Eberli, and V. Benary, “Bidirectional LDV system for absolute measurement of blood speed in retinal vessels,” Appl. Opt.18(13), 2301–2306 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

Rosen, R. B.

J. P. Garcia, P. T. Garcia, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal blood flow in the normal human eye using the canon laser blood flowmeter,” Ophthalmic Res.34(5), 295–299 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruvinskaya, S.

Sadun, A. A.

Y. Wang, A. A. Fawzi, R. Varma, A. A. Sadun, X. Zhang, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Pilot study of optical coherence tomography measurement of retinal blood flow in retinal and optic nerve diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(2), 840–845 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakadzic, S.

Schmetterer, L.

A. P. Cherecheanu, G. Garhofer, D. Schmidl, R. Werkmeister, and L. Schmetterer, “Ocular perfusion pressure and ocular blood flow in glaucoma,” Curr. Opin. Pharmacol.13(1), 36–42 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Blatter, S. Coquoz, B. Grajciar, A. S. G. Singh, M. Bonesi, R. M. Werkmeister, L. Schmetterer, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Dove prism based rotating dual beam bidirectional Doppler OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(7), 1188–1203 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, S. Palkovits, R. Told, A. Boltz, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Absolute Blood Flow Velocity and Blood Flow in the Human Retina by Dual-Beam Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(10), 6062–6071 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, S. Palkovits, R. Told, M. Gröschl, R. A. Leitgeb, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Response of Retinal Blood Flow to Systemic Hyperoxia as Measured with Dual-Beam Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” PLoS ONE7(9), e45876 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Garhofer, R. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, and L. Schmetterer, “Retinal Blood Flow in Healthy Young Subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(2), 698–703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Pemp, E. Polska, G. Garhofer, M. Bayerle-Eder, A. Kautzky-Willer, and L. Schmetterer, “Retinal blood flow in type 1 diabetic patients with no or mild diabetic retinopathy during euglycemic clamp,” Diabetes Care33(9), 2038–2042 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Garhofer, T. Bek, A. G. Boehm, D. Gherghel, J. Grunwald, P. Jeppesen, H. Kergoat, K. Kotliar, I. Lanzl, J. V. Lovasik, E. Nagel, W. Vilser, S. Orgul, L. Schmetterer, and Ocular Blood Flow Research Association, “Use of the retinal vessel analyzer in ocular blood flow research,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)88(7), 717–722 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, R. A. Leitgeb, and L. Schmetterer, “Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for measurement of absolute flow velocities in human retinal vessels,” Opt. Lett.33(24), 2967–2969 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Pemp and L. Schmetterer, “Ocular blood flow in diabetes and age-related macular degeneration,” Canadian J. Ophthalmol.43, 295–301 (2008).

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, F. Berisha, M. Wojtkowski, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time measurement of in vitro flow by Fourier-domain color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.29(2), 171–173 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. Fercher, R. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(23), 3116–3121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Logean, L. Schmetterer, and C. E. Riva, “Velocity Profile of Red Blood Cells in Human Retinal Vessels using Confocal Scanning Laser Doppler Velocimetry,” Laser Phys.13, 45–51 (2003).

E. Polska, K. Kircher, P. Ehrlich, P. V. Vecsei, and L. Schmetterer, “RI in central retinal artery as assessed by CDI does not correspond to retinal vascular resistance,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.280(4), H1442–H1447 (2001).
[PubMed]

K. Polak, G. Dorner, B. Kiss, E. Polska, O. Findl, G. Rainer, H. G. Eichler, and L. Schmetterer, “Evaluation of the Zeiss retinal vessel analyser,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.84(11), 1285–1290 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Blatter, B. Grajciar, L. Schmetterer, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Angle independent flow assessment with bidirectional Doppler OCT,” Opt. Lett.in press.

Schmidl, D.

A. P. Cherecheanu, G. Garhofer, D. Schmidl, R. Werkmeister, and L. Schmetterer, “Ocular perfusion pressure and ocular blood flow in glaucoma,” Curr. Opin. Pharmacol.13(1), 36–42 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmoll, T.

Sebag, J.

G. T. Feke, H. Tagawa, D. M. Deupree, D. G. Goger, J. Sebag, and J. J. Weiter, “Blood flow in the normal human retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.30(1), 58–65 (1989).
[PubMed]

Secomb, T. W.

T. W. Secomb and A. R. Pries, “Blood viscosity in microvessels: Experiment and theory,” C. R. Phys.14(6), 470–478 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shure, M. A.

Sinclair, S. H.

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, “Blood velocity and volumetric flow rate in human retinal vessels,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.26(8), 1124–1132 (1985).
[PubMed]

Singh, A. S. G.

Srinivasan, V. J.

Tagawa, H.

G. T. Feke, H. Tagawa, D. M. Deupree, D. G. Goger, J. Sebag, and J. J. Weiter, “Blood flow in the normal human retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.30(1), 58–65 (1989).
[PubMed]

G. T. Feke, D. G. Goger, H. Tagawa, and F. C. Delori, “Laser Doppler Technique for Absolute Measurement of Blood Speed in Retinal Vessels,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.34(9), 673–800 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, O.

Y. Wang, A. A. Fawzi, R. Varma, A. A. Sadun, X. Zhang, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Pilot study of optical coherence tomography measurement of retinal blood flow in retinal and optic nerve diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(2), 840–845 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, A. Lu, J. Gil-Flamer, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Measurement of total blood flow in the normal human retina using Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.93(5), 634–637 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(6), 064003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Told, R.

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, S. Palkovits, R. Told, A. Boltz, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Absolute Blood Flow Velocity and Blood Flow in the Human Retina by Dual-Beam Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(10), 6062–6071 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, S. Palkovits, R. Told, M. Gröschl, R. A. Leitgeb, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Response of Retinal Blood Flow to Systemic Hyperoxia as Measured with Dual-Beam Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” PLoS ONE7(9), e45876 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torzicky, T.

W. Trasischker, R. M. Werkmeister, S. Zotter, B. Baumann, T. Torzicky, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “In vitro and in vivo three-dimensional velocity vector measurement by three-beam spectral-domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(11), 116010 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trasischker, W.

W. Trasischker, R. M. Werkmeister, S. Zotter, B. Baumann, T. Torzicky, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “In vitro and in vivo three-dimensional velocity vector measurement by three-beam spectral-domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(11), 116010 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Mooren, M.

Varma, R.

Y. Wang, A. A. Fawzi, R. Varma, A. A. Sadun, X. Zhang, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Pilot study of optical coherence tomography measurement of retinal blood flow in retinal and optic nerve diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(2), 840–845 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vecsei, P. V.

E. Polska, K. Kircher, P. Ehrlich, P. V. Vecsei, and L. Schmetterer, “RI in central retinal artery as assessed by CDI does not correspond to retinal vascular resistance,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.280(4), H1442–H1447 (2001).
[PubMed]

Villiger, M. L.

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vilser, W.

G. Garhofer, T. Bek, A. G. Boehm, D. Gherghel, J. Grunwald, P. Jeppesen, H. Kergoat, K. Kotliar, I. Lanzl, J. V. Lovasik, E. Nagel, W. Vilser, S. Orgul, L. Schmetterer, and Ocular Blood Flow Research Association, “Use of the retinal vessel analyzer in ocular blood flow research,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)88(7), 717–722 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vu, D.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, A. A. Fawzi, R. Varma, A. A. Sadun, X. Zhang, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Pilot study of optical coherence tomography measurement of retinal blood flow in retinal and optic nerve diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(2), 840–845 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, A. Lu, J. Gil-Flamer, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Measurement of total blood flow in the normal human retina using Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.93(5), 634–637 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(6), 064003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiter, J. J.

G. T. Feke, H. Tagawa, D. M. Deupree, D. G. Goger, J. Sebag, and J. J. Weiter, “Blood flow in the normal human retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.30(1), 58–65 (1989).
[PubMed]

Werkmeister, R.

A. P. Cherecheanu, G. Garhofer, D. Schmidl, R. Werkmeister, and L. Schmetterer, “Ocular perfusion pressure and ocular blood flow in glaucoma,” Curr. Opin. Pharmacol.13(1), 36–42 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Garhofer, R. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, and L. Schmetterer, “Retinal Blood Flow in Healthy Young Subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(2), 698–703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werkmeister, R. M.

W. Trasischker, R. M. Werkmeister, S. Zotter, B. Baumann, T. Torzicky, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “In vitro and in vivo three-dimensional velocity vector measurement by three-beam spectral-domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(11), 116010 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Blatter, S. Coquoz, B. Grajciar, A. S. G. Singh, M. Bonesi, R. M. Werkmeister, L. Schmetterer, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Dove prism based rotating dual beam bidirectional Doppler OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(7), 1188–1203 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, S. Palkovits, R. Told, A. Boltz, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Absolute Blood Flow Velocity and Blood Flow in the Human Retina by Dual-Beam Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(10), 6062–6071 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, S. Palkovits, R. Told, M. Gröschl, R. A. Leitgeb, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Response of Retinal Blood Flow to Systemic Hyperoxia as Measured with Dual-Beam Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” PLoS ONE7(9), e45876 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, R. A. Leitgeb, and L. Schmetterer, “Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for measurement of absolute flow velocities in human retinal vessels,” Opt. Lett.33(24), 2967–2969 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

Wu, W.

Yamanari, M.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Zawadzki, R.

Zhang, X.

Y. Wang, A. A. Fawzi, R. Varma, A. A. Sadun, X. Zhang, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Pilot study of optical coherence tomography measurement of retinal blood flow in retinal and optic nerve diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(2), 840–845 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zotter, S.

W. Trasischker, R. M. Werkmeister, S. Zotter, B. Baumann, T. Torzicky, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “In vitro and in vivo three-dimensional velocity vector measurement by three-beam spectral-domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(11), 116010 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)

G. Garhofer, T. Bek, A. G. Boehm, D. Gherghel, J. Grunwald, P. Jeppesen, H. Kergoat, K. Kotliar, I. Lanzl, J. V. Lovasik, E. Nagel, W. Vilser, S. Orgul, L. Schmetterer, and Ocular Blood Flow Research Association, “Use of the retinal vessel analyzer in ocular blood flow research,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)88(7), 717–722 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Physiol.

R. Fahraeus and T. Lindqvist, “The viscosity of the blood in narrow capillary tubes,” Am. J. Physiol.96, 562–568 (1931).

Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.

E. Polska, K. Kircher, P. Ehrlich, P. V. Vecsei, and L. Schmetterer, “RI in central retinal artery as assessed by CDI does not correspond to retinal vascular resistance,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.280(4), H1442–H1447 (2001).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Biomed. Opt. Express

Br. J. Ophthalmol.

K. Polak, G. Dorner, B. Kiss, E. Polska, O. Findl, G. Rainer, H. G. Eichler, and L. Schmetterer, “Evaluation of the Zeiss retinal vessel analyser,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.84(11), 1285–1290 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Grunwald, J. DuPont, and C. E. Riva, “Retinal haemodynamics in patients with early diabetes mellitus,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.80(4), 327–331 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, A. Lu, J. Gil-Flamer, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Measurement of total blood flow in the normal human retina using Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.93(5), 634–637 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Phys.

T. W. Secomb and A. R. Pries, “Blood viscosity in microvessels: Experiment and theory,” C. R. Phys.14(6), 470–478 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Canadian J. Ophthalmol.

B. Pemp and L. Schmetterer, “Ocular blood flow in diabetes and age-related macular degeneration,” Canadian J. Ophthalmol.43, 295–301 (2008).

Curr. Opin. Pharmacol.

A. P. Cherecheanu, G. Garhofer, D. Schmidl, R. Werkmeister, and L. Schmetterer, “Ocular perfusion pressure and ocular blood flow in glaucoma,” Curr. Opin. Pharmacol.13(1), 36–42 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diabetes Care

B. Pemp, E. Polska, G. Garhofer, M. Bayerle-Eder, A. Kautzky-Willer, and L. Schmetterer, “Retinal blood flow in type 1 diabetic patients with no or mild diabetic retinopathy during euglycemic clamp,” Diabetes Care33(9), 2038–2042 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

G. T. Feke, D. G. Goger, H. Tagawa, and F. C. Delori, “Laser Doppler Technique for Absolute Measurement of Blood Speed in Retinal Vessels,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.34(9), 673–800 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

J. E. Grunwald, C. E. Riva, J. Baine, and A. J. Brucker, “Total retinal volumetric blood flow rate in diabetic patients with poor glycemic control,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.33(2), 356–363 (1992).
[PubMed]

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, “Blood velocity and volumetric flow rate in human retinal vessels,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.26(8), 1124–1132 (1985).
[PubMed]

G. T. Feke, H. Tagawa, D. M. Deupree, D. G. Goger, J. Sebag, and J. J. Weiter, “Blood flow in the normal human retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.30(1), 58–65 (1989).
[PubMed]

G. Garhofer, R. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, and L. Schmetterer, “Retinal Blood Flow in Healthy Young Subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(2), 698–703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, A. A. Fawzi, R. Varma, A. A. Sadun, X. Zhang, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Pilot study of optical coherence tomography measurement of retinal blood flow in retinal and optic nerve diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(2), 840–845 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, S. Palkovits, R. Told, A. Boltz, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Absolute Blood Flow Velocity and Blood Flow in the Human Retina by Dual-Beam Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(10), 6062–6071 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(6), 064003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Trasischker, R. M. Werkmeister, S. Zotter, B. Baumann, T. Torzicky, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “In vitro and in vivo three-dimensional velocity vector measurement by three-beam spectral-domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(11), 116010 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biophotonics

T. Schmoll and R. A. Leitgeb, “Heart-beat-phase-coherent Doppler optical coherence tomography for measuring pulsatile ocular blood flow,” J. Biophotonics6(3), 275–282 (2013).
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J. Korean Phys. Soc.

S. W. Lee, H. W. Jeong, B. M. Kim, Y. C. Ahn, W. Jung, and Z. Chen, “Optimization for Axial Resolution, Depth Range, and Sensitivity of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography at 1.3 µm,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.55(6), 2354–2360 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laser Phys.

E. Logean, L. Schmetterer, and C. E. Riva, “Velocity Profile of Red Blood Cells in Human Retinal Vessels using Confocal Scanning Laser Doppler Velocimetry,” Laser Phys.13, 45–51 (2003).

Ophthalmic Res.

J. P. Garcia, P. T. Garcia, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal blood flow in the normal human eye using the canon laser blood flowmeter,” Ophthalmic Res.34(5), 295–299 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

PLoS ONE

R. M. Werkmeister, S. Palkovits, R. Told, M. Gröschl, R. A. Leitgeb, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Response of Retinal Blood Flow to Systemic Hyperoxia as Measured with Dual-Beam Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” PLoS ONE7(9), e45876 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

C. D. Murray, “The Physiological Principle of Minimum Work: I. The Vascular System and the Cost of Blood Volume,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.12(3), 207–214 (1926).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A. Gullstrand, “The dioptrics of the eye,” in Helmholtz’s Treatise on Physiological Optics, J. P. C. Southall, ed. (Optical Society of America, 1924), pp. 351–352.

International Electrotechnical Commission, “Safety of laser products - Part 1: Equipment classification and requirements,” IEC (EN) 60825–1 Ed. 2 (2001)

V. V. Tuchin, Optical Clearing of Tissues and Blood, SPIE Press Monograph, (SPIE Publications, Bellingham, WA, 2005), Vol. PM154.

C. Blatter, B. Grajciar, L. Schmetterer, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Angle independent flow assessment with bidirectional Doppler OCT,” Opt. Lett.in press.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic image of the vessel’s velocity vector v, the beam’s wave vectors k1 and k2 and the angles Δα, β and γ

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup with superluminescent diode (SLD), polarization controllers (PC), optical isolator (OI), fiber couplers (FCi), beam displacer (BD), polarizing and non-polarizing beam splitters (PBS and BS, respectively), half-wave plates (λ/2), lenses (L), line cameras (Cam), grey wedge (GW), mirrors (M), hot mirror (HM), scanner (Sc) and Dynamic Vessel Analyzer (DVA)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scanning pattern around the ONH; scanning positions denoted by lines in the fundus image (center); corresponding OCT phase images for each scanning position (small circumjacent images; black scale bars correspond to 300µm)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Beam alignment for superior/inferior vessels, which are scanned horizontally (a) and for nasal/temporal vessels, which are scanned vertically (b)

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Timeline for an artery (left) and a vein (right); the red and white lines represent the phase shifts of the two beams, the green line denotes the resulting phase shift difference between them.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Top: blood flow velocity v as a function of vessel diameter D for arteries (left) and veins (right). Bottom: log-log plot of blood flow Q over vessel diameter D for arteries (left) and veins (right); dotted lines give the 95% confidence interval. Vessel diameters were determined with OCT for vessels < 65 µm and with DVA for the larger ones.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Underestimated vessel diameter as determined from the OCT image (inner circle) compared to more accurate diameter measured by the DVA (outer circle)

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Number of vessels with diameters above and below 65 µm, respectively; total venous flow QV, total arterial flow QA, and their percentage deviation ΔQ for each subject.

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Table 2 Arterial and venous blood flow (QA, QV) in the temporal (temp) and the nasal (nas) part of the retina for each subject individually; mean values and standard deviations for all subjects

Equations (2)

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v=ΔΦ λ 0 4πnτcosβΔα ,
Q= v mean D 2 π 4 .

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