Abstract

We present an ex vivo study of temporally and spectrally resolved autofluorescence in a total of 47 endoscopic excision biopsy/resection specimens from colon, using pulsed excitation laser sources operating at wavelengths of 375 nm and 435 nm. A paired analysis of normal and neoplastic (adenomatous polyp) tissue specimens obtained from the same patient yielded a significant difference in the mean spectrally averaged autofluorescence lifetime −570 ± 740 ps (p = 0.021, n = 12). We also investigated the fluorescence signature of non-neoplastic polyps (n = 6) and inflammatory bowel disease (n = 4) compared to normal tissue in a small number of specimens.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

H. B. Manning, M. B. Nickdel, K. Yamamoto, J. L. Lagarto, D. J. Kelly, C. B. Talbot, G. Kennedy, J. Dudhia, J. Lever, C. Dunsby, P. French, and Y. Itoh, “Detection of cartilage matrix degradation by autofluorescence lifetime,” Matrix Biol.32(1), 32–38 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (7)

S. Zhuo, J. Yan, G. Chen, H. Shi, X. Zhu, J. Lu, J. Chen, and S. Xie, “Label-free imaging of basement membranes differentiates normal, precancerous, and cancerous colonic tissues by second-harmonic generation microscopy,” PLoS ONE7(6), e38655 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Williams, J. D. Willsmore, I. J. Cox, D. G. Walker, J. F. Cobbold, S. D. Taylor-Robinson, and T. R. Orchard, “Serum metabolic profiling in inflammatory bowel disease,” Dig. Dis. Sci.57(8), 2157–2165 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Rex, “Risks and potential cost savings of not sending diminutive polyps for histologic examination,” Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y)8(2), 128–130 (2012).
[PubMed]

A. Hotouras, P. Collins, W. Speake, G. Tierney, J. N. Lund, and M. A. Thaha, “Diagnostic yield and economic implications of endoscopic colonic biopsies in patients with chronic diarrhoea,” Colorectal Dis.14(8), 985–988 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Duraipandian, M. Sylvest Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Yu Ho, M. Teh, K. Guan Yeoh, J. Bok Yan So, A. Shabbir, and Z. Huang, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo, online gastric cancer diagnosis during clinical endoscopic examination,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 081418 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Marcu, “Fluorescence lifetime techniques in medical applications,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.40(2), 304–331 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Thompson, S. Coda, M. B. Sørensen, G. Kennedy, R. Patalay, U. Waitong-Brämming, P. A. A. De Beule, M. A. A. Neil, S. Andersson-Engels, N. Bendsøe, P. M. W. French, K. Svanberg, and C. Dunsby, “In vivo measurements of diffuse reflectance and time-resolved autofluorescence emission spectra of basal cell carcinomas,” J. Biophotonics5(3), 240–254 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

2010 (4)

J. McGinty, N. P. Galletly, C. Dunsby, I. Munro, D. S. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, P. Cohen, R. Ahmad, A. Forsyth, A. V. Thillainayagam, M. A. A. Neil, P. M. W. French, and G. W. Stamp, “Wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging of cancer,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(2), 627–640 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhuo, L. Zheng, J. Chen, S. Xie, X. Zhu, and X. Jiang, “Depth-cumulated epithelial redox ratio and stromal collagen quantity as quantitative intrinsic indicators for differentiating normal, inflammatory, and dysplastic epithelial tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(17), 173701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhuo, J. Chen, G. Wu, S. Xie, L. Zheng, X. Jiang, and X. Zhu, “Quantitatively linking collagen alteration and epithelial tumor progression by second harmonic generation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 213704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Shao, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Polarized near-infrared autofluorescence imaging combined with near-infrared diffuse reflectance imaging for improving colonic cancer detection,” Opt. Express18(23), 24293–24300 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

D. Chorvat and A. Chorvatova, “Multi-wavelength fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy: a new approach to the study of endogenous fluorescence in living cells and tissues,” Laser Phys. Lett.6(3), 175–193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Lin, S. Urayama, R. M. G. Saroufeem, D. L. Matthews, and S. G. Demos, “Real-time microscopic imaging of esophageal epithelial disease with autofluorescence under ultraviolet excitation,” Opt. Express17(15), 12502–12509 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

W. L. Curvers, R. Singh, L. M. Song, H. C. Wolfsen, K. Ragunath, K. Wang, M. B. Wallace, P. Fockens, and J. J. Bergman, “Endoscopic tri-modal imaging for detection of early neoplasia in Barrett’s oesophagus: a multi-center feasibility study using high-resolution endoscopy, autofluorescence imaging and narrow band imaging incorporated in one endoscopy system,” Gut57(2), 167–172 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (6)

J. A. Jo, L. Marcu, Q. Fang, T. Papaioannou, J. H. Qiao, M. C. Fishbein, B. Beseth, A. H. Dorafshar, T. Reil, D. Baker, and J. Freischlag, “New methods for time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy data analysis based on the Laguerre expansion technique--applications in tissue diagnosis,” Methods Inf. Med.46(2), 206–211 (2007).
[PubMed]

M. C. Skala, K. M. Riching, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, J. Eickhoff, K. W. Eliceiri, J. G. White, and N. Ramanujam, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of NADH and FAD redox states, fluorescence lifetimes, and cellular morphology in precancerous epithelia,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(49), 19494–19499 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schweitzer, S. Schenke, M. Hammer, F. Schweitzer, S. Jentsch, E. Birckner, W. Becker, and A. Bergmann, “Towards metabolic mapping of the human retina,” Microsc. Res. Tech.70(5), 410–419 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Lambert, H. Saito, and Y. Saito, “High-resolution endoscopy and early gastrointestinal cancer...dawn in the East,” Endoscopy39(3), 232–237 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Wang, S. Friedland, P. Sahbaie, R. Soetikno, P. L. Hsiung, J. T. Liu, J. M. Crawford, and C. H. Contag, “Functional imaging of colonic mucosa with a fibered confocal microscope for real-time in vivo pathology,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.5(11), 1300–1305 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. A. De Beule, C. Dunsby, N. P. Galletly, G. W. Stamp, A. C. Chu, U. Anand, P. Anand, C. D. Benham, A. Naylor, and P. M. W. French, “A hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime probe for skin cancer diagnosis,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(12), 123101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

B. Li, Z. Zhang, and S. Xie, “Steady state and time-resolved autofluorescence studies of human colonic tissues,” Chin. Opt. Lett.4, 348–350 (2006).

M. A. Kara, F. P. Peters, P. Fockens, F. J. ten Kate, and J. J. Bergman, “Endoscopic video-autofluorescence imaging followed by narrow band imaging for detecting early neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc.64(2), 176–185 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

H. D. Vishwasrao, A. A. Heikal, K. A. Kasischke, and W. W. Webb, “Conformational dependence of intracellular NADH on metabolic state revealed by associated fluorescence anisotropy,” J. Biol. Chem.280(26), 25119–25126 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Nakaniwa, A. Namihisa, T. Ogihara, A. Ohkawa, S. Abe, A. Nagahara, O. Kobayashi, J. Sasaki, and N. Sato, “Newly developed autofluorescence imaging videoscope system for the detection of colonic neoplasms,” Dig. Endosc.17(3), 235–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O’Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut55(8), 1078–1083 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

K. Gono, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi, N. Ohyama, H. Machida, Y. Sano, S. Yoshida, Y. Hamamoto, and T. Endo, “Appearance of enhanced tissue features in narrow-band endoscopic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(3), 568–577 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Mayinger, M. Jordan, T. Horbach, P. Horner, C. Gerlach, S. Mueller, W. Hohenberger, and E. G. Hahn, “Evaluation of in vivo endoscopic autofluorescence spectroscopy in gastric cancer,” Gastrointest. Endosc.59(2), 191–198 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Fang, T. Papaioannou, J. A. Jo, R. Vaitha, K. Shastry, and L. Marcu, “Time-domain laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy apparatus for clinical diagnostics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(1), 151–162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. J. Pfefer, D. Y. Paithankar, J. M. Poneros, K. T. Schomacker, and N. S. Nishioka, “Temporally and spectrally resolved fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of high grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Lasers Surg. Med.32(1), 10–16 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (5)

S. D. Xiao, L. Zhong, H. Y. Luo, X. Y. Chen, and Y. Shi, “Autofluorescence imaging analysis of gastric cancer,” Chin. Dig. Dis.3(3), 95–98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes,” Cancer Res.62(3), 682–687 (2002).
[PubMed]

G. M. Palmer, C. L. Marshek, K. M. Vrotsos, and N. Ramanujam, “Optimal methods for fluorescence and diffuse reflectance measurements of tissue biopsy samples,” Lasers Surg. Med.30(3), 191–200 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Huang, A. A. Heikal, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy of NAD(P)H and flavoprotein,” Biophys. J.82(5), 2811–2825 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Cross and J. L. Stone, “Proactive management of histopathology workloads: analysis of the UK Royal College of Pathologists’ recommendations on specimens of limited or no clinical value on the workload of a teaching hospital gastrointestinal pathology service,” J. Clin. Pathol.55(11), 850–852 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (4)

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Mayinger, P. Horner, M. Jordan, C. Gerlach, T. Horbach, W. Hohenberger, and E. G. Hahn, “Light-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy for the endoscopic detection of esophageal cancer,” Gastrointest. Endosc.54(2), 195–201 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implications,” J. Biomed. Opt.6(4), 385–396 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Pitts and M. A. Mycek, “Design and development of a rapid acquisition laser-based fluorometer with simultaneous spectral and temporal resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.72(7), 3061–3072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (5)

J. M. Maarek, L. Marcu, W. J. Snyder, and W. S. Grundfest, “Time-resolved fluorescence spectra of arterial fluorescent compounds: reconstruction with the Laguerre expansion technique,” Photochem. Photobiol.71(2), 178–187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Mayinger, P. Horner, M. Jordan, C. Gerlach, T. Horbach, W. Hohenberger, and E. G. Hahn, “Light-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis of GI lesions,” Gastrointest. Endosc.52(3), 395–400 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ramanujam, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissues,” Neoplasia2(1/2), 89–117 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy,” Gastroenterology119(3), 677–682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Shim, L. M. Song, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, “In vivo near-infrared Raman spectroscopy: demonstration of feasibility during clinical gastrointestinal endoscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol.72(1), 146–150 (2000).
[PubMed]

1999 (4)

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt.38(31), 6628–6637 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Eker, S. Montán, E. Jaramillo, K. Koizumi, C. Rubio, S. Andersson-Engels, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, and P. Slezak, “Clinical spectral characterisation of colonic mucosal lesions using autofluorescence and delta aminolevulinic acid sensitisation,” Gut44(4), 511–518 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Glanzmann, J. P. Ballini, H. van den Bergh, and G. Wagnieres, “Time-resolved spectrofluorometer for clinical tissue characterization during endoscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70(10), 4067–4077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Chwirot, Z. Michniewicz, M. Kowalska, and J. Nussbeutel, “Detection of colonic malignant lesions by digital imaging of UV laser-induced autofluorescence,” Photochem. Photobiol.69(3), 336–340 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (3)

M. Hilska, Y. Collan, J. Peltonen, R. Gullichsen, H. Paajanen, and M. Laato, “The distribution of collagen types I, III, and IV in normal and malignant colorectal mucosa,” Eur. J. Surg.164(6), 457–464 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Wagnières, W. M. Star, and B. C. Wilson, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oncological applications,” Photochem. Photobiol.68(5), 603–632 (1998).
[PubMed]

M. A. Mycek, K. T. Schomacker, and N. S. Nishioka, “Colonic polyp differentiation using time-resolved autofluorescence spectroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.48(4), 390–394 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

B. W. Chwirot, S. Chwirot, W. Jedrzejczyk, M. Jackowski, A. M. Raczyńska, J. Winczakiewicz, and J. Dobber, “Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of human stomach tissues: detection of cancer tissues by imaging techniques,” Lasers Surg. Med.21(2), 149–158 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mizeret, G. Wagnières, T. Stepinac, and H. Van Den Bergh, “Endoscopic tissue characterization by frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging (FD-FLIM),” Lasers Med. Sci.12(3), 209–217 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

R. M. Cothren, M. V. Sivak, J. Van Dam, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmaurice, J. M. Crawford, J. Wu, J. F. Brennan, R. P. Rava, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of dysplasia at colonoscopy using laser-induced fluorescence: a blinded study,” Gastrointest. Endosc.44(2), 168–176 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

Y. Yang, G. C. Tang, M. Bessler, and R. R. Alfano, “Fluorescence spectroscopy as a photonic pathology method for detecting colon cancer,” Lasers Life Sci.6, 259–276 (1995).

S. H. Taplin, W. Barlow, N. Urban, M. T. Mandelson, D. J. Timlin, L. Ichikawa, and P. Nefcy, “Stage, age, comorbidity, and direct costs of colon, prostate, and breast cancer care,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst.87(6), 417–426 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, T. F. Deutsch, and N. S. Nishioka, “Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic polyps,” Gastroenterology102(4 Pt 1), 1155–1160 (1992).
[PubMed]

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, and T. F. Deutsch, “Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential,” Lasers Surg. Med.12(1), 63–78 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Sivak, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of colonic dysplasia,” Photochem. Photobiol.53(6), 777–786 (1991).
[PubMed]

1990 (2)

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, and R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.36(2), 105–111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Kapadia, F. W. Cutruzzola, K. M. O’Brien, M. L. Stetz, R. Enriquez, and L. I. Deckelbaum, “Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of human colonic mucosa. Detection of adenomatous transformation,” Gastroenterology99(1), 150–157 (1990).
[PubMed]

1988 (1)

B. Vogelstein, E. R. Fearon, S. R. Hamilton, S. E. Kern, A. C. Preisinger, M. Leppert, Y. Nakamura, R. White, A. M. Smits, and J. L. Bos, “Genetic Alterations during Colorectal-Tumor Development,” N. Engl. J. Med.319(9), 525–532 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

N. Nakashima, K. Yoshihara, F. Tanaka, and K. Yagi, “Picosecond fluorescence lifetime of the coenzyme of D-amino acid oxidase,” J. Biol. Chem.255(11), 5261–5263 (1980).
[PubMed]

Abe, S.

N. Nakaniwa, A. Namihisa, T. Ogihara, A. Ohkawa, S. Abe, A. Nagahara, O. Kobayashi, J. Sasaki, and N. Sato, “Newly developed autofluorescence imaging videoscope system for the detection of colonic neoplasms,” Dig. Endosc.17(3), 235–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, R.

Alfano, R. R.

Y. Yang, G. C. Tang, M. Bessler, and R. R. Alfano, “Fluorescence spectroscopy as a photonic pathology method for detecting colon cancer,” Lasers Life Sci.6, 259–276 (1995).

Anand, P.

P. A. A. De Beule, C. Dunsby, N. P. Galletly, G. W. Stamp, A. C. Chu, U. Anand, P. Anand, C. D. Benham, A. Naylor, and P. M. W. French, “A hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime probe for skin cancer diagnosis,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(12), 123101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anand, U.

P. A. A. De Beule, C. Dunsby, N. P. Galletly, G. W. Stamp, A. C. Chu, U. Anand, P. Anand, C. D. Benham, A. Naylor, and P. M. W. French, “A hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime probe for skin cancer diagnosis,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(12), 123101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersson-Engels, S.

A. J. Thompson, S. Coda, M. B. Sørensen, G. Kennedy, R. Patalay, U. Waitong-Brämming, P. A. A. De Beule, M. A. A. Neil, S. Andersson-Engels, N. Bendsøe, P. M. W. French, K. Svanberg, and C. Dunsby, “In vivo measurements of diffuse reflectance and time-resolved autofluorescence emission spectra of basal cell carcinomas,” J. Biophotonics5(3), 240–254 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Eker, S. Montán, E. Jaramillo, K. Koizumi, C. Rubio, S. Andersson-Engels, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, and P. Slezak, “Clinical spectral characterisation of colonic mucosal lesions using autofluorescence and delta aminolevulinic acid sensitisation,” Gut44(4), 511–518 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy,” Gastroenterology119(3), 677–682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt.38(31), 6628–6637 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bader, A. N.

Badizadegan, K.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes,” Cancer Res.62(3), 682–687 (2002).
[PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy,” Gastroenterology119(3), 677–682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, D.

J. A. Jo, L. Marcu, Q. Fang, T. Papaioannou, J. H. Qiao, M. C. Fishbein, B. Beseth, A. H. Dorafshar, T. Reil, D. Baker, and J. Freischlag, “New methods for time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy data analysis based on the Laguerre expansion technique--applications in tissue diagnosis,” Methods Inf. Med.46(2), 206–211 (2007).
[PubMed]

Ballini, J. P.

T. Glanzmann, J. P. Ballini, H. van den Bergh, and G. Wagnieres, “Time-resolved spectrofluorometer for clinical tissue characterization during endoscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70(10), 4067–4077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barlow, W.

S. H. Taplin, W. Barlow, N. Urban, M. T. Mandelson, D. J. Timlin, L. Ichikawa, and P. Nefcy, “Stage, age, comorbidity, and direct costs of colon, prostate, and breast cancer care,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst.87(6), 417–426 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, W.

D. Schweitzer, S. Schenke, M. Hammer, F. Schweitzer, S. Jentsch, E. Birckner, W. Becker, and A. Bergmann, “Towards metabolic mapping of the human retina,” Microsc. Res. Tech.70(5), 410–419 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bendsøe, N.

A. J. Thompson, S. Coda, M. B. Sørensen, G. Kennedy, R. Patalay, U. Waitong-Brämming, P. A. A. De Beule, M. A. A. Neil, S. Andersson-Engels, N. Bendsøe, P. M. W. French, K. Svanberg, and C. Dunsby, “In vivo measurements of diffuse reflectance and time-resolved autofluorescence emission spectra of basal cell carcinomas,” J. Biophotonics5(3), 240–254 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benham, C. D.

P. A. A. De Beule, C. Dunsby, N. P. Galletly, G. W. Stamp, A. C. Chu, U. Anand, P. Anand, C. D. Benham, A. Naylor, and P. M. W. French, “A hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime probe for skin cancer diagnosis,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(12), 123101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergman, J. J.

W. L. Curvers, R. Singh, L. M. Song, H. C. Wolfsen, K. Ragunath, K. Wang, M. B. Wallace, P. Fockens, and J. J. Bergman, “Endoscopic tri-modal imaging for detection of early neoplasia in Barrett’s oesophagus: a multi-center feasibility study using high-resolution endoscopy, autofluorescence imaging and narrow band imaging incorporated in one endoscopy system,” Gut57(2), 167–172 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Kara, F. P. Peters, P. Fockens, F. J. ten Kate, and J. J. Bergman, “Endoscopic video-autofluorescence imaging followed by narrow band imaging for detecting early neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc.64(2), 176–185 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergmann, A.

D. Schweitzer, S. Schenke, M. Hammer, F. Schweitzer, S. Jentsch, E. Birckner, W. Becker, and A. Bergmann, “Towards metabolic mapping of the human retina,” Microsc. Res. Tech.70(5), 410–419 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beseth, B.

J. A. Jo, L. Marcu, Q. Fang, T. Papaioannou, J. H. Qiao, M. C. Fishbein, B. Beseth, A. H. Dorafshar, T. Reil, D. Baker, and J. Freischlag, “New methods for time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy data analysis based on the Laguerre expansion technique--applications in tissue diagnosis,” Methods Inf. Med.46(2), 206–211 (2007).
[PubMed]

Bessler, M.

Y. Yang, G. C. Tang, M. Bessler, and R. R. Alfano, “Fluorescence spectroscopy as a photonic pathology method for detecting colon cancer,” Lasers Life Sci.6, 259–276 (1995).

Bigio, I.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O’Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut55(8), 1078–1083 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birckner, E.

D. Schweitzer, S. Schenke, M. Hammer, F. Schweitzer, S. Jentsch, E. Birckner, W. Becker, and A. Bergmann, “Towards metabolic mapping of the human retina,” Microsc. Res. Tech.70(5), 410–419 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blackman, R.

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, and R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.36(2), 105–111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boiko, I.

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implications,” J. Biomed. Opt.6(4), 385–396 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bok Yan So, J.

S. Duraipandian, M. Sylvest Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Yu Ho, M. Teh, K. Guan Yeoh, J. Bok Yan So, A. Shabbir, and Z. Huang, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo, online gastric cancer diagnosis during clinical endoscopic examination,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 081418 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boone, C. W.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes,” Cancer Res.62(3), 682–687 (2002).
[PubMed]

Bos, J. L.

B. Vogelstein, E. R. Fearon, S. R. Hamilton, S. E. Kern, A. C. Preisinger, M. Leppert, Y. Nakamura, R. White, A. M. Smits, and J. L. Bos, “Genetic Alterations during Colorectal-Tumor Development,” N. Engl. J. Med.319(9), 525–532 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bown, S. G.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O’Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut55(8), 1078–1083 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyce, G. A.

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, and R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.36(2), 105–111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brennan, J. F.

R. M. Cothren, M. V. Sivak, J. Van Dam, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmaurice, J. M. Crawford, J. Wu, J. F. Brennan, R. P. Rava, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of dysplasia at colonoscopy using laser-induced fluorescence: a blinded study,” Gastrointest. Endosc.44(2), 168–176 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burg, J.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology127(3), 706–713 (2004).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical configuration of the fiber-optic probe-based fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy system. Insets show the arrangement of the optical fibers in the custom fiber bundle at the distal end of the probe and at the output of the fluorescence detection branch of the proximal end of the probe. Cores shown in green are fluorescence detection fibers; fibers colored blue are used to deliver the laser excitation; the orange and red cores were unused in this study.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Summary of results from normal tissues grouped according to whether the patient was diagnosed with a polyp (n = 13) or IBD (n = 4). (a & b) Exemplar H&E stained histological sections of a biopsy sample of normal colon from a patient diagnosed with a polyp (a) and IBD (b). Scale bar represents 100 μm, see text for description of arrowheads. (c) & (d) show the mean fluorescence emission spectra obtained with 375 and 435 nm excitation, respectively. (e) & (f) show the spectrally resolved fluorescence lifetimes for 375 and 435 nm excitation, respectively. (g) shows the spectrally averaged mean fluorescence lifetimes for both groups and for both excitation wavelengths. The error bars represent ± 1 standard deviation in all panels.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Summary of results from normal tissues grouped according to the location that the specimen was taken from. The number of specimens in each group was: rectum (n = 2), left (n = 8), transverse (n = 5), right (n = 3). (a) & (b) show the mean fluorescence emission spectra obtained with 375 and 435 nm excitation respectively. (c) shows the spectrally averaged mean fluorescence lifetimes for both groups and for both excitation wavelengths. The error bars represent ± 1 standard deviation in all panels.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of normal tissue versus neoplastic and non-neoplastic polyp specimens. (a) & (b) show exemplar H&E stained histological sections of (a) neoplastic (adenomatous polyp) and (b) non-neoplastic (hyperplastic polyp) polyps, respectively. Scale bar represents 100 μm, see text for description of arrowheads and asterisks. (c) & (d) show the mean fluorescence emission spectra obtained with 375 and 435 nm excitation, respectively. (e) & (f) show the spectrally resolved fluorescence lifetimes with 375 and 435 nm excitation, respectively. (g) shows the spectrally averaged mean fluorescence lifetimes for all three groups and for both excitation wavelengths. The error bars represent ± 1 standard deviation in all panels.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Shift in the spectrally averaged mean fluorescence lifetime for (a) 375 nm and (b) 435 nm excitation of neoplastic (red) and non-neoplastic polyp (green) specimens. Lifetime shifts are calculated using a measurement of normal tissue obtained from the same or nearest region of colon (paired analysis).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of normal tissue and IBD specimens. (a) & (b) show an exemplar H&E stained histological sections of biopsy samples obtained from one patient of (a) normal colonic mucosa and (b) IBD tissue (ulcerative colitis) respectively. Scale bar represents 100 μm, see text for description of arrowheads. (c) & (d) show the mean normalized fluorescence emission spectra obtained with 375 nm and 435 nm excitation, respectively. (e) & (f) show the spectrally resolved mean fluorescence lifetimes with 375 nm and 435 nm excitation, respectively. (g) shows the spectrally averaged mean fluorescence lifetime for both groups and for both excitation wavelengths. The spectrally averaged mean fluorescence lifetime for 375 nm excitation was obtained using the emission spectral range 494-556 nm. The error bars represent ± 1 standard deviation in all panels.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Bar graphs showing the shift in the spectrally averaged mean fluorescence lifetime observed in all IBD samples relative to a sample of healthy tissue from the same patient. (a) & (b) show lifetime shifts obtained with 375 nm and 435 nm excitation respectively. The lifetime shift for 375 nm excitation was obtained using the spectrally averaged mean lifetime calculated over the emission spectral range 494-556 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Summary of all measured shifts in mean fluorescence emission wavelength and spectrally averaged mean fluorescence lifetime for (a) 375 nm and (b) 435 nm excitation wavelengths. The lifetime shift for 375 nm excitation was obtained using the spectrally averaged mean lifetime calculated over the emission spectral range 494-556 nm for all points.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary showing the clinical diagnoses of all the ex vivo samples investigated with the endoscopic spectrometer

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of colonic polyps included in study

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Table 3 Spectrally averaged fluorescence lifetime shift for neoplastic and non-neoplastic polyps

Tables Icon

Table 4 Summary of IBD (inflammatory bowel disease) specimens included in the study, divided by type of analysis performed

Equations (3)

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I(t)= a 1 exp( t τ 1 )+ a 2 exp( t τ 2 )
τ mean = a 1 τ 1 2 + a 2 τ 2 2 a 1 τ 1 + a 2 τ 2
τ ¯ spectral = i=1 n I i τ i i=1 n I i

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