Abstract

Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy provides a noninvasive means to measure optical and physiological properties of tissues. To expand on these measurements, we have developed a handheld diffuse reflectance spectral imaging (DRSi) system capable of acquiring wide field hyperspectral images of tissue. The image acquisition time was approximately 50 seconds for a 50x50 pixel image. A transport model was used to fit each spectra for reduced scattering coefficient, hemoglobin concentration and melanin concentration resulting in optical property maps. The system was validated across biologically relevant levels of reduced scattering (5.14% error) and absorption (8.34% error) using tissue simulating phantoms. DRSi optical property maps of a pigmented skin lesion were acquired in vivo. These trends in optical properties were consistent with previous observations using point probe devices.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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B. M. Huang, J. Mielikainen, H. Oh, and H. L. A. Huang, “Development of a GPU-based high-performance radiative transfer model for the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI),” J. Comput. Phys.230(6), 2207–2221 (2011).
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T. A. Erickson, A. Mazhar, D. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup-table method for imaging optical properties with structured illumination beyond the diffusion theory regime,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 036013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Rajaram, J. S. Reichenberg, M. R. Migden, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “Pilot Clinical Study for Quantitative Spectral Diagnosis of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer,” Lasers Surg. Med.42(10), 876–887 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

B. H. Yuan, S. A. Burgess, A. Iranmahboob, M. B. Bouchard, N. Lehrer, C. Bordier, and E. M. C. Hillman, “A system for high-resolution depth-resolved optical imaging of fluorescence and absorption contrast,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(4), 043706 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

C. C. Yu, C. Lau, G. O’Donoghue, J. Mirkovic, S. McGee, L. Galindo, A. Elackattu, E. Stier, G. Grillone, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative spectroscopic imaging for non-invasive early cancer detection,” Opt. Express16(20), 16227–16239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burgess, M. B. Bouchard, B. H. Yuan, and E. M. C. Hillman, “Simultaneous multiwavelength laminar optical tomography,” Opt. Lett.33(22), 2710–2712 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Rajaram, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup table-based inverse model for determining optical properties of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(5), 050501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

J. A. Freeberg, D. M. Serachitopol, N. McKinnon, R. Price, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, and B. Pikkula, “Fluorescence and reflectance device variability throughout the progression of a phase II clinical trial to detect and screen for cervical neoplasia using a fiber optic probe,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034015 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

M. E. Martin, M. B. Wabuyele, K. Chen, P. Kasili, M. Panjehpour, M. Phan, B. Overholt, G. Cunningham, D. Wilson, R. C. Denovo, and T. Vo-Dinh, “Development of an advanced hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system with applications for cancer detection,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.34(6), 1061–1068 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios and A. Dimou, “Modeling diffuse reflectance from semi-infinite turbid media: application to the study of skin optical properties,” Opt. Express14(19), 8661–8674 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Robinson, “Sun exposure, sun protection, and vitamin D,” JAMA294(12), 1541–1543 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med.36(5), 356–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

H. Kittler, H. Pehamberger, K. Wolff, and M. Binder, “Diagnostic accuracy of dermoscopy,” Lancet Oncol.3(3), 159–165 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

Atkinson, E. N.

J. A. Freeberg, D. M. Serachitopol, N. McKinnon, R. Price, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, and B. Pikkula, “Fluorescence and reflectance device variability throughout the progression of a phase II clinical trial to detect and screen for cervical neoplasia using a fiber optic probe,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034015 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V. M.

Badizadegan, K.

Bechtel, K. L.

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Binder, M.

H. Kittler, H. Pehamberger, K. Wolff, and M. Binder, “Diagnostic accuracy of dermoscopy,” Lancet Oncol.3(3), 159–165 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boone, C. W.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bordier, C.

B. H. Yuan, S. A. Burgess, A. Iranmahboob, M. B. Bouchard, N. Lehrer, C. Bordier, and E. M. C. Hillman, “A system for high-resolution depth-resolved optical imaging of fluorescence and absorption contrast,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(4), 043706 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouchard, M. B.

B. H. Yuan, S. A. Burgess, A. Iranmahboob, M. B. Bouchard, N. Lehrer, C. Bordier, and E. M. C. Hillman, “A system for high-resolution depth-resolved optical imaging of fluorescence and absorption contrast,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(4), 043706 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burgess, M. B. Bouchard, B. H. Yuan, and E. M. C. Hillman, “Simultaneous multiwavelength laminar optical tomography,” Opt. Lett.33(22), 2710–2712 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burgess, S. A.

B. H. Yuan, S. A. Burgess, A. Iranmahboob, M. B. Bouchard, N. Lehrer, C. Bordier, and E. M. C. Hillman, “A system for high-resolution depth-resolved optical imaging of fluorescence and absorption contrast,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(4), 043706 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burgess, M. B. Bouchard, B. H. Yuan, and E. M. C. Hillman, “Simultaneous multiwavelength laminar optical tomography,” Opt. Lett.33(22), 2710–2712 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S. K.

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K.

M. E. Martin, M. B. Wabuyele, K. Chen, P. Kasili, M. Panjehpour, M. Phan, B. Overholt, G. Cunningham, D. Wilson, R. C. Denovo, and T. Vo-Dinh, “Development of an advanced hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system with applications for cancer detection,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.34(6), 1061–1068 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, D.

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, D. D.

J. A. Freeberg, D. M. Serachitopol, N. McKinnon, R. Price, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, and B. Pikkula, “Fluorescence and reflectance device variability throughout the progression of a phase II clinical trial to detect and screen for cervical neoplasia using a fiber optic probe,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034015 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuccia, D.

T. A. Erickson, A. Mazhar, D. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup-table method for imaging optical properties with structured illumination beyond the diffusion theory regime,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 036013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cunningham, G.

M. E. Martin, M. B. Wabuyele, K. Chen, P. Kasili, M. Panjehpour, M. Phan, B. Overholt, G. Cunningham, D. Wilson, R. C. Denovo, and T. Vo-Dinh, “Development of an advanced hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system with applications for cancer detection,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.34(6), 1061–1068 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Yu, C. Lau, G. O’Donoghue, J. Mirkovic, S. McGee, L. Galindo, A. Elackattu, E. Stier, G. Grillone, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative spectroscopic imaging for non-invasive early cancer detection,” Opt. Express16(20), 16227–16239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Veld, D. C. G.

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med.36(5), 356–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denovo, R. C.

M. E. Martin, M. B. Wabuyele, K. Chen, P. Kasili, M. Panjehpour, M. Phan, B. Overholt, G. Cunningham, D. Wilson, R. C. Denovo, and T. Vo-Dinh, “Development of an advanced hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system with applications for cancer detection,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.34(6), 1061–1068 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dimou, A.

Duin, R. P. W.

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med.36(5), 356–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durkin, A. J.

T. A. Erickson, A. Mazhar, D. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup-table method for imaging optical properties with structured illumination beyond the diffusion theory regime,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 036013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elackattu, A.

Erickson, T. A.

T. A. Erickson, A. Mazhar, D. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup-table method for imaging optical properties with structured illumination beyond the diffusion theory regime,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 036013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

C. C. Yu, C. Lau, G. O’Donoghue, J. Mirkovic, S. McGee, L. Galindo, A. Elackattu, E. Stier, G. Grillone, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative spectroscopic imaging for non-invasive early cancer detection,” Opt. Express16(20), 16227–16239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Müller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. G. Zhang, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, “Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentangling effects of scattering and absorption,” Appl. Opt.40(25), 4633–4646 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. M. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt.38(31), 6628–6637 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzmaurice, M.

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. M. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt.38(31), 6628–6637 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Follen, M.

J. A. Freeberg, D. M. Serachitopol, N. McKinnon, R. Price, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, and B. Pikkula, “Fluorescence and reflectance device variability throughout the progression of a phase II clinical trial to detect and screen for cervical neoplasia using a fiber optic probe,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034015 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freeberg, J. A.

J. A. Freeberg, D. M. Serachitopol, N. McKinnon, R. Price, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, and B. Pikkula, “Fluorescence and reflectance device variability throughout the progression of a phase II clinical trial to detect and screen for cervical neoplasia using a fiber optic probe,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034015 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuentes, C.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galindo, L.

Georgakoudi, I.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Müller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. G. Zhang, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, “Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentangling effects of scattering and absorption,” Appl. Opt.40(25), 4633–4646 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grillone, G.

Haka, A. S.

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillman, E. M. C.

B. H. Yuan, S. A. Burgess, A. Iranmahboob, M. B. Bouchard, N. Lehrer, C. Bordier, and E. M. C. Hillman, “A system for high-resolution depth-resolved optical imaging of fluorescence and absorption contrast,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(4), 043706 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burgess, M. B. Bouchard, B. H. Yuan, and E. M. C. Hillman, “Simultaneous multiwavelength laminar optical tomography,” Opt. Lett.33(22), 2710–2712 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, B. M.

B. M. Huang, J. Mielikainen, H. Oh, and H. L. A. Huang, “Development of a GPU-based high-performance radiative transfer model for the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI),” J. Comput. Phys.230(6), 2207–2221 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. L. A.

B. M. Huang, J. Mielikainen, H. Oh, and H. L. A. Huang, “Development of a GPU-based high-performance radiative transfer model for the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI),” J. Comput. Phys.230(6), 2207–2221 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Iranmahboob, A.

B. H. Yuan, S. A. Burgess, A. Iranmahboob, M. B. Bouchard, N. Lehrer, C. Bordier, and E. M. C. Hillman, “A system for high-resolution depth-resolved optical imaging of fluorescence and absorption contrast,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(4), 043706 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kabani, S.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasili, P.

M. E. Martin, M. B. Wabuyele, K. Chen, P. Kasili, M. Panjehpour, M. Phan, B. Overholt, G. Cunningham, D. Wilson, R. C. Denovo, and T. Vo-Dinh, “Development of an advanced hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system with applications for cancer detection,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.34(6), 1061–1068 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kittler, H.

H. Kittler, H. Pehamberger, K. Wolff, and M. Binder, “Diagnostic accuracy of dermoscopy,” Lancet Oncol.3(3), 159–165 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lau, C.

Laver, N.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lehrer, N.

B. H. Yuan, S. A. Burgess, A. Iranmahboob, M. B. Bouchard, N. Lehrer, C. Bordier, and E. M. C. Hillman, “A system for high-resolution depth-resolved optical imaging of fluorescence and absorption contrast,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(4), 043706 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacAulay, C.

J. A. Freeberg, D. M. Serachitopol, N. McKinnon, R. Price, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, and B. Pikkula, “Fluorescence and reflectance device variability throughout the progression of a phase II clinical trial to detect and screen for cervical neoplasia using a fiber optic probe,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034015 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malpica, A.

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manoharan, R.

Martin, M. E.

M. E. Martin, M. B. Wabuyele, K. Chen, P. Kasili, M. Panjehpour, M. Phan, B. Overholt, G. Cunningham, D. Wilson, R. C. Denovo, and T. Vo-Dinh, “Development of an advanced hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system with applications for cancer detection,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.34(6), 1061–1068 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazhar, A.

T. A. Erickson, A. Mazhar, D. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup-table method for imaging optical properties with structured illumination beyond the diffusion theory regime,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 036013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGee, S.

McKinnon, N.

J. A. Freeberg, D. M. Serachitopol, N. McKinnon, R. Price, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, and B. Pikkula, “Fluorescence and reflectance device variability throughout the progression of a phase II clinical trial to detect and screen for cervical neoplasia using a fiber optic probe,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034015 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mielikainen, J.

B. M. Huang, J. Mielikainen, H. Oh, and H. L. A. Huang, “Development of a GPU-based high-performance radiative transfer model for the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI),” J. Comput. Phys.230(6), 2207–2221 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Migden, M. R.

N. Rajaram, J. S. Reichenberg, M. R. Migden, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “Pilot Clinical Study for Quantitative Spectral Diagnosis of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer,” Lasers Surg. Med.42(10), 876–887 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirabal, Y. N.

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirkovic, J.

Müller, M. G.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Müller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. G. Zhang, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, “Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentangling effects of scattering and absorption,” Appl. Opt.40(25), 4633–4646 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nazemi, J.

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, T. H.

N. Rajaram, J. S. Reichenberg, M. R. Migden, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “Pilot Clinical Study for Quantitative Spectral Diagnosis of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer,” Lasers Surg. Med.42(10), 876–887 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Rajaram, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup table-based inverse model for determining optical properties of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(5), 050501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Donoghue, G.

Oh, H.

B. M. Huang, J. Mielikainen, H. Oh, and H. L. A. Huang, “Development of a GPU-based high-performance radiative transfer model for the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI),” J. Comput. Phys.230(6), 2207–2221 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Overholt, B.

M. E. Martin, M. B. Wabuyele, K. Chen, P. Kasili, M. Panjehpour, M. Phan, B. Overholt, G. Cunningham, D. Wilson, R. C. Denovo, and T. Vo-Dinh, “Development of an advanced hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system with applications for cancer detection,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.34(6), 1061–1068 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panjehpour, M.

M. E. Martin, M. B. Wabuyele, K. Chen, P. Kasili, M. Panjehpour, M. Phan, B. Overholt, G. Cunningham, D. Wilson, R. C. Denovo, and T. Vo-Dinh, “Development of an advanced hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system with applications for cancer detection,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.34(6), 1061–1068 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pehamberger, H.

H. Kittler, H. Pehamberger, K. Wolff, and M. Binder, “Diagnostic accuracy of dermoscopy,” Lancet Oncol.3(3), 159–165 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perelman, L. T.

Phan, M.

M. E. Martin, M. B. Wabuyele, K. Chen, P. Kasili, M. Panjehpour, M. Phan, B. Overholt, G. Cunningham, D. Wilson, R. C. Denovo, and T. Vo-Dinh, “Development of an advanced hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system with applications for cancer detection,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.34(6), 1061–1068 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pikkula, B.

J. A. Freeberg, D. M. Serachitopol, N. McKinnon, R. Price, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, and B. Pikkula, “Fluorescence and reflectance device variability throughout the progression of a phase II clinical trial to detect and screen for cervical neoplasia using a fiber optic probe,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034015 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Price, R.

J. A. Freeberg, D. M. Serachitopol, N. McKinnon, R. Price, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, and B. Pikkula, “Fluorescence and reflectance device variability throughout the progression of a phase II clinical trial to detect and screen for cervical neoplasia using a fiber optic probe,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034015 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajaram, N.

N. Rajaram, J. S. Reichenberg, M. R. Migden, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “Pilot Clinical Study for Quantitative Spectral Diagnosis of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer,” Lasers Surg. Med.42(10), 876–887 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Rajaram, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup table-based inverse model for determining optical properties of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(5), 050501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reichenberg, J. S.

N. Rajaram, J. S. Reichenberg, M. R. Migden, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “Pilot Clinical Study for Quantitative Spectral Diagnosis of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer,” Lasers Surg. Med.42(10), 876–887 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

J. A. Freeberg, D. M. Serachitopol, N. McKinnon, R. Price, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, and B. Pikkula, “Fluorescence and reflectance device variability throughout the progression of a phase II clinical trial to detect and screen for cervical neoplasia using a fiber optic probe,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034015 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, J. K.

J. K. Robinson, “Sun exposure, sun protection, and vitamin D,” JAMA294(12), 1541–1543 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roodenburg, J. L. N.

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med.36(5), 356–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serachitopol, D. M.

J. A. Freeberg, D. M. Serachitopol, N. McKinnon, R. Price, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, and B. Pikkula, “Fluorescence and reflectance device variability throughout the progression of a phase II clinical trial to detect and screen for cervical neoplasia using a fiber optic probe,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034015 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shapshay, S. M.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shenk, R.

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skurichina, M.

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med.36(5), 356–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J.

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med.36(5), 356–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stern, R. S.

R. S. Stern, “Prevalence of a History of Skin Cancer in 2007: Results of an Incidence-Based Model,” Arch. Dermatol.146(3), 279–282 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stier, E.

Tunnell, J. W.

T. A. Erickson, A. Mazhar, D. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup-table method for imaging optical properties with structured illumination beyond the diffusion theory regime,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 036013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Rajaram, J. S. Reichenberg, M. R. Migden, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “Pilot Clinical Study for Quantitative Spectral Diagnosis of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer,” Lasers Surg. Med.42(10), 876–887 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Rajaram, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup table-based inverse model for determining optical properties of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(5), 050501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valdez, T. A.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dam, J.

Vo-Dinh, T.

M. E. Martin, M. B. Wabuyele, K. Chen, P. Kasili, M. Panjehpour, M. Phan, B. Overholt, G. Cunningham, D. Wilson, R. C. Denovo, and T. Vo-Dinh, “Development of an advanced hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system with applications for cancer detection,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.34(6), 1061–1068 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volynskaya, Z.

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wabuyele, M. B.

M. E. Martin, M. B. Wabuyele, K. Chen, P. Kasili, M. Panjehpour, M. Phan, B. Overholt, G. Cunningham, D. Wilson, R. C. Denovo, and T. Vo-Dinh, “Development of an advanced hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system with applications for cancer detection,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.34(6), 1061–1068 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, N.

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z. M.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, D.

M. E. Martin, M. B. Wabuyele, K. Chen, P. Kasili, M. Panjehpour, M. Phan, B. Overholt, G. Cunningham, D. Wilson, R. C. Denovo, and T. Vo-Dinh, “Development of an advanced hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system with applications for cancer detection,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.34(6), 1061–1068 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witjes, M. J.

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med.36(5), 356–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolff, K.

H. Kittler, H. Pehamberger, K. Wolff, and M. Binder, “Diagnostic accuracy of dermoscopy,” Lancet Oncol.3(3), 159–165 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

Yu, C. C.

Yuan, B. H.

B. H. Yuan, S. A. Burgess, A. Iranmahboob, M. B. Bouchard, N. Lehrer, C. Bordier, and E. M. C. Hillman, “A system for high-resolution depth-resolved optical imaging of fluorescence and absorption contrast,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(4), 043706 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burgess, M. B. Bouchard, B. H. Yuan, and E. M. C. Hillman, “Simultaneous multiwavelength laminar optical tomography,” Opt. Lett.33(22), 2710–2712 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q. G.

Zonios, G.

Ann. Biomed. Eng. (1)

M. E. Martin, M. B. Wabuyele, K. Chen, P. Kasili, M. Panjehpour, M. Phan, B. Overholt, G. Cunningham, D. Wilson, R. C. Denovo, and T. Vo-Dinh, “Development of an advanced hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system with applications for cancer detection,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.34(6), 1061–1068 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Arch. Dermatol. (1)

R. S. Stern, “Prevalence of a History of Skin Cancer in 2007: Results of an Incidence-Based Model,” Arch. Dermatol.146(3), 279–282 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer (1)

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer97(7), 1681–1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (5)

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Rajaram, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup table-based inverse model for determining optical properties of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(5), 050501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Erickson, A. Mazhar, D. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup-table method for imaging optical properties with structured illumination beyond the diffusion theory regime,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 036013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Freeberg, D. M. Serachitopol, N. McKinnon, R. Price, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, and B. Pikkula, “Fluorescence and reflectance device variability throughout the progression of a phase II clinical trial to detect and screen for cervical neoplasia using a fiber optic probe,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034015 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Comput. Phys. (1)

B. M. Huang, J. Mielikainen, H. Oh, and H. L. A. Huang, “Development of a GPU-based high-performance radiative transfer model for the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI),” J. Comput. Phys.230(6), 2207–2221 (2011).
[CrossRef]

JAMA (1)

J. K. Robinson, “Sun exposure, sun protection, and vitamin D,” JAMA294(12), 1541–1543 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lancet Oncol. (1)

H. Kittler, H. Pehamberger, K. Wolff, and M. Binder, “Diagnostic accuracy of dermoscopy,” Lancet Oncol.3(3), 159–165 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (2)

N. Rajaram, J. S. Reichenberg, M. R. Migden, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “Pilot Clinical Study for Quantitative Spectral Diagnosis of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer,” Lasers Surg. Med.42(10), 876–887 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med.36(5), 356–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

B. H. Yuan, S. A. Burgess, A. Iranmahboob, M. B. Bouchard, N. Lehrer, C. Bordier, and E. M. C. Hillman, “A system for high-resolution depth-resolved optical imaging of fluorescence and absorption contrast,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(4), 043706 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

R. Hennessy, S. Bish, J. W. Tunnell, and M. K. Markey, “Segmentation of diffuse reflectance hyperspectral datasets with noise for detection of Melanoma,” Conference proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference. 2012, 1482-1485 (2012).

N. Rajaram, D. Kovacic, M. F. Migden, J. S. Reichenberg, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “In vivo determination of optical properties and fluorophore characteristics of non-melnoma skin cancer,” in Photonic Therapeutics and Diagnostics V, N. Kollias, B. Choi, H. Zeng, R. S. Malek, B. J. F. Wong, J. F. R. Ilgner, K. W. Gregory, G. J. Tearney, L. Marcu, H. Hirschberg, and S. J. Madsen, eds. (Spie-Int Soc Optical Engineering, Bellingham, 2009).

B. Yang, M. Sharma, Y. Wang, and J. W. Tunnell, “Attenuation corrected fluorescence extraction using spatial frequency domain imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 861809–861809 (2013).

D. Roblyer, C. Kurachi, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “In Vivo Fluorescence Hyperspectral Imaging of Oral Neoplasia,” in Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic Systems Vii, A. MahadevanJansen, T. VoDinh, and W. S. Grundfest, eds. (2009).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sampling geometry of DRSi.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

DRSi System Diagram.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Compact Clinically-Adaptable DRSi Imager and Mobile Cart Setup

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Focal Plane Matching Ability – Convex vs. Planar Windows. (a) and (b) Raytrace of optical paths containing the planar window (a), and a convex curvature matching window (b). Simulated rays are colored red. (c) and (d) show intensity profiles of spot locations marked by blue, green and red circles for the planar (c) and convex (d) windows.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Source and Collector aperture size and location measurement

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical and physiological property validation for the DRSi system. (a) μs’ fitting performance. (b) [Hb] fitting performance. (c) Representative raw spectra (black broken lines) with model fits (solid blue lines).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Reflectance image of a USAF dark square target (left) and the corresponding measured line square functions (right) in the horizontal and vertical directions

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Hyperspectral diffuse reflectance BCC lesion image and its corresponding reduced scattering (b), reduced scattering and hemoglobin concentration maps. The white square in the camera image (c) denotes the field of view during the image acquisition process. (d) Selected pixel spectra with model fits.

Equations (3)

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R( x,y,λ )=  ( I Tissue ( x,y,λ ) I Bkg ( x,y,λ ) ) ( I Standard ( x,y,λ ) I Bkg ( x,y,λ ) )
R TiO 2 =  ( I Ti O 2 I Bkg ) ( I Spectralon I Bkg )
1 f s = 1 2 f c

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