Abstract

Partial bladder outlet obstruction causes prominent morphological changes in the bladder wall, which leads to bladder dysfunction. In this paper, we demonstrate that polarized light imaging can be used to identify the location of obstruction induced structural changes that other imaging modalities fail to detect. We induced 2-week and 6-week partial outlet obstruction in rats, harvested obstructed bladders, then measured their retardances while distended to high pressures and compared them to controls. Our results show that the retardance of the central part of the ventral side (above the ureters) closer to the urethra can be used as a potential metric of the distending bladder obstruction.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

A. Schröder, T. P. Kirwan, J. X. Jiang, K. J. Aitken, and D. J. Bägli, “Rapamycin attenuates bladder hypertrophy during long-term outlet obstruction in vivo: tissue, matrix and mechanistic insights,” J. Urol.189(6), 2377–2384 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, B. A. Drzewiecki, W. David Merryman, and J. C. Pope, “Murine bladder wall biomechanics following partial bladder obstruction,” J. Biomechanics46,2752–2755 (2013).

A. Pierangelo, A. Nazac, A. Benali, P. Validire, H. Cohen, T. Novikova, B. H. Ibrahim, S. Manhas, C. Fallet, M. R. Antonelli, and A. D. Martino, “Polarimetric imaging of uterine cervix: a case study,” Opt. Express21(12), 14120–14130 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

J. Qi, C. Barrière, T. C. Wood, and D. S. Elson, “Polarized multispectral imaging in a rigid endoscope based on elastic light scattering spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(9), 2087–2099 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Burmeister, T. AbouShwareb, R. D’Agostino, K. E. Andersson, and G. J. Christ, “Impact of partial urethral obstruction on bladder function: Time dependent changes and functional correlates of altered expression of Ca2+ signaling regulators,” Press. Am. J. Physiol. Renal.302(12), F1517–F1528 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Zeng, K. Xie, C. Jiang, J. Mo, and S. Lindström, “Bladder mechanoreceptor changes after artificial bladder outlet obstruction in the anesthetized rat,” Neurourol. Urodyn.31(1), 178–184 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Alali, K. J. Aitken, A. Schröder, D. J. Bagli, and I. A. Vitkin, “Optical assessment of tissue anisotropy in ex vivo distended rat bladders,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 086010 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

D. E. Irwin, Z. S. Kopp, B. Agatep, I. Milsom, and P. Abrams, “Worldwide prevalence estimates of lower urinary tract symptoms, overactive bladder, urinary incontinence and bladder outlet obstruction,” BJU Int.108(7), 1132–1138 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

M. F. G. Wood, N. Ghosh, M. A. Wallenburg, S. H. Li, R. D. Weisel, B. C. Wilson, R. K. Li, and I. A. Vitkin, “Polarization birefringence measurements for characterizing the myocardium, including healthy, infarcted, and stem-cell-regenerated tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 047009 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Aitken, C. Tolg, T. Panchal, B. Leslie, J. Yu, M. Elkelini, N. Sabha, D. J. Tse, A. J. Lorenzo, M. Hassouna, and D. J. Bägli, “Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) induces proliferation and de-differentiation responses to three coordinate pathophysiologic stimuli (mechanical strain, hypoxia, and extracellular matrix remodeling) in rat bladder smooth muscle,” Am. J. Pathol.176(1), 304–319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sugimoto, S. Matsumoto, H. Ito, and H. Uemura, “Effect of partial bladder outlet obstruction on the morphology of elastin in rabbit bladder smooth muscle,” Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms2, 71–75 (2010).

M. A. Wallenburg, M. F. G. Wood, N. Ghosh, and I. A. Vitkin, “Polarimetry-based method to extract geometry-independent metrics of tissue anisotropy,” Opt. Lett.35(15), 2570–2572 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (7)

X. Li and G. Yao, “Mueller matrix decomposition of diffuse reflectance imaging in skeletal muscle,” Appl. Opt.48(14), 2625–2631 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Elkelini, K. Aitken, D. J. Bagli, and M. M. Hassouna, “Effects of doxycycline on voiding behaviour of rats with bladder outlet obstruction,” BJU Int.103(4), 537–540 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. G. Wood, N. Ghosh, E. H. Moriyama, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Proof-of-principle demonstration of a Mueller matrix decomposition method for polarized light tissue characterization in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(1), 014029 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Aitken and D. J. Bägli, “The bladder extracellular matrix. Part I: architecture, development and disease,” Nat. Rev. Urol.6(11), 596–611 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Jack, R. Zhang, M. Lee, Y. Xu, B. M. Wu, and L. V. Rodríguez, “Urinary bladder smooth muscle engineered from adipose stem cells and a three dimensional synthetic composite,” Biomaterials30(19), 3259–3270 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Heise, J. Ivanova, A. Parekh, and M. S. Sacks, “Generating elastin-rich small intestinal submucosa-based smooth muscle constructs utilizing exogenous growth factors and cyclic mechanical stimulation,” Tissue Eng. Part A15(12), 3951–3960 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Korossis, F. Bolland, J. Southgate, E. Ingham, and J. Fisher, “Regional biomechanical and histological characterisation of the passive porcine urinary bladder: Implications for augmentation and tissue engineering strategies,” Biomaterials30(2), 266–275 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

A. Arner, R. Sjuve Scott, H. Haase, I. Morano, and B. Uvelius, “Intracellular calcium in hypertrophic smooth muscle from rat urinary bladder,” Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol.41(4), 270–277 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

M. Belal and P. Abrams, “Noninvasive methods of diagnosing bladder outlet obstruction in men. Part 1: Nonurodynamic approach,” J. Urol.176(1), 22–28 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Aitken, G. Block, A. Lorenzo, D. Herz, N. Sabha, O. Dessouki, F. Fung, M. Szybowska, L. Craig, and D. J. Bägli, “Mechanotransduction of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in smooth muscle is dependent on the extracellular matrix and regulated by matrix metalloproteinases,” Am. J. Pathol.169(2), 459–470 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

J. Nagatomi, K. K. Toosi, J. S. Grashow, M. B. Chancellor, and M. S. Sacks, “Quantification of bladder smooth muscle orientation in normal and spinal cord injured rats,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.33(8), 1078–1089 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tubaro, C. De Nunzio, A. Trucchi, G. Palleschi, and L. Miano, “The effect of bladder outlet obstruction treatment on ultrasound-determined bladder wall thickness,” Rev. Urol.7(Suppl 6), S35–S42 (2005).
[PubMed]

S. A. Capello, E. Chieh-Lung Chou, and P. A. Longhurst, “Regional differences in responses of rabbit detrusor to electrical and adrenergic stimulation: influence of outlet obstruction,” BJU Int.95(1), 157–162 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

M. B. Siroky, “The aging bladder,” Rev. Urol.6(Suppl 1), S3–S7 (2004).
[PubMed]

2003 (1)

S. Matsumoto, P. Chichester, B. A. Kogan, and R. M. Levin, “Structural and vascular response of normal and obstructed rabbit whole bladders to distension,” Urology62(6), 1129–1133 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, “Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: Design and performance,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 388–397 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. O. Backhaus, M. Kaefer, K. M. Haberstroh, K. Hile, J. Nagatomi, R. C. Rink, M. P. Cain, A. Casale, and R. Bizios, “Alterations in the molecular determinants of bladder compliance at hydrostatic pressures less than 40 cm. H2O,” J. Urol.168(6), 2600–2604 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 329–340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

M. S. Damaser, K. Brzezinski, and P. A. Longhurst, “Filling Mechanics of obstructed and de-obstructed Rat Urinary Bladders,” Neurourol. Urodyn.18(6), 659–671 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

J. J. Yoo, J. Meng, F. Oberpenning, and A. Atala, “Bladder augmentation using allogenic bladder submucosa seeded with cells,” Urology51(2), 221–225 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

A. Vitkin, I.

S. Alali, K. J. Aitken, A. Schröder, D. J. Bagli, and I. A. Vitkin, “Optical assessment of tissue anisotropy in ex vivo distended rat bladders,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 086010 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

AbouShwareb, T.

D. Burmeister, T. AbouShwareb, R. D’Agostino, K. E. Andersson, and G. J. Christ, “Impact of partial urethral obstruction on bladder function: Time dependent changes and functional correlates of altered expression of Ca2+ signaling regulators,” Press. Am. J. Physiol. Renal.302(12), F1517–F1528 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Abrams, P.

D. E. Irwin, Z. S. Kopp, B. Agatep, I. Milsom, and P. Abrams, “Worldwide prevalence estimates of lower urinary tract symptoms, overactive bladder, urinary incontinence and bladder outlet obstruction,” BJU Int.108(7), 1132–1138 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Belal and P. Abrams, “Noninvasive methods of diagnosing bladder outlet obstruction in men. Part 1: Nonurodynamic approach,” J. Urol.176(1), 22–28 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agatep, B.

D. E. Irwin, Z. S. Kopp, B. Agatep, I. Milsom, and P. Abrams, “Worldwide prevalence estimates of lower urinary tract symptoms, overactive bladder, urinary incontinence and bladder outlet obstruction,” BJU Int.108(7), 1132–1138 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aitken, K.

M. S. Elkelini, K. Aitken, D. J. Bagli, and M. M. Hassouna, “Effects of doxycycline on voiding behaviour of rats with bladder outlet obstruction,” BJU Int.103(4), 537–540 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aitken, K. J.

A. Schröder, T. P. Kirwan, J. X. Jiang, K. J. Aitken, and D. J. Bägli, “Rapamycin attenuates bladder hypertrophy during long-term outlet obstruction in vivo: tissue, matrix and mechanistic insights,” J. Urol.189(6), 2377–2384 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Alali, K. J. Aitken, A. Schröder, D. J. Bagli, and I. A. Vitkin, “Optical assessment of tissue anisotropy in ex vivo distended rat bladders,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 086010 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Aitken, C. Tolg, T. Panchal, B. Leslie, J. Yu, M. Elkelini, N. Sabha, D. J. Tse, A. J. Lorenzo, M. Hassouna, and D. J. Bägli, “Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) induces proliferation and de-differentiation responses to three coordinate pathophysiologic stimuli (mechanical strain, hypoxia, and extracellular matrix remodeling) in rat bladder smooth muscle,” Am. J. Pathol.176(1), 304–319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Aitken and D. J. Bägli, “The bladder extracellular matrix. Part I: architecture, development and disease,” Nat. Rev. Urol.6(11), 596–611 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Aitken, G. Block, A. Lorenzo, D. Herz, N. Sabha, O. Dessouki, F. Fung, M. Szybowska, L. Craig, and D. J. Bägli, “Mechanotransduction of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in smooth muscle is dependent on the extracellular matrix and regulated by matrix metalloproteinases,” Am. J. Pathol.169(2), 459–470 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alali, S.

S. Alali, K. J. Aitken, A. Schröder, D. J. Bagli, and I. A. Vitkin, “Optical assessment of tissue anisotropy in ex vivo distended rat bladders,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 086010 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersson, K. E.

D. Burmeister, T. AbouShwareb, R. D’Agostino, K. E. Andersson, and G. J. Christ, “Impact of partial urethral obstruction on bladder function: Time dependent changes and functional correlates of altered expression of Ca2+ signaling regulators,” Press. Am. J. Physiol. Renal.302(12), F1517–F1528 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Antonelli, M. R.

Arner, A.

A. Arner, R. Sjuve Scott, H. Haase, I. Morano, and B. Uvelius, “Intracellular calcium in hypertrophic smooth muscle from rat urinary bladder,” Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol.41(4), 270–277 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atala, A.

J. J. Yoo, J. Meng, F. Oberpenning, and A. Atala, “Bladder augmentation using allogenic bladder submucosa seeded with cells,” Urology51(2), 221–225 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backhaus, B. O.

B. O. Backhaus, M. Kaefer, K. M. Haberstroh, K. Hile, J. Nagatomi, R. C. Rink, M. P. Cain, A. Casale, and R. Bizios, “Alterations in the molecular determinants of bladder compliance at hydrostatic pressures less than 40 cm. H2O,” J. Urol.168(6), 2600–2604 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bagli, D. J.

S. Alali, K. J. Aitken, A. Schröder, D. J. Bagli, and I. A. Vitkin, “Optical assessment of tissue anisotropy in ex vivo distended rat bladders,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 086010 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Elkelini, K. Aitken, D. J. Bagli, and M. M. Hassouna, “Effects of doxycycline on voiding behaviour of rats with bladder outlet obstruction,” BJU Int.103(4), 537–540 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bägli, D. J.

A. Schröder, T. P. Kirwan, J. X. Jiang, K. J. Aitken, and D. J. Bägli, “Rapamycin attenuates bladder hypertrophy during long-term outlet obstruction in vivo: tissue, matrix and mechanistic insights,” J. Urol.189(6), 2377–2384 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Aitken, C. Tolg, T. Panchal, B. Leslie, J. Yu, M. Elkelini, N. Sabha, D. J. Tse, A. J. Lorenzo, M. Hassouna, and D. J. Bägli, “Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) induces proliferation and de-differentiation responses to three coordinate pathophysiologic stimuli (mechanical strain, hypoxia, and extracellular matrix remodeling) in rat bladder smooth muscle,” Am. J. Pathol.176(1), 304–319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Aitken and D. J. Bägli, “The bladder extracellular matrix. Part I: architecture, development and disease,” Nat. Rev. Urol.6(11), 596–611 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Aitken, G. Block, A. Lorenzo, D. Herz, N. Sabha, O. Dessouki, F. Fung, M. Szybowska, L. Craig, and D. J. Bägli, “Mechanotransduction of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in smooth muscle is dependent on the extracellular matrix and regulated by matrix metalloproteinases,” Am. J. Pathol.169(2), 459–470 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrière, C.

Belal, M.

M. Belal and P. Abrams, “Noninvasive methods of diagnosing bladder outlet obstruction in men. Part 1: Nonurodynamic approach,” J. Urol.176(1), 22–28 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benali, A.

Bizios, R.

B. O. Backhaus, M. Kaefer, K. M. Haberstroh, K. Hile, J. Nagatomi, R. C. Rink, M. P. Cain, A. Casale, and R. Bizios, “Alterations in the molecular determinants of bladder compliance at hydrostatic pressures less than 40 cm. H2O,” J. Urol.168(6), 2600–2604 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Block, G.

K. J. Aitken, G. Block, A. Lorenzo, D. Herz, N. Sabha, O. Dessouki, F. Fung, M. Szybowska, L. Craig, and D. J. Bägli, “Mechanotransduction of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in smooth muscle is dependent on the extracellular matrix and regulated by matrix metalloproteinases,” Am. J. Pathol.169(2), 459–470 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolland, F.

S. Korossis, F. Bolland, J. Southgate, E. Ingham, and J. Fisher, “Regional biomechanical and histological characterisation of the passive porcine urinary bladder: Implications for augmentation and tissue engineering strategies,” Biomaterials30(2), 266–275 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brzezinski, K.

M. S. Damaser, K. Brzezinski, and P. A. Longhurst, “Filling Mechanics of obstructed and de-obstructed Rat Urinary Bladders,” Neurourol. Urodyn.18(6), 659–671 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burmeister, D.

D. Burmeister, T. AbouShwareb, R. D’Agostino, K. E. Andersson, and G. J. Christ, “Impact of partial urethral obstruction on bladder function: Time dependent changes and functional correlates of altered expression of Ca2+ signaling regulators,” Press. Am. J. Physiol. Renal.302(12), F1517–F1528 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cain, M. P.

B. O. Backhaus, M. Kaefer, K. M. Haberstroh, K. Hile, J. Nagatomi, R. C. Rink, M. P. Cain, A. Casale, and R. Bizios, “Alterations in the molecular determinants of bladder compliance at hydrostatic pressures less than 40 cm. H2O,” J. Urol.168(6), 2600–2604 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capello, S. A.

S. A. Capello, E. Chieh-Lung Chou, and P. A. Longhurst, “Regional differences in responses of rabbit detrusor to electrical and adrenergic stimulation: influence of outlet obstruction,” BJU Int.95(1), 157–162 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Casale, A.

B. O. Backhaus, M. Kaefer, K. M. Haberstroh, K. Hile, J. Nagatomi, R. C. Rink, M. P. Cain, A. Casale, and R. Bizios, “Alterations in the molecular determinants of bladder compliance at hydrostatic pressures less than 40 cm. H2O,” J. Urol.168(6), 2600–2604 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chancellor, M. B.

J. Nagatomi, K. K. Toosi, J. S. Grashow, M. B. Chancellor, and M. S. Sacks, “Quantification of bladder smooth muscle orientation in normal and spinal cord injured rats,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.33(8), 1078–1089 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, B. A. Drzewiecki, W. David Merryman, and J. C. Pope, “Murine bladder wall biomechanics following partial bladder obstruction,” J. Biomechanics46,2752–2755 (2013).

Chichester, P.

S. Matsumoto, P. Chichester, B. A. Kogan, and R. M. Levin, “Structural and vascular response of normal and obstructed rabbit whole bladders to distension,” Urology62(6), 1129–1133 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chieh-Lung Chou, E.

S. A. Capello, E. Chieh-Lung Chou, and P. A. Longhurst, “Regional differences in responses of rabbit detrusor to electrical and adrenergic stimulation: influence of outlet obstruction,” BJU Int.95(1), 157–162 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chipman, R. A.

Christ, G. J.

D. Burmeister, T. AbouShwareb, R. D’Agostino, K. E. Andersson, and G. J. Christ, “Impact of partial urethral obstruction on bladder function: Time dependent changes and functional correlates of altered expression of Ca2+ signaling regulators,” Press. Am. J. Physiol. Renal.302(12), F1517–F1528 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, H.

Craig, L.

K. J. Aitken, G. Block, A. Lorenzo, D. Herz, N. Sabha, O. Dessouki, F. Fung, M. Szybowska, L. Craig, and D. J. Bägli, “Mechanotransduction of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in smooth muscle is dependent on the extracellular matrix and regulated by matrix metalloproteinases,” Am. J. Pathol.169(2), 459–470 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D’Agostino, R.

D. Burmeister, T. AbouShwareb, R. D’Agostino, K. E. Andersson, and G. J. Christ, “Impact of partial urethral obstruction on bladder function: Time dependent changes and functional correlates of altered expression of Ca2+ signaling regulators,” Press. Am. J. Physiol. Renal.302(12), F1517–F1528 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Damaser, M. S.

M. S. Damaser, K. Brzezinski, and P. A. Longhurst, “Filling Mechanics of obstructed and de-obstructed Rat Urinary Bladders,” Neurourol. Urodyn.18(6), 659–671 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

David Merryman, W.

J. Chen, B. A. Drzewiecki, W. David Merryman, and J. C. Pope, “Murine bladder wall biomechanics following partial bladder obstruction,” J. Biomechanics46,2752–2755 (2013).

De Nunzio, C.

A. Tubaro, C. De Nunzio, A. Trucchi, G. Palleschi, and L. Miano, “The effect of bladder outlet obstruction treatment on ultrasound-determined bladder wall thickness,” Rev. Urol.7(Suppl 6), S35–S42 (2005).
[PubMed]

Dessouki, O.

K. J. Aitken, G. Block, A. Lorenzo, D. Herz, N. Sabha, O. Dessouki, F. Fung, M. Szybowska, L. Craig, and D. J. Bägli, “Mechanotransduction of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in smooth muscle is dependent on the extracellular matrix and regulated by matrix metalloproteinases,” Am. J. Pathol.169(2), 459–470 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drzewiecki, B. A.

J. Chen, B. A. Drzewiecki, W. David Merryman, and J. C. Pope, “Murine bladder wall biomechanics following partial bladder obstruction,” J. Biomechanics46,2752–2755 (2013).

Elkelini, M.

K. J. Aitken, C. Tolg, T. Panchal, B. Leslie, J. Yu, M. Elkelini, N. Sabha, D. J. Tse, A. J. Lorenzo, M. Hassouna, and D. J. Bägli, “Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) induces proliferation and de-differentiation responses to three coordinate pathophysiologic stimuli (mechanical strain, hypoxia, and extracellular matrix remodeling) in rat bladder smooth muscle,” Am. J. Pathol.176(1), 304–319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elkelini, M. S.

M. S. Elkelini, K. Aitken, D. J. Bagli, and M. M. Hassouna, “Effects of doxycycline on voiding behaviour of rats with bladder outlet obstruction,” BJU Int.103(4), 537–540 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elson, D. S.

Fallet, C.

Fisher, J.

S. Korossis, F. Bolland, J. Southgate, E. Ingham, and J. Fisher, “Regional biomechanical and histological characterisation of the passive porcine urinary bladder: Implications for augmentation and tissue engineering strategies,” Biomaterials30(2), 266–275 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fung, F.

K. J. Aitken, G. Block, A. Lorenzo, D. Herz, N. Sabha, O. Dessouki, F. Fung, M. Szybowska, L. Craig, and D. J. Bägli, “Mechanotransduction of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in smooth muscle is dependent on the extracellular matrix and regulated by matrix metalloproteinases,” Am. J. Pathol.169(2), 459–470 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghosh, N.

M. F. G. Wood, N. Ghosh, M. A. Wallenburg, S. H. Li, R. D. Weisel, B. C. Wilson, R. K. Li, and I. A. Vitkin, “Polarization birefringence measurements for characterizing the myocardium, including healthy, infarcted, and stem-cell-regenerated tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 047009 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Wallenburg, M. F. G. Wood, N. Ghosh, and I. A. Vitkin, “Polarimetry-based method to extract geometry-independent metrics of tissue anisotropy,” Opt. Lett.35(15), 2570–2572 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. G. Wood, N. Ghosh, E. H. Moriyama, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Proof-of-principle demonstration of a Mueller matrix decomposition method for polarized light tissue characterization in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(1), 014029 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grashow, J. S.

J. Nagatomi, K. K. Toosi, J. S. Grashow, M. B. Chancellor, and M. S. Sacks, “Quantification of bladder smooth muscle orientation in normal and spinal cord injured rats,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.33(8), 1078–1089 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haase, H.

A. Arner, R. Sjuve Scott, H. Haase, I. Morano, and B. Uvelius, “Intracellular calcium in hypertrophic smooth muscle from rat urinary bladder,” Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol.41(4), 270–277 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haberstroh, K. M.

B. O. Backhaus, M. Kaefer, K. M. Haberstroh, K. Hile, J. Nagatomi, R. C. Rink, M. P. Cain, A. Casale, and R. Bizios, “Alterations in the molecular determinants of bladder compliance at hydrostatic pressures less than 40 cm. H2O,” J. Urol.168(6), 2600–2604 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hassouna, M.

K. J. Aitken, C. Tolg, T. Panchal, B. Leslie, J. Yu, M. Elkelini, N. Sabha, D. J. Tse, A. J. Lorenzo, M. Hassouna, and D. J. Bägli, “Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) induces proliferation and de-differentiation responses to three coordinate pathophysiologic stimuli (mechanical strain, hypoxia, and extracellular matrix remodeling) in rat bladder smooth muscle,” Am. J. Pathol.176(1), 304–319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hassouna, M. M.

M. S. Elkelini, K. Aitken, D. J. Bagli, and M. M. Hassouna, “Effects of doxycycline on voiding behaviour of rats with bladder outlet obstruction,” BJU Int.103(4), 537–540 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heise, R. L.

R. L. Heise, J. Ivanova, A. Parekh, and M. S. Sacks, “Generating elastin-rich small intestinal submucosa-based smooth muscle constructs utilizing exogenous growth factors and cyclic mechanical stimulation,” Tissue Eng. Part A15(12), 3951–3960 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henry, F.

Herz, D.

K. J. Aitken, G. Block, A. Lorenzo, D. Herz, N. Sabha, O. Dessouki, F. Fung, M. Szybowska, L. Craig, and D. J. Bägli, “Mechanotransduction of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in smooth muscle is dependent on the extracellular matrix and regulated by matrix metalloproteinases,” Am. J. Pathol.169(2), 459–470 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hile, K.

B. O. Backhaus, M. Kaefer, K. M. Haberstroh, K. Hile, J. Nagatomi, R. C. Rink, M. P. Cain, A. Casale, and R. Bizios, “Alterations in the molecular determinants of bladder compliance at hydrostatic pressures less than 40 cm. H2O,” J. Urol.168(6), 2600–2604 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ibrahim, B. H.

Ingham, E.

S. Korossis, F. Bolland, J. Southgate, E. Ingham, and J. Fisher, “Regional biomechanical and histological characterisation of the passive porcine urinary bladder: Implications for augmentation and tissue engineering strategies,” Biomaterials30(2), 266–275 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Irwin, D. E.

D. E. Irwin, Z. S. Kopp, B. Agatep, I. Milsom, and P. Abrams, “Worldwide prevalence estimates of lower urinary tract symptoms, overactive bladder, urinary incontinence and bladder outlet obstruction,” BJU Int.108(7), 1132–1138 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ito, H.

K. Sugimoto, S. Matsumoto, H. Ito, and H. Uemura, “Effect of partial bladder outlet obstruction on the morphology of elastin in rabbit bladder smooth muscle,” Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms2, 71–75 (2010).

Ivanova, J.

R. L. Heise, J. Ivanova, A. Parekh, and M. S. Sacks, “Generating elastin-rich small intestinal submucosa-based smooth muscle constructs utilizing exogenous growth factors and cyclic mechanical stimulation,” Tissue Eng. Part A15(12), 3951–3960 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jack, G. S.

G. S. Jack, R. Zhang, M. Lee, Y. Xu, B. M. Wu, and L. V. Rodríguez, “Urinary bladder smooth muscle engineered from adipose stem cells and a three dimensional synthetic composite,” Biomaterials30(19), 3259–3270 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 329–340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jarry, G.

Jiang, C.

J. Zeng, K. Xie, C. Jiang, J. Mo, and S. Lindström, “Bladder mechanoreceptor changes after artificial bladder outlet obstruction in the anesthetized rat,” Neurourol. Urodyn.31(1), 178–184 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, J. X.

A. Schröder, T. P. Kirwan, J. X. Jiang, K. J. Aitken, and D. J. Bägli, “Rapamycin attenuates bladder hypertrophy during long-term outlet obstruction in vivo: tissue, matrix and mechanistic insights,” J. Urol.189(6), 2377–2384 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaefer, M.

B. O. Backhaus, M. Kaefer, K. M. Haberstroh, K. Hile, J. Nagatomi, R. C. Rink, M. P. Cain, A. Casale, and R. Bizios, “Alterations in the molecular determinants of bladder compliance at hydrostatic pressures less than 40 cm. H2O,” J. Urol.168(6), 2600–2604 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaiser, R.

Kirwan, T. P.

A. Schröder, T. P. Kirwan, J. X. Jiang, K. J. Aitken, and D. J. Bägli, “Rapamycin attenuates bladder hypertrophy during long-term outlet obstruction in vivo: tissue, matrix and mechanistic insights,” J. Urol.189(6), 2377–2384 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kogan, B. A.

S. Matsumoto, P. Chichester, B. A. Kogan, and R. M. Levin, “Structural and vascular response of normal and obstructed rabbit whole bladders to distension,” Urology62(6), 1129–1133 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kopp, Z. S.

D. E. Irwin, Z. S. Kopp, B. Agatep, I. Milsom, and P. Abrams, “Worldwide prevalence estimates of lower urinary tract symptoms, overactive bladder, urinary incontinence and bladder outlet obstruction,” BJU Int.108(7), 1132–1138 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korossis, S.

S. Korossis, F. Bolland, J. Southgate, E. Ingham, and J. Fisher, “Regional biomechanical and histological characterisation of the passive porcine urinary bladder: Implications for augmentation and tissue engineering strategies,” Biomaterials30(2), 266–275 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 329–340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, M.

G. S. Jack, R. Zhang, M. Lee, Y. Xu, B. M. Wu, and L. V. Rodríguez, “Urinary bladder smooth muscle engineered from adipose stem cells and a three dimensional synthetic composite,” Biomaterials30(19), 3259–3270 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leslie, B.

K. J. Aitken, C. Tolg, T. Panchal, B. Leslie, J. Yu, M. Elkelini, N. Sabha, D. J. Tse, A. J. Lorenzo, M. Hassouna, and D. J. Bägli, “Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) induces proliferation and de-differentiation responses to three coordinate pathophysiologic stimuli (mechanical strain, hypoxia, and extracellular matrix remodeling) in rat bladder smooth muscle,” Am. J. Pathol.176(1), 304–319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levin, R. M.

S. Matsumoto, P. Chichester, B. A. Kogan, and R. M. Levin, “Structural and vascular response of normal and obstructed rabbit whole bladders to distension,” Urology62(6), 1129–1133 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, R. K.

M. F. G. Wood, N. Ghosh, M. A. Wallenburg, S. H. Li, R. D. Weisel, B. C. Wilson, R. K. Li, and I. A. Vitkin, “Polarization birefringence measurements for characterizing the myocardium, including healthy, infarcted, and stem-cell-regenerated tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 047009 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, S. H.

M. F. G. Wood, N. Ghosh, M. A. Wallenburg, S. H. Li, R. D. Weisel, B. C. Wilson, R. K. Li, and I. A. Vitkin, “Polarization birefringence measurements for characterizing the myocardium, including healthy, infarcted, and stem-cell-regenerated tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 047009 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Lindström, S.

J. Zeng, K. Xie, C. Jiang, J. Mo, and S. Lindström, “Bladder mechanoreceptor changes after artificial bladder outlet obstruction in the anesthetized rat,” Neurourol. Urodyn.31(1), 178–184 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Longhurst, P. A.

S. A. Capello, E. Chieh-Lung Chou, and P. A. Longhurst, “Regional differences in responses of rabbit detrusor to electrical and adrenergic stimulation: influence of outlet obstruction,” BJU Int.95(1), 157–162 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Damaser, K. Brzezinski, and P. A. Longhurst, “Filling Mechanics of obstructed and de-obstructed Rat Urinary Bladders,” Neurourol. Urodyn.18(6), 659–671 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lorenzo, A.

K. J. Aitken, G. Block, A. Lorenzo, D. Herz, N. Sabha, O. Dessouki, F. Fung, M. Szybowska, L. Craig, and D. J. Bägli, “Mechanotransduction of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in smooth muscle is dependent on the extracellular matrix and regulated by matrix metalloproteinases,” Am. J. Pathol.169(2), 459–470 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lorenzo, A. J.

K. J. Aitken, C. Tolg, T. Panchal, B. Leslie, J. Yu, M. Elkelini, N. Sabha, D. J. Tse, A. J. Lorenzo, M. Hassouna, and D. J. Bägli, “Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) induces proliferation and de-differentiation responses to three coordinate pathophysiologic stimuli (mechanical strain, hypoxia, and extracellular matrix remodeling) in rat bladder smooth muscle,” Am. J. Pathol.176(1), 304–319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, S.

Manhas, S.

Martino, A. D.

Matsumoto, S.

K. Sugimoto, S. Matsumoto, H. Ito, and H. Uemura, “Effect of partial bladder outlet obstruction on the morphology of elastin in rabbit bladder smooth muscle,” Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms2, 71–75 (2010).

S. Matsumoto, P. Chichester, B. A. Kogan, and R. M. Levin, “Structural and vascular response of normal and obstructed rabbit whole bladders to distension,” Urology62(6), 1129–1133 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meng, J.

J. J. Yoo, J. Meng, F. Oberpenning, and A. Atala, “Bladder augmentation using allogenic bladder submucosa seeded with cells,” Urology51(2), 221–225 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miano, L.

A. Tubaro, C. De Nunzio, A. Trucchi, G. Palleschi, and L. Miano, “The effect of bladder outlet obstruction treatment on ultrasound-determined bladder wall thickness,” Rev. Urol.7(Suppl 6), S35–S42 (2005).
[PubMed]

Milsom, I.

D. E. Irwin, Z. S. Kopp, B. Agatep, I. Milsom, and P. Abrams, “Worldwide prevalence estimates of lower urinary tract symptoms, overactive bladder, urinary incontinence and bladder outlet obstruction,” BJU Int.108(7), 1132–1138 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mo, J.

J. Zeng, K. Xie, C. Jiang, J. Mo, and S. Lindström, “Bladder mechanoreceptor changes after artificial bladder outlet obstruction in the anesthetized rat,” Neurourol. Urodyn.31(1), 178–184 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morano, I.

A. Arner, R. Sjuve Scott, H. Haase, I. Morano, and B. Uvelius, “Intracellular calcium in hypertrophic smooth muscle from rat urinary bladder,” Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol.41(4), 270–277 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moriyama, E. H.

M. F. G. Wood, N. Ghosh, E. H. Moriyama, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Proof-of-principle demonstration of a Mueller matrix decomposition method for polarized light tissue characterization in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(1), 014029 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myakov, A.

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, “Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: Design and performance,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 388–397 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagatomi, J.

J. Nagatomi, K. K. Toosi, J. S. Grashow, M. B. Chancellor, and M. S. Sacks, “Quantification of bladder smooth muscle orientation in normal and spinal cord injured rats,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.33(8), 1078–1089 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. O. Backhaus, M. Kaefer, K. M. Haberstroh, K. Hile, J. Nagatomi, R. C. Rink, M. P. Cain, A. Casale, and R. Bizios, “Alterations in the molecular determinants of bladder compliance at hydrostatic pressures less than 40 cm. H2O,” J. Urol.168(6), 2600–2604 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nazac, A.

Nieman, L.

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, “Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: Design and performance,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 388–397 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novikova, T.

Oberpenning, F.

J. J. Yoo, J. Meng, F. Oberpenning, and A. Atala, “Bladder augmentation using allogenic bladder submucosa seeded with cells,” Urology51(2), 221–225 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palleschi, G.

A. Tubaro, C. De Nunzio, A. Trucchi, G. Palleschi, and L. Miano, “The effect of bladder outlet obstruction treatment on ultrasound-determined bladder wall thickness,” Rev. Urol.7(Suppl 6), S35–S42 (2005).
[PubMed]

Panchal, T.

K. J. Aitken, C. Tolg, T. Panchal, B. Leslie, J. Yu, M. Elkelini, N. Sabha, D. J. Tse, A. J. Lorenzo, M. Hassouna, and D. J. Bägli, “Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) induces proliferation and de-differentiation responses to three coordinate pathophysiologic stimuli (mechanical strain, hypoxia, and extracellular matrix remodeling) in rat bladder smooth muscle,” Am. J. Pathol.176(1), 304–319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parekh, A.

R. L. Heise, J. Ivanova, A. Parekh, and M. S. Sacks, “Generating elastin-rich small intestinal submucosa-based smooth muscle constructs utilizing exogenous growth factors and cyclic mechanical stimulation,” Tissue Eng. Part A15(12), 3951–3960 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pierangelo, A.

Pope, J. C.

J. Chen, B. A. Drzewiecki, W. David Merryman, and J. C. Pope, “Murine bladder wall biomechanics following partial bladder obstruction,” J. Biomechanics46,2752–2755 (2013).

Qi, J.

Ramella-Roman, J. C.

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 329–340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, “Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: Design and performance,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 388–397 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rink, R. C.

B. O. Backhaus, M. Kaefer, K. M. Haberstroh, K. Hile, J. Nagatomi, R. C. Rink, M. P. Cain, A. Casale, and R. Bizios, “Alterations in the molecular determinants of bladder compliance at hydrostatic pressures less than 40 cm. H2O,” J. Urol.168(6), 2600–2604 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodríguez, L. V.

G. S. Jack, R. Zhang, M. Lee, Y. Xu, B. M. Wu, and L. V. Rodríguez, “Urinary bladder smooth muscle engineered from adipose stem cells and a three dimensional synthetic composite,” Biomaterials30(19), 3259–3270 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sabha, N.

K. J. Aitken, C. Tolg, T. Panchal, B. Leslie, J. Yu, M. Elkelini, N. Sabha, D. J. Tse, A. J. Lorenzo, M. Hassouna, and D. J. Bägli, “Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) induces proliferation and de-differentiation responses to three coordinate pathophysiologic stimuli (mechanical strain, hypoxia, and extracellular matrix remodeling) in rat bladder smooth muscle,” Am. J. Pathol.176(1), 304–319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Aitken, G. Block, A. Lorenzo, D. Herz, N. Sabha, O. Dessouki, F. Fung, M. Szybowska, L. Craig, and D. J. Bägli, “Mechanotransduction of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in smooth muscle is dependent on the extracellular matrix and regulated by matrix metalloproteinases,” Am. J. Pathol.169(2), 459–470 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sacks, M. S.

R. L. Heise, J. Ivanova, A. Parekh, and M. S. Sacks, “Generating elastin-rich small intestinal submucosa-based smooth muscle constructs utilizing exogenous growth factors and cyclic mechanical stimulation,” Tissue Eng. Part A15(12), 3951–3960 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nagatomi, K. K. Toosi, J. S. Grashow, M. B. Chancellor, and M. S. Sacks, “Quantification of bladder smooth muscle orientation in normal and spinal cord injured rats,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.33(8), 1078–1089 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schröder, A.

A. Schröder, T. P. Kirwan, J. X. Jiang, K. J. Aitken, and D. J. Bägli, “Rapamycin attenuates bladder hypertrophy during long-term outlet obstruction in vivo: tissue, matrix and mechanistic insights,” J. Urol.189(6), 2377–2384 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Alali, K. J. Aitken, A. Schröder, D. J. Bagli, and I. A. Vitkin, “Optical assessment of tissue anisotropy in ex vivo distended rat bladders,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 086010 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siroky, M. B.

M. B. Siroky, “The aging bladder,” Rev. Urol.6(Suppl 1), S3–S7 (2004).
[PubMed]

Sjuve Scott, R.

A. Arner, R. Sjuve Scott, H. Haase, I. Morano, and B. Uvelius, “Intracellular calcium in hypertrophic smooth muscle from rat urinary bladder,” Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol.41(4), 270–277 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokolov, K.

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, “Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: Design and performance,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 388–397 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Southgate, J.

S. Korossis, F. Bolland, J. Southgate, E. Ingham, and J. Fisher, “Regional biomechanical and histological characterisation of the passive porcine urinary bladder: Implications for augmentation and tissue engineering strategies,” Biomaterials30(2), 266–275 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugimoto, K.

K. Sugimoto, S. Matsumoto, H. Ito, and H. Uemura, “Effect of partial bladder outlet obstruction on the morphology of elastin in rabbit bladder smooth muscle,” Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms2, 71–75 (2010).

Szybowska, M.

K. J. Aitken, G. Block, A. Lorenzo, D. Herz, N. Sabha, O. Dessouki, F. Fung, M. Szybowska, L. Craig, and D. J. Bägli, “Mechanotransduction of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in smooth muscle is dependent on the extracellular matrix and regulated by matrix metalloproteinases,” Am. J. Pathol.169(2), 459–470 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tolg, C.

K. J. Aitken, C. Tolg, T. Panchal, B. Leslie, J. Yu, M. Elkelini, N. Sabha, D. J. Tse, A. J. Lorenzo, M. Hassouna, and D. J. Bägli, “Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) induces proliferation and de-differentiation responses to three coordinate pathophysiologic stimuli (mechanical strain, hypoxia, and extracellular matrix remodeling) in rat bladder smooth muscle,” Am. J. Pathol.176(1), 304–319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toosi, K. K.

J. Nagatomi, K. K. Toosi, J. S. Grashow, M. B. Chancellor, and M. S. Sacks, “Quantification of bladder smooth muscle orientation in normal and spinal cord injured rats,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.33(8), 1078–1089 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trucchi, A.

A. Tubaro, C. De Nunzio, A. Trucchi, G. Palleschi, and L. Miano, “The effect of bladder outlet obstruction treatment on ultrasound-determined bladder wall thickness,” Rev. Urol.7(Suppl 6), S35–S42 (2005).
[PubMed]

Tse, D. J.

K. J. Aitken, C. Tolg, T. Panchal, B. Leslie, J. Yu, M. Elkelini, N. Sabha, D. J. Tse, A. J. Lorenzo, M. Hassouna, and D. J. Bägli, “Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) induces proliferation and de-differentiation responses to three coordinate pathophysiologic stimuli (mechanical strain, hypoxia, and extracellular matrix remodeling) in rat bladder smooth muscle,” Am. J. Pathol.176(1), 304–319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tubaro, A.

A. Tubaro, C. De Nunzio, A. Trucchi, G. Palleschi, and L. Miano, “The effect of bladder outlet obstruction treatment on ultrasound-determined bladder wall thickness,” Rev. Urol.7(Suppl 6), S35–S42 (2005).
[PubMed]

Uemura, H.

K. Sugimoto, S. Matsumoto, H. Ito, and H. Uemura, “Effect of partial bladder outlet obstruction on the morphology of elastin in rabbit bladder smooth muscle,” Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms2, 71–75 (2010).

Utzinger, U.

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, “Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: Design and performance,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 388–397 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uvelius, B.

A. Arner, R. Sjuve Scott, H. Haase, I. Morano, and B. Uvelius, “Intracellular calcium in hypertrophic smooth muscle from rat urinary bladder,” Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol.41(4), 270–277 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Validire, P.

Vitkin, I. A.

M. A. Wallenburg, M. F. G. Wood, N. Ghosh, and I. A. Vitkin, “Polarimetry-based method to extract geometry-independent metrics of tissue anisotropy,” Opt. Lett.35(15), 2570–2572 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. G. Wood, N. Ghosh, M. A. Wallenburg, S. H. Li, R. D. Weisel, B. C. Wilson, R. K. Li, and I. A. Vitkin, “Polarization birefringence measurements for characterizing the myocardium, including healthy, infarcted, and stem-cell-regenerated tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 047009 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. G. Wood, N. Ghosh, E. H. Moriyama, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Proof-of-principle demonstration of a Mueller matrix decomposition method for polarized light tissue characterization in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(1), 014029 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallenburg, M. A.

M. F. G. Wood, N. Ghosh, M. A. Wallenburg, S. H. Li, R. D. Weisel, B. C. Wilson, R. K. Li, and I. A. Vitkin, “Polarization birefringence measurements for characterizing the myocardium, including healthy, infarcted, and stem-cell-regenerated tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 047009 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Wallenburg, M. F. G. Wood, N. Ghosh, and I. A. Vitkin, “Polarimetry-based method to extract geometry-independent metrics of tissue anisotropy,” Opt. Lett.35(15), 2570–2572 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weisel, R. D.

M. F. G. Wood, N. Ghosh, M. A. Wallenburg, S. H. Li, R. D. Weisel, B. C. Wilson, R. K. Li, and I. A. Vitkin, “Polarization birefringence measurements for characterizing the myocardium, including healthy, infarcted, and stem-cell-regenerated tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 047009 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wicky, L.

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, “Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: Design and performance,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 388–397 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

M. F. G. Wood, N. Ghosh, M. A. Wallenburg, S. H. Li, R. D. Weisel, B. C. Wilson, R. K. Li, and I. A. Vitkin, “Polarization birefringence measurements for characterizing the myocardium, including healthy, infarcted, and stem-cell-regenerated tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 047009 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. G. Wood, N. Ghosh, E. H. Moriyama, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Proof-of-principle demonstration of a Mueller matrix decomposition method for polarized light tissue characterization in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(1), 014029 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wood, M. F. G.

M. F. G. Wood, N. Ghosh, M. A. Wallenburg, S. H. Li, R. D. Weisel, B. C. Wilson, R. K. Li, and I. A. Vitkin, “Polarization birefringence measurements for characterizing the myocardium, including healthy, infarcted, and stem-cell-regenerated tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 047009 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Wallenburg, M. F. G. Wood, N. Ghosh, and I. A. Vitkin, “Polarimetry-based method to extract geometry-independent metrics of tissue anisotropy,” Opt. Lett.35(15), 2570–2572 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. G. Wood, N. Ghosh, E. H. Moriyama, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Proof-of-principle demonstration of a Mueller matrix decomposition method for polarized light tissue characterization in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(1), 014029 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wood, T. C.

Wu, B. M.

G. S. Jack, R. Zhang, M. Lee, Y. Xu, B. M. Wu, and L. V. Rodríguez, “Urinary bladder smooth muscle engineered from adipose stem cells and a three dimensional synthetic composite,” Biomaterials30(19), 3259–3270 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, K.

J. Zeng, K. Xie, C. Jiang, J. Mo, and S. Lindström, “Bladder mechanoreceptor changes after artificial bladder outlet obstruction in the anesthetized rat,” Neurourol. Urodyn.31(1), 178–184 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Y.

G. S. Jack, R. Zhang, M. Lee, Y. Xu, B. M. Wu, and L. V. Rodríguez, “Urinary bladder smooth muscle engineered from adipose stem cells and a three dimensional synthetic composite,” Biomaterials30(19), 3259–3270 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, G.

Yoo, J. J.

J. J. Yoo, J. Meng, F. Oberpenning, and A. Atala, “Bladder augmentation using allogenic bladder submucosa seeded with cells,” Urology51(2), 221–225 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, J.

K. J. Aitken, C. Tolg, T. Panchal, B. Leslie, J. Yu, M. Elkelini, N. Sabha, D. J. Tse, A. J. Lorenzo, M. Hassouna, and D. J. Bägli, “Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) induces proliferation and de-differentiation responses to three coordinate pathophysiologic stimuli (mechanical strain, hypoxia, and extracellular matrix remodeling) in rat bladder smooth muscle,” Am. J. Pathol.176(1), 304–319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeng, J.

J. Zeng, K. Xie, C. Jiang, J. Mo, and S. Lindström, “Bladder mechanoreceptor changes after artificial bladder outlet obstruction in the anesthetized rat,” Neurourol. Urodyn.31(1), 178–184 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, R.

G. S. Jack, R. Zhang, M. Lee, Y. Xu, B. M. Wu, and L. V. Rodríguez, “Urinary bladder smooth muscle engineered from adipose stem cells and a three dimensional synthetic composite,” Biomaterials30(19), 3259–3270 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Pathol. (2)

K. J. Aitken, G. Block, A. Lorenzo, D. Herz, N. Sabha, O. Dessouki, F. Fung, M. Szybowska, L. Craig, and D. J. Bägli, “Mechanotransduction of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in smooth muscle is dependent on the extracellular matrix and regulated by matrix metalloproteinases,” Am. J. Pathol.169(2), 459–470 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Aitken, C. Tolg, T. Panchal, B. Leslie, J. Yu, M. Elkelini, N. Sabha, D. J. Tse, A. J. Lorenzo, M. Hassouna, and D. J. Bägli, “Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) induces proliferation and de-differentiation responses to three coordinate pathophysiologic stimuli (mechanical strain, hypoxia, and extracellular matrix remodeling) in rat bladder smooth muscle,” Am. J. Pathol.176(1), 304–319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Biomed. Eng. (1)

J. Nagatomi, K. K. Toosi, J. S. Grashow, M. B. Chancellor, and M. S. Sacks, “Quantification of bladder smooth muscle orientation in normal and spinal cord injured rats,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.33(8), 1078–1089 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomaterials (2)

S. Korossis, F. Bolland, J. Southgate, E. Ingham, and J. Fisher, “Regional biomechanical and histological characterisation of the passive porcine urinary bladder: Implications for augmentation and tissue engineering strategies,” Biomaterials30(2), 266–275 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Jack, R. Zhang, M. Lee, Y. Xu, B. M. Wu, and L. V. Rodríguez, “Urinary bladder smooth muscle engineered from adipose stem cells and a three dimensional synthetic composite,” Biomaterials30(19), 3259–3270 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

BJU Int. (3)

S. A. Capello, E. Chieh-Lung Chou, and P. A. Longhurst, “Regional differences in responses of rabbit detrusor to electrical and adrenergic stimulation: influence of outlet obstruction,” BJU Int.95(1), 157–162 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Elkelini, K. Aitken, D. J. Bagli, and M. M. Hassouna, “Effects of doxycycline on voiding behaviour of rats with bladder outlet obstruction,” BJU Int.103(4), 537–540 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Irwin, Z. S. Kopp, B. Agatep, I. Milsom, and P. Abrams, “Worldwide prevalence estimates of lower urinary tract symptoms, overactive bladder, urinary incontinence and bladder outlet obstruction,” BJU Int.108(7), 1132–1138 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomechanics (1)

J. Chen, B. A. Drzewiecki, W. David Merryman, and J. C. Pope, “Murine bladder wall biomechanics following partial bladder obstruction,” J. Biomechanics46,2752–2755 (2013).

J. Biomed. Opt. (5)

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, “Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: Design and performance,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 388–397 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Alali, K. J. Aitken, A. Schröder, D. J. Bagli, and I. A. Vitkin, “Optical assessment of tissue anisotropy in ex vivo distended rat bladders,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 086010 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 329–340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. G. Wood, N. Ghosh, M. A. Wallenburg, S. H. Li, R. D. Weisel, B. C. Wilson, R. K. Li, and I. A. Vitkin, “Polarization birefringence measurements for characterizing the myocardium, including healthy, infarcted, and stem-cell-regenerated tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 047009 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. G. Wood, N. Ghosh, E. H. Moriyama, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Proof-of-principle demonstration of a Mueller matrix decomposition method for polarized light tissue characterization in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(1), 014029 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Urol. (3)

B. O. Backhaus, M. Kaefer, K. M. Haberstroh, K. Hile, J. Nagatomi, R. C. Rink, M. P. Cain, A. Casale, and R. Bizios, “Alterations in the molecular determinants of bladder compliance at hydrostatic pressures less than 40 cm. H2O,” J. Urol.168(6), 2600–2604 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Belal and P. Abrams, “Noninvasive methods of diagnosing bladder outlet obstruction in men. Part 1: Nonurodynamic approach,” J. Urol.176(1), 22–28 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schröder, T. P. Kirwan, J. X. Jiang, K. J. Aitken, and D. J. Bägli, “Rapamycin attenuates bladder hypertrophy during long-term outlet obstruction in vivo: tissue, matrix and mechanistic insights,” J. Urol.189(6), 2377–2384 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (1)

K. Sugimoto, S. Matsumoto, H. Ito, and H. Uemura, “Effect of partial bladder outlet obstruction on the morphology of elastin in rabbit bladder smooth muscle,” Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms2, 71–75 (2010).

Nat. Rev. Urol. (1)

K. J. Aitken and D. J. Bägli, “The bladder extracellular matrix. Part I: architecture, development and disease,” Nat. Rev. Urol.6(11), 596–611 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neurourol. Urodyn. (2)

M. S. Damaser, K. Brzezinski, and P. A. Longhurst, “Filling Mechanics of obstructed and de-obstructed Rat Urinary Bladders,” Neurourol. Urodyn.18(6), 659–671 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zeng, K. Xie, C. Jiang, J. Mo, and S. Lindström, “Bladder mechanoreceptor changes after artificial bladder outlet obstruction in the anesthetized rat,” Neurourol. Urodyn.31(1), 178–184 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Press. Am. J. Physiol. Renal. (1)

D. Burmeister, T. AbouShwareb, R. D’Agostino, K. E. Andersson, and G. J. Christ, “Impact of partial urethral obstruction on bladder function: Time dependent changes and functional correlates of altered expression of Ca2+ signaling regulators,” Press. Am. J. Physiol. Renal.302(12), F1517–F1528 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Urol. (2)

M. B. Siroky, “The aging bladder,” Rev. Urol.6(Suppl 1), S3–S7 (2004).
[PubMed]

A. Tubaro, C. De Nunzio, A. Trucchi, G. Palleschi, and L. Miano, “The effect of bladder outlet obstruction treatment on ultrasound-determined bladder wall thickness,” Rev. Urol.7(Suppl 6), S35–S42 (2005).
[PubMed]

Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol. (1)

A. Arner, R. Sjuve Scott, H. Haase, I. Morano, and B. Uvelius, “Intracellular calcium in hypertrophic smooth muscle from rat urinary bladder,” Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol.41(4), 270–277 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tissue Eng. Part A (1)

R. L. Heise, J. Ivanova, A. Parekh, and M. S. Sacks, “Generating elastin-rich small intestinal submucosa-based smooth muscle constructs utilizing exogenous growth factors and cyclic mechanical stimulation,” Tissue Eng. Part A15(12), 3951–3960 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urology (2)

J. J. Yoo, J. Meng, F. Oberpenning, and A. Atala, “Bladder augmentation using allogenic bladder submucosa seeded with cells,” Urology51(2), 221–225 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Matsumoto, P. Chichester, B. A. Kogan, and R. M. Levin, “Structural and vascular response of normal and obstructed rabbit whole bladders to distension,” Urology62(6), 1129–1133 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Wein, Campbell-Walsh Urology, 9th ed., (Elsevier, 2007).

P. Dewan and M. E. Mitchell, Bladder Augmentation (Arnold, 2000).

C. Andrew, A. Novick, J. S. Jones, and I. S. Gill, Operative Urology at the Cleveland Clinic (Humanpress, 2006).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) Polarized light imaging set up for examining distended ex vivo rat bladders. The ureters and urethra are ligated and the bladder is suspended by the urethra. The CCD and detection arm are along the z-axis, and the illumination arm is θ = 25° off angle with respect to the detection arm (it is 25° away from the z-axis). P1 and P2 are polarizers, QW1 and QW2 are quarter waveplates and L1, L2 and L3 are lenses. The image is not to scale. b) Schematic showing the anatomy of the dorsal region of the bladder. Two areas of the dorsal region were imaged: the dorsal urethal (DU) and the dorsal dome (DD). c) Schematic showing the anatomy of the ventral region of the bladder. Two areas of the ventral region were imaged: the ventral urethal (VU) and the ventral dome (VD)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mean masses of control and obstructed bladders in the 2 weeks and 6 weeks study. The error bars show the standard deviation from the mean among different bladders.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Representative regional retardances (anisotropy) obtained from polarized light imaging and Mueller matrix decomposition of a) a 2-week control rat bladder, b) a 2-week obstructed bladder, c) a 6-week control bladder, d) a 6-week obstructed bladder. DU = dorsal urethral, DD = dorsal dome, VU = ventral urethral and VD = ventral dome (anatomically depicted in Fig. 1). Color bar shows retardance values in degree and the arrows show the orientation of the retardance (optical axis).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mean regional maximum retardance among different rat bladders in each group. The different regions are DU (dorsal urethral), DD (dorsal dome), VU (ventral urethral) and VD (ventral dome). The error bars are the standard deviation from the mean value.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 P-values (calculated from paired t-test) for differentiating normal versus obstructed bladders characteristics; δvu, δVD, δDU and δDD are the retardance of the ventral urethral, ventral dome, dorsal urethral and dorsal dome regions, respectively.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δ= cos 1 { [ ( M R (2,2)+ M R (3,3)) 2 + ( M R (3,2) M R (2,3)) 2 ] 1/2 1},
θ=0.5 tan 1 ( M LR (2,3) M LR (3,2) M LR (3,1) M LR (1,3) ),

Metrics