Abstract

Successful treatment of breast cancer typically requires surgical removal of the tumor. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been previously developed for real-time imaging of the surgical margin. However, it can be difficult to distinguish between normal stromal tissue and cancer tissue based on scattering intensity and structure alone. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) is sensitive to form birefringence of biological tissue. We report on the development of a high-speed PS-OCT system and imaging of ex vivo human breast tissue, showing enhanced contrast between healthy and cancerous tissues based upon collagen content confirmed with corresponding histology. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using PS-OCT to supplement structural OCT as a possible method for intraoperative tumor margin evaluation.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (3)

D. Savastru, E. W. Chang, S. Miclos, M. B. Pitman, A. Patel, and N. Iftimia, “Detection of breast surgical margins with optical coherence tomography imaging: A concept evaluation study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(5), 056001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. Cittadine, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. South, P. S. Carney, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo intra-operative breast tumor margin detection using a portable OCT system with a handheld surgical imaging probe,” Proc. SPIE 89351, 89351C (2014).

O. Assayag, M. Antoine, B. Sigal-Zafrani, M. Riben, F. Harms, A. Burcheri, K. Grieve, E. Dalimier, B. Le Conte de Poly, and C. Boccara, “Large field, high resolution full-field optical coherence tomography: A pre-clinical study of human breast tissue and cancer assessment,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 13(5), 455–468 (2014).
[PubMed]

2012 (4)

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: Feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. C. Kuo, J. Kim, N. D. Shemonski, E. J. Chaney, D. R. Spillman, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time three-dimensional optical coherence tomography image-guided core-needle biopsy system,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1149–1161 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Cancer imaging by optical coherence tomography: Preclinical progress and clinical potential,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 12(5), 363–368 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Ananthakrishnan, F. L. Balci, and J. P. Crowe, “Optimizing surgical margins in breast conservation,” Int. J. Surg. Oncol. 2012, 585670 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

Y. Verma, M. Gautam, K. D. Rao, M. K. Swami, and P. K. Gupta, “Imaging of human breast tissue using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Laser Phys. 21(12), 2143–2148 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. C. Hendargo, R. P. McNabb, A.-H. Dhalla, N. Shepherd, and J. A. Izatt, “Doppler velocity detection limitations in spectrometer-based versus swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(8), 2175–2188 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Conklin, J. C. Eickhoff, K. M. Riching, C. A. Pehlke, K. W. Eliceiri, P. P. Provenzano, A. Friedl, and P. J. Keely, “Aligned collagen is a prognostic signature for survival in human breast carcinoma,” Am. J. Pathol. 178(3), 1221–1232 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. H. Wang, H. C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T. H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res. 70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Azu, P. Abrahamse, S. J. Katz, R. Jagsi, and M. Morrow, “What is an adequate margin for breast-conserving surgery? Surgeon attitudes and correlates,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 17(2), 558–563 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

A. Luini, J. Rososchansky, G. Gatti, S. Zurrida, P. Caldarella, G. Viale, G. Rosali dos Santos, and A. Frasson, “The surgical margin status after breast-conserving surgery: Discussion of an open issue,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 113(2), 397–402 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Morrow, R. Jagsi, A. K. Alderman, J. J. Griggs, S. T. Hawley, A. S. Hamilton, J. J. Graff, and S. J. Katz, “Surgeon recommendations and receipt of mastectomy for treatment of breast cancer,” JAMA 302(14), 1551–1556 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, P. A. Johnson, K. M. Rowland, and S. A. Boppart, “Clinical feasibility of microscopically-guided breast needle biopsy using a fiber-optic probe with computer-aided detection,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 8(5), 315–321 (2009).
[PubMed]

G. J. Liu, J. Zhang, L. F. Yu, T. Q. Xie, and Z. P. Chen, “Real-time polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography data processing with parallel computing,” Appl. Opt. 48(32), 6365–6370 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

P. P. Provenzano, D. R. Inman, K. W. Eliceiri, J. G. Knittel, L. Yan, C. T. Rueden, J. G. White, and P. J. Keely, “Collagen density promotes mammary tumor initiation and progression,” BMC Med. 6(1), 11 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Waljee, E. S. Hu, L. A. Newman, and A. K. Alderman, “Predictors of re-excision among women undergoing breast-conserving surgery for cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(5), 1297–1303 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (6)

T. P. Olson, J. Harter, A. Muñoz, D. M. Mahvi, and T. M. Breslin, “Frozen section analysis for intraoperative margin assessment during breast-conserving surgery results in low rates of re-excision and local recurrence,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(10), 2953–2960 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. K. Valdes, S. K. Boolbol, J.-M. Cohen, and S. M. Feldman, “Intra-operative touch preparation cytology; Does it have a role in re-excision lumpectomy?” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(3), 1045–1050 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. L. Hsiung, D. R. Phatak, Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Benign and malignant lesions in the human breast depicted with ultrahigh resolution and three-dimensional optical coherence tomography,” Radiology 244(3), 865–874 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49(13), 1474–1481 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kotwall, M. Ranson, A. Stiles, and M. S. Hamann, “Relationship between initial margin status for invasive breast cancer and residual carcinoma after re-excision,” Am. Surg. 73(4), 337–343 (2007).
[PubMed]

S. G. Adie, T. R. Hillman, and D. D. Sampson, “Detection of multiple scattering in optical coherence tomography using the spatial distribution of Stokes vectors,” Opt. Express 15(26), 18033–18049 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

2005 (2)

A. Taghian, M. Mohiuddin, R. Jagsi, S. Goldberg, E. Ceilley, and S. Powell, “Current perceptions regarding surgical margin status after breast-conserving therapy: results of a survey,” Ann. Surg. 241(4), 629–639 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Menes, P. I. Tartter, I. Bleiweiss, J. H. Godbold, A. Estabrook, and S. R. Smith, “The consequence of multiple re-excisions to obtain clear lumpectomy margins in breast cancer patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 12(11), 881–885 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

S. A. Boppart, W. Luo, D. L. Marks, and K. W. Singletary, “Optical coherence tomography: Feasibility for basic research and image-guided surgery of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 84(2), 85–97 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Strasswimmer, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, V. Neel, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of invasive basal cell carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(2), 292–298 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (4)

J. F. de Boer and T. E. Milner, “Review of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography and Stokes vector determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 359–371 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. P. Swanson, K. Rynearson, and R. Symmonds, “Significance of margins of excision on breast cancer recurrence,” Am. J. Clin. Oncol. 25(5), 438–441 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Fisher, S. Anderson, J. Bryant, R. G. Margolese, M. Deutsch, E. R. Fisher, J.-H. Jeong, and N. Wolmark, “Twenty-year follow-up of a randomized trial comparing total mastectomy, lumpectomy, and lumpectomy plus irradiation for the treatment of invasive breast cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 347(16), 1233–1241 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Veronesi, N. Cascinelli, L. Mariani, M. Greco, R. Saccozzi, A. Luini, M. Aguilar, and E. Marubini, “Twenty-year follow-up of a randomized study comparing breast-conserving surgery with radical mastectomy for early breast cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 347(16), 1227–1232 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

R. Greenberg, Y. Skornick, and O. Kaplan, “Management of breast fibroadenomas,” J. Gen. Intern. Med. 13(9), 640–645 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1992 (1)

Abrahamse, P.

M. Azu, P. Abrahamse, S. J. Katz, R. Jagsi, and M. Morrow, “What is an adequate margin for breast-conserving surgery? Surgeon attitudes and correlates,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 17(2), 558–563 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adie, S. G.

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. Cittadine, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. South, P. S. Carney, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo intra-operative breast tumor margin detection using a portable OCT system with a handheld surgical imaging probe,” Proc. SPIE 89351, 89351C (2014).

S. G. Adie, T. R. Hillman, and D. D. Sampson, “Detection of multiple scattering in optical coherence tomography using the spatial distribution of Stokes vectors,” Opt. Express 15(26), 18033–18049 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adler, D. C.

Aguilar, M.

U. Veronesi, N. Cascinelli, L. Mariani, M. Greco, R. Saccozzi, A. Luini, M. Aguilar, and E. Marubini, “Twenty-year follow-up of a randomized study comparing breast-conserving surgery with radical mastectomy for early breast cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 347(16), 1227–1232 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aguirre, A. D.

C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. H. Wang, H. C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T. H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res. 70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. L. Hsiung, D. R. Phatak, Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Benign and malignant lesions in the human breast depicted with ultrahigh resolution and three-dimensional optical coherence tomography,” Radiology 244(3), 865–874 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alderman, A. K.

M. Morrow, R. Jagsi, A. K. Alderman, J. J. Griggs, S. T. Hawley, A. S. Hamilton, J. J. Graff, and S. J. Katz, “Surgeon recommendations and receipt of mastectomy for treatment of breast cancer,” JAMA 302(14), 1551–1556 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Waljee, E. S. Hu, L. A. Newman, and A. K. Alderman, “Predictors of re-excision among women undergoing breast-conserving surgery for cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(5), 1297–1303 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ananthakrishnan, P.

P. Ananthakrishnan, F. L. Balci, and J. P. Crowe, “Optimizing surgical margins in breast conservation,” Int. J. Surg. Oncol. 2012, 585670 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, S.

B. Fisher, S. Anderson, J. Bryant, R. G. Margolese, M. Deutsch, E. R. Fisher, J.-H. Jeong, and N. Wolmark, “Twenty-year follow-up of a randomized trial comparing total mastectomy, lumpectomy, and lumpectomy plus irradiation for the treatment of invasive breast cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 347(16), 1233–1241 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Antoine, M.

O. Assayag, M. Antoine, B. Sigal-Zafrani, M. Riben, F. Harms, A. Burcheri, K. Grieve, E. Dalimier, B. Le Conte de Poly, and C. Boccara, “Large field, high resolution full-field optical coherence tomography: A pre-clinical study of human breast tissue and cancer assessment,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 13(5), 455–468 (2014).
[PubMed]

Assayag, O.

O. Assayag, M. Antoine, B. Sigal-Zafrani, M. Riben, F. Harms, A. Burcheri, K. Grieve, E. Dalimier, B. Le Conte de Poly, and C. Boccara, “Large field, high resolution full-field optical coherence tomography: A pre-clinical study of human breast tissue and cancer assessment,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 13(5), 455–468 (2014).
[PubMed]

Azu, M.

M. Azu, P. Abrahamse, S. J. Katz, R. Jagsi, and M. Morrow, “What is an adequate margin for breast-conserving surgery? Surgeon attitudes and correlates,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 17(2), 558–563 (2010).
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Balci, F. L.

P. Ananthakrishnan, F. L. Balci, and J. P. Crowe, “Optimizing surgical margins in breast conservation,” Int. J. Surg. Oncol. 2012, 585670 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bellafiore, F. J.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, P. A. Johnson, K. M. Rowland, and S. A. Boppart, “Clinical feasibility of microscopically-guided breast needle biopsy using a fiber-optic probe with computer-aided detection,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 8(5), 315–321 (2009).
[PubMed]

Bleiweiss, I.

T. S. Menes, P. I. Tartter, I. Bleiweiss, J. H. Godbold, A. Estabrook, and S. R. Smith, “The consequence of multiple re-excisions to obtain clear lumpectomy margins in breast cancer patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 12(11), 881–885 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boccara, C.

O. Assayag, M. Antoine, B. Sigal-Zafrani, M. Riben, F. Harms, A. Burcheri, K. Grieve, E. Dalimier, B. Le Conte de Poly, and C. Boccara, “Large field, high resolution full-field optical coherence tomography: A pre-clinical study of human breast tissue and cancer assessment,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 13(5), 455–468 (2014).
[PubMed]

Boolbol, S. K.

E. K. Valdes, S. K. Boolbol, J.-M. Cohen, and S. M. Feldman, “Intra-operative touch preparation cytology; Does it have a role in re-excision lumpectomy?” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(3), 1045–1050 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boppart, M. D.

Boppart, S. A.

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. Cittadine, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. South, P. S. Carney, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo intra-operative breast tumor margin detection using a portable OCT system with a handheld surgical imaging probe,” Proc. SPIE 89351, 89351C (2014).

W. C. Kuo, J. Kim, N. D. Shemonski, E. J. Chaney, D. R. Spillman, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time three-dimensional optical coherence tomography image-guided core-needle biopsy system,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1149–1161 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, P. A. Johnson, K. M. Rowland, and S. A. Boppart, “Clinical feasibility of microscopically-guided breast needle biopsy using a fiber-optic probe with computer-aided detection,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 8(5), 315–321 (2009).
[PubMed]

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, and S. A. Boppart, “Refractive index of carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumours,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(9), 2165–2177 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Pasquesi, S. C. Schlachter, M. D. Boppart, E. Chaney, S. J. Kaufman, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo detection of exercised-induced ultrastructural changes in genetically-altered murine skeletal muscle using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(4), 1547–1556 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, W. Luo, D. L. Marks, and K. W. Singletary, “Optical coherence tomography: Feasibility for basic research and image-guided surgery of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 84(2), 85–97 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

B. J. Vakoc, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Cancer imaging by optical coherence tomography: Preclinical progress and clinical potential,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 12(5), 363–368 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49(13), 1474–1481 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Breslin, T. M.

T. P. Olson, J. Harter, A. Muñoz, D. M. Mahvi, and T. M. Breslin, “Frozen section analysis for intraoperative margin assessment during breast-conserving surgery results in low rates of re-excision and local recurrence,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(10), 2953–2960 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bressner, J. E.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49(13), 1474–1481 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bryant, J.

B. Fisher, S. Anderson, J. Bryant, R. G. Margolese, M. Deutsch, E. R. Fisher, J.-H. Jeong, and N. Wolmark, “Twenty-year follow-up of a randomized trial comparing total mastectomy, lumpectomy, and lumpectomy plus irradiation for the treatment of invasive breast cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 347(16), 1233–1241 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burcheri, A.

O. Assayag, M. Antoine, B. Sigal-Zafrani, M. Riben, F. Harms, A. Burcheri, K. Grieve, E. Dalimier, B. Le Conte de Poly, and C. Boccara, “Large field, high resolution full-field optical coherence tomography: A pre-clinical study of human breast tissue and cancer assessment,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 13(5), 455–468 (2014).
[PubMed]

Caldarella, P.

A. Luini, J. Rososchansky, G. Gatti, S. Zurrida, P. Caldarella, G. Viale, G. Rosali dos Santos, and A. Frasson, “The surgical margin status after breast-conserving surgery: Discussion of an open issue,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 113(2), 397–402 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carney, P. S.

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. Cittadine, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. South, P. S. Carney, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo intra-operative breast tumor margin detection using a portable OCT system with a handheld surgical imaging probe,” Proc. SPIE 89351, 89351C (2014).

Cascinelli, N.

U. Veronesi, N. Cascinelli, L. Mariani, M. Greco, R. Saccozzi, A. Luini, M. Aguilar, and E. Marubini, “Twenty-year follow-up of a randomized study comparing breast-conserving surgery with radical mastectomy for early breast cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 347(16), 1227–1232 (2002).
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Ceilley, E.

A. Taghian, M. Mohiuddin, R. Jagsi, S. Goldberg, E. Ceilley, and S. Powell, “Current perceptions regarding surgical margin status after breast-conserving therapy: results of a survey,” Ann. Surg. 241(4), 629–639 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chaney, E.

Chaney, E. J.

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. Cittadine, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. South, P. S. Carney, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo intra-operative breast tumor margin detection using a portable OCT system with a handheld surgical imaging probe,” Proc. SPIE 89351, 89351C (2014).

W. C. Kuo, J. Kim, N. D. Shemonski, E. J. Chaney, D. R. Spillman, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time three-dimensional optical coherence tomography image-guided core-needle biopsy system,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1149–1161 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, P. A. Johnson, K. M. Rowland, and S. A. Boppart, “Clinical feasibility of microscopically-guided breast needle biopsy using a fiber-optic probe with computer-aided detection,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 8(5), 315–321 (2009).
[PubMed]

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, and S. A. Boppart, “Refractive index of carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumours,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(9), 2165–2177 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, E. W.

D. Savastru, E. W. Chang, S. Miclos, M. B. Pitman, A. Patel, and N. Iftimia, “Detection of breast surgical margins with optical coherence tomography imaging: A concept evaluation study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(5), 056001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

P. L. Hsiung, D. R. Phatak, Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Benign and malignant lesions in the human breast depicted with ultrahigh resolution and three-dimensional optical coherence tomography,” Radiology 244(3), 865–874 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z. P.

Cittadine, A.

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. Cittadine, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. South, P. S. Carney, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo intra-operative breast tumor margin detection using a portable OCT system with a handheld surgical imaging probe,” Proc. SPIE 89351, 89351C (2014).

Cohen, D. W.

C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. H. Wang, H. C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T. H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res. 70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cohen, J.-M.

E. K. Valdes, S. K. Boolbol, J.-M. Cohen, and S. M. Feldman, “Intra-operative touch preparation cytology; Does it have a role in re-excision lumpectomy?” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(3), 1045–1050 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Conklin, M. W.

M. W. Conklin, J. C. Eickhoff, K. M. Riching, C. A. Pehlke, K. W. Eliceiri, P. P. Provenzano, A. Friedl, and P. J. Keely, “Aligned collagen is a prognostic signature for survival in human breast carcinoma,” Am. J. Pathol. 178(3), 1221–1232 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Connolly, J. L.

C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. H. Wang, H. C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T. H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res. 70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. L. Hsiung, D. R. Phatak, Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Benign and malignant lesions in the human breast depicted with ultrahigh resolution and three-dimensional optical coherence tomography,” Radiology 244(3), 865–874 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cradock, K. A.

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. Cittadine, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. South, P. S. Carney, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo intra-operative breast tumor margin detection using a portable OCT system with a handheld surgical imaging probe,” Proc. SPIE 89351, 89351C (2014).

Crowe, J. P.

P. Ananthakrishnan, F. L. Balci, and J. P. Crowe, “Optimizing surgical margins in breast conservation,” Int. J. Surg. Oncol. 2012, 585670 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curatolo, A.

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: Feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
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Dalimier, E.

O. Assayag, M. Antoine, B. Sigal-Zafrani, M. Riben, F. Harms, A. Burcheri, K. Grieve, E. Dalimier, B. Le Conte de Poly, and C. Boccara, “Large field, high resolution full-field optical coherence tomography: A pre-clinical study of human breast tissue and cancer assessment,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 13(5), 455–468 (2014).
[PubMed]

Darga, D.

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. Cittadine, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. South, P. S. Carney, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo intra-operative breast tumor margin detection using a portable OCT system with a handheld surgical imaging probe,” Proc. SPIE 89351, 89351C (2014).

de Boer, J. F.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49(13), 1474–1481 (2007).
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J. Strasswimmer, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, V. Neel, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of invasive basal cell carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(2), 292–298 (2004).
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J. F. de Boer and T. E. Milner, “Review of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography and Stokes vector determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 359–371 (2002).
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J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, “Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22(12), 934–936 (1997).
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Deutsch, M.

B. Fisher, S. Anderson, J. Bryant, R. G. Margolese, M. Deutsch, E. R. Fisher, J.-H. Jeong, and N. Wolmark, “Twenty-year follow-up of a randomized trial comparing total mastectomy, lumpectomy, and lumpectomy plus irradiation for the treatment of invasive breast cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 347(16), 1233–1241 (2002).
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Dhalla, A.-H.

Dillon, M. F.

M. F. Dillon, A. D. K. Hill, C. M. Quinn, E. W. McDermott, and N. O’Higgins, “A pathologic assessment of adequate margin status in breast-conserving therapy,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 13(3), 333–339 (2006).
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Eickhoff, J. C.

M. W. Conklin, J. C. Eickhoff, K. M. Riching, C. A. Pehlke, K. W. Eliceiri, P. P. Provenzano, A. Friedl, and P. J. Keely, “Aligned collagen is a prognostic signature for survival in human breast carcinoma,” Am. J. Pathol. 178(3), 1221–1232 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eliceiri, K. W.

M. W. Conklin, J. C. Eickhoff, K. M. Riching, C. A. Pehlke, K. W. Eliceiri, P. P. Provenzano, A. Friedl, and P. J. Keely, “Aligned collagen is a prognostic signature for survival in human breast carcinoma,” Am. J. Pathol. 178(3), 1221–1232 (2011).
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P. P. Provenzano, D. R. Inman, K. W. Eliceiri, J. G. Knittel, L. Yan, C. T. Rueden, J. G. White, and P. J. Keely, “Collagen density promotes mammary tumor initiation and progression,” BMC Med. 6(1), 11 (2008).
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S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. Cittadine, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. South, P. S. Carney, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo intra-operative breast tumor margin detection using a portable OCT system with a handheld surgical imaging probe,” Proc. SPIE 89351, 89351C (2014).

Estabrook, A.

T. S. Menes, P. I. Tartter, I. Bleiweiss, J. H. Godbold, A. Estabrook, and S. R. Smith, “The consequence of multiple re-excisions to obtain clear lumpectomy margins in breast cancer patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 12(11), 881–885 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feldman, S. M.

E. K. Valdes, S. K. Boolbol, J.-M. Cohen, and S. M. Feldman, “Intra-operative touch preparation cytology; Does it have a role in re-excision lumpectomy?” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(3), 1045–1050 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fisher, B.

B. Fisher, S. Anderson, J. Bryant, R. G. Margolese, M. Deutsch, E. R. Fisher, J.-H. Jeong, and N. Wolmark, “Twenty-year follow-up of a randomized trial comparing total mastectomy, lumpectomy, and lumpectomy plus irradiation for the treatment of invasive breast cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 347(16), 1233–1241 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fisher, E. R.

B. Fisher, S. Anderson, J. Bryant, R. G. Margolese, M. Deutsch, E. R. Fisher, J.-H. Jeong, and N. Wolmark, “Twenty-year follow-up of a randomized trial comparing total mastectomy, lumpectomy, and lumpectomy plus irradiation for the treatment of invasive breast cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 347(16), 1233–1241 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frasson, A.

A. Luini, J. Rososchansky, G. Gatti, S. Zurrida, P. Caldarella, G. Viale, G. Rosali dos Santos, and A. Frasson, “The surgical margin status after breast-conserving surgery: Discussion of an open issue,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 113(2), 397–402 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friedl, A.

M. W. Conklin, J. C. Eickhoff, K. M. Riching, C. A. Pehlke, K. W. Eliceiri, P. P. Provenzano, A. Friedl, and P. J. Keely, “Aligned collagen is a prognostic signature for survival in human breast carcinoma,” Am. J. Pathol. 178(3), 1221–1232 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. H. Wang, H. C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T. H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res. 70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. L. Hsiung, D. R. Phatak, Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Benign and malignant lesions in the human breast depicted with ultrahigh resolution and three-dimensional optical coherence tomography,” Radiology 244(3), 865–874 (2007).
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R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: Unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 2975–2977 (2006).
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M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9(6), 903–908 (1992).
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Fukumura, D.

B. J. Vakoc, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Cancer imaging by optical coherence tomography: Preclinical progress and clinical potential,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 12(5), 363–368 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gatti, G.

A. Luini, J. Rososchansky, G. Gatti, S. Zurrida, P. Caldarella, G. Viale, G. Rosali dos Santos, and A. Frasson, “The surgical margin status after breast-conserving surgery: Discussion of an open issue,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 113(2), 397–402 (2009).
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Gautam, M.

Y. Verma, M. Gautam, K. D. Rao, M. K. Swami, and P. K. Gupta, “Imaging of human breast tissue using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Laser Phys. 21(12), 2143–2148 (2011).
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Godbold, J. H.

T. S. Menes, P. I. Tartter, I. Bleiweiss, J. H. Godbold, A. Estabrook, and S. R. Smith, “The consequence of multiple re-excisions to obtain clear lumpectomy margins in breast cancer patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 12(11), 881–885 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldberg, S.

A. Taghian, M. Mohiuddin, R. Jagsi, S. Goldberg, E. Ceilley, and S. Powell, “Current perceptions regarding surgical margin status after breast-conserving therapy: results of a survey,” Ann. Surg. 241(4), 629–639 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Graff, J. J.

M. Morrow, R. Jagsi, A. K. Alderman, J. J. Griggs, S. T. Hawley, A. S. Hamilton, J. J. Graff, and S. J. Katz, “Surgeon recommendations and receipt of mastectomy for treatment of breast cancer,” JAMA 302(14), 1551–1556 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greco, M.

U. Veronesi, N. Cascinelli, L. Mariani, M. Greco, R. Saccozzi, A. Luini, M. Aguilar, and E. Marubini, “Twenty-year follow-up of a randomized study comparing breast-conserving surgery with radical mastectomy for early breast cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 347(16), 1227–1232 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greenberg, R.

R. Greenberg, Y. Skornick, and O. Kaplan, “Management of breast fibroadenomas,” J. Gen. Intern. Med. 13(9), 640–645 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grieve, K.

O. Assayag, M. Antoine, B. Sigal-Zafrani, M. Riben, F. Harms, A. Burcheri, K. Grieve, E. Dalimier, B. Le Conte de Poly, and C. Boccara, “Large field, high resolution full-field optical coherence tomography: A pre-clinical study of human breast tissue and cancer assessment,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 13(5), 455–468 (2014).
[PubMed]

Griggs, J. J.

M. Morrow, R. Jagsi, A. K. Alderman, J. J. Griggs, S. T. Hawley, A. S. Hamilton, J. J. Graff, and S. J. Katz, “Surgeon recommendations and receipt of mastectomy for treatment of breast cancer,” JAMA 302(14), 1551–1556 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gupta, P. K.

Y. Verma, M. Gautam, K. D. Rao, M. K. Swami, and P. K. Gupta, “Imaging of human breast tissue using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Laser Phys. 21(12), 2143–2148 (2011).
[Crossref]

Halpern, E.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49(13), 1474–1481 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hamann, M. S.

C. Kotwall, M. Ranson, A. Stiles, and M. S. Hamann, “Relationship between initial margin status for invasive breast cancer and residual carcinoma after re-excision,” Am. Surg. 73(4), 337–343 (2007).
[PubMed]

Hamilton, A. S.

M. Morrow, R. Jagsi, A. K. Alderman, J. J. Griggs, S. T. Hawley, A. S. Hamilton, J. J. Graff, and S. J. Katz, “Surgeon recommendations and receipt of mastectomy for treatment of breast cancer,” JAMA 302(14), 1551–1556 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harms, F.

O. Assayag, M. Antoine, B. Sigal-Zafrani, M. Riben, F. Harms, A. Burcheri, K. Grieve, E. Dalimier, B. Le Conte de Poly, and C. Boccara, “Large field, high resolution full-field optical coherence tomography: A pre-clinical study of human breast tissue and cancer assessment,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 13(5), 455–468 (2014).
[PubMed]

Harter, J.

T. P. Olson, J. Harter, A. Muñoz, D. M. Mahvi, and T. M. Breslin, “Frozen section analysis for intraoperative margin assessment during breast-conserving surgery results in low rates of re-excision and local recurrence,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(10), 2953–2960 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hawley, S. T.

M. Morrow, R. Jagsi, A. K. Alderman, J. J. Griggs, S. T. Hawley, A. S. Hamilton, J. J. Graff, and S. J. Katz, “Surgeon recommendations and receipt of mastectomy for treatment of breast cancer,” JAMA 302(14), 1551–1556 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

Hendargo, H. C.

Hill, A. D. K.

M. F. Dillon, A. D. K. Hill, C. M. Quinn, E. W. McDermott, and N. O’Higgins, “A pathologic assessment of adequate margin status in breast-conserving therapy,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 13(3), 333–339 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hillman, T. R.

Houser, S. L.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49(13), 1474–1481 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsiung, P. L.

P. L. Hsiung, D. R. Phatak, Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Benign and malignant lesions in the human breast depicted with ultrahigh resolution and three-dimensional optical coherence tomography,” Radiology 244(3), 865–874 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, E. S.

J. F. Waljee, E. S. Hu, L. A. Newman, and A. K. Alderman, “Predictors of re-excision among women undergoing breast-conserving surgery for cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(5), 1297–1303 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

Huber, R.

Iftimia, N.

D. Savastru, E. W. Chang, S. Miclos, M. B. Pitman, A. Patel, and N. Iftimia, “Detection of breast surgical margins with optical coherence tomography imaging: A concept evaluation study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(5), 056001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Inman, D. R.

P. P. Provenzano, D. R. Inman, K. W. Eliceiri, J. G. Knittel, L. Yan, C. T. Rueden, J. G. White, and P. J. Keely, “Collagen density promotes mammary tumor initiation and progression,” BMC Med. 6(1), 11 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Jagsi, R.

M. Azu, P. Abrahamse, S. J. Katz, R. Jagsi, and M. Morrow, “What is an adequate margin for breast-conserving surgery? Surgeon attitudes and correlates,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 17(2), 558–563 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Morrow, R. Jagsi, A. K. Alderman, J. J. Griggs, S. T. Hawley, A. S. Hamilton, J. J. Graff, and S. J. Katz, “Surgeon recommendations and receipt of mastectomy for treatment of breast cancer,” JAMA 302(14), 1551–1556 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Taghian, M. Mohiuddin, R. Jagsi, S. Goldberg, E. Ceilley, and S. Powell, “Current perceptions regarding surgical margin status after breast-conserving therapy: results of a survey,” Ann. Surg. 241(4), 629–639 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jain, R. K.

B. J. Vakoc, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Cancer imaging by optical coherence tomography: Preclinical progress and clinical potential,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 12(5), 363–368 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeong, J.-H.

B. Fisher, S. Anderson, J. Bryant, R. G. Margolese, M. Deutsch, E. R. Fisher, J.-H. Jeong, and N. Wolmark, “Twenty-year follow-up of a randomized trial comparing total mastectomy, lumpectomy, and lumpectomy plus irradiation for the treatment of invasive breast cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 347(16), 1233–1241 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiao, S. L.

Johnson, P. A.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, P. A. Johnson, K. M. Rowland, and S. A. Boppart, “Clinical feasibility of microscopically-guided breast needle biopsy using a fiber-optic probe with computer-aided detection,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 8(5), 315–321 (2009).
[PubMed]

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaplan, O.

R. Greenberg, Y. Skornick, and O. Kaplan, “Management of breast fibroadenomas,” J. Gen. Intern. Med. 13(9), 640–645 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Katz, S. J.

M. Azu, P. Abrahamse, S. J. Katz, R. Jagsi, and M. Morrow, “What is an adequate margin for breast-conserving surgery? Surgeon attitudes and correlates,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 17(2), 558–563 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Morrow, R. Jagsi, A. K. Alderman, J. J. Griggs, S. T. Hawley, A. S. Hamilton, J. J. Graff, and S. J. Katz, “Surgeon recommendations and receipt of mastectomy for treatment of breast cancer,” JAMA 302(14), 1551–1556 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaufman, S. J.

Keely, P. J.

M. W. Conklin, J. C. Eickhoff, K. M. Riching, C. A. Pehlke, K. W. Eliceiri, P. P. Provenzano, A. Friedl, and P. J. Keely, “Aligned collagen is a prognostic signature for survival in human breast carcinoma,” Am. J. Pathol. 178(3), 1221–1232 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. P. Provenzano, D. R. Inman, K. W. Eliceiri, J. G. Knittel, L. Yan, C. T. Rueden, J. G. White, and P. J. Keely, “Collagen density promotes mammary tumor initiation and progression,” BMC Med. 6(1), 11 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

Kirk, R. W.

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: Feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[Crossref]

Knittel, J. G.

P. P. Provenzano, D. R. Inman, K. W. Eliceiri, J. G. Knittel, L. Yan, C. T. Rueden, J. G. White, and P. J. Keely, “Collagen density promotes mammary tumor initiation and progression,” BMC Med. 6(1), 11 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kotwall, C.

C. Kotwall, M. Ranson, A. Stiles, and M. S. Hamann, “Relationship between initial margin status for invasive breast cancer and residual carcinoma after re-excision,” Am. Surg. 73(4), 337–343 (2007).
[PubMed]

Kotynek, J. G.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, P. A. Johnson, K. M. Rowland, and S. A. Boppart, “Clinical feasibility of microscopically-guided breast needle biopsy using a fiber-optic probe with computer-aided detection,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 8(5), 315–321 (2009).
[PubMed]

Kuo, W. C.

Le Conte de Poly, B.

O. Assayag, M. Antoine, B. Sigal-Zafrani, M. Riben, F. Harms, A. Burcheri, K. Grieve, E. Dalimier, B. Le Conte de Poly, and C. Boccara, “Large field, high resolution full-field optical coherence tomography: A pre-clinical study of human breast tissue and cancer assessment,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 13(5), 455–468 (2014).
[PubMed]

Lee, H. C.

C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. H. Wang, H. C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T. H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res. 70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, G. J.

Liu, Z. G.

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. Cittadine, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. South, P. S. Carney, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo intra-operative breast tumor margin detection using a portable OCT system with a handheld surgical imaging probe,” Proc. SPIE 89351, 89351C (2014).

Lorenser, D.

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: Feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[Crossref]

Luini, A.

A. Luini, J. Rososchansky, G. Gatti, S. Zurrida, P. Caldarella, G. Viale, G. Rosali dos Santos, and A. Frasson, “The surgical margin status after breast-conserving surgery: Discussion of an open issue,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 113(2), 397–402 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Veronesi, N. Cascinelli, L. Mariani, M. Greco, R. Saccozzi, A. Luini, M. Aguilar, and E. Marubini, “Twenty-year follow-up of a randomized study comparing breast-conserving surgery with radical mastectomy for early breast cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 347(16), 1227–1232 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, W.

S. A. Boppart, W. Luo, D. L. Marks, and K. W. Singletary, “Optical coherence tomography: Feasibility for basic research and image-guided surgery of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 84(2), 85–97 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahvi, D. M.

T. P. Olson, J. Harter, A. Muñoz, D. M. Mahvi, and T. M. Breslin, “Frozen section analysis for intraoperative margin assessment during breast-conserving surgery results in low rates of re-excision and local recurrence,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(10), 2953–2960 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Margolese, R. G.

B. Fisher, S. Anderson, J. Bryant, R. G. Margolese, M. Deutsch, E. R. Fisher, J.-H. Jeong, and N. Wolmark, “Twenty-year follow-up of a randomized trial comparing total mastectomy, lumpectomy, and lumpectomy plus irradiation for the treatment of invasive breast cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 347(16), 1233–1241 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mariani, L.

U. Veronesi, N. Cascinelli, L. Mariani, M. Greco, R. Saccozzi, A. Luini, M. Aguilar, and E. Marubini, “Twenty-year follow-up of a randomized study comparing breast-conserving surgery with radical mastectomy for early breast cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 347(16), 1227–1232 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marjanovic, M.

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. Cittadine, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. South, P. S. Carney, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo intra-operative breast tumor margin detection using a portable OCT system with a handheld surgical imaging probe,” Proc. SPIE 89351, 89351C (2014).

Marks, D. L.

S. A. Boppart, W. Luo, D. L. Marks, and K. W. Singletary, “Optical coherence tomography: Feasibility for basic research and image-guided surgery of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 84(2), 85–97 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marubini, E.

U. Veronesi, N. Cascinelli, L. Mariani, M. Greco, R. Saccozzi, A. Luini, M. Aguilar, and E. Marubini, “Twenty-year follow-up of a randomized study comparing breast-conserving surgery with radical mastectomy for early breast cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 347(16), 1227–1232 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McCormick, D. T.

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. Cittadine, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. South, P. S. Carney, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo intra-operative breast tumor margin detection using a portable OCT system with a handheld surgical imaging probe,” Proc. SPIE 89351, 89351C (2014).

McDermott, E. W.

M. F. Dillon, A. D. K. Hill, C. M. Quinn, E. W. McDermott, and N. O’Higgins, “A pathologic assessment of adequate margin status in breast-conserving therapy,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 13(3), 333–339 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McLaughlin, R. A.

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: Feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[Crossref]

McNabb, R. P.

Menes, T. S.

T. S. Menes, P. I. Tartter, I. Bleiweiss, J. H. Godbold, A. Estabrook, and S. R. Smith, “The consequence of multiple re-excisions to obtain clear lumpectomy margins in breast cancer patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 12(11), 881–885 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miclos, S.

D. Savastru, E. W. Chang, S. Miclos, M. B. Pitman, A. Patel, and N. Iftimia, “Detection of breast surgical margins with optical coherence tomography imaging: A concept evaluation study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(5), 056001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milner, T. E.

Mohiuddin, M.

A. Taghian, M. Mohiuddin, R. Jagsi, S. Goldberg, E. Ceilley, and S. Powell, “Current perceptions regarding surgical margin status after breast-conserving therapy: results of a survey,” Ann. Surg. 241(4), 629–639 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mondelblatt, A. E.

C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. H. Wang, H. C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T. H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res. 70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Monroy, G. L.

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. Cittadine, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. South, P. S. Carney, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo intra-operative breast tumor margin detection using a portable OCT system with a handheld surgical imaging probe,” Proc. SPIE 89351, 89351C (2014).

Morrow, M.

M. Azu, P. Abrahamse, S. J. Katz, R. Jagsi, and M. Morrow, “What is an adequate margin for breast-conserving surgery? Surgeon attitudes and correlates,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 17(2), 558–563 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Morrow, R. Jagsi, A. K. Alderman, J. J. Griggs, S. T. Hawley, A. S. Hamilton, J. J. Graff, and S. J. Katz, “Surgeon recommendations and receipt of mastectomy for treatment of breast cancer,” JAMA 302(14), 1551–1556 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muñoz, A.

T. P. Olson, J. Harter, A. Muñoz, D. M. Mahvi, and T. M. Breslin, “Frozen section analysis for intraoperative margin assessment during breast-conserving surgery results in low rates of re-excision and local recurrence,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(10), 2953–2960 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nadkarni, S. K.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49(13), 1474–1481 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neel, V.

J. Strasswimmer, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, V. Neel, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of invasive basal cell carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(2), 292–298 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nelson, J. S.

Newman, L. A.

J. F. Waljee, E. S. Hu, L. A. Newman, and A. K. Alderman, “Predictors of re-excision among women undergoing breast-conserving surgery for cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(5), 1297–1303 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nguyen, F. T.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, P. A. Johnson, K. M. Rowland, and S. A. Boppart, “Clinical feasibility of microscopically-guided breast needle biopsy using a fiber-optic probe with computer-aided detection,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 8(5), 315–321 (2009).
[PubMed]

Nolan, R.

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. Cittadine, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. South, P. S. Carney, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo intra-operative breast tumor margin detection using a portable OCT system with a handheld surgical imaging probe,” Proc. SPIE 89351, 89351C (2014).

O’Higgins, N.

M. F. Dillon, A. D. K. Hill, C. M. Quinn, E. W. McDermott, and N. O’Higgins, “A pathologic assessment of adequate margin status in breast-conserving therapy,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 13(3), 333–339 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oliphant, U. J.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, P. A. Johnson, K. M. Rowland, and S. A. Boppart, “Clinical feasibility of microscopically-guided breast needle biopsy using a fiber-optic probe with computer-aided detection,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 8(5), 315–321 (2009).
[PubMed]

Olson, T. P.

T. P. Olson, J. Harter, A. Muñoz, D. M. Mahvi, and T. M. Breslin, “Frozen section analysis for intraoperative margin assessment during breast-conserving surgery results in low rates of re-excision and local recurrence,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(10), 2953–2960 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, B. H.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49(13), 1474–1481 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Strasswimmer, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, V. Neel, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of invasive basal cell carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(2), 292–298 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pasquesi, J. J.

Patel, A.

D. Savastru, E. W. Chang, S. Miclos, M. B. Pitman, A. Patel, and N. Iftimia, “Detection of breast surgical margins with optical coherence tomography imaging: A concept evaluation study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(5), 056001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pehlke, C. A.

M. W. Conklin, J. C. Eickhoff, K. M. Riching, C. A. Pehlke, K. W. Eliceiri, P. P. Provenzano, A. Friedl, and P. J. Keely, “Aligned collagen is a prognostic signature for survival in human breast carcinoma,” Am. J. Pathol. 178(3), 1221–1232 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phatak, D. R.

P. L. Hsiung, D. R. Phatak, Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Benign and malignant lesions in the human breast depicted with ultrahigh resolution and three-dimensional optical coherence tomography,” Radiology 244(3), 865–874 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pierce, M. C.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49(13), 1474–1481 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Strasswimmer, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, V. Neel, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of invasive basal cell carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(2), 292–298 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pitman, M. B.

D. Savastru, E. W. Chang, S. Miclos, M. B. Pitman, A. Patel, and N. Iftimia, “Detection of breast surgical margins with optical coherence tomography imaging: A concept evaluation study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(5), 056001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Powell, S.

A. Taghian, M. Mohiuddin, R. Jagsi, S. Goldberg, E. Ceilley, and S. Powell, “Current perceptions regarding surgical margin status after breast-conserving therapy: results of a survey,” Ann. Surg. 241(4), 629–639 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Provenzano, P. P.

M. W. Conklin, J. C. Eickhoff, K. M. Riching, C. A. Pehlke, K. W. Eliceiri, P. P. Provenzano, A. Friedl, and P. J. Keely, “Aligned collagen is a prognostic signature for survival in human breast carcinoma,” Am. J. Pathol. 178(3), 1221–1232 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. P. Provenzano, D. R. Inman, K. W. Eliceiri, J. G. Knittel, L. Yan, C. T. Rueden, J. G. White, and P. J. Keely, “Collagen density promotes mammary tumor initiation and progression,” BMC Med. 6(1), 11 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Putney, J.

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. Cittadine, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. South, P. S. Carney, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo intra-operative breast tumor margin detection using a portable OCT system with a handheld surgical imaging probe,” Proc. SPIE 89351, 89351C (2014).

Quinn, C. M.

M. F. Dillon, A. D. K. Hill, C. M. Quinn, E. W. McDermott, and N. O’Higgins, “A pathologic assessment of adequate margin status in breast-conserving therapy,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 13(3), 333–339 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quirk, B. C.

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: Feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ranson, M.

C. Kotwall, M. Ranson, A. Stiles, and M. S. Hamann, “Relationship between initial margin status for invasive breast cancer and residual carcinoma after re-excision,” Am. Surg. 73(4), 337–343 (2007).
[PubMed]

Rao, K. D.

Y. Verma, M. Gautam, K. D. Rao, M. K. Swami, and P. K. Gupta, “Imaging of human breast tissue using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Laser Phys. 21(12), 2143–2148 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ray, P. S.

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. Cittadine, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. South, P. S. Carney, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo intra-operative breast tumor margin detection using a portable OCT system with a handheld surgical imaging probe,” Proc. SPIE 89351, 89351C (2014).

Riben, M.

O. Assayag, M. Antoine, B. Sigal-Zafrani, M. Riben, F. Harms, A. Burcheri, K. Grieve, E. Dalimier, B. Le Conte de Poly, and C. Boccara, “Large field, high resolution full-field optical coherence tomography: A pre-clinical study of human breast tissue and cancer assessment,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 13(5), 455–468 (2014).
[PubMed]

Riching, K. M.

M. W. Conklin, J. C. Eickhoff, K. M. Riching, C. A. Pehlke, K. W. Eliceiri, P. P. Provenzano, A. Friedl, and P. J. Keely, “Aligned collagen is a prognostic signature for survival in human breast carcinoma,” Am. J. Pathol. 178(3), 1221–1232 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robbins, P. D.

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: Feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rosali dos Santos, G.

A. Luini, J. Rososchansky, G. Gatti, S. Zurrida, P. Caldarella, G. Viale, G. Rosali dos Santos, and A. Frasson, “The surgical margin status after breast-conserving surgery: Discussion of an open issue,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 113(2), 397–402 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rososchansky, J.

A. Luini, J. Rososchansky, G. Gatti, S. Zurrida, P. Caldarella, G. Viale, G. Rosali dos Santos, and A. Frasson, “The surgical margin status after breast-conserving surgery: Discussion of an open issue,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 113(2), 397–402 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rowland, K. M.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, P. A. Johnson, K. M. Rowland, and S. A. Boppart, “Clinical feasibility of microscopically-guided breast needle biopsy using a fiber-optic probe with computer-aided detection,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 8(5), 315–321 (2009).
[PubMed]

Rueden, C. T.

P. P. Provenzano, D. R. Inman, K. W. Eliceiri, J. G. Knittel, L. Yan, C. T. Rueden, J. G. White, and P. J. Keely, “Collagen density promotes mammary tumor initiation and progression,” BMC Med. 6(1), 11 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rynearson, K.

G. P. Swanson, K. Rynearson, and R. Symmonds, “Significance of margins of excision on breast cancer recurrence,” Am. J. Clin. Oncol. 25(5), 438–441 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saccozzi, R.

U. Veronesi, N. Cascinelli, L. Mariani, M. Greco, R. Saccozzi, A. Luini, M. Aguilar, and E. Marubini, “Twenty-year follow-up of a randomized study comparing breast-conserving surgery with radical mastectomy for early breast cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 347(16), 1227–1232 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sampson, D. D.

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: Feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. G. Adie, T. R. Hillman, and D. D. Sampson, “Detection of multiple scattering in optical coherence tomography using the spatial distribution of Stokes vectors,” Opt. Express 15(26), 18033–18049 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saunders, C. M.

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: Feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[Crossref]

Savastru, D.

D. Savastru, E. W. Chang, S. Miclos, M. B. Pitman, A. Patel, and N. Iftimia, “Detection of breast surgical margins with optical coherence tomography imaging: A concept evaluation study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(5), 056001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schlachter, S. C.

Scolaro, L.

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: Feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shemonski, N. D.

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. Cittadine, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. South, P. S. Carney, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo intra-operative breast tumor margin detection using a portable OCT system with a handheld surgical imaging probe,” Proc. SPIE 89351, 89351C (2014).

W. C. Kuo, J. Kim, N. D. Shemonski, E. J. Chaney, D. R. Spillman, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time three-dimensional optical coherence tomography image-guided core-needle biopsy system,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1149–1161 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shepherd, N.

Sigal-Zafrani, B.

O. Assayag, M. Antoine, B. Sigal-Zafrani, M. Riben, F. Harms, A. Burcheri, K. Grieve, E. Dalimier, B. Le Conte de Poly, and C. Boccara, “Large field, high resolution full-field optical coherence tomography: A pre-clinical study of human breast tissue and cancer assessment,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 13(5), 455–468 (2014).
[PubMed]

Singletary, K. W.

S. A. Boppart, W. Luo, D. L. Marks, and K. W. Singletary, “Optical coherence tomography: Feasibility for basic research and image-guided surgery of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 84(2), 85–97 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skornick, Y.

R. Greenberg, Y. Skornick, and O. Kaplan, “Management of breast fibroadenomas,” J. Gen. Intern. Med. 13(9), 640–645 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, S. R.

T. S. Menes, P. I. Tartter, I. Bleiweiss, J. H. Godbold, A. Estabrook, and S. R. Smith, “The consequence of multiple re-excisions to obtain clear lumpectomy margins in breast cancer patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 12(11), 881–885 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

South, F.

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. Cittadine, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. South, P. S. Carney, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo intra-operative breast tumor margin detection using a portable OCT system with a handheld surgical imaging probe,” Proc. SPIE 89351, 89351C (2014).

Spillman, D. R.

Stiles, A.

C. Kotwall, M. Ranson, A. Stiles, and M. S. Hamann, “Relationship between initial margin status for invasive breast cancer and residual carcinoma after re-excision,” Am. Surg. 73(4), 337–343 (2007).
[PubMed]

Stoica, G.

Strasswimmer, J.

J. Strasswimmer, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, V. Neel, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of invasive basal cell carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(2), 292–298 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swami, M. K.

Y. Verma, M. Gautam, K. D. Rao, M. K. Swami, and P. K. Gupta, “Imaging of human breast tissue using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Laser Phys. 21(12), 2143–2148 (2011).
[Crossref]

Swanson, E. A.

Swanson, G. P.

G. P. Swanson, K. Rynearson, and R. Symmonds, “Significance of margins of excision on breast cancer recurrence,” Am. J. Clin. Oncol. 25(5), 438–441 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Symmonds, R.

G. P. Swanson, K. Rynearson, and R. Symmonds, “Significance of margins of excision on breast cancer recurrence,” Am. J. Clin. Oncol. 25(5), 438–441 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taghian, A.

A. Taghian, M. Mohiuddin, R. Jagsi, S. Goldberg, E. Ceilley, and S. Powell, “Current perceptions regarding surgical margin status after breast-conserving therapy: results of a survey,” Ann. Surg. 241(4), 629–639 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tartter, P. I.

T. S. Menes, P. I. Tartter, I. Bleiweiss, J. H. Godbold, A. Estabrook, and S. R. Smith, “The consequence of multiple re-excisions to obtain clear lumpectomy margins in breast cancer patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 12(11), 881–885 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49(13), 1474–1481 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, T. H.

C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. H. Wang, H. C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T. H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res. 70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vakoc, B. J.

B. J. Vakoc, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Cancer imaging by optical coherence tomography: Preclinical progress and clinical potential,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 12(5), 363–368 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valdes, E. K.

E. K. Valdes, S. K. Boolbol, J.-M. Cohen, and S. M. Feldman, “Intra-operative touch preparation cytology; Does it have a role in re-excision lumpectomy?” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(3), 1045–1050 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Verma, Y.

Y. Verma, M. Gautam, K. D. Rao, M. K. Swami, and P. K. Gupta, “Imaging of human breast tissue using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Laser Phys. 21(12), 2143–2148 (2011).
[Crossref]

Veronesi, U.

U. Veronesi, N. Cascinelli, L. Mariani, M. Greco, R. Saccozzi, A. Luini, M. Aguilar, and E. Marubini, “Twenty-year follow-up of a randomized study comparing breast-conserving surgery with radical mastectomy for early breast cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 347(16), 1227–1232 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Viale, G.

A. Luini, J. Rososchansky, G. Gatti, S. Zurrida, P. Caldarella, G. Viale, G. Rosali dos Santos, and A. Frasson, “The surgical margin status after breast-conserving surgery: Discussion of an open issue,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 113(2), 397–402 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waljee, J. F.

J. F. Waljee, E. S. Hu, L. A. Newman, and A. K. Alderman, “Predictors of re-excision among women undergoing breast-conserving surgery for cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(5), 1297–1303 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

Wang, Y. H.

C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. H. Wang, H. C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T. H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res. 70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, J. G.

P. P. Provenzano, D. R. Inman, K. W. Eliceiri, J. G. Knittel, L. Yan, C. T. Rueden, J. G. White, and P. J. Keely, “Collagen density promotes mammary tumor initiation and progression,” BMC Med. 6(1), 11 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Whittaker, P.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49(13), 1474–1481 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

Wolmark, N.

B. Fisher, S. Anderson, J. Bryant, R. G. Margolese, M. Deutsch, E. R. Fisher, J.-H. Jeong, and N. Wolmark, “Twenty-year follow-up of a randomized trial comparing total mastectomy, lumpectomy, and lumpectomy plus irradiation for the treatment of invasive breast cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 347(16), 1233–1241 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wood, B. A.

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: Feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xie, T. Q.

Yan, L.

P. P. Provenzano, D. R. Inman, K. W. Eliceiri, J. G. Knittel, L. Yan, C. T. Rueden, J. G. White, and P. J. Keely, “Collagen density promotes mammary tumor initiation and progression,” BMC Med. 6(1), 11 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, L. F.

Yu, W. R.

Zhang, J.

Zhou, C.

C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. H. Wang, H. C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T. H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res. 70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zurrida, S.

A. Luini, J. Rososchansky, G. Gatti, S. Zurrida, P. Caldarella, G. Viale, G. Rosali dos Santos, and A. Frasson, “The surgical margin status after breast-conserving surgery: Discussion of an open issue,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 113(2), 397–402 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zysk, A. M.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, P. A. Johnson, K. M. Rowland, and S. A. Boppart, “Clinical feasibility of microscopically-guided breast needle biopsy using a fiber-optic probe with computer-aided detection,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 8(5), 315–321 (2009).
[PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, and S. A. Boppart, “Refractive index of carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumours,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(9), 2165–2177 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Clin. Oncol. (1)

G. P. Swanson, K. Rynearson, and R. Symmonds, “Significance of margins of excision on breast cancer recurrence,” Am. J. Clin. Oncol. 25(5), 438–441 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Pathol. (1)

M. W. Conklin, J. C. Eickhoff, K. M. Riching, C. A. Pehlke, K. W. Eliceiri, P. P. Provenzano, A. Friedl, and P. J. Keely, “Aligned collagen is a prognostic signature for survival in human breast carcinoma,” Am. J. Pathol. 178(3), 1221–1232 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. Surg. (1)

C. Kotwall, M. Ranson, A. Stiles, and M. S. Hamann, “Relationship between initial margin status for invasive breast cancer and residual carcinoma after re-excision,” Am. Surg. 73(4), 337–343 (2007).
[PubMed]

Ann. Surg. (1)

A. Taghian, M. Mohiuddin, R. Jagsi, S. Goldberg, E. Ceilley, and S. Powell, “Current perceptions regarding surgical margin status after breast-conserving therapy: results of a survey,” Ann. Surg. 241(4), 629–639 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Surg. Oncol. (6)

J. F. Waljee, E. S. Hu, L. A. Newman, and A. K. Alderman, “Predictors of re-excision among women undergoing breast-conserving surgery for cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(5), 1297–1303 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Menes, P. I. Tartter, I. Bleiweiss, J. H. Godbold, A. Estabrook, and S. R. Smith, “The consequence of multiple re-excisions to obtain clear lumpectomy margins in breast cancer patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 12(11), 881–885 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. P. Olson, J. Harter, A. Muñoz, D. M. Mahvi, and T. M. Breslin, “Frozen section analysis for intraoperative margin assessment during breast-conserving surgery results in low rates of re-excision and local recurrence,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(10), 2953–2960 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. K. Valdes, S. K. Boolbol, J.-M. Cohen, and S. M. Feldman, “Intra-operative touch preparation cytology; Does it have a role in re-excision lumpectomy?” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(3), 1045–1050 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Azu, P. Abrahamse, S. J. Katz, R. Jagsi, and M. Morrow, “What is an adequate margin for breast-conserving surgery? Surgeon attitudes and correlates,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 17(2), 558–563 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Dillon, A. D. K. Hill, C. M. Quinn, E. W. McDermott, and N. O’Higgins, “A pathologic assessment of adequate margin status in breast-conserving therapy,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 13(3), 333–339 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

BMC Med. (1)

P. P. Provenzano, D. R. Inman, K. W. Eliceiri, J. G. Knittel, L. Yan, C. T. Rueden, J. G. White, and P. J. Keely, “Collagen density promotes mammary tumor initiation and progression,” BMC Med. 6(1), 11 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Breast Cancer Res. Treat. (2)

A. Luini, J. Rososchansky, G. Gatti, S. Zurrida, P. Caldarella, G. Viale, G. Rosali dos Santos, and A. Frasson, “The surgical margin status after breast-conserving surgery: Discussion of an open issue,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 113(2), 397–402 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, W. Luo, D. L. Marks, and K. W. Singletary, “Optical coherence tomography: Feasibility for basic research and image-guided surgery of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 84(2), 85–97 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cancer Res. (2)

C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. H. Wang, H. C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T. H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res. 70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: Feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Surg. Oncol. (1)

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Supplementary Material (5)

» Media 1: MOV (6218 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (5344 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (6446 KB)     
» Media 4: MOV (4212 KB)     
» Media 5: MOV (5342 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Swept-source PS-OCT system design. FDML: Fourier domain mode-locked laser; LP: Linear polarizer; PBS: Polarizing beam splitter; QWP: Quarter-wave plate. (b) PS-OCT image of molded plastic. (c) PS-OCT image of chicken breast muscle. Scale bar represents 500 µm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fibro-adipose human breast tissue. (a) Structural OCT image. (b) H&E-stained histology. (c) PS-OCT image (Media 1). (d) Picrosirius red stained histology. (e) En face PS-OCT projection. Scale bars represent 500 µm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fibrous human breast tissue. (a) Structural OCT image. (b) H&E-stained histology. (c) PS-OCT image (Media 2). (d) Picrosirius red stained histology. (e) En face PS-OCT projection. Scale bars represent 500 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Invasive ductal carcinoma replacing the surrounding fibrous environment. (a) Structural OCT image. (b) H&E-stained histology. (c) PS-OCT image (Media 3). Red arrow indicates tumor, green arrow indicates fibrous stroma. (d) Picrosirius red stained histology. (e) En face PS-OCT projection. Scale bars represent 500 µm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Extensive invasive ductal carcinoma that has fully replaced normal breast tissue. (a) Structural OCT image. (b) H&E-stained histology. (c) PS-OCT image (Media 4). (d) Picrosirius red stained histology. (e) En face PS-OCT projection. Scale bars represent 500 µm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Cribriform type ductal carcinoma in situ. (a) Structural OCT image. (b) H&E-stained histology. (c) PS-OCT image (Media 5). (d) Picrosirius red stained histology. (e) En face PS-OCT projection. Scale bars represent 500 µm.

Equations (6)

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I= | E out,1 | 2 + | E out,2 | 2 ,
P=Arg( E out,1 × E out,2 * ),
E in =[ 1 i ] 1 2 .
E sample =QW P 45° J sample E in ,
E out = J fiber E sample ,
P ¯ =Arg( 1 N n=1 N e i P n ),

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