Abstract

This study used Raman spectroscopy to report the first human gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) biochemical characterization during the early phase of orthodontic tooth movement. This technique allows for label-free and noninvasive biochemical change monitoring in GCF during orthodontic tooth movement. Ten orthodontic patients (20.8 ± 2.5 years) participated in the study. GCF samples were obtained before (baseline, 0 days) and during orthodontic treatment at 1, 7 and 28 days. For Raman spectroscopic measurement, GCF samples (5 µl) were deposited onto a gold-coated substrate, then dried at room temperature. Raman spectra GCF analysis during orthodontic treatment indicated that the hydroxyapatite to primarily collagen-dominated matrix band (phosphate 984 cm−1/amide I 1667 cm−1) intensity ratio decreased at day 7 (P < 0.05). The carbonate apatite to hydroxyapatite ratio (carbonate 1088 cm−1/phosphate 984 cm−1) was significantly higher on day 7 compared to day 0 (P < 0.05). These results indicate that demineralization occurs during the alveolar bone remodeling process. We also found notable peak shifts in the amide I range during orthodontic tooth movement. The 1658 cm−1 in baseline red shifted to 1667 cm−1 at orthodontic treatment day 7. Curve fitting in the amide I (1615-1725 cm−1) range demonstrated that increased random coil conformation was accompanied by a decrease in β-sheet structure during orthodontic tooth movement. Thus, we suggest Raman spectroscopy could be used for label-free, non-invasive GCF quality assessment during orthodontic tooth movement. Furthermore, this method may prove to be a powerful diagnostic and prognostic tool for monitoring orthodontic tooth movement in a clinical setting.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. F. d’Apuzzo, S. Cappabianca, D. Ciavarella, A. Monsurrò, A. Silvestrini-Biavati, and L. Perillo, “Biomarkers of periodontal tissue remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement in mice and men: overview and clinical relevance,” ScientificWorld J. 2013, 105873 (2013).
    [PubMed]
  3. Z. Davidovitch, O. F. Nicolay, P. W. Ngan, and J. L. Shanfeld, “Neurotransmitters, cytokines, and the control of alveolar bone remodeling in orthodontics,” Dent. Clin. North Am. 32(3), 411–435 (1988).
    [PubMed]
  4. S. Uematsu, M. Mogi, and T. Deguchi, “Interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, epidermal growth factor, and beta 2-microglobulin levels are elevated in gingival crevicular fluid during human orthodontic tooth movement,” J. Dent. Res. 75(1), 562–567 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. M. Goodson, “Gingival crevice fluid flow,” Periodontol. 2000 31(1), 43–54 (2003).
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  6. M. C. Alfano, “The origin of gingival fluid,” J. Theor. Biol. 47(1), 127–136 (1974).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. G. Y. Teng and E. J. Liou, “Interdental osteotomies induce regional acceleratory phenomenon and accelerate orthodontic tooth movement,” J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 72(1), 19–29 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. A. Dudic, S. Kiliaridis, A. Mombelli, and C. Giannopoulou, “Composition changes in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement: comparisons between tension and compression sides,” Eur. J. Oral Sci. 114(5), 416–422 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. G. Barbieri, P. Solano, J. A. Alarcón, R. Vernal, J. Rios-Lugo, M. Sanz, and C. Martín, “Biochemical markers of bone metabolism in gingival crevicular fluid during early orthodontic tooth movement,” Angle Orthod. 83(1), 63–69 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. W. J. Rody, M. Wijegunasinghe, W. A. Wiltshire, and B. Dufault, “Differences in the gingival crevicular fluid composition between adults and adolescents undergoing orthodontic treatment,” Angle Orthod. 84(1), 120–126 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. N. Buduneli, E. Buduneli, E. O. Cetin, L. Kirilmaz, and N. Kütükçüler, “Clinical findings and gingival crevicular fluid prostaglandin E2 and interleukin-1-beta levels following initial periodontal treatment and short-term meloxicam administration,” Expert Opin. Pharmacother. 11(11), 1805–1812 (2010).
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  22. S. Yang, B. Li, A. Akkus, O. Akkus, and L. Lang, “Wide-field Raman imaging of dental lesions,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(12), 3107–3114 (2014).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. G. S. Griffiths, A. M. Moulson, A. Petrie, and I. T. James, “Evaluation of osteocalcin and Pyridinium crosslinks of bone collagen as markers of bone turnover in gingival crevicular fluid during different stages of orthodontic treatment,” J. Clin. Periodontol. 25(6), 492–498 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. J. D. Gelder, K. D. Gussem, P. Vandenabeele, and L. Moens, “Reference database of Raman spectra of biological molecules,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38(9), 1133–1147 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  26. Q. Matthews, A. Jirasek, J. Lum, X. Duan, and A. G. Brolo, “Variability in Raman spectra of single human tumor cells cultured in vitro: correlation with cell cycle and culture confluency,” Appl. Spectrosc. 64(8), 871–887 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, T. Zwerdling, S. M. Lane, K. Ihara, and T. Huser, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy detects individual neoplastic and normal hematopoietic cells,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 648–656 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. R. L. Frost and S. J. Palmer, “A vibrational spectroscopic study of the mixed anion mineral sanjuanite Al2(PO4)(SO4)(OH)·9H2O,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 79(5), 1210–1214 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  30. S. Mathew, “Orthodontic tooth movement and changes in gingival crevicular fluid: A Review,” J. Indian Orthod. Soc. 37, 101–114 (2004).
  31. N. Pender, B. H. A. Samuels, and K. S. Last, “The monitoring of orthodontic tooth movement over a 2-year period by analysis of gingival crevicular fluid,” Eur. J. Orthod. 16(6), 511–520 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. A. Carden and M. D. Morris, “Application of vibrational spectroscopy to the study of mineralized tissues (review),” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(3), 259–268 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. B. R. McCreadie, M. D. Morris, T. C. Chen, D. Sudhaker Rao, W. F. Finney, E. Widjaja, and S. A. Goldstein, “Bone tissue compositional differences in women with and without osteoporotic fracture,” Bone 39(6), 1190–1195 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. D. B. Burr, M. R. Forwood, D. P. Fyhrie, R. B. Martin, M. B. Schaffler, and C. H. Turner, “Bone microdamage and skeletal fragility in osteoporotic and stress fractures,” J. Bone Miner. Res. 12(1), 6–15 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. M. Grant, J. Wilson, P. Rock, and I. Chapple, “Induction of cytokines, MMP9, TIMPs, RANKL and OPG during orthodontic tooth movement,” Eur. J. Orthod. 35(5), 644–651 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. A. Dudic, S. Kiliaridis, A. Mombelli, and C. Giannopoulou, “Composition changes in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement: comparisons between tension and compression sides,” Eur. J. Oral Sci. 114(5), 416–422 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. S. A. Alfaqeeh and S. Anil, “Lactate dehydrogenase activity in gingival crevicular fluid as a marker in orthodontic tooth movement,” Open Dent. J. 5(1), 105–109 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. V. A. Iconomidou, D. G. Chryssikos, V. Gionis, M. A. Pavlidis, A. Paipetis, and S. J. Hamodrakas, “Secondary structure of chorion proteins of the teleostean fish Dentex dentex by ATR FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Struct. Biol. 132(2), 112–122 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. A. Torreggiani, G. Bottura, and G. Fini, “Interaction of biotin and biotinyl derivatives with avidin: conformational changes upon binding,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 31(5), 445–450 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  41. A. Torreggiani and A. Tinti, “Raman spectroscopy a promising technique for investigations of metallothioneins,” Metallomics 2(4), 246–260 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  42. A. M. Herrero, “Raman spectroscopy for monitoring protein structure in muscle food systems,” Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 48(6), 512–523 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

G. Y. Teng and E. J. Liou, “Interdental osteotomies induce regional acceleratory phenomenon and accelerate orthodontic tooth movement,” J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 72(1), 19–29 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Rody, M. Wijegunasinghe, W. A. Wiltshire, and B. Dufault, “Differences in the gingival crevicular fluid composition between adults and adolescents undergoing orthodontic treatment,” Angle Orthod. 84(1), 120–126 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yang, B. Li, A. Akkus, O. Akkus, and L. Lang, “Wide-field Raman imaging of dental lesions,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(12), 3107–3114 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Toledano, I. Cabello, M. A. Vílchez, M. A. Fernández, and R. Osorio, “Surface microanalysis and chemical imaging of early dentin remineralization,” Microsc. Microanal. 20(1), 245–256 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (7)

G. Barbieri, P. Solano, J. A. Alarcón, R. Vernal, J. Rios-Lugo, M. Sanz, and C. Martín, “Biochemical markers of bone metabolism in gingival crevicular fluid during early orthodontic tooth movement,” Angle Orthod. 83(1), 63–69 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sahu, S. Sawant, H. Mamgain, and C. M. Krishna, “Raman spectroscopy of serum: an exploratory study for detection of oral cancers,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 4161–4174 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Grant, J. Wilson, P. Rock, and I. Chapple, “Induction of cytokines, MMP9, TIMPs, RANKL and OPG during orthodontic tooth movement,” Eur. J. Orthod. 35(5), 644–651 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xiang, P. M. Duarte, J. A. Lima, V. R. Santos, T. D. Gonçalves, T. S. Miranda, and K. Z. Liu, “Diabetes-associated periodontitis molecular features in infrared spectra of gingival crevicular fluid,” J. Periodontol. 84(12), 1792–1800 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, A. Saha, S. McGee, L. H. Galindo, W. Liu, D. Plecha, N. Klein, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Application of Raman spectroscopy to identify microcalcifications and underlying breast lesions at stereotactic core needle biopsy,” Cancer Res. 73(11), 3206–3215 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. d’Apuzzo, S. Cappabianca, D. Ciavarella, A. Monsurrò, A. Silvestrini-Biavati, and L. Perillo, “Biomarkers of periodontal tissue remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement in mice and men: overview and clinical relevance,” ScientificWorld J. 2013, 105873 (2013).
[PubMed]

M. Grant, J. Wilson, P. Rock, and I. Chapple, “Induction of cytokines, MMP9, TIMPs, RANKL and OPG during orthodontic tooth movement,” Eur. J. Orthod. 35(5), 644–651 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, B. Li, G. Chen, S. Lin, C. Li, L. Sun, and Z. Huang, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy for potential noninvasive nasopharyngeal cancer detection,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 43(4), 497–502 (2012).

T. Buchwald, K. Niciejewski, M. Kozielski, M. Szybowicz, M. Siatkowski, and H. Krauss, “Identifying compositional and structural changes in spongy and subchondral bone from the hip joints of patients with osteoarthritis using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 017007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

R. L. Frost and S. J. Palmer, “A vibrational spectroscopic study of the mixed anion mineral sanjuanite Al2(PO4)(SO4)(OH)·9H2O,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 79(5), 1210–1214 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, Y. Wu, Y. Li, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Gastric cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy excited by polarized laser light,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(7), 3167–3174 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Alfaqeeh and S. Anil, “Lactate dehydrogenase activity in gingival crevicular fluid as a marker in orthodontic tooth movement,” Open Dent. J. 5(1), 105–109 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

A. Torreggiani and A. Tinti, “Raman spectroscopy a promising technique for investigations of metallothioneins,” Metallomics 2(4), 246–260 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Horsnell, P. Stonelake, J. Christie-Brown, G. Shetty, J. Hutchings, C. Kendall, and N. Stone, “Raman spectroscopy- a new method for the intra-operative assessment of axillary lymph nodes,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(12), 3042–3047 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. M. Xiang, K. Z. Liu, A. Man, E. Ghiabi, A. Cholakis, and D. A. Scott, “Periodontitis-specific molecular signatures in gingival crevicular fluid,” J. Periodontal Res. 45(3), 345–352 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Buduneli, E. Buduneli, E. O. Cetin, L. Kirilmaz, and N. Kütükçüler, “Clinical findings and gingival crevicular fluid prostaglandin E2 and interleukin-1-beta levels following initial periodontal treatment and short-term meloxicam administration,” Expert Opin. Pharmacother. 11(11), 1805–1812 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Matthews, A. Jirasek, J. Lum, X. Duan, and A. G. Brolo, “Variability in Raman spectra of single human tumor cells cultured in vitro: correlation with cell cycle and culture confluency,” Appl. Spectrosc. 64(8), 871–887 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

P. J. Brooks, D. Nilforoushan, M. F. Manolson, C. A. Simmons, and S. G. Gong, “Molecular markers of early orthodontic tooth movement,” Angle Orthod. 79(6), 1108–1113 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

A. M. Herrero, “Raman spectroscopy for monitoring protein structure in muscle food systems,” Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 48(6), 512–523 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

J. D. Gelder, K. D. Gussem, P. Vandenabeele, and L. Moens, “Reference database of Raman spectra of biological molecules,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38(9), 1133–1147 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, T. Zwerdling, S. M. Lane, K. Ihara, and T. Huser, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy detects individual neoplastic and normal hematopoietic cells,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 648–656 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. McCreadie, M. D. Morris, T. C. Chen, D. Sudhaker Rao, W. F. Finney, E. Widjaja, and S. A. Goldstein, “Bone tissue compositional differences in women with and without osteoporotic fracture,” Bone 39(6), 1190–1195 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dudic, S. Kiliaridis, A. Mombelli, and C. Giannopoulou, “Composition changes in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement: comparisons between tension and compression sides,” Eur. J. Oral Sci. 114(5), 416–422 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dudic, S. Kiliaridis, A. Mombelli, and C. Giannopoulou, “Composition changes in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement: comparisons between tension and compression sides,” Eur. J. Oral Sci. 114(5), 416–422 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

S. Mathew, “Orthodontic tooth movement and changes in gingival crevicular fluid: A Review,” J. Indian Orthod. Soc. 37, 101–114 (2004).

2003 (1)

J. M. Goodson, “Gingival crevice fluid flow,” Periodontol. 2000 31(1), 43–54 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

G. Perinetti, M. Paolantonio, M. D’Attilio, D. D’Archivio, D. Tripodi, B. Femminella, F. Festa, and G. Spoto, “Alkaline phosphatase activity in gingival crevicular fluid during human orthodontic tooth movement,” Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop. 122(5), 548–556 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

A. Carden and M. D. Morris, “Application of vibrational spectroscopy to the study of mineralized tissues (review),” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(3), 259–268 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. A. Iconomidou, D. G. Chryssikos, V. Gionis, M. A. Pavlidis, A. Paipetis, and S. J. Hamodrakas, “Secondary structure of chorion proteins of the teleostean fish Dentex dentex by ATR FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Struct. Biol. 132(2), 112–122 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Torreggiani, G. Bottura, and G. Fini, “Interaction of biotin and biotinyl derivatives with avidin: conformational changes upon binding,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 31(5), 445–450 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

G. S. Griffiths, A. M. Moulson, A. Petrie, and I. T. James, “Evaluation of osteocalcin and Pyridinium crosslinks of bone collagen as markers of bone turnover in gingival crevicular fluid during different stages of orthodontic treatment,” J. Clin. Periodontol. 25(6), 492–498 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

D. B. Burr, M. R. Forwood, D. P. Fyhrie, R. B. Martin, M. B. Schaffler, and C. H. Turner, “Bone microdamage and skeletal fragility in osteoporotic and stress fractures,” J. Bone Miner. Res. 12(1), 6–15 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

S. Uematsu, M. Mogi, and T. Deguchi, “Interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, epidermal growth factor, and beta 2-microglobulin levels are elevated in gingival crevicular fluid during human orthodontic tooth movement,” J. Dent. Res. 75(1), 562–567 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

T. Miura and G. J. Thomas., “Raman spectroscopy of proteins and their assemblies,” Subcell. Biochem. 24, 55–99 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

N. Pender, B. H. A. Samuels, and K. S. Last, “The monitoring of orthodontic tooth movement over a 2-year period by analysis of gingival crevicular fluid,” Eur. J. Orthod. 16(6), 511–520 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

J. Urmos, S. K. Sharma, and F. T. Mackenzie, “Characterization of some biogenic carbonates with Raman spectroscopy,” Am. Mineral. 76, 641–646 (1991).

1988 (1)

Z. Davidovitch, O. F. Nicolay, P. W. Ngan, and J. L. Shanfeld, “Neurotransmitters, cytokines, and the control of alveolar bone remodeling in orthodontics,” Dent. Clin. North Am. 32(3), 411–435 (1988).
[PubMed]

1974 (1)

M. C. Alfano, “The origin of gingival fluid,” J. Theor. Biol. 47(1), 127–136 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akkus, A.

S. Yang, B. Li, A. Akkus, O. Akkus, and L. Lang, “Wide-field Raman imaging of dental lesions,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(12), 3107–3114 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akkus, O.

S. Yang, B. Li, A. Akkus, O. Akkus, and L. Lang, “Wide-field Raman imaging of dental lesions,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(12), 3107–3114 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alarcón, J. A.

G. Barbieri, P. Solano, J. A. Alarcón, R. Vernal, J. Rios-Lugo, M. Sanz, and C. Martín, “Biochemical markers of bone metabolism in gingival crevicular fluid during early orthodontic tooth movement,” Angle Orthod. 83(1), 63–69 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alfano, M. C.

M. C. Alfano, “The origin of gingival fluid,” J. Theor. Biol. 47(1), 127–136 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alfaqeeh, S. A.

S. A. Alfaqeeh and S. Anil, “Lactate dehydrogenase activity in gingival crevicular fluid as a marker in orthodontic tooth movement,” Open Dent. J. 5(1), 105–109 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anil, S.

S. A. Alfaqeeh and S. Anil, “Lactate dehydrogenase activity in gingival crevicular fluid as a marker in orthodontic tooth movement,” Open Dent. J. 5(1), 105–109 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barbieri, G.

G. Barbieri, P. Solano, J. A. Alarcón, R. Vernal, J. Rios-Lugo, M. Sanz, and C. Martín, “Biochemical markers of bone metabolism in gingival crevicular fluid during early orthodontic tooth movement,” Angle Orthod. 83(1), 63–69 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barman, I.

I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, A. Saha, S. McGee, L. H. Galindo, W. Liu, D. Plecha, N. Klein, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Application of Raman spectroscopy to identify microcalcifications and underlying breast lesions at stereotactic core needle biopsy,” Cancer Res. 73(11), 3206–3215 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bottura, G.

A. Torreggiani, G. Bottura, and G. Fini, “Interaction of biotin and biotinyl derivatives with avidin: conformational changes upon binding,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 31(5), 445–450 (2000).
[Crossref]

Brolo, A. G.

Brooks, P. J.

P. J. Brooks, D. Nilforoushan, M. F. Manolson, C. A. Simmons, and S. G. Gong, “Molecular markers of early orthodontic tooth movement,” Angle Orthod. 79(6), 1108–1113 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buchwald, T.

T. Buchwald, K. Niciejewski, M. Kozielski, M. Szybowicz, M. Siatkowski, and H. Krauss, “Identifying compositional and structural changes in spongy and subchondral bone from the hip joints of patients with osteoarthritis using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 017007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buduneli, E.

N. Buduneli, E. Buduneli, E. O. Cetin, L. Kirilmaz, and N. Kütükçüler, “Clinical findings and gingival crevicular fluid prostaglandin E2 and interleukin-1-beta levels following initial periodontal treatment and short-term meloxicam administration,” Expert Opin. Pharmacother. 11(11), 1805–1812 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buduneli, N.

N. Buduneli, E. Buduneli, E. O. Cetin, L. Kirilmaz, and N. Kütükçüler, “Clinical findings and gingival crevicular fluid prostaglandin E2 and interleukin-1-beta levels following initial periodontal treatment and short-term meloxicam administration,” Expert Opin. Pharmacother. 11(11), 1805–1812 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burr, D. B.

D. B. Burr, M. R. Forwood, D. P. Fyhrie, R. B. Martin, M. B. Schaffler, and C. H. Turner, “Bone microdamage and skeletal fragility in osteoporotic and stress fractures,” J. Bone Miner. Res. 12(1), 6–15 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cabello, I.

M. Toledano, I. Cabello, M. A. Vílchez, M. A. Fernández, and R. Osorio, “Surface microanalysis and chemical imaging of early dentin remineralization,” Microsc. Microanal. 20(1), 245–256 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cappabianca, S.

F. d’Apuzzo, S. Cappabianca, D. Ciavarella, A. Monsurrò, A. Silvestrini-Biavati, and L. Perillo, “Biomarkers of periodontal tissue remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement in mice and men: overview and clinical relevance,” ScientificWorld J. 2013, 105873 (2013).
[PubMed]

Carden, A.

A. Carden and M. D. Morris, “Application of vibrational spectroscopy to the study of mineralized tissues (review),” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(3), 259–268 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cetin, E. O.

N. Buduneli, E. Buduneli, E. O. Cetin, L. Kirilmaz, and N. Kütükçüler, “Clinical findings and gingival crevicular fluid prostaglandin E2 and interleukin-1-beta levels following initial periodontal treatment and short-term meloxicam administration,” Expert Opin. Pharmacother. 11(11), 1805–1812 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, J. W.

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, T. Zwerdling, S. M. Lane, K. Ihara, and T. Huser, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy detects individual neoplastic and normal hematopoietic cells,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 648–656 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chapple, I.

M. Grant, J. Wilson, P. Rock, and I. Chapple, “Induction of cytokines, MMP9, TIMPs, RANKL and OPG during orthodontic tooth movement,” Eur. J. Orthod. 35(5), 644–651 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Grant, J. Wilson, P. Rock, and I. Chapple, “Induction of cytokines, MMP9, TIMPs, RANKL and OPG during orthodontic tooth movement,” Eur. J. Orthod. 35(5), 644–651 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, B. Li, G. Chen, S. Lin, C. Li, L. Sun, and Z. Huang, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy for potential noninvasive nasopharyngeal cancer detection,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 43(4), 497–502 (2012).

Chen, J.

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, Y. Wu, Y. Li, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Gastric cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy excited by polarized laser light,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(7), 3167–3174 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, R.

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, B. Li, G. Chen, S. Lin, C. Li, L. Sun, and Z. Huang, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy for potential noninvasive nasopharyngeal cancer detection,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 43(4), 497–502 (2012).

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, Y. Wu, Y. Li, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Gastric cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy excited by polarized laser light,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(7), 3167–3174 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

B. R. McCreadie, M. D. Morris, T. C. Chen, D. Sudhaker Rao, W. F. Finney, E. Widjaja, and S. A. Goldstein, “Bone tissue compositional differences in women with and without osteoporotic fracture,” Bone 39(6), 1190–1195 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cholakis, A.

X. M. Xiang, K. Z. Liu, A. Man, E. Ghiabi, A. Cholakis, and D. A. Scott, “Periodontitis-specific molecular signatures in gingival crevicular fluid,” J. Periodontal Res. 45(3), 345–352 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christie-Brown, J.

J. Horsnell, P. Stonelake, J. Christie-Brown, G. Shetty, J. Hutchings, C. Kendall, and N. Stone, “Raman spectroscopy- a new method for the intra-operative assessment of axillary lymph nodes,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(12), 3042–3047 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chryssikos, D. G.

V. A. Iconomidou, D. G. Chryssikos, V. Gionis, M. A. Pavlidis, A. Paipetis, and S. J. Hamodrakas, “Secondary structure of chorion proteins of the teleostean fish Dentex dentex by ATR FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Struct. Biol. 132(2), 112–122 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ciavarella, D.

F. d’Apuzzo, S. Cappabianca, D. Ciavarella, A. Monsurrò, A. Silvestrini-Biavati, and L. Perillo, “Biomarkers of periodontal tissue remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement in mice and men: overview and clinical relevance,” ScientificWorld J. 2013, 105873 (2013).
[PubMed]

d’Apuzzo, F.

F. d’Apuzzo, S. Cappabianca, D. Ciavarella, A. Monsurrò, A. Silvestrini-Biavati, and L. Perillo, “Biomarkers of periodontal tissue remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement in mice and men: overview and clinical relevance,” ScientificWorld J. 2013, 105873 (2013).
[PubMed]

D’Archivio, D.

G. Perinetti, M. Paolantonio, M. D’Attilio, D. D’Archivio, D. Tripodi, B. Femminella, F. Festa, and G. Spoto, “Alkaline phosphatase activity in gingival crevicular fluid during human orthodontic tooth movement,” Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop. 122(5), 548–556 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D’Attilio, M.

G. Perinetti, M. Paolantonio, M. D’Attilio, D. D’Archivio, D. Tripodi, B. Femminella, F. Festa, and G. Spoto, “Alkaline phosphatase activity in gingival crevicular fluid during human orthodontic tooth movement,” Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop. 122(5), 548–556 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, A. Saha, S. McGee, L. H. Galindo, W. Liu, D. Plecha, N. Klein, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Application of Raman spectroscopy to identify microcalcifications and underlying breast lesions at stereotactic core needle biopsy,” Cancer Res. 73(11), 3206–3215 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davidovitch, Z.

Z. Davidovitch, O. F. Nicolay, P. W. Ngan, and J. L. Shanfeld, “Neurotransmitters, cytokines, and the control of alveolar bone remodeling in orthodontics,” Dent. Clin. North Am. 32(3), 411–435 (1988).
[PubMed]

Deguchi, T.

S. Uematsu, M. Mogi, and T. Deguchi, “Interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, epidermal growth factor, and beta 2-microglobulin levels are elevated in gingival crevicular fluid during human orthodontic tooth movement,” J. Dent. Res. 75(1), 562–567 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dingari, N. C.

I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, A. Saha, S. McGee, L. H. Galindo, W. Liu, D. Plecha, N. Klein, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Application of Raman spectroscopy to identify microcalcifications and underlying breast lesions at stereotactic core needle biopsy,” Cancer Res. 73(11), 3206–3215 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duan, X.

Duarte, P. M.

X. Xiang, P. M. Duarte, J. A. Lima, V. R. Santos, T. D. Gonçalves, T. S. Miranda, and K. Z. Liu, “Diabetes-associated periodontitis molecular features in infrared spectra of gingival crevicular fluid,” J. Periodontol. 84(12), 1792–1800 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dudic, A.

A. Dudic, S. Kiliaridis, A. Mombelli, and C. Giannopoulou, “Composition changes in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement: comparisons between tension and compression sides,” Eur. J. Oral Sci. 114(5), 416–422 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dudic, S. Kiliaridis, A. Mombelli, and C. Giannopoulou, “Composition changes in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement: comparisons between tension and compression sides,” Eur. J. Oral Sci. 114(5), 416–422 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dufault, B.

W. J. Rody, M. Wijegunasinghe, W. A. Wiltshire, and B. Dufault, “Differences in the gingival crevicular fluid composition between adults and adolescents undergoing orthodontic treatment,” Angle Orthod. 84(1), 120–126 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Femminella, B.

G. Perinetti, M. Paolantonio, M. D’Attilio, D. D’Archivio, D. Tripodi, B. Femminella, F. Festa, and G. Spoto, “Alkaline phosphatase activity in gingival crevicular fluid during human orthodontic tooth movement,” Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop. 122(5), 548–556 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, S.

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, B. Li, G. Chen, S. Lin, C. Li, L. Sun, and Z. Huang, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy for potential noninvasive nasopharyngeal cancer detection,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 43(4), 497–502 (2012).

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, Y. Wu, Y. Li, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Gastric cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy excited by polarized laser light,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(7), 3167–3174 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fernández, M. A.

M. Toledano, I. Cabello, M. A. Vílchez, M. A. Fernández, and R. Osorio, “Surface microanalysis and chemical imaging of early dentin remineralization,” Microsc. Microanal. 20(1), 245–256 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Festa, F.

G. Perinetti, M. Paolantonio, M. D’Attilio, D. D’Archivio, D. Tripodi, B. Femminella, F. Festa, and G. Spoto, “Alkaline phosphatase activity in gingival crevicular fluid during human orthodontic tooth movement,” Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop. 122(5), 548–556 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fini, G.

A. Torreggiani, G. Bottura, and G. Fini, “Interaction of biotin and biotinyl derivatives with avidin: conformational changes upon binding,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 31(5), 445–450 (2000).
[Crossref]

Finney, W. F.

B. R. McCreadie, M. D. Morris, T. C. Chen, D. Sudhaker Rao, W. F. Finney, E. Widjaja, and S. A. Goldstein, “Bone tissue compositional differences in women with and without osteoporotic fracture,” Bone 39(6), 1190–1195 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fitzmaurice, M.

I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, A. Saha, S. McGee, L. H. Galindo, W. Liu, D. Plecha, N. Klein, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Application of Raman spectroscopy to identify microcalcifications and underlying breast lesions at stereotactic core needle biopsy,” Cancer Res. 73(11), 3206–3215 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Forwood, M. R.

D. B. Burr, M. R. Forwood, D. P. Fyhrie, R. B. Martin, M. B. Schaffler, and C. H. Turner, “Bone microdamage and skeletal fragility in osteoporotic and stress fractures,” J. Bone Miner. Res. 12(1), 6–15 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frost, R. L.

R. L. Frost and S. J. Palmer, “A vibrational spectroscopic study of the mixed anion mineral sanjuanite Al2(PO4)(SO4)(OH)·9H2O,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 79(5), 1210–1214 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fyhrie, D. P.

D. B. Burr, M. R. Forwood, D. P. Fyhrie, R. B. Martin, M. B. Schaffler, and C. H. Turner, “Bone microdamage and skeletal fragility in osteoporotic and stress fractures,” J. Bone Miner. Res. 12(1), 6–15 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galindo, L. H.

I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, A. Saha, S. McGee, L. H. Galindo, W. Liu, D. Plecha, N. Klein, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Application of Raman spectroscopy to identify microcalcifications and underlying breast lesions at stereotactic core needle biopsy,” Cancer Res. 73(11), 3206–3215 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gelder, J. D.

J. D. Gelder, K. D. Gussem, P. Vandenabeele, and L. Moens, “Reference database of Raman spectra of biological molecules,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38(9), 1133–1147 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ghiabi, E.

X. M. Xiang, K. Z. Liu, A. Man, E. Ghiabi, A. Cholakis, and D. A. Scott, “Periodontitis-specific molecular signatures in gingival crevicular fluid,” J. Periodontal Res. 45(3), 345–352 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giannopoulou, C.

A. Dudic, S. Kiliaridis, A. Mombelli, and C. Giannopoulou, “Composition changes in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement: comparisons between tension and compression sides,” Eur. J. Oral Sci. 114(5), 416–422 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dudic, S. Kiliaridis, A. Mombelli, and C. Giannopoulou, “Composition changes in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement: comparisons between tension and compression sides,” Eur. J. Oral Sci. 114(5), 416–422 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gionis, V.

V. A. Iconomidou, D. G. Chryssikos, V. Gionis, M. A. Pavlidis, A. Paipetis, and S. J. Hamodrakas, “Secondary structure of chorion proteins of the teleostean fish Dentex dentex by ATR FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Struct. Biol. 132(2), 112–122 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldstein, S. A.

B. R. McCreadie, M. D. Morris, T. C. Chen, D. Sudhaker Rao, W. F. Finney, E. Widjaja, and S. A. Goldstein, “Bone tissue compositional differences in women with and without osteoporotic fracture,” Bone 39(6), 1190–1195 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gonçalves, T. D.

X. Xiang, P. M. Duarte, J. A. Lima, V. R. Santos, T. D. Gonçalves, T. S. Miranda, and K. Z. Liu, “Diabetes-associated periodontitis molecular features in infrared spectra of gingival crevicular fluid,” J. Periodontol. 84(12), 1792–1800 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, S. G.

P. J. Brooks, D. Nilforoushan, M. F. Manolson, C. A. Simmons, and S. G. Gong, “Molecular markers of early orthodontic tooth movement,” Angle Orthod. 79(6), 1108–1113 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goodson, J. M.

J. M. Goodson, “Gingival crevice fluid flow,” Periodontol. 2000 31(1), 43–54 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grant, M.

M. Grant, J. Wilson, P. Rock, and I. Chapple, “Induction of cytokines, MMP9, TIMPs, RANKL and OPG during orthodontic tooth movement,” Eur. J. Orthod. 35(5), 644–651 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Grant, J. Wilson, P. Rock, and I. Chapple, “Induction of cytokines, MMP9, TIMPs, RANKL and OPG during orthodontic tooth movement,” Eur. J. Orthod. 35(5), 644–651 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Griffiths, G. S.

G. S. Griffiths, A. M. Moulson, A. Petrie, and I. T. James, “Evaluation of osteocalcin and Pyridinium crosslinks of bone collagen as markers of bone turnover in gingival crevicular fluid during different stages of orthodontic treatment,” J. Clin. Periodontol. 25(6), 492–498 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gussem, K. D.

J. D. Gelder, K. D. Gussem, P. Vandenabeele, and L. Moens, “Reference database of Raman spectra of biological molecules,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38(9), 1133–1147 (2007).
[Crossref]

Guze, K.

K. Guze, H. C. Pawluk, M. Short, H. Zeng, J. Lorch, C. Norris, and S. Sonis, “Pilot study: Raman spectroscopy in differentiating premalignant and malignant oral lesions from normal mucosa and benign lesions in humans,” Head Neckn/a (2014), doi:.
[Crossref]

Hamodrakas, S. J.

V. A. Iconomidou, D. G. Chryssikos, V. Gionis, M. A. Pavlidis, A. Paipetis, and S. J. Hamodrakas, “Secondary structure of chorion proteins of the teleostean fish Dentex dentex by ATR FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Struct. Biol. 132(2), 112–122 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herrero, A. M.

A. M. Herrero, “Raman spectroscopy for monitoring protein structure in muscle food systems,” Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 48(6), 512–523 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horsnell, J.

J. Horsnell, P. Stonelake, J. Christie-Brown, G. Shetty, J. Hutchings, C. Kendall, and N. Stone, “Raman spectroscopy- a new method for the intra-operative assessment of axillary lymph nodes,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(12), 3042–3047 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Z.

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, B. Li, G. Chen, S. Lin, C. Li, L. Sun, and Z. Huang, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy for potential noninvasive nasopharyngeal cancer detection,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 43(4), 497–502 (2012).

Huser, T.

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, T. Zwerdling, S. M. Lane, K. Ihara, and T. Huser, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy detects individual neoplastic and normal hematopoietic cells,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 648–656 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hutchings, J.

J. Horsnell, P. Stonelake, J. Christie-Brown, G. Shetty, J. Hutchings, C. Kendall, and N. Stone, “Raman spectroscopy- a new method for the intra-operative assessment of axillary lymph nodes,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(12), 3042–3047 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iconomidou, V. A.

V. A. Iconomidou, D. G. Chryssikos, V. Gionis, M. A. Pavlidis, A. Paipetis, and S. J. Hamodrakas, “Secondary structure of chorion proteins of the teleostean fish Dentex dentex by ATR FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Struct. Biol. 132(2), 112–122 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ihara, K.

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, T. Zwerdling, S. M. Lane, K. Ihara, and T. Huser, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy detects individual neoplastic and normal hematopoietic cells,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 648–656 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

James, I. T.

G. S. Griffiths, A. M. Moulson, A. Petrie, and I. T. James, “Evaluation of osteocalcin and Pyridinium crosslinks of bone collagen as markers of bone turnover in gingival crevicular fluid during different stages of orthodontic treatment,” J. Clin. Periodontol. 25(6), 492–498 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jirasek, A.

Kendall, C.

J. Horsnell, P. Stonelake, J. Christie-Brown, G. Shetty, J. Hutchings, C. Kendall, and N. Stone, “Raman spectroscopy- a new method for the intra-operative assessment of axillary lymph nodes,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(12), 3042–3047 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kiliaridis, S.

A. Dudic, S. Kiliaridis, A. Mombelli, and C. Giannopoulou, “Composition changes in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement: comparisons between tension and compression sides,” Eur. J. Oral Sci. 114(5), 416–422 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dudic, S. Kiliaridis, A. Mombelli, and C. Giannopoulou, “Composition changes in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement: comparisons between tension and compression sides,” Eur. J. Oral Sci. 114(5), 416–422 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirilmaz, L.

N. Buduneli, E. Buduneli, E. O. Cetin, L. Kirilmaz, and N. Kütükçüler, “Clinical findings and gingival crevicular fluid prostaglandin E2 and interleukin-1-beta levels following initial periodontal treatment and short-term meloxicam administration,” Expert Opin. Pharmacother. 11(11), 1805–1812 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klein, N.

I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, A. Saha, S. McGee, L. H. Galindo, W. Liu, D. Plecha, N. Klein, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Application of Raman spectroscopy to identify microcalcifications and underlying breast lesions at stereotactic core needle biopsy,” Cancer Res. 73(11), 3206–3215 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kozielski, M.

T. Buchwald, K. Niciejewski, M. Kozielski, M. Szybowicz, M. Siatkowski, and H. Krauss, “Identifying compositional and structural changes in spongy and subchondral bone from the hip joints of patients with osteoarthritis using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 017007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krauss, H.

T. Buchwald, K. Niciejewski, M. Kozielski, M. Szybowicz, M. Siatkowski, and H. Krauss, “Identifying compositional and structural changes in spongy and subchondral bone from the hip joints of patients with osteoarthritis using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 017007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krishna, C. M.

A. Sahu, S. Sawant, H. Mamgain, and C. M. Krishna, “Raman spectroscopy of serum: an exploratory study for detection of oral cancers,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 4161–4174 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kütükçüler, N.

N. Buduneli, E. Buduneli, E. O. Cetin, L. Kirilmaz, and N. Kütükçüler, “Clinical findings and gingival crevicular fluid prostaglandin E2 and interleukin-1-beta levels following initial periodontal treatment and short-term meloxicam administration,” Expert Opin. Pharmacother. 11(11), 1805–1812 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lane, S. M.

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, T. Zwerdling, S. M. Lane, K. Ihara, and T. Huser, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy detects individual neoplastic and normal hematopoietic cells,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 648–656 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lang, L.

S. Yang, B. Li, A. Akkus, O. Akkus, and L. Lang, “Wide-field Raman imaging of dental lesions,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(12), 3107–3114 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Last, K. S.

N. Pender, B. H. A. Samuels, and K. S. Last, “The monitoring of orthodontic tooth movement over a 2-year period by analysis of gingival crevicular fluid,” Eur. J. Orthod. 16(6), 511–520 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, B.

S. Yang, B. Li, A. Akkus, O. Akkus, and L. Lang, “Wide-field Raman imaging of dental lesions,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(12), 3107–3114 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, B. Li, G. Chen, S. Lin, C. Li, L. Sun, and Z. Huang, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy for potential noninvasive nasopharyngeal cancer detection,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 43(4), 497–502 (2012).

Li, C.

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, B. Li, G. Chen, S. Lin, C. Li, L. Sun, and Z. Huang, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy for potential noninvasive nasopharyngeal cancer detection,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 43(4), 497–502 (2012).

Li, Y.

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, Y. Wu, Y. Li, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Gastric cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy excited by polarized laser light,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(7), 3167–3174 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lima, J. A.

X. Xiang, P. M. Duarte, J. A. Lima, V. R. Santos, T. D. Gonçalves, T. S. Miranda, and K. Z. Liu, “Diabetes-associated periodontitis molecular features in infrared spectra of gingival crevicular fluid,” J. Periodontol. 84(12), 1792–1800 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, J.

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, B. Li, G. Chen, S. Lin, C. Li, L. Sun, and Z. Huang, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy for potential noninvasive nasopharyngeal cancer detection,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 43(4), 497–502 (2012).

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, Y. Wu, Y. Li, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Gastric cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy excited by polarized laser light,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(7), 3167–3174 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, S.

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, B. Li, G. Chen, S. Lin, C. Li, L. Sun, and Z. Huang, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy for potential noninvasive nasopharyngeal cancer detection,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 43(4), 497–502 (2012).

Liou, E. J.

G. Y. Teng and E. J. Liou, “Interdental osteotomies induce regional acceleratory phenomenon and accelerate orthodontic tooth movement,” J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 72(1), 19–29 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, K. Z.

X. Xiang, P. M. Duarte, J. A. Lima, V. R. Santos, T. D. Gonçalves, T. S. Miranda, and K. Z. Liu, “Diabetes-associated periodontitis molecular features in infrared spectra of gingival crevicular fluid,” J. Periodontol. 84(12), 1792–1800 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. M. Xiang, K. Z. Liu, A. Man, E. Ghiabi, A. Cholakis, and D. A. Scott, “Periodontitis-specific molecular signatures in gingival crevicular fluid,” J. Periodontal Res. 45(3), 345–352 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, W.

I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, A. Saha, S. McGee, L. H. Galindo, W. Liu, D. Plecha, N. Klein, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Application of Raman spectroscopy to identify microcalcifications and underlying breast lesions at stereotactic core needle biopsy,” Cancer Res. 73(11), 3206–3215 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lorch, J.

K. Guze, H. C. Pawluk, M. Short, H. Zeng, J. Lorch, C. Norris, and S. Sonis, “Pilot study: Raman spectroscopy in differentiating premalignant and malignant oral lesions from normal mucosa and benign lesions in humans,” Head Neckn/a (2014), doi:.
[Crossref]

Lum, J.

Mackenzie, F. T.

J. Urmos, S. K. Sharma, and F. T. Mackenzie, “Characterization of some biogenic carbonates with Raman spectroscopy,” Am. Mineral. 76, 641–646 (1991).

Mamgain, H.

A. Sahu, S. Sawant, H. Mamgain, and C. M. Krishna, “Raman spectroscopy of serum: an exploratory study for detection of oral cancers,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 4161–4174 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Man, A.

X. M. Xiang, K. Z. Liu, A. Man, E. Ghiabi, A. Cholakis, and D. A. Scott, “Periodontitis-specific molecular signatures in gingival crevicular fluid,” J. Periodontal Res. 45(3), 345–352 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manolson, M. F.

P. J. Brooks, D. Nilforoushan, M. F. Manolson, C. A. Simmons, and S. G. Gong, “Molecular markers of early orthodontic tooth movement,” Angle Orthod. 79(6), 1108–1113 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin, R. B.

D. B. Burr, M. R. Forwood, D. P. Fyhrie, R. B. Martin, M. B. Schaffler, and C. H. Turner, “Bone microdamage and skeletal fragility in osteoporotic and stress fractures,” J. Bone Miner. Res. 12(1), 6–15 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martín, C.

G. Barbieri, P. Solano, J. A. Alarcón, R. Vernal, J. Rios-Lugo, M. Sanz, and C. Martín, “Biochemical markers of bone metabolism in gingival crevicular fluid during early orthodontic tooth movement,” Angle Orthod. 83(1), 63–69 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mathew, S.

S. Mathew, “Orthodontic tooth movement and changes in gingival crevicular fluid: A Review,” J. Indian Orthod. Soc. 37, 101–114 (2004).

Matthews, Q.

McCreadie, B. R.

B. R. McCreadie, M. D. Morris, T. C. Chen, D. Sudhaker Rao, W. F. Finney, E. Widjaja, and S. A. Goldstein, “Bone tissue compositional differences in women with and without osteoporotic fracture,” Bone 39(6), 1190–1195 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McGee, S.

I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, A. Saha, S. McGee, L. H. Galindo, W. Liu, D. Plecha, N. Klein, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Application of Raman spectroscopy to identify microcalcifications and underlying breast lesions at stereotactic core needle biopsy,” Cancer Res. 73(11), 3206–3215 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miranda, T. S.

X. Xiang, P. M. Duarte, J. A. Lima, V. R. Santos, T. D. Gonçalves, T. S. Miranda, and K. Z. Liu, “Diabetes-associated periodontitis molecular features in infrared spectra of gingival crevicular fluid,” J. Periodontol. 84(12), 1792–1800 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miura, T.

T. Miura and G. J. Thomas., “Raman spectroscopy of proteins and their assemblies,” Subcell. Biochem. 24, 55–99 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moens, L.

J. D. Gelder, K. D. Gussem, P. Vandenabeele, and L. Moens, “Reference database of Raman spectra of biological molecules,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38(9), 1133–1147 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mogi, M.

S. Uematsu, M. Mogi, and T. Deguchi, “Interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, epidermal growth factor, and beta 2-microglobulin levels are elevated in gingival crevicular fluid during human orthodontic tooth movement,” J. Dent. Res. 75(1), 562–567 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mombelli, A.

A. Dudic, S. Kiliaridis, A. Mombelli, and C. Giannopoulou, “Composition changes in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement: comparisons between tension and compression sides,” Eur. J. Oral Sci. 114(5), 416–422 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dudic, S. Kiliaridis, A. Mombelli, and C. Giannopoulou, “Composition changes in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement: comparisons between tension and compression sides,” Eur. J. Oral Sci. 114(5), 416–422 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Monsurrò, A.

F. d’Apuzzo, S. Cappabianca, D. Ciavarella, A. Monsurrò, A. Silvestrini-Biavati, and L. Perillo, “Biomarkers of periodontal tissue remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement in mice and men: overview and clinical relevance,” ScientificWorld J. 2013, 105873 (2013).
[PubMed]

Morris, M. D.

B. R. McCreadie, M. D. Morris, T. C. Chen, D. Sudhaker Rao, W. F. Finney, E. Widjaja, and S. A. Goldstein, “Bone tissue compositional differences in women with and without osteoporotic fracture,” Bone 39(6), 1190–1195 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Carden and M. D. Morris, “Application of vibrational spectroscopy to the study of mineralized tissues (review),” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(3), 259–268 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moulson, A. M.

G. S. Griffiths, A. M. Moulson, A. Petrie, and I. T. James, “Evaluation of osteocalcin and Pyridinium crosslinks of bone collagen as markers of bone turnover in gingival crevicular fluid during different stages of orthodontic treatment,” J. Clin. Periodontol. 25(6), 492–498 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ngan, P. W.

Z. Davidovitch, O. F. Nicolay, P. W. Ngan, and J. L. Shanfeld, “Neurotransmitters, cytokines, and the control of alveolar bone remodeling in orthodontics,” Dent. Clin. North Am. 32(3), 411–435 (1988).
[PubMed]

Niciejewski, K.

T. Buchwald, K. Niciejewski, M. Kozielski, M. Szybowicz, M. Siatkowski, and H. Krauss, “Identifying compositional and structural changes in spongy and subchondral bone from the hip joints of patients with osteoarthritis using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 017007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nicolay, O. F.

Z. Davidovitch, O. F. Nicolay, P. W. Ngan, and J. L. Shanfeld, “Neurotransmitters, cytokines, and the control of alveolar bone remodeling in orthodontics,” Dent. Clin. North Am. 32(3), 411–435 (1988).
[PubMed]

Nilforoushan, D.

P. J. Brooks, D. Nilforoushan, M. F. Manolson, C. A. Simmons, and S. G. Gong, “Molecular markers of early orthodontic tooth movement,” Angle Orthod. 79(6), 1108–1113 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Norris, C.

K. Guze, H. C. Pawluk, M. Short, H. Zeng, J. Lorch, C. Norris, and S. Sonis, “Pilot study: Raman spectroscopy in differentiating premalignant and malignant oral lesions from normal mucosa and benign lesions in humans,” Head Neckn/a (2014), doi:.
[Crossref]

Osorio, R.

M. Toledano, I. Cabello, M. A. Vílchez, M. A. Fernández, and R. Osorio, “Surface microanalysis and chemical imaging of early dentin remineralization,” Microsc. Microanal. 20(1), 245–256 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paipetis, A.

V. A. Iconomidou, D. G. Chryssikos, V. Gionis, M. A. Pavlidis, A. Paipetis, and S. J. Hamodrakas, “Secondary structure of chorion proteins of the teleostean fish Dentex dentex by ATR FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Struct. Biol. 132(2), 112–122 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palmer, S. J.

R. L. Frost and S. J. Palmer, “A vibrational spectroscopic study of the mixed anion mineral sanjuanite Al2(PO4)(SO4)(OH)·9H2O,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 79(5), 1210–1214 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, J.

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, B. Li, G. Chen, S. Lin, C. Li, L. Sun, and Z. Huang, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy for potential noninvasive nasopharyngeal cancer detection,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 43(4), 497–502 (2012).

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, Y. Wu, Y. Li, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Gastric cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy excited by polarized laser light,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(7), 3167–3174 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paolantonio, M.

G. Perinetti, M. Paolantonio, M. D’Attilio, D. D’Archivio, D. Tripodi, B. Femminella, F. Festa, and G. Spoto, “Alkaline phosphatase activity in gingival crevicular fluid during human orthodontic tooth movement,” Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop. 122(5), 548–556 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pavlidis, M. A.

V. A. Iconomidou, D. G. Chryssikos, V. Gionis, M. A. Pavlidis, A. Paipetis, and S. J. Hamodrakas, “Secondary structure of chorion proteins of the teleostean fish Dentex dentex by ATR FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Struct. Biol. 132(2), 112–122 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pawluk, H. C.

K. Guze, H. C. Pawluk, M. Short, H. Zeng, J. Lorch, C. Norris, and S. Sonis, “Pilot study: Raman spectroscopy in differentiating premalignant and malignant oral lesions from normal mucosa and benign lesions in humans,” Head Neckn/a (2014), doi:.
[Crossref]

Pender, N.

N. Pender, B. H. A. Samuels, and K. S. Last, “The monitoring of orthodontic tooth movement over a 2-year period by analysis of gingival crevicular fluid,” Eur. J. Orthod. 16(6), 511–520 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perillo, L.

F. d’Apuzzo, S. Cappabianca, D. Ciavarella, A. Monsurrò, A. Silvestrini-Biavati, and L. Perillo, “Biomarkers of periodontal tissue remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement in mice and men: overview and clinical relevance,” ScientificWorld J. 2013, 105873 (2013).
[PubMed]

Perinetti, G.

G. Perinetti, M. Paolantonio, M. D’Attilio, D. D’Archivio, D. Tripodi, B. Femminella, F. Festa, and G. Spoto, “Alkaline phosphatase activity in gingival crevicular fluid during human orthodontic tooth movement,” Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop. 122(5), 548–556 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petrie, A.

G. S. Griffiths, A. M. Moulson, A. Petrie, and I. T. James, “Evaluation of osteocalcin and Pyridinium crosslinks of bone collagen as markers of bone turnover in gingival crevicular fluid during different stages of orthodontic treatment,” J. Clin. Periodontol. 25(6), 492–498 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plecha, D.

I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, A. Saha, S. McGee, L. H. Galindo, W. Liu, D. Plecha, N. Klein, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Application of Raman spectroscopy to identify microcalcifications and underlying breast lesions at stereotactic core needle biopsy,” Cancer Res. 73(11), 3206–3215 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rios-Lugo, J.

G. Barbieri, P. Solano, J. A. Alarcón, R. Vernal, J. Rios-Lugo, M. Sanz, and C. Martín, “Biochemical markers of bone metabolism in gingival crevicular fluid during early orthodontic tooth movement,” Angle Orthod. 83(1), 63–69 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rock, P.

M. Grant, J. Wilson, P. Rock, and I. Chapple, “Induction of cytokines, MMP9, TIMPs, RANKL and OPG during orthodontic tooth movement,” Eur. J. Orthod. 35(5), 644–651 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Grant, J. Wilson, P. Rock, and I. Chapple, “Induction of cytokines, MMP9, TIMPs, RANKL and OPG during orthodontic tooth movement,” Eur. J. Orthod. 35(5), 644–651 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rody, W. J.

W. J. Rody, M. Wijegunasinghe, W. A. Wiltshire, and B. Dufault, “Differences in the gingival crevicular fluid composition between adults and adolescents undergoing orthodontic treatment,” Angle Orthod. 84(1), 120–126 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saha, A.

I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, A. Saha, S. McGee, L. H. Galindo, W. Liu, D. Plecha, N. Klein, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Application of Raman spectroscopy to identify microcalcifications and underlying breast lesions at stereotactic core needle biopsy,” Cancer Res. 73(11), 3206–3215 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sahu, A.

A. Sahu, S. Sawant, H. Mamgain, and C. M. Krishna, “Raman spectroscopy of serum: an exploratory study for detection of oral cancers,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 4161–4174 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Samuels, B. H. A.

N. Pender, B. H. A. Samuels, and K. S. Last, “The monitoring of orthodontic tooth movement over a 2-year period by analysis of gingival crevicular fluid,” Eur. J. Orthod. 16(6), 511–520 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Santos, V. R.

X. Xiang, P. M. Duarte, J. A. Lima, V. R. Santos, T. D. Gonçalves, T. S. Miranda, and K. Z. Liu, “Diabetes-associated periodontitis molecular features in infrared spectra of gingival crevicular fluid,” J. Periodontol. 84(12), 1792–1800 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanz, M.

G. Barbieri, P. Solano, J. A. Alarcón, R. Vernal, J. Rios-Lugo, M. Sanz, and C. Martín, “Biochemical markers of bone metabolism in gingival crevicular fluid during early orthodontic tooth movement,” Angle Orthod. 83(1), 63–69 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sawant, S.

A. Sahu, S. Sawant, H. Mamgain, and C. M. Krishna, “Raman spectroscopy of serum: an exploratory study for detection of oral cancers,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 4161–4174 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schaffler, M. B.

D. B. Burr, M. R. Forwood, D. P. Fyhrie, R. B. Martin, M. B. Schaffler, and C. H. Turner, “Bone microdamage and skeletal fragility in osteoporotic and stress fractures,” J. Bone Miner. Res. 12(1), 6–15 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scott, D. A.

X. M. Xiang, K. Z. Liu, A. Man, E. Ghiabi, A. Cholakis, and D. A. Scott, “Periodontitis-specific molecular signatures in gingival crevicular fluid,” J. Periodontal Res. 45(3), 345–352 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shanfeld, J. L.

Z. Davidovitch, O. F. Nicolay, P. W. Ngan, and J. L. Shanfeld, “Neurotransmitters, cytokines, and the control of alveolar bone remodeling in orthodontics,” Dent. Clin. North Am. 32(3), 411–435 (1988).
[PubMed]

Sharma, S. K.

J. Urmos, S. K. Sharma, and F. T. Mackenzie, “Characterization of some biogenic carbonates with Raman spectroscopy,” Am. Mineral. 76, 641–646 (1991).

Shetty, G.

J. Horsnell, P. Stonelake, J. Christie-Brown, G. Shetty, J. Hutchings, C. Kendall, and N. Stone, “Raman spectroscopy- a new method for the intra-operative assessment of axillary lymph nodes,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(12), 3042–3047 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Short, M.

K. Guze, H. C. Pawluk, M. Short, H. Zeng, J. Lorch, C. Norris, and S. Sonis, “Pilot study: Raman spectroscopy in differentiating premalignant and malignant oral lesions from normal mucosa and benign lesions in humans,” Head Neckn/a (2014), doi:.
[Crossref]

Siatkowski, M.

T. Buchwald, K. Niciejewski, M. Kozielski, M. Szybowicz, M. Siatkowski, and H. Krauss, “Identifying compositional and structural changes in spongy and subchondral bone from the hip joints of patients with osteoarthritis using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 017007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Silvestrini-Biavati, A.

F. d’Apuzzo, S. Cappabianca, D. Ciavarella, A. Monsurrò, A. Silvestrini-Biavati, and L. Perillo, “Biomarkers of periodontal tissue remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement in mice and men: overview and clinical relevance,” ScientificWorld J. 2013, 105873 (2013).
[PubMed]

Simmons, C. A.

P. J. Brooks, D. Nilforoushan, M. F. Manolson, C. A. Simmons, and S. G. Gong, “Molecular markers of early orthodontic tooth movement,” Angle Orthod. 79(6), 1108–1113 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Solano, P.

G. Barbieri, P. Solano, J. A. Alarcón, R. Vernal, J. Rios-Lugo, M. Sanz, and C. Martín, “Biochemical markers of bone metabolism in gingival crevicular fluid during early orthodontic tooth movement,” Angle Orthod. 83(1), 63–69 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sonis, S.

K. Guze, H. C. Pawluk, M. Short, H. Zeng, J. Lorch, C. Norris, and S. Sonis, “Pilot study: Raman spectroscopy in differentiating premalignant and malignant oral lesions from normal mucosa and benign lesions in humans,” Head Neckn/a (2014), doi:.
[Crossref]

Spoto, G.

G. Perinetti, M. Paolantonio, M. D’Attilio, D. D’Archivio, D. Tripodi, B. Femminella, F. Festa, and G. Spoto, “Alkaline phosphatase activity in gingival crevicular fluid during human orthodontic tooth movement,” Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop. 122(5), 548–556 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stone, N.

J. Horsnell, P. Stonelake, J. Christie-Brown, G. Shetty, J. Hutchings, C. Kendall, and N. Stone, “Raman spectroscopy- a new method for the intra-operative assessment of axillary lymph nodes,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(12), 3042–3047 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stonelake, P.

J. Horsnell, P. Stonelake, J. Christie-Brown, G. Shetty, J. Hutchings, C. Kendall, and N. Stone, “Raman spectroscopy- a new method for the intra-operative assessment of axillary lymph nodes,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(12), 3042–3047 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sudhaker Rao, D.

B. R. McCreadie, M. D. Morris, T. C. Chen, D. Sudhaker Rao, W. F. Finney, E. Widjaja, and S. A. Goldstein, “Bone tissue compositional differences in women with and without osteoporotic fracture,” Bone 39(6), 1190–1195 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, L.

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, B. Li, G. Chen, S. Lin, C. Li, L. Sun, and Z. Huang, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy for potential noninvasive nasopharyngeal cancer detection,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 43(4), 497–502 (2012).

Szybowicz, M.

T. Buchwald, K. Niciejewski, M. Kozielski, M. Szybowicz, M. Siatkowski, and H. Krauss, “Identifying compositional and structural changes in spongy and subchondral bone from the hip joints of patients with osteoarthritis using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 017007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, D. S.

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, T. Zwerdling, S. M. Lane, K. Ihara, and T. Huser, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy detects individual neoplastic and normal hematopoietic cells,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 648–656 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teng, G. Y.

G. Y. Teng and E. J. Liou, “Interdental osteotomies induce regional acceleratory phenomenon and accelerate orthodontic tooth movement,” J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 72(1), 19–29 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomas, G. J.

T. Miura and G. J. Thomas., “Raman spectroscopy of proteins and their assemblies,” Subcell. Biochem. 24, 55–99 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tinti, A.

A. Torreggiani and A. Tinti, “Raman spectroscopy a promising technique for investigations of metallothioneins,” Metallomics 2(4), 246–260 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toledano, M.

M. Toledano, I. Cabello, M. A. Vílchez, M. A. Fernández, and R. Osorio, “Surface microanalysis and chemical imaging of early dentin remineralization,” Microsc. Microanal. 20(1), 245–256 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torreggiani, A.

A. Torreggiani and A. Tinti, “Raman spectroscopy a promising technique for investigations of metallothioneins,” Metallomics 2(4), 246–260 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Torreggiani, G. Bottura, and G. Fini, “Interaction of biotin and biotinyl derivatives with avidin: conformational changes upon binding,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 31(5), 445–450 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tripodi, D.

G. Perinetti, M. Paolantonio, M. D’Attilio, D. D’Archivio, D. Tripodi, B. Femminella, F. Festa, and G. Spoto, “Alkaline phosphatase activity in gingival crevicular fluid during human orthodontic tooth movement,” Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop. 122(5), 548–556 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turner, C. H.

D. B. Burr, M. R. Forwood, D. P. Fyhrie, R. B. Martin, M. B. Schaffler, and C. H. Turner, “Bone microdamage and skeletal fragility in osteoporotic and stress fractures,” J. Bone Miner. Res. 12(1), 6–15 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uematsu, S.

S. Uematsu, M. Mogi, and T. Deguchi, “Interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, epidermal growth factor, and beta 2-microglobulin levels are elevated in gingival crevicular fluid during human orthodontic tooth movement,” J. Dent. Res. 75(1), 562–567 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Urmos, J.

J. Urmos, S. K. Sharma, and F. T. Mackenzie, “Characterization of some biogenic carbonates with Raman spectroscopy,” Am. Mineral. 76, 641–646 (1991).

Vandenabeele, P.

J. D. Gelder, K. D. Gussem, P. Vandenabeele, and L. Moens, “Reference database of Raman spectra of biological molecules,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38(9), 1133–1147 (2007).
[Crossref]

Vernal, R.

G. Barbieri, P. Solano, J. A. Alarcón, R. Vernal, J. Rios-Lugo, M. Sanz, and C. Martín, “Biochemical markers of bone metabolism in gingival crevicular fluid during early orthodontic tooth movement,” Angle Orthod. 83(1), 63–69 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vílchez, M. A.

M. Toledano, I. Cabello, M. A. Vílchez, M. A. Fernández, and R. Osorio, “Surface microanalysis and chemical imaging of early dentin remineralization,” Microsc. Microanal. 20(1), 245–256 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Widjaja, E.

B. R. McCreadie, M. D. Morris, T. C. Chen, D. Sudhaker Rao, W. F. Finney, E. Widjaja, and S. A. Goldstein, “Bone tissue compositional differences in women with and without osteoporotic fracture,” Bone 39(6), 1190–1195 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wijegunasinghe, M.

W. J. Rody, M. Wijegunasinghe, W. A. Wiltshire, and B. Dufault, “Differences in the gingival crevicular fluid composition between adults and adolescents undergoing orthodontic treatment,” Angle Orthod. 84(1), 120–126 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, J.

M. Grant, J. Wilson, P. Rock, and I. Chapple, “Induction of cytokines, MMP9, TIMPs, RANKL and OPG during orthodontic tooth movement,” Eur. J. Orthod. 35(5), 644–651 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Grant, J. Wilson, P. Rock, and I. Chapple, “Induction of cytokines, MMP9, TIMPs, RANKL and OPG during orthodontic tooth movement,” Eur. J. Orthod. 35(5), 644–651 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wiltshire, W. A.

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K. Guze, H. C. Pawluk, M. Short, H. Zeng, J. Lorch, C. Norris, and S. Sonis, “Pilot study: Raman spectroscopy in differentiating premalignant and malignant oral lesions from normal mucosa and benign lesions in humans,” Head Neckn/a (2014), doi:.
[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Collection procedures for gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). (a) Prophylaxis, (b) drying the target area, (c) GCF collection before orthodontic force loading, (d) GCF collection after orthodontic force loading, (e) paper point with absorbed GCF, and (f) paper point in Eppendorf tubes.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Normalized average GCF Raman spectrum without orthodontic treatment
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Normalized average Raman spectra for control GCF (0 d) and early-phase GCF tooth movement at day 1, 7 and 28 (1 d, 7 d and 28 d).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Hydroxyapatite to collagen (phosphate 984 cm−1/ amide I 1667 cm−1) ratio in GCF during orthodontic treatment. *Significantly different from day 0 (P < 0.05, one-way ANOVA with Turkey’s HSD post-hoc procedure)
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Carbonate apatite to collagen (carbonate 1088 cm−1/ amide I 1667 cm−1) ratio in GCF during orthodontic treatment. *Significantly different from day 0 (P < 0.05, one-way ANOVA with Turkey’s HSD post-hoc procedure)
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Carbonate apatite to hydroxyapatite (carbonate 1088 cm−1/ phosphate 984 cm−1) ratio in GCF during orthodontic treatment. *Significantly different from day 0 (P < 0.05, one-way ANOVA with Turkey’s HSD post-hoc procedure)
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (A) Relative intensities in 1667 cm−1 Raman peaks during orthodontic treatment. *Significantly different from day 0 (P < 0.05, one-way ANOVA with Turkey’s HSD post-hoc procedure). (B) Normalized average GCF Raman spectra in the 1625-1715 cm−1 range during orthodontic treatment.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Normalized average GCF Raman spectra curve-fitting during orthodontic tooth movement (0, 1, 7 and 28 days) in the 1625-1715 cm−1 range. The black lines represent experimental data. The blue and red lines illustrate fitted peaks and summation of fitting curves, respectively.

Tables (5)

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Table 1 Inclusion criteria for patient selection.

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Table 2 Gingival crevicular fluid Raman spectra peak assignment [2529].

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Table 3 Correlation between hydroxyapatite to collagen peak intensity ratio and carbonate apatite to hydroxyapatite peak intensity ratio.

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Table 4 Principal Raman band wavenumbers characteristic of secondary protein structure in the amide I range [3941].

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Table 5 Curve fitting averaged Raman spectra in the 1625–1715 cm−1 range.

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