Abstract

To extend our understanding of tear film dynamics for the management of dry eye disease, we propose a method to optically sense the tear film and estimate simultaneously the thicknesses of the lipid and aqueous layers. The proposed method, SDT-OCT, combines ultra-high axial resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) and a robust estimator based on statistical decision theory (SDT) to achieve thickness measurements at the nanometer scale. Unlike conventional Fourier-domain OCT where peak detection of layers occurs in Fourier space, in SDT-OCT thickness is estimated using statistical decision theory directly on the raw spectra acquired with the OCT system. In this paper, we demonstrate in simulation that a customized OCT system tailored to ~1 µm axial point spread function (FWHM) in the corneal tissue, combined with the maximum-likelihood estimator, can estimate thicknesses of the nanometer-scale lipid and micron-scale aqueous layers of the tear film, simultaneously, with nanometer precision. This capability was validated in experiments using a physical phantom that consists of two layers of optical coatings that mimic the lipid and aqueous layers of the tear film.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. A. Lemp and G. N. Foulks, “The definition and classification of dry eye disease: report of the Definition and Classification Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007),” Ocul. Surf. 5(2), 75–92 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. G. Rieger, “The importance of the precorneal tear film for the quality of optical imaging,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 76(3), 157–158 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, R. M. Hill, K. W. Koelling, and J. M. Tiffany, “The thickness of the tear film,” Curr. Eye Res. 29(4-5), 357–368 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. S. C. Pflugfelder, “Management and therapy of dry eye disease: report of the Management and Therapy Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007),” Ocul. Surf. 5(2), 163–178 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. M. G. Doane, “An instrument for in vivo tear film interferometry,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 66(6), 383–388 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. J. Huang, E. Clarkson, M. Kupinski, K. S. Lee, K. L. Maki, D. S. Ross, J. V. Aquavella, and J. P. Rolland, “Maximum-likelihood estimation in Optical Coherence Tomography in the context of the tear film dynamics,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 1806–1816 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. P. E. King-Smith, S. H. Kimball, and J. J. Nichols, “Tear film interferometry and corneal surface roughness,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(4), 2614–2618 (2014).
    [PubMed]
  19. K. S. Lee, K. P. Thompson, and J. P. Rolland, “Broadband astigmatism-corrected Czerny-Turner spectrometer,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23378–23384 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. S. Patel, J. Marshall, and F. W. Fitzke, “Refractive index of the human corneal epithelium and stroma,” J. Refract. Surg. 11(2), 100–105 (1995).
    [PubMed]
  21. J. M. Tiffany, “Refractive index of meibomian and other lipids,” Curr. Eye Res. 5(11), 887–889 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. J. P. Craig, P. A. Simmons, S. Patel, and A. Tomlinson, “Refractive index and osmolality of human tears,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 72(10), 718–724 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. P. Tankam, A. P. Santhanam, K. S. Lee, J. Won, C. Canavesi, and J. P. Rolland, “Parallelized multi-graphics processing unit framework for high-speed Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071410 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

P. E. King-Smith, S. H. Kimball, and J. J. Nichols, “Tear film interferometry and corneal surface roughness,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(4), 2614–2618 (2014).
[PubMed]

P. Tankam, A. P. Santhanam, K. S. Lee, J. Won, C. Canavesi, and J. P. Rolland, “Parallelized multi-graphics processing unit framework for high-speed Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071410 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

2012 (1)

T. Schmoll, A. Unterhuber, C. Kolbitsch, T. Le, A. Stingl, and R. Leitgeb, “Precise thickness measurements of Bowman’s layer, epithelium, and tear film,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), E795–E802 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

K. S. Lee, K. P. Thompson, and J. P. Rolland, “Broadband astigmatism-corrected Czerny-Turner spectrometer,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23378–23384 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Chen, J. Wang, A. Tao, M. Shen, S. Jiao, and F. Lu, “Ultrahigh-resolution measurement by optical coherence tomography of dynamic tear film changes on contact lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(4), 1988–1993 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

M. A. Lemp and G. N. Foulks, “The definition and classification of dry eye disease: report of the Definition and Classification Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007),” Ocul. Surf. 5(2), 75–92 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Pflugfelder, “Management and therapy of dry eye disease: report of the Management and Therapy Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007),” Ocul. Surf. 5(2), 163–178 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

M. E. Johnson and P. J. Murphy, “Changes in the tear film and ocular surface from dry eye syndrome,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 23(4), 449–474 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, R. M. Hill, K. W. Koelling, and J. M. Tiffany, “The thickness of the tear film,” Curr. Eye Res. 29(4-5), 357–368 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1995 (2)

S. Patel, J. Marshall, and F. W. Fitzke, “Refractive index of the human corneal epithelium and stroma,” J. Refract. Surg. 11(2), 100–105 (1995).
[PubMed]

J. P. Craig, P. A. Simmons, S. Patel, and A. Tomlinson, “Refractive index and osmolality of human tears,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 72(10), 718–724 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

J. I. Prydal and F. W. Campbell, “Study of precorneal tear film thickness and structure by interferometry and confocal microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33(6), 1996–2005 (1992).
[PubMed]

G. Rieger, “The importance of the precorneal tear film for the quality of optical imaging,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 76(3), 157–158 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

M. G. Doane, “An instrument for in vivo tear film interferometry,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 66(6), 383–388 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

J. M. Tiffany, “Refractive index of meibomian and other lipids,” Curr. Eye Res. 5(11), 887–889 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akcay, A. C.

Akcay, C.

Alex, A.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aquavella, J. V.

Bronhagl, M.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campbell, F. W.

J. I. Prydal and F. W. Campbell, “Study of precorneal tear film thickness and structure by interferometry and confocal microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33(6), 1996–2005 (1992).
[PubMed]

Canavesi, C.

P. Tankam, A. P. Santhanam, K. S. Lee, J. Won, C. Canavesi, and J. P. Rolland, “Parallelized multi-graphics processing unit framework for high-speed Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071410 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chakrabarti, R.

Chen, Q.

Q. Chen, J. Wang, A. Tao, M. Shen, S. Jiao, and F. Lu, “Ultrahigh-resolution measurement by optical coherence tomography of dynamic tear film changes on contact lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(4), 1988–1993 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheong, K. I.

Clarkson, E.

Craig, J. P.

J. P. Craig, P. A. Simmons, S. Patel, and A. Tomlinson, “Refractive index and osmolality of human tears,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 72(10), 718–724 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DeLemos, T.

Doane, M. G.

M. G. Doane, “An instrument for in vivo tear film interferometry,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 66(6), 383–388 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferris, R.

Fink, B. A.

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, R. M. Hill, K. W. Koelling, and J. M. Tiffany, “The thickness of the tear film,” Curr. Eye Res. 29(4-5), 357–368 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fitzke, F. W.

S. Patel, J. Marshall, and F. W. Fitzke, “Refractive index of the human corneal epithelium and stroma,” J. Refract. Surg. 11(2), 100–105 (1995).
[PubMed]

Fogt, N.

Foulks, G. N.

M. A. Lemp and G. N. Foulks, “The definition and classification of dry eye disease: report of the Definition and Classification Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007),” Ocul. Surf. 5(2), 75–92 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garhöfer, G.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Groeschl, M.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hill, R. M.

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, R. M. Hill, K. W. Koelling, and J. M. Tiffany, “The thickness of the tear film,” Curr. Eye Res. 29(4-5), 357–368 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hofer, B.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, J.

Jiao, S.

Q. Chen, J. Wang, A. Tao, M. Shen, S. Jiao, and F. Lu, “Ultrahigh-resolution measurement by optical coherence tomography of dynamic tear film changes on contact lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(4), 1988–1993 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, M. E.

M. E. Johnson and P. J. Murphy, “Changes in the tear film and ocular surface from dry eye syndrome,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 23(4), 449–474 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaya, S.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kimball, S. H.

P. E. King-Smith, S. H. Kimball, and J. J. Nichols, “Tear film interferometry and corneal surface roughness,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(4), 2614–2618 (2014).
[PubMed]

King-Smith, P. E.

P. E. King-Smith, S. H. Kimball, and J. J. Nichols, “Tear film interferometry and corneal surface roughness,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(4), 2614–2618 (2014).
[PubMed]

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, R. M. Hill, K. W. Koelling, and J. M. Tiffany, “The thickness of the tear film,” Curr. Eye Res. 29(4-5), 357–368 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Fogt, P. E. King-Smith, and G. Tuell, “Interferometric measurement of tear film thickness by use of spectral oscillations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15(1), 268–275 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koelling, K. W.

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, R. M. Hill, K. W. Koelling, and J. M. Tiffany, “The thickness of the tear film,” Curr. Eye Res. 29(4-5), 357–368 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kolbitsch, C.

T. Schmoll, A. Unterhuber, C. Kolbitsch, T. Le, A. Stingl, and R. Leitgeb, “Precise thickness measurements of Bowman’s layer, epithelium, and tear film,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), E795–E802 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kupinski, M.

Le, T.

T. Schmoll, A. Unterhuber, C. Kolbitsch, T. Le, A. Stingl, and R. Leitgeb, “Precise thickness measurements of Bowman’s layer, epithelium, and tear film,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), E795–E802 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K. S.

Leitgeb, R.

T. Schmoll, A. Unterhuber, C. Kolbitsch, T. Le, A. Stingl, and R. Leitgeb, “Precise thickness measurements of Bowman’s layer, epithelium, and tear film,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), E795–E802 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R. A.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lemp, M. A.

M. A. Lemp and G. N. Foulks, “The definition and classification of dry eye disease: report of the Definition and Classification Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007),” Ocul. Surf. 5(2), 75–92 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, F.

Q. Chen, J. Wang, A. Tao, M. Shen, S. Jiao, and F. Lu, “Ultrahigh-resolution measurement by optical coherence tomography of dynamic tear film changes on contact lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(4), 1988–1993 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maki, K. L.

Marshall, J.

S. Patel, J. Marshall, and F. W. Fitzke, “Refractive index of the human corneal epithelium and stroma,” J. Refract. Surg. 11(2), 100–105 (1995).
[PubMed]

Murphy, P. J.

M. E. Johnson and P. J. Murphy, “Changes in the tear film and ocular surface from dry eye syndrome,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 23(4), 449–474 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nichols, J. J.

P. E. King-Smith, S. H. Kimball, and J. J. Nichols, “Tear film interferometry and corneal surface roughness,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(4), 2614–2618 (2014).
[PubMed]

O’Daniel, J.

Patel, S.

J. P. Craig, P. A. Simmons, S. Patel, and A. Tomlinson, “Refractive index and osmolality of human tears,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 72(10), 718–724 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Patel, J. Marshall, and F. W. Fitzke, “Refractive index of the human corneal epithelium and stroma,” J. Refract. Surg. 11(2), 100–105 (1995).
[PubMed]

Pflugfelder, S. C.

S. C. Pflugfelder, “Management and therapy of dry eye disease: report of the Management and Therapy Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007),” Ocul. Surf. 5(2), 163–178 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prydal, J. I.

J. I. Prydal and F. W. Campbell, “Study of precorneal tear film thickness and structure by interferometry and confocal microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33(6), 1996–2005 (1992).
[PubMed]

Riedl, J.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rieger, G.

G. Rieger, “The importance of the precorneal tear film for the quality of optical imaging,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 76(3), 157–158 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rolland, J.

Rolland, J. P.

Ross, D. S.

Santhanam, A. P.

P. Tankam, A. P. Santhanam, K. S. Lee, J. Won, C. Canavesi, and J. P. Rolland, “Parallelized multi-graphics processing unit framework for high-speed Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071410 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmetterer, L.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidl, D.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmoll, T.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Schmoll, A. Unterhuber, C. Kolbitsch, T. Le, A. Stingl, and R. Leitgeb, “Precise thickness measurements of Bowman’s layer, epithelium, and tear film,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), E795–E802 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, M.

Q. Chen, J. Wang, A. Tao, M. Shen, S. Jiao, and F. Lu, “Ultrahigh-resolution measurement by optical coherence tomography of dynamic tear film changes on contact lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(4), 1988–1993 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simmons, P. A.

J. P. Craig, P. A. Simmons, S. Patel, and A. Tomlinson, “Refractive index and osmolality of human tears,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 72(10), 718–724 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stingl, A.

T. Schmoll, A. Unterhuber, C. Kolbitsch, T. Le, A. Stingl, and R. Leitgeb, “Precise thickness measurements of Bowman’s layer, epithelium, and tear film,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), E795–E802 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tankam, P.

P. Tankam, A. P. Santhanam, K. S. Lee, J. Won, C. Canavesi, and J. P. Rolland, “Parallelized multi-graphics processing unit framework for high-speed Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071410 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tao, A.

Q. Chen, J. Wang, A. Tao, M. Shen, S. Jiao, and F. Lu, “Ultrahigh-resolution measurement by optical coherence tomography of dynamic tear film changes on contact lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(4), 1988–1993 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thompson, K. P.

Tiffany, J. M.

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J. M. Tiffany, “Refractive index of meibomian and other lipids,” Curr. Eye Res. 5(11), 887–889 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tomlinson, A.

J. P. Craig, P. A. Simmons, S. Patel, and A. Tomlinson, “Refractive index and osmolality of human tears,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 72(10), 718–724 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tuell, G.

Unterhuber, A.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Schmoll, A. Unterhuber, C. Kolbitsch, T. Le, A. Stingl, and R. Leitgeb, “Precise thickness measurements of Bowman’s layer, epithelium, and tear film,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), E795–E802 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vietauer, M.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Werkmeister, R. M.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
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P. Tankam, A. P. Santhanam, K. S. Lee, J. Won, C. Canavesi, and J. P. Rolland, “Parallelized multi-graphics processing unit framework for high-speed Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071410 (2014).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Tiffany, “Refractive index of meibomian and other lipids,” Curr. Eye Res. 5(11), 887–889 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (4)

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[PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

P. Tankam, A. P. Santhanam, K. S. Lee, J. Won, C. Canavesi, and J. P. Rolland, “Parallelized multi-graphics processing unit framework for high-speed Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071410 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Refract. Surg. (1)

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M. A. Lemp and G. N. Foulks, “The definition and classification of dry eye disease: report of the Definition and Classification Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007),” Ocul. Surf. 5(2), 75–92 (2007).
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Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optom. Vis. Sci. (3)

T. Schmoll, A. Unterhuber, C. Kolbitsch, T. Le, A. Stingl, and R. Leitgeb, “Precise thickness measurements of Bowman’s layer, epithelium, and tear film,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), E795–E802 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Doane, “An instrument for in vivo tear film interferometry,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 66(6), 383–388 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Craig, P. A. Simmons, S. Patel, and A. Tomlinson, “Refractive index and osmolality of human tears,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 72(10), 718–724 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. E. Johnson and P. J. Murphy, “Changes in the tear film and ocular surface from dry eye syndrome,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 23(4), 449–474 (2004).
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Other (1)

H. H. Barrett and K. J. Myers, Foundations of Image Science (Wiley, Hoboken, 2004), Chap. 13.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic layout of spectral domain OCT in the context of the tear film imaging.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Customized spectral domain OCT experimental setup.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental and theoretical PSFs.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Histogram of the camera readings at one pixel (red envelope is a Gaussian curve with the mean and standard deviation of the counts distribution) (b) Relation between the output variance of the power spectrum and the mean value (D.N.: digital number); The data point in the red square of (b) is derived from the measurements shown in (a).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Conditional log-likelihood that one measured spectrum is generated by different lipid and aqueous thicknesses; (b) Top view of the conditional log-likelihood in (a); (c) Conditional log-likelihood along the black line in (b) and the lipid layer thickness estimate; (d) Conditional log-likelihood along the red line in (b) and the aqueous layer thickness estimate.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Comparison of a measured spectrum (blue curve) and the predicted spectrum (red curve) from the mathematical model using the estimates.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Structure of a two-layer phantom; Thickness maps of (b) the lipid and (c) the aqueous layers; Repeatability distribution of (d) the lipid layer and (e) the aqueous layer.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Estimation accuracy and precision for different thickness of (a) the lipid layer and (b) the aqueous layers.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Refractive indices

Equations (9)

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m r (ω)= 1 2 rexp( i2 n 0 ω c l r ),
m s (ω)= 1 2 ( r 1 + r 2 ( 1 r 1 2 )exp( i2 n 1 ω c d l )+ r 3 ( 1 r 1 2 )( 1 r 2 2 )exp( i2 n 1 ω c d l +i2 n 2 ω c d a ) )exp( i2 n 0 ω c l s ),
r 3 = n 2 n 3 n 2 + n 3 exp( 2 σ 2 n 2 2 ω 2 c 2 ),
N g (x,Δt)Normal( N g| ( d l , d a ) ( x,Δt ) , K N g| ( d l , d a ) ( x,Δt ) ),
N g| ( d l , d a ) ( x,Δt ) = R(x) e Δt ω x Δ ω x ω x S(ω) | m r (ω)+ m s (ω) | 2 dω+ N dark ,
P( N g | d l , d a )= 1 ( 2π ) M 2 x [ K N g| ( d l , d a ) (x,Δt) ] 1 2 ×exp[ 1 2 x ( N g (x,Δt) N g| ( d l , d a ) ( x,Δt ) ) 2 K N g| ( d l , d a ) (x,Δt) ].
( d ^ l , d ^ a )= argmin d l , d a ( log( P( N g | d l , d a ) ) ).
K Ng (x,Δt)= C 1 N g ( x,Δt ) 2 + C 2 N g ( x,Δt ) + C 3 .
Δd= OPL n 2 Δn.

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