Abstract

We developed a reflection-mode subwavelength-resolution photoacoustic microscopy system capable of imaging optical absorption contrast in vivo. The simultaneous high-resolution and reflection-mode imaging capacity of the system was enabled by delicately configuring a miniature high-frequency ultrasonic transducer tightly under a water-immersion objective with numerical aperture of 1.0. At 532-nm laser illumination, the lateral resolution of the system was measured to be ~320 nm. With this system, subcellular structures of red blood cells and B16 melanoma cells were resolved ex vivo; microvessels, including individual capillaries, in a mouse ear were clearly imaged label-freely in vivo, using the intrinsic optical absorption from hemoglobin. The current study suggests that, the optical-absorption contrast, subwavelength resolution, and reflection-mode ability of the developed photoacoustic microscopy may empower a wide range of biomedical studies for visualizing cellular and/or subcellular structures.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (2)

T. P. Matthews, C. Zhang, D. K. Yao, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Label-free photoacoustic microscopy of peripheral nerves,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 016004 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, C. Yeh, S. Hu, L. Wang, B. T. Soetikno, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Fully motorized optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 2117–2120 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Single-cell label-free photoacoustic flowoxigraphy in vivo,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(15), 5759–5764 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wang, X. Yang, Y. Liu, B. Jiang, and Q. Luo, “Reflection-mode optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy based on a reflective objective,” Opt. Express 21(20), 24210–24218 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chen, R. Lin, H. Wang, J. Meng, H. Zheng, and L. Song, “Blind-deconvolution optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy in vivo,” Opt. Express 21(6), 7316–7327 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Hu and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy: auscultation of biological systems at the cellular level,” Biophys. J. 105(4), 841–847 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, “Photoacoustic tomography: in vivo imaging from organelles to organs,” Science 335(6075), 1458–1462 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yuan, S. Yang, and D. Xing, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy based on two-dimensional scanning galvanometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 023702 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, K. Maslov, S. Hu, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Reflection-mode submicron-resolution in vivo photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 020501 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Song, Q. Wei, T. Liu, D. Kuai, J. M. Burke, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “Integrating photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography for a multimodal retinal imaging platform,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 061206 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

Y. Wang, S. Hu, K. Maslov, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo integrated photoacoustic and confocal microscopy of hemoglobin oxygen saturation and oxygen partial pressure,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1029–1031 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “Label-free oxygen-metabolic photoacoustic microscopy in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 076003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, J. Kovalski, J. Yao, A. C. Santeford, R. E. Sohn, R. V. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, “VEGF is essential for hypoxia-inducible factor-mediated neovascularization but dispensable for endothelial sprouting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13264–13269 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

2009 (3)

2008 (2)

2004 (1)

Arbeit, J. M.

S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, J. Kovalski, J. Yao, A. C. Santeford, R. E. Sohn, R. V. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, “VEGF is essential for hypoxia-inducible factor-mediated neovascularization but dispensable for endothelial sprouting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13264–13269 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burke, J. M.

W. Song, Q. Wei, T. Liu, D. Kuai, J. M. Burke, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “Integrating photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography for a multimodal retinal imaging platform,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 061206 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

Chen, R.

L. Li, C. Yeh, S. Hu, L. Wang, B. T. Soetikno, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Fully motorized optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 2117–2120 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, K. Maslov, S. Hu, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Reflection-mode submicron-resolution in vivo photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 020501 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choudhury, A.

Fawzi, A.

Gong, W.

Hu, J.

Hu, S.

L. Li, C. Yeh, S. Hu, L. Wang, B. T. Soetikno, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Fully motorized optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 2117–2120 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Hu and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy: auscultation of biological systems at the cellular level,” Biophys. J. 105(4), 841–847 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, K. Maslov, S. Hu, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Reflection-mode submicron-resolution in vivo photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 020501 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, “Photoacoustic tomography: in vivo imaging from organelles to organs,” Science 335(6075), 1458–1462 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, J. Kovalski, J. Yao, A. C. Santeford, R. E. Sohn, R. V. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, “VEGF is essential for hypoxia-inducible factor-mediated neovascularization but dispensable for endothelial sprouting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13264–13269 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, S. Hu, K. Maslov, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo integrated photoacoustic and confocal microscopy of hemoglobin oxygen saturation and oxygen partial pressure,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1029–1031 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, V. Tsytsarev, and L. V. Wang, “Functional transcranial brain imaging by optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 040503 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, B.

Jiang, M.

Jiao, S.

W. Song, Q. Wei, T. Liu, D. Kuai, J. M. Burke, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “Integrating photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography for a multimodal retinal imaging platform,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 061206 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Jiao, M. Jiang, J. Hu, A. Fawzi, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, C. A. Puliafito, and H. F. Zhang, “Photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy for in vivo retinal imaging,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3967–3972 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Xie, S. Jiao, H. F. Zhang, and C. A. Puliafito, “Laser-scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(12), 1771–1773 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kovalski, J.

S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, J. Kovalski, J. Yao, A. C. Santeford, R. E. Sohn, R. V. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, “VEGF is essential for hypoxia-inducible factor-mediated neovascularization but dispensable for endothelial sprouting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13264–13269 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuai, D.

W. Song, Q. Wei, T. Liu, D. Kuai, J. M. Burke, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “Integrating photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography for a multimodal retinal imaging platform,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 061206 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lerman, G. M.

Levy, U.

Li, L.

Lin, R.

Liu, T.

W. Song, Q. Wei, T. Liu, D. Kuai, J. M. Burke, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “Integrating photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography for a multimodal retinal imaging platform,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 061206 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Luo, Q.

Maslov, K.

T. P. Matthews, C. Zhang, D. K. Yao, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Label-free photoacoustic microscopy of peripheral nerves,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 016004 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Single-cell label-free photoacoustic flowoxigraphy in vivo,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(15), 5759–5764 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, K. Maslov, S. Hu, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Reflection-mode submicron-resolution in vivo photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 020501 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, J. Kovalski, J. Yao, A. C. Santeford, R. E. Sohn, R. V. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, “VEGF is essential for hypoxia-inducible factor-mediated neovascularization but dispensable for endothelial sprouting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13264–13269 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, S. Hu, K. Maslov, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo integrated photoacoustic and confocal microscopy of hemoglobin oxygen saturation and oxygen partial pressure,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1029–1031 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Subwavelength-resolution label-free photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption in vivo,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3195–3197 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, V. Tsytsarev, and L. V. Wang, “Functional transcranial brain imaging by optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 040503 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maslov, K. I.

Matthews, T. P.

T. P. Matthews, C. Zhang, D. K. Yao, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Label-free photoacoustic microscopy of peripheral nerves,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 016004 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meng, J.

Oladipupo, S.

S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, J. Kovalski, J. Yao, A. C. Santeford, R. E. Sohn, R. V. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, “VEGF is essential for hypoxia-inducible factor-mediated neovascularization but dispensable for endothelial sprouting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13264–13269 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pittet, M. J.

R. Weissleder and M. J. Pittet, “Imaging in the era of molecular oncology,” Nature 452(7187), 580–589 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

Santeford, A. C.

S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, J. Kovalski, J. Yao, A. C. Santeford, R. E. Sohn, R. V. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, “VEGF is essential for hypoxia-inducible factor-mediated neovascularization but dispensable for endothelial sprouting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13264–13269 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheppard, C. J.

Shohet, R. V.

S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, J. Kovalski, J. Yao, A. C. Santeford, R. E. Sohn, R. V. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, “VEGF is essential for hypoxia-inducible factor-mediated neovascularization but dispensable for endothelial sprouting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13264–13269 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shung, K. K.

Si, K.

Soetikno, B. T.

Sohn, R. E.

S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, J. Kovalski, J. Yao, A. C. Santeford, R. E. Sohn, R. V. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, “VEGF is essential for hypoxia-inducible factor-mediated neovascularization but dispensable for endothelial sprouting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13264–13269 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, L.

Song, W.

W. Song, Q. Wei, T. Liu, D. Kuai, J. M. Burke, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “Integrating photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography for a multimodal retinal imaging platform,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 061206 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsytsarev, V.

S. Hu, K. Maslov, V. Tsytsarev, and L. V. Wang, “Functional transcranial brain imaging by optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 040503 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

Wang, L.

Wang, L. V.

T. P. Matthews, C. Zhang, D. K. Yao, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Label-free photoacoustic microscopy of peripheral nerves,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 016004 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, C. Yeh, S. Hu, L. Wang, B. T. Soetikno, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Fully motorized optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 2117–2120 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Single-cell label-free photoacoustic flowoxigraphy in vivo,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(15), 5759–5764 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Hu and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy: auscultation of biological systems at the cellular level,” Biophys. J. 105(4), 841–847 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, K. Maslov, S. Hu, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Reflection-mode submicron-resolution in vivo photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 020501 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, “Photoacoustic tomography: in vivo imaging from organelles to organs,” Science 335(6075), 1458–1462 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, J. Kovalski, J. Yao, A. C. Santeford, R. E. Sohn, R. V. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, “VEGF is essential for hypoxia-inducible factor-mediated neovascularization but dispensable for endothelial sprouting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13264–13269 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “Label-free oxygen-metabolic photoacoustic microscopy in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 076003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, S. Hu, K. Maslov, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo integrated photoacoustic and confocal microscopy of hemoglobin oxygen saturation and oxygen partial pressure,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1029–1031 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Subwavelength-resolution label-free photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption in vivo,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3195–3197 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, V. Tsytsarev, and L. V. Wang, “Functional transcranial brain imaging by optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 040503 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Wei, Q.

W. Song, Q. Wei, T. Liu, D. Kuai, J. M. Burke, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “Integrating photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography for a multimodal retinal imaging platform,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 061206 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weissleder, R.

R. Weissleder and M. J. Pittet, “Imaging in the era of molecular oncology,” Nature 452(7187), 580–589 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xia, Y.

Xie, Z.

Xing, D.

Y. Yuan, S. Yang, and D. Xing, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy based on two-dimensional scanning galvanometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 023702 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.

Y. Yuan, S. Yang, and D. Xing, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy based on two-dimensional scanning galvanometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 023702 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, X.

Yao, D. K.

T. P. Matthews, C. Zhang, D. K. Yao, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Label-free photoacoustic microscopy of peripheral nerves,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 016004 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, J.

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “Label-free oxygen-metabolic photoacoustic microscopy in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 076003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, J. Kovalski, J. Yao, A. C. Santeford, R. E. Sohn, R. V. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, “VEGF is essential for hypoxia-inducible factor-mediated neovascularization but dispensable for endothelial sprouting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13264–13269 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeh, C.

Yuan, Y.

Y. Yuan, S. Yang, and D. Xing, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy based on two-dimensional scanning galvanometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 023702 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

T. P. Matthews, C. Zhang, D. K. Yao, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Label-free photoacoustic microscopy of peripheral nerves,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 016004 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, K. Maslov, S. Hu, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Reflection-mode submicron-resolution in vivo photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 020501 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Subwavelength-resolution label-free photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption in vivo,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3195–3197 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H. F.

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Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (7199 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic diagram of the reflection-mode subwavelength-resolution photoacoustic microscopy system. (b) Photograph of the configured imaging probe consisting of a high-NA objective and a miniature high-frequency ultrasonic transducer. GM: galvanometer scanner; L1: scan lens; L2: tube lens.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Theoretical optical diffraction profiles with and without the ultrasonic transducer (UT) under the objective; (b) Subwavelength-resolution PAM image of graphite nanoparticles of a mean diameter of ~80 nm; (c) Lateral resolution of subwavelength-resolution PAM estimated by Gaussian fitting of the photoacoustic amplitude along the red dot-line in Fig. 2(b); (d) Subwavelength-resolution PAM imaging of a copper net with holes of 95 µm in diameter and bars of ~30 μm in width.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Subwavelength-resolution PAM imaging of individual RBCs and B16 melanoma cells ex vivo. (a) and (b) show the subwavelength-resolution PAM and OM images of RBCs, respectively; (c) Photoacoustic amplitude profile of one RBC along the marked dotted line; (d) and (e) show the subwavelength-resolution PAM and OM images of B16 melanoma cells, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 In vivo subwavelength-resolution PAM of a mouse ear. (a) Maximum amplitude projection (MAP) subwavelength-resolution PAM image of the mouse ear microvasculature; (b) Close-up of the white dashed square area in Fig. 4(a) where individual RBCs can be identified; (c) Representative cross-sectional images at different depths; (d) Volumetric rendering of the data set (Media 1).

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