Abstract

We report an automated classifier to detect the presence of basal cell carcinoma in images of mouse skin tissue samples acquired by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). The sensitivity and specificity of the classifier based on combined information of the scattering intensity and birefringence properties of the samples are significantly higher than when intensity or birefringence information are used alone. The combined information offers a sensitivity of 94.4% and specificity of 92.5%, compared to 78.2% and 82.2% for intensity-only information and 85.5% and 87.9% for birefringence-only information. These results demonstrate that analysis of the combination of complementary optical information obtained by PS-OCT has great potential for accurate skin cancer diagnosis.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (1)

T. Maier, D. Kulichova, T. Ruzicka, C. Kunte, and C. Berking, “Ex vivo high-definition optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma compared to frozen-section histology in micrographic surgery: a pilot study,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. 28, 80–85 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

2012 (1)

2011 (6)

L. Duan, S. Makita, M. Yamanari, Y. Lim, and Y. Yasuno, “Monte-carlo-based phase retardation estimator for polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 19, 16330–16345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Y. Wang, J. Wang, M.-L. Mancianti, and E. H. Epstein, “Basal cell carcinomas arise from hair follicle stem cells in ptch1+/−mice,” Cancer Cell 19, 114–124 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Gladkova, O. Streltsova, E. Zagaynova, E. Kiseleva, V. Gelikonov, G. Gelikonov, M. Karabut, K. Yunusova, and O. Evdokimova, “Cross-polarization optical coherence tomography for early bladder-cancer detection: statistical study,” J. Biophotonics 4, 519–532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Jemal, M. Saraiya, P. Patel, S. S. Cherala, J. Barnholtz-Sloan, J. Kim, C. L. Wiggins, and P. A. Wingo, “Recent trends in cutaneous melanoma incidence and death rates in the United States, 1992–2006,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 65, S17–S25 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Kuhrik, C. Seckman, N. Kuhrik, T. Ahearn, and P. Ercole, “Bringing skin assessments to life using human patient simulation: an emphasis on cancer prevention and early detection,” J. Cancer Educ. 26, 687–693 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Patil, H. Kirshnamoorthi, D. L. Ellis, T. G. van Leeuwen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “A clinical instrument for combined raman spectroscopy-optical coherence tomography of skin cancers,” Laser. Surg. Med. 43, 143–151 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

H. W. Rogers, M. A. Weinstock, A. R. Harris, M. R. Hinckley, S. R. Feldman, A. B. Fleischer, and B. M. Coldiron, “Incidence estimate of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the united states, 2006,” Arch. of Dermatol. 146, 283–287 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Makita, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, “Generalized jones matrix optical coherence tomography: performance and local birefringence imaging,” Opt. Express 18, 854–876 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

E. Linos, S. M. Swetter, M. G. Cockburn, G. A. Colditz, and C. A. Clarke, “Increasing burden of melanoma in the united states,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 129, 1666–1674 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mogensen, T. M. Joergensen, B. M. Nürnberg, H. A. Morsy, J. B. Thomsen, L. Thrane, and G. B. E. Jemec, “Assessment of optical coherence tomography imaging in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer and benign lesions versus normal skin: Observer-blinded evaluation by dermatologists and pathologists,” Dermatol. Surg. 35, 965–972 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

T. M. Jørgensen, A. Tycho, M. Mogensen, P. Bjerring, and G. B. Jemec, “Machine-learning classification of non-melanoma skin cancers from image features obtained by optical coherence tomography,” Skin Res. Technol. 14, 364–369 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

T. Gambichler, A. Orlikov, R. Vasa, G. Moussa, K. Hoffmann, M. Stcker, P. Altmeyer, and F. G. Bechara, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 45, 167–173 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mogensen and G. B. E. Jemec, “Diagnosis of nonmelanoma skin cancer/keratinocyte carcinoma: A review of diagnostic accuracy of nonmelanoma skin cancer diagnostic tests and technologies,” Dermatol. Surg. 33, 1158–1174 (2007).
[PubMed]

2006 (1)

S. Varma and R. Simon, “Bias in error estimation when using cross-validation for model selection,” BMC Bioinformatics 7, 91 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

E. W. Ek, F. Giorlando, S. Y. Su, and T. Dieu, “Clinical diagnosis of skin tumours: how good are we?” ANZ J. Surg. 75, 415–420 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. Strasswimmer, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, V. Neel, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of invasive basal cell carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 292–298 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

T. S. Housman, S. R. Feldman, P. M. Williford, A. B. Fleischer, N. D. Goldman, J. M. Acostamadiedo, and G. J. Chen, “Skin cancer is among the most costly of all cancers to treat for the medicare population,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 48, 425–429 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. C. Cawley and N. L. C. Talbot, “Efficient leave-one-out cross-validation of kernel fisher discriminant classifiers,” Pattern Recogn. 36, 2585–2592 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (5)

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329–340 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Baba, J. R. Chung, A. H. DeLaughter, B. D. Cameron, and G. L. Cote, “Development and calibration of an automated mueller matrix polarization imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 341–349 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, Y. Sutoh, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Birefringence imaging of human skin by polarization-sensitive spectral interferometric optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1803–1805 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Jiao and L. V. Wang, “Jones-matrix imaging of biological tissues with quadruple-channel optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 350–358 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Cooper and F. Wojnarowska, “The accuracy of clinical diagnosis of suspected premalignant and malignant skin lesions in renal transplant recipients,” Clin. Exp. Dermatol. 27, 436–438 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Laser. Surg. Med. 26, 119–129 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1998 (3)

1992 (1)

Acostamadiedo, J. M.

T. S. Housman, S. R. Feldman, P. M. Williford, A. B. Fleischer, N. D. Goldman, J. M. Acostamadiedo, and G. J. Chen, “Skin cancer is among the most costly of all cancers to treat for the medicare population,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 48, 425–429 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahearn, T.

M. Kuhrik, C. Seckman, N. Kuhrik, T. Ahearn, and P. Ercole, “Bringing skin assessments to life using human patient simulation: an emphasis on cancer prevention and early detection,” J. Cancer Educ. 26, 687–693 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altmeyer, P.

T. Gambichler, A. Orlikov, R. Vasa, G. Moussa, K. Hoffmann, M. Stcker, P. Altmeyer, and F. G. Bechara, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 45, 167–173 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashok, P. C.

Baba, J. S.

J. S. Baba, J. R. Chung, A. H. DeLaughter, B. D. Cameron, and G. L. Cote, “Development and calibration of an automated mueller matrix polarization imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 341–349 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnholtz-Sloan, J.

A. Jemal, M. Saraiya, P. Patel, S. S. Cherala, J. Barnholtz-Sloan, J. Kim, C. L. Wiggins, and P. A. Wingo, “Recent trends in cutaneous melanoma incidence and death rates in the United States, 1992–2006,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 65, S17–S25 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bechara, F. G.

T. Gambichler, A. Orlikov, R. Vasa, G. Moussa, K. Hoffmann, M. Stcker, P. Altmeyer, and F. G. Bechara, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 45, 167–173 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bellini, N.

Berking, C.

T. Maier, D. Kulichova, T. Ruzicka, C. Kunte, and C. Berking, “Ex vivo high-definition optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma compared to frozen-section histology in micrographic surgery: a pilot study,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. 28, 80–85 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bjerring, P.

T. M. Jørgensen, A. Tycho, M. Mogensen, P. Bjerring, and G. B. Jemec, “Machine-learning classification of non-melanoma skin cancers from image features obtained by optical coherence tomography,” Skin Res. Technol. 14, 364–369 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bow,

Cameron, B. D.

J. S. Baba, J. R. Chung, A. H. DeLaughter, B. D. Cameron, and G. L. Cote, “Development and calibration of an automated mueller matrix polarization imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 341–349 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cawley, G. C.

G. C. Cawley and N. L. C. Talbot, “Efficient leave-one-out cross-validation of kernel fisher discriminant classifiers,” Pattern Recogn. 36, 2585–2592 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, G. J.

T. S. Housman, S. R. Feldman, P. M. Williford, A. B. Fleischer, N. D. Goldman, J. M. Acostamadiedo, and G. J. Chen, “Skin cancer is among the most costly of all cancers to treat for the medicare population,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 48, 425–429 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z. P.

Cherala, S. S.

A. Jemal, M. Saraiya, P. Patel, S. S. Cherala, J. Barnholtz-Sloan, J. Kim, C. L. Wiggins, and P. A. Wingo, “Recent trends in cutaneous melanoma incidence and death rates in the United States, 1992–2006,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 65, S17–S25 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chung, J. R.

J. S. Baba, J. R. Chung, A. H. DeLaughter, B. D. Cameron, and G. L. Cote, “Development and calibration of an automated mueller matrix polarization imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 341–349 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clarke, C. A.

E. Linos, S. M. Swetter, M. G. Cockburn, G. A. Colditz, and C. A. Clarke, “Increasing burden of melanoma in the united states,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 129, 1666–1674 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cockburn, M. G.

E. Linos, S. M. Swetter, M. G. Cockburn, G. A. Colditz, and C. A. Clarke, “Increasing burden of melanoma in the united states,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 129, 1666–1674 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coldiron, B. M.

H. W. Rogers, M. A. Weinstock, A. R. Harris, M. R. Hinckley, S. R. Feldman, A. B. Fleischer, and B. M. Coldiron, “Incidence estimate of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the united states, 2006,” Arch. of Dermatol. 146, 283–287 (2010).
[Crossref]

Colditz, G. A.

E. Linos, S. M. Swetter, M. G. Cockburn, G. A. Colditz, and C. A. Clarke, “Increasing burden of melanoma in the united states,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 129, 1666–1674 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colston, B. W.

Colston, J.

Cooper, S. M.

S. M. Cooper and F. Wojnarowska, “The accuracy of clinical diagnosis of suspected premalignant and malignant skin lesions in renal transplant recipients,” Clin. Exp. Dermatol. 27, 436–438 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cote, G. L.

J. S. Baba, J. R. Chung, A. H. DeLaughter, B. D. Cameron, and G. L. Cote, “Development and calibration of an automated mueller matrix polarization imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 341–349 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Da Silva, L. B.

de Boer, J. F.

DeLaughter, A. H.

J. S. Baba, J. R. Chung, A. H. DeLaughter, B. D. Cameron, and G. L. Cote, “Development and calibration of an automated mueller matrix polarization imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 341–349 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dholakia, K.

Dieu, T.

E. W. Ek, F. Giorlando, S. Y. Su, and T. Dieu, “Clinical diagnosis of skin tumours: how good are we?” ANZ J. Surg. 75, 415–420 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duan, L.

Ek, E. W.

E. W. Ek, F. Giorlando, S. Y. Su, and T. Dieu, “Clinical diagnosis of skin tumours: how good are we?” ANZ J. Surg. 75, 415–420 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ellis, D. L.

C. A. Patil, H. Kirshnamoorthi, D. L. Ellis, T. G. van Leeuwen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “A clinical instrument for combined raman spectroscopy-optical coherence tomography of skin cancers,” Laser. Surg. Med. 43, 143–151 (2011).
[Crossref]

Epstein, E. H.

G. Y. Wang, J. Wang, M.-L. Mancianti, and E. H. Epstein, “Basal cell carcinomas arise from hair follicle stem cells in ptch1+/−mice,” Cancer Cell 19, 114–124 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ercole, P.

M. Kuhrik, C. Seckman, N. Kuhrik, T. Ahearn, and P. Ercole, “Bringing skin assessments to life using human patient simulation: an emphasis on cancer prevention and early detection,” J. Cancer Educ. 26, 687–693 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Evdokimova, O.

N. Gladkova, O. Streltsova, E. Zagaynova, E. Kiseleva, V. Gelikonov, G. Gelikonov, M. Karabut, K. Yunusova, and O. Evdokimova, “Cross-polarization optical coherence tomography for early bladder-cancer detection: statistical study,” J. Biophotonics 4, 519–532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Everett, M. J.

Feldman, S. R.

H. W. Rogers, M. A. Weinstock, A. R. Harris, M. R. Hinckley, S. R. Feldman, A. B. Fleischer, and B. M. Coldiron, “Incidence estimate of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the united states, 2006,” Arch. of Dermatol. 146, 283–287 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. S. Housman, S. R. Feldman, P. M. Williford, A. B. Fleischer, N. D. Goldman, J. M. Acostamadiedo, and G. J. Chen, “Skin cancer is among the most costly of all cancers to treat for the medicare population,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 48, 425–429 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fercher, A.

Fleischer, A. B.

H. W. Rogers, M. A. Weinstock, A. R. Harris, M. R. Hinckley, S. R. Feldman, A. B. Fleischer, and B. M. Coldiron, “Incidence estimate of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the united states, 2006,” Arch. of Dermatol. 146, 283–287 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. S. Housman, S. R. Feldman, P. M. Williford, A. B. Fleischer, N. D. Goldman, J. M. Acostamadiedo, and G. J. Chen, “Skin cancer is among the most costly of all cancers to treat for the medicare population,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 48, 425–429 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gambichler, T.

T. Gambichler, A. Orlikov, R. Vasa, G. Moussa, K. Hoffmann, M. Stcker, P. Altmeyer, and F. G. Bechara, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 45, 167–173 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gelikonov, G.

N. Gladkova, O. Streltsova, E. Zagaynova, E. Kiseleva, V. Gelikonov, G. Gelikonov, M. Karabut, K. Yunusova, and O. Evdokimova, “Cross-polarization optical coherence tomography for early bladder-cancer detection: statistical study,” J. Biophotonics 4, 519–532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gelikonov, V.

N. Gladkova, O. Streltsova, E. Zagaynova, E. Kiseleva, V. Gelikonov, G. Gelikonov, M. Karabut, K. Yunusova, and O. Evdokimova, “Cross-polarization optical coherence tomography for early bladder-cancer detection: statistical study,” J. Biophotonics 4, 519–532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giorlando, F.

E. W. Ek, F. Giorlando, S. Y. Su, and T. Dieu, “Clinical diagnosis of skin tumours: how good are we?” ANZ J. Surg. 75, 415–420 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gladkova, N.

N. Gladkova, O. Streltsova, E. Zagaynova, E. Kiseleva, V. Gelikonov, G. Gelikonov, M. Karabut, K. Yunusova, and O. Evdokimova, “Cross-polarization optical coherence tomography for early bladder-cancer detection: statistical study,” J. Biophotonics 4, 519–532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Göetzinger, E.

Goldman, N. D.

T. S. Housman, S. R. Feldman, P. M. Williford, A. B. Fleischer, N. D. Goldman, J. M. Acostamadiedo, and G. J. Chen, “Skin cancer is among the most costly of all cancers to treat for the medicare population,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 48, 425–429 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harris, A. R.

H. W. Rogers, M. A. Weinstock, A. R. Harris, M. R. Hinckley, S. R. Feldman, A. B. Fleischer, and B. M. Coldiron, “Incidence estimate of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the united states, 2006,” Arch. of Dermatol. 146, 283–287 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hee, M. R.

Herrington, C. S.

Hinckley, M. R.

H. W. Rogers, M. A. Weinstock, A. R. Harris, M. R. Hinckley, S. R. Feldman, A. B. Fleischer, and B. M. Coldiron, “Incidence estimate of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the united states, 2006,” Arch. of Dermatol. 146, 283–287 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hitzenberger, C.

Hoffmann, K.

T. Gambichler, A. Orlikov, R. Vasa, G. Moussa, K. Hoffmann, M. Stcker, P. Altmeyer, and F. G. Bechara, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 45, 167–173 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Housman, T. S.

T. S. Housman, S. R. Feldman, P. M. Williford, A. B. Fleischer, N. D. Goldman, J. M. Acostamadiedo, and G. J. Chen, “Skin cancer is among the most costly of all cancers to treat for the medicare population,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 48, 425–429 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

Itoh, M.

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329–340 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Laser. Surg. Med. 26, 119–129 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jemal, A.

A. Jemal, M. Saraiya, P. Patel, S. S. Cherala, J. Barnholtz-Sloan, J. Kim, C. L. Wiggins, and P. A. Wingo, “Recent trends in cutaneous melanoma incidence and death rates in the United States, 1992–2006,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 65, S17–S25 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jemec, G. B.

T. M. Jørgensen, A. Tycho, M. Mogensen, P. Bjerring, and G. B. Jemec, “Machine-learning classification of non-melanoma skin cancers from image features obtained by optical coherence tomography,” Skin Res. Technol. 14, 364–369 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jemec, G. B. E.

M. Mogensen, T. M. Joergensen, B. M. Nürnberg, H. A. Morsy, J. B. Thomsen, L. Thrane, and G. B. E. Jemec, “Assessment of optical coherence tomography imaging in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer and benign lesions versus normal skin: Observer-blinded evaluation by dermatologists and pathologists,” Dermatol. Surg. 35, 965–972 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mogensen and G. B. E. Jemec, “Diagnosis of nonmelanoma skin cancer/keratinocyte carcinoma: A review of diagnostic accuracy of nonmelanoma skin cancer diagnostic tests and technologies,” Dermatol. Surg. 33, 1158–1174 (2007).
[PubMed]

Jiao, S.

S. Jiao and L. V. Wang, “Jones-matrix imaging of biological tissues with quadruple-channel optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 350–358 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joergensen, T. M.

M. Mogensen, T. M. Joergensen, B. M. Nürnberg, H. A. Morsy, J. B. Thomsen, L. Thrane, and G. B. E. Jemec, “Assessment of optical coherence tomography imaging in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer and benign lesions versus normal skin: Observer-blinded evaluation by dermatologists and pathologists,” Dermatol. Surg. 35, 965–972 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jørgensen, T. M.

T. M. Jørgensen, A. Tycho, M. Mogensen, P. Bjerring, and G. B. Jemec, “Machine-learning classification of non-melanoma skin cancers from image features obtained by optical coherence tomography,” Skin Res. Technol. 14, 364–369 (2008).
[Crossref]

Karabut, M.

N. Gladkova, O. Streltsova, E. Zagaynova, E. Kiseleva, V. Gelikonov, G. Gelikonov, M. Karabut, K. Yunusova, and O. Evdokimova, “Cross-polarization optical coherence tomography for early bladder-cancer detection: statistical study,” J. Biophotonics 4, 519–532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

A. Jemal, M. Saraiya, P. Patel, S. S. Cherala, J. Barnholtz-Sloan, J. Kim, C. L. Wiggins, and P. A. Wingo, “Recent trends in cutaneous melanoma incidence and death rates in the United States, 1992–2006,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 65, S17–S25 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kirshnamoorthi, H.

C. A. Patil, H. Kirshnamoorthi, D. L. Ellis, T. G. van Leeuwen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “A clinical instrument for combined raman spectroscopy-optical coherence tomography of skin cancers,” Laser. Surg. Med. 43, 143–151 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kiseleva, E.

N. Gladkova, O. Streltsova, E. Zagaynova, E. Kiseleva, V. Gelikonov, G. Gelikonov, M. Karabut, K. Yunusova, and O. Evdokimova, “Cross-polarization optical coherence tomography for early bladder-cancer detection: statistical study,” J. Biophotonics 4, 519–532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuhrik, M.

M. Kuhrik, C. Seckman, N. Kuhrik, T. Ahearn, and P. Ercole, “Bringing skin assessments to life using human patient simulation: an emphasis on cancer prevention and early detection,” J. Cancer Educ. 26, 687–693 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuhrik, N.

M. Kuhrik, C. Seckman, N. Kuhrik, T. Ahearn, and P. Ercole, “Bringing skin assessments to life using human patient simulation: an emphasis on cancer prevention and early detection,” J. Cancer Educ. 26, 687–693 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kulichova, D.

T. Maier, D. Kulichova, T. Ruzicka, C. Kunte, and C. Berking, “Ex vivo high-definition optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma compared to frozen-section histology in micrographic surgery: a pilot study,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. 28, 80–85 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kunte, C.

T. Maier, D. Kulichova, T. Ruzicka, C. Kunte, and C. Berking, “Ex vivo high-definition optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma compared to frozen-section histology in micrographic surgery: a pilot study,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. 28, 80–85 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329–340 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Laser. Surg. Med. 26, 119–129 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lim, Y.

Linos, E.

E. Linos, S. M. Swetter, M. G. Cockburn, G. A. Colditz, and C. A. Clarke, “Increasing burden of melanoma in the united states,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 129, 1666–1674 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

C. A. Patil, H. Kirshnamoorthi, D. L. Ellis, T. G. van Leeuwen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “A clinical instrument for combined raman spectroscopy-optical coherence tomography of skin cancers,” Laser. Surg. Med. 43, 143–151 (2011).
[Crossref]

Maier, T.

T. Maier, D. Kulichova, T. Ruzicka, C. Kunte, and C. Berking, “Ex vivo high-definition optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma compared to frozen-section histology in micrographic surgery: a pilot study,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. 28, 80–85 (2014).
[Crossref]

Maitland, D. J.

Makita, S.

Malekafzali, A.

Mancianti, M.-L.

G. Y. Wang, J. Wang, M.-L. Mancianti, and E. H. Epstein, “Basal cell carcinomas arise from hair follicle stem cells in ptch1+/−mice,” Cancer Cell 19, 114–124 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milner, T. E.

Mogensen, M.

M. Mogensen, T. M. Joergensen, B. M. Nürnberg, H. A. Morsy, J. B. Thomsen, L. Thrane, and G. B. E. Jemec, “Assessment of optical coherence tomography imaging in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer and benign lesions versus normal skin: Observer-blinded evaluation by dermatologists and pathologists,” Dermatol. Surg. 35, 965–972 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Jørgensen, A. Tycho, M. Mogensen, P. Bjerring, and G. B. Jemec, “Machine-learning classification of non-melanoma skin cancers from image features obtained by optical coherence tomography,” Skin Res. Technol. 14, 364–369 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Mogensen and G. B. E. Jemec, “Diagnosis of nonmelanoma skin cancer/keratinocyte carcinoma: A review of diagnostic accuracy of nonmelanoma skin cancer diagnostic tests and technologies,” Dermatol. Surg. 33, 1158–1174 (2007).
[PubMed]

Morsy, H. A.

M. Mogensen, T. M. Joergensen, B. M. Nürnberg, H. A. Morsy, J. B. Thomsen, L. Thrane, and G. B. E. Jemec, “Assessment of optical coherence tomography imaging in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer and benign lesions versus normal skin: Observer-blinded evaluation by dermatologists and pathologists,” Dermatol. Surg. 35, 965–972 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moussa, G.

T. Gambichler, A. Orlikov, R. Vasa, G. Moussa, K. Hoffmann, M. Stcker, P. Altmeyer, and F. G. Bechara, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 45, 167–173 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neel, V.

J. Strasswimmer, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, V. Neel, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of invasive basal cell carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 292–298 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nelson, J. S.

Nürnberg, B. M.

M. Mogensen, T. M. Joergensen, B. M. Nürnberg, H. A. Morsy, J. B. Thomsen, L. Thrane, and G. B. E. Jemec, “Assessment of optical coherence tomography imaging in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer and benign lesions versus normal skin: Observer-blinded evaluation by dermatologists and pathologists,” Dermatol. Surg. 35, 965–972 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Orlikov, A.

T. Gambichler, A. Orlikov, R. Vasa, G. Moussa, K. Hoffmann, M. Stcker, P. Altmeyer, and F. G. Bechara, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 45, 167–173 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, B. H.

J. Strasswimmer, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, V. Neel, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of invasive basal cell carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 292–298 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patel, P.

A. Jemal, M. Saraiya, P. Patel, S. S. Cherala, J. Barnholtz-Sloan, J. Kim, C. L. Wiggins, and P. A. Wingo, “Recent trends in cutaneous melanoma incidence and death rates in the United States, 1992–2006,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 65, S17–S25 (2011).
[Crossref]

Patil, C. A.

C. A. Patil, H. Kirshnamoorthi, D. L. Ellis, T. G. van Leeuwen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “A clinical instrument for combined raman spectroscopy-optical coherence tomography of skin cancers,” Laser. Surg. Med. 43, 143–151 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pierce, M. C.

J. Strasswimmer, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, V. Neel, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of invasive basal cell carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 292–298 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pircher, M.

Praveen, B. B.

Ramella-Roman, J. C.

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329–340 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riches, A.

Rogers, H. W.

H. W. Rogers, M. A. Weinstock, A. R. Harris, M. R. Hinckley, S. R. Feldman, A. B. Fleischer, and B. M. Coldiron, “Incidence estimate of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the united states, 2006,” Arch. of Dermatol. 146, 283–287 (2010).
[Crossref]

Roman, J. R.

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Laser. Surg. Med. 26, 119–129 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ruzicka, T.

T. Maier, D. Kulichova, T. Ruzicka, C. Kunte, and C. Berking, “Ex vivo high-definition optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma compared to frozen-section histology in micrographic surgery: a pilot study,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. 28, 80–85 (2014).
[Crossref]

Saraiya, M.

A. Jemal, M. Saraiya, P. Patel, S. S. Cherala, J. Barnholtz-Sloan, J. Kim, C. L. Wiggins, and P. A. Wingo, “Recent trends in cutaneous melanoma incidence and death rates in the United States, 1992–2006,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 65, S17–S25 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schoenenberger, K.

Seckman, C.

M. Kuhrik, C. Seckman, N. Kuhrik, T. Ahearn, and P. Ercole, “Bringing skin assessments to life using human patient simulation: an emphasis on cancer prevention and early detection,” J. Cancer Educ. 26, 687–693 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simon, R.

S. Varma and R. Simon, “Bias in error estimation when using cross-validation for model selection,” BMC Bioinformatics 7, 91 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srinivas, S. M.

Stcker, M.

T. Gambichler, A. Orlikov, R. Vasa, G. Moussa, K. Hoffmann, M. Stcker, P. Altmeyer, and F. G. Bechara, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 45, 167–173 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sticker, M.

Strasswimmer, J.

J. Strasswimmer, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, V. Neel, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of invasive basal cell carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 292–298 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Streltsova, O.

N. Gladkova, O. Streltsova, E. Zagaynova, E. Kiseleva, V. Gelikonov, G. Gelikonov, M. Karabut, K. Yunusova, and O. Evdokimova, “Cross-polarization optical coherence tomography for early bladder-cancer detection: statistical study,” J. Biophotonics 4, 519–532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, S. Y.

E. W. Ek, F. Giorlando, S. Y. Su, and T. Dieu, “Clinical diagnosis of skin tumours: how good are we?” ANZ J. Surg. 75, 415–420 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sutoh, Y.

Swanson, E. A.

Swetter, S. M.

E. Linos, S. M. Swetter, M. G. Cockburn, G. A. Colditz, and C. A. Clarke, “Increasing burden of melanoma in the united states,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 129, 1666–1674 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Talbot, N. L. C.

G. C. Cawley and N. L. C. Talbot, “Efficient leave-one-out cross-validation of kernel fisher discriminant classifiers,” Pattern Recogn. 36, 2585–2592 (2003).
[Crossref]

Thomsen, J. B.

M. Mogensen, T. M. Joergensen, B. M. Nürnberg, H. A. Morsy, J. B. Thomsen, L. Thrane, and G. B. E. Jemec, “Assessment of optical coherence tomography imaging in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer and benign lesions versus normal skin: Observer-blinded evaluation by dermatologists and pathologists,” Dermatol. Surg. 35, 965–972 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thrane, L.

M. Mogensen, T. M. Joergensen, B. M. Nürnberg, H. A. Morsy, J. B. Thomsen, L. Thrane, and G. B. E. Jemec, “Assessment of optical coherence tomography imaging in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer and benign lesions versus normal skin: Observer-blinded evaluation by dermatologists and pathologists,” Dermatol. Surg. 35, 965–972 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tycho, A.

T. M. Jørgensen, A. Tycho, M. Mogensen, P. Bjerring, and G. B. Jemec, “Machine-learning classification of non-melanoma skin cancers from image features obtained by optical coherence tomography,” Skin Res. Technol. 14, 364–369 (2008).
[Crossref]

van Leeuwen, T. G.

C. A. Patil, H. Kirshnamoorthi, D. L. Ellis, T. G. van Leeuwen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “A clinical instrument for combined raman spectroscopy-optical coherence tomography of skin cancers,” Laser. Surg. Med. 43, 143–151 (2011).
[Crossref]

Varma, S.

S. Varma and R. Simon, “Bias in error estimation when using cross-validation for model selection,” BMC Bioinformatics 7, 91 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vasa, R.

T. Gambichler, A. Orlikov, R. Vasa, G. Moussa, K. Hoffmann, M. Stcker, P. Altmeyer, and F. G. Bechara, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 45, 167–173 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, G. Y.

G. Y. Wang, J. Wang, M.-L. Mancianti, and E. H. Epstein, “Basal cell carcinomas arise from hair follicle stem cells in ptch1+/−mice,” Cancer Cell 19, 114–124 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

G. Y. Wang, J. Wang, M.-L. Mancianti, and E. H. Epstein, “Basal cell carcinomas arise from hair follicle stem cells in ptch1+/−mice,” Cancer Cell 19, 114–124 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

S. Jiao and L. V. Wang, “Jones-matrix imaging of biological tissues with quadruple-channel optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 350–358 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, T.

Weinstock, M. A.

H. W. Rogers, M. A. Weinstock, A. R. Harris, M. R. Hinckley, S. R. Feldman, A. B. Fleischer, and B. M. Coldiron, “Incidence estimate of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the united states, 2006,” Arch. of Dermatol. 146, 283–287 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wiggins, C. L.

A. Jemal, M. Saraiya, P. Patel, S. S. Cherala, J. Barnholtz-Sloan, J. Kim, C. L. Wiggins, and P. A. Wingo, “Recent trends in cutaneous melanoma incidence and death rates in the United States, 1992–2006,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 65, S17–S25 (2011).
[Crossref]

Williford, P. M.

T. S. Housman, S. R. Feldman, P. M. Williford, A. B. Fleischer, N. D. Goldman, J. M. Acostamadiedo, and G. J. Chen, “Skin cancer is among the most costly of all cancers to treat for the medicare population,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 48, 425–429 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wingo, P. A.

A. Jemal, M. Saraiya, P. Patel, S. S. Cherala, J. Barnholtz-Sloan, J. Kim, C. L. Wiggins, and P. A. Wingo, “Recent trends in cutaneous melanoma incidence and death rates in the United States, 1992–2006,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 65, S17–S25 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wojnarowska, F.

S. M. Cooper and F. Wojnarowska, “The accuracy of clinical diagnosis of suspected premalignant and malignant skin lesions in renal transplant recipients,” Clin. Exp. Dermatol. 27, 436–438 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamanari, M.

Yang, Y.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yunusova, K.

N. Gladkova, O. Streltsova, E. Zagaynova, E. Kiseleva, V. Gelikonov, G. Gelikonov, M. Karabut, K. Yunusova, and O. Evdokimova, “Cross-polarization optical coherence tomography for early bladder-cancer detection: statistical study,” J. Biophotonics 4, 519–532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zagaynova, E.

N. Gladkova, O. Streltsova, E. Zagaynova, E. Kiseleva, V. Gelikonov, G. Gelikonov, M. Karabut, K. Yunusova, and O. Evdokimova, “Cross-polarization optical coherence tomography for early bladder-cancer detection: statistical study,” J. Biophotonics 4, 519–532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, Q.

ANZ J. Surg. (1)

E. W. Ek, F. Giorlando, S. Y. Su, and T. Dieu, “Clinical diagnosis of skin tumours: how good are we?” ANZ J. Surg. 75, 415–420 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Arch. of Dermatol. (1)

H. W. Rogers, M. A. Weinstock, A. R. Harris, M. R. Hinckley, S. R. Feldman, A. B. Fleischer, and B. M. Coldiron, “Incidence estimate of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the united states, 2006,” Arch. of Dermatol. 146, 283–287 (2010).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

BMC Bioinformatics (1)

S. Varma and R. Simon, “Bias in error estimation when using cross-validation for model selection,” BMC Bioinformatics 7, 91 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cancer Cell (1)

G. Y. Wang, J. Wang, M.-L. Mancianti, and E. H. Epstein, “Basal cell carcinomas arise from hair follicle stem cells in ptch1+/−mice,” Cancer Cell 19, 114–124 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clin. Exp. Dermatol. (1)

S. M. Cooper and F. Wojnarowska, “The accuracy of clinical diagnosis of suspected premalignant and malignant skin lesions in renal transplant recipients,” Clin. Exp. Dermatol. 27, 436–438 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dermatol. Surg. (2)

M. Mogensen and G. B. E. Jemec, “Diagnosis of nonmelanoma skin cancer/keratinocyte carcinoma: A review of diagnostic accuracy of nonmelanoma skin cancer diagnostic tests and technologies,” Dermatol. Surg. 33, 1158–1174 (2007).
[PubMed]

M. Mogensen, T. M. Joergensen, B. M. Nürnberg, H. A. Morsy, J. B. Thomsen, L. Thrane, and G. B. E. Jemec, “Assessment of optical coherence tomography imaging in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer and benign lesions versus normal skin: Observer-blinded evaluation by dermatologists and pathologists,” Dermatol. Surg. 35, 965–972 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (2)

A. Jemal, M. Saraiya, P. Patel, S. S. Cherala, J. Barnholtz-Sloan, J. Kim, C. L. Wiggins, and P. A. Wingo, “Recent trends in cutaneous melanoma incidence and death rates in the United States, 1992–2006,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 65, S17–S25 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. S. Housman, S. R. Feldman, P. M. Williford, A. B. Fleischer, N. D. Goldman, J. M. Acostamadiedo, and G. J. Chen, “Skin cancer is among the most costly of all cancers to treat for the medicare population,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 48, 425–429 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

J. Strasswimmer, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, V. Neel, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of invasive basal cell carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 292–298 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Dermatol. Sci. (1)

T. Gambichler, A. Orlikov, R. Vasa, G. Moussa, K. Hoffmann, M. Stcker, P. Altmeyer, and F. G. Bechara, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 45, 167–173 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Representative histological (left column), intensity (middle column), and phase retardation (right column) images obtained from the same or similar locations in healthy (top row), endogenous BCC (top row), and allograft BCC (bottom row) mouse skin tissue. White arrows indicate location of tumors. The scale bars are applicable to all images.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Surface segmentation and ROI selection for intensity images. The red and green curves represent the first and second (true) skin surface segmentations, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Description of global intensity parameters. (a) An intensity image of mouse skin. (b) Averaged intensity A-line versus depth and visual guides to calculate parameters of interest. The black curve is averaged intensity A-line. The leftmost black, vertical dashed line indicates the starting position of the linear regression (red, dashed line), while the green line connects the starting point of the linear regression to the point 65 pixels below it and is used to calculate the thickness of the dermis layer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Description of global retardation parameters. (a) Phase retardation image of a mouse skin sample. (b) The red and yellow regions are the two sub-ROIs comprising the first and second 50 pixels below the surface. (c) The red and yellow curves show the mean retardation in each lateral line in the red and yellow areas, respectively. (d) The black curve is the difference between the red and yellow curves in (c), and the blue line is the binary signal created based on the threshold indicated by the black dashed line.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Description of local retardation parameters. (a) The red box identifies a representative moving window in a retardation image. (b) A linear regression for the retardation curve was fit over the 30-pixel range having the lowest residual in a linear fit.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

ROCs of different classifiers based on using intensity-only, birefringence-only or intensity and birefringence parameters.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Example PS-OCT images of a misclassified “normal sample.” The red arrow denotes a location showing BCC-like features.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Performance changes in accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of classifiers excluding a given proposed parameter. The excluded parameter ID corresponds to numbers shown in the third column of Tab. 1.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 List of global and local intensity and birefringence parameters used in the classifier.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of classifier results using different subsets of parameters.

Equations (4)

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Th = z = D fit D fit + L z f ( I ave ( z ) Ramp ( z ) ) z = D fit D fit + L f ( I ave ( z ) Ramp ( z ) ) ,
f ( x ) = { x , x > 0 0 , otherwise .
Δ R = 1 50 i = 51 100 R ( x , i ) 1 50 i = 1 50 R ( x , i ) ,
r threshold = 1 50 z = 1 N H ( Δ R ( x ) threshold ) ,

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