Abstract

Corneal small aperture inlays provide extended depth of focus as a solution to presbyopia. As this procedure is becoming more popular, it is interesting to compare its performance with traditional approaches, such as monovision. Here, binocular visual acuity was measured as a function of object vergence in three subjects by using a binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer. Visual acuity was measured at two luminance levels (photopic and mesopic) under several optical conditions: 1) natural vision (4 mm pupils, best corrected distance vision), 2) pure-defocus monovision ( + 1.25 D add in the nondominant eye), 3) small aperture monovision (1.6 mm pupil in the nondominant eye), and 4) combined small aperture and defocus monovision (1.6 mm pupil and a + 0.75 D add in the nondominant eye). Visual simulations of a small aperture corneal inlay suggest that the device extends DOF as effectively as traditional monovision in photopic light, in both cases at the cost of binocular summation. However, individual factors, such as aperture centration or sensitivity to mesopic conditions should be considered to assure adequate visual outcomes.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2014 (1)

C. Schwarz, C. Cánovas, S. Manzanera, H. Weeber, P. M. Prieto, P. Piers, and P. Artal, “Binocular visual acuity for the correction of spherical aberration in polychromatic and monochromatic light,” J. Vis. 14(2), 1–11 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (3)

L. Zheleznyak, R. Sabesan, J.-S. Oh, S. MacRae, and G. Yoon, “Modified monovision with spherical aberration to improve presbyopic through-focus visual performance,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(5), 3157–3165 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, C. Schwarz, P. M. Prieto, S. Manzanera, and P. Artal, “Impact on stereo-acuity of two presbyopia correction approaches: monovision and small aperture inlay,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(6), 822–830 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Manzanera, J. Tabernero, A. Benito, A. S. Vilupuru, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Distribution of Achromatizing Pupil Positions and First Purkinje Reflections in a Normal Population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, E–Abstract 4281 (2013).

2012 (6)

R. Sabesan, L. Zheleznyak, and G. Yoon, “Binocular visual performance and summation after correcting higher order aberrations,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(12), 3176–3189 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Hickenbotham, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “Comparison of spherical aberration and small-pupil profiles in improving depth of focus for presbyopic corrections,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(12), 2071–2079 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Dexl, O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, T. Rückl, A. Bachernegg, M. Emesz, J. Ruckhofer, and G. Grabner, “Reading performance and patient satisfaction after corneal inlay implantation for presbyopia correction: two-year follow-up,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(10), 1808–1816 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Seyeddain, M. Hohensinn, W. Riha, G. Nix, T. Rückl, G. Grabner, and A. K. Dexl, “Small-aperture corneal inlay for the correction of presbyopia: 3-year follow-up,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(1), 35–45 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Dexl, O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, T. Rückl, A. Bachernegg, M. Emesz, J. Ruckhofer, and G. Grabner, “Reading performance and patient satisfaction after corneal inlay implantation for presbyopia correction: two-year follow-up,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(10), 1808–1816 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Tabernero and P. Artal, “Optical modeling of a corneal inlay in real eyes to increase depth of focus: optimum centration and residual defocus,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(2), 270–277 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

S. Plainis, D. Petratou, T. Giannakopoulou, D. A. Atchison, and M. K. Tsilimbaris, “Binocular summation improves performance to defocus-induced blur,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(5), 2784–2789 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Tabernero, C. Schwarz, P. Artal, and E. J. Fernandez, “Binocular visual simulation of a corneal inlay to increase depth of focus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5273–5277 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Schwarz, P. M. Prieto, E. J. Fernández, and P. Artal, “Binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer with full control over the complex pupil functions,” Opt. Lett. 36(24), 4779–4781 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, M. Hohensinn, G. Nix, A. K. Dexl, and G. Grabner, “Refractive surgical correction of presbyopia with the AcuFocus small aperture corneal inlay: two-year follow-up,” J. Refract. Surg. 26(10), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

J. J. Castro, J. R. Jiménez, E. Hita, and C. Ortiz, “Influence of interocular differences in the Strehl ratio on binocular summation,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 29(3), 370–374 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Binocular adaptive optics visual simulator,” Opt. Lett. 34(17), 2628–2630 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

J. R. Jiménez, J. J. Castro, R. Jiménez, and E. Hita, “Interocular differences in higher-order aberrations on binocular visual performance,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 85(3), 174–179 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. F. Yilmaz, S. Bayraktar, A. Agca, B. Yilmaz, M. B. McDonald, and C. van de Pol, “Intracorneal inlay for the surgical correction of presbyopia,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(11), 1921–1927 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

B. J. W. Evans, “Monovision: a review,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 27(5), 417–439 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

J. R. J. Cuesta, R. G. Anera, R. Jiménez, and C. Salas, “Impact of interocular differences in corneal asphericity on binocular summation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135(3), 279–284 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

2001 (2)

R. Legras, V. Hornain, A. Monot, and N. Chateau, “Effect of induced anisometropia on binocular through-focus contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 78(7), 503–509 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Legras, V. Hornain, A. Monot, and N. Chateau, “Effect of induced anisometropia on binocular through-focus contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 78(7), 503–509 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

R. Cagenello, A. Arditi, and D. L. Halpern, “Binocular enhancement of visual acuity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10(8), 1841–1848 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Collins, A. Goode, and B. Brown, “Distance Visual Acuity and Monovision,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 70(9), 723–728 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

S. Pardhan and J. Gilchrist, “The effect of monocular defocus on binocular contrast sensitivity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 10(1), 33–36 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

J. Gilchrist and S. Pardhan, “Binocular contrast detection with unequal monocular illuminance,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 7(4), 373–377 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Schor, L. Landsman, and P. Erickson, “Ocular dominance and the interocular suppression of blur in monovision,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 64(10), 723–730 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

D. A. Atchison, G. Smith, and N. Efron, “The effect of pupil size on visual acuity in uncorrected and corrected myopia,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 56(5), 315–323 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1965 (1)

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, “Monocular versus binocular visual acuity,” Nature 208(5006), 191–192 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1949 (1)

J. Barraquer, “Queratoplastia refractiva,” Estud. E. Inf. Oftalmológicas 2, 10–30 (1949).

1929 (1)

W. Miles, “Ocular dominance demonstrated by unconscious sighting,” J. Exp. Psychol. 12(2), 113–126 (1929).
[Crossref]

1912 (1)

A. Duane, “Normal Values of the Accommodation at all Ages,” J. Amercian Med. Assoc. 59(12), 1010–1013 (1912).
[Crossref]

Agca, A.

O. F. Yilmaz, S. Bayraktar, A. Agca, B. Yilmaz, M. B. McDonald, and C. van de Pol, “Intracorneal inlay for the surgical correction of presbyopia,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(11), 1921–1927 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anera, R. G.

J. R. J. Cuesta, R. G. Anera, R. Jiménez, and C. Salas, “Impact of interocular differences in corneal asphericity on binocular summation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135(3), 279–284 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arditi, A.

Artal, P.

C. Schwarz, C. Cánovas, S. Manzanera, H. Weeber, P. M. Prieto, P. Piers, and P. Artal, “Binocular visual acuity for the correction of spherical aberration in polychromatic and monochromatic light,” J. Vis. 14(2), 1–11 (2014).
[PubMed]

S. Manzanera, J. Tabernero, A. Benito, A. S. Vilupuru, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Distribution of Achromatizing Pupil Positions and First Purkinje Reflections in a Normal Population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, E–Abstract 4281 (2013).

E. J. Fernández, C. Schwarz, P. M. Prieto, S. Manzanera, and P. Artal, “Impact on stereo-acuity of two presbyopia correction approaches: monovision and small aperture inlay,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(6), 822–830 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Tabernero and P. Artal, “Optical modeling of a corneal inlay in real eyes to increase depth of focus: optimum centration and residual defocus,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(2), 270–277 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Schwarz, P. M. Prieto, E. J. Fernández, and P. Artal, “Binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer with full control over the complex pupil functions,” Opt. Lett. 36(24), 4779–4781 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Tabernero, C. Schwarz, P. Artal, and E. J. Fernandez, “Binocular visual simulation of a corneal inlay to increase depth of focus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5273–5277 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Binocular adaptive optics visual simulator,” Opt. Lett. 34(17), 2628–2630 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atchison, D. A.

S. Plainis, D. Petratou, T. Giannakopoulou, D. A. Atchison, and M. K. Tsilimbaris, “Binocular summation improves performance to defocus-induced blur,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(5), 2784–2789 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Atchison, G. Smith, and N. Efron, “The effect of pupil size on visual acuity in uncorrected and corrected myopia,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 56(5), 315–323 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bachernegg, A.

A. K. Dexl, O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, T. Rückl, A. Bachernegg, M. Emesz, J. Ruckhofer, and G. Grabner, “Reading performance and patient satisfaction after corneal inlay implantation for presbyopia correction: two-year follow-up,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(10), 1808–1816 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Dexl, O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, T. Rückl, A. Bachernegg, M. Emesz, J. Ruckhofer, and G. Grabner, “Reading performance and patient satisfaction after corneal inlay implantation for presbyopia correction: two-year follow-up,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(10), 1808–1816 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Banton, T.

Barraquer, J.

J. Barraquer, “Queratoplastia refractiva,” Estud. E. Inf. Oftalmológicas 2, 10–30 (1949).

Bayraktar, S.

O. F. Yilmaz, S. Bayraktar, A. Agca, B. Yilmaz, M. B. McDonald, and C. van de Pol, “Intracorneal inlay for the surgical correction of presbyopia,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(11), 1921–1927 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benito, A.

S. Manzanera, J. Tabernero, A. Benito, A. S. Vilupuru, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Distribution of Achromatizing Pupil Positions and First Purkinje Reflections in a Normal Population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, E–Abstract 4281 (2013).

Brown, B.

M. Collins, A. Goode, and B. Brown, “Distance Visual Acuity and Monovision,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 70(9), 723–728 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cagenello, R.

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, “Monocular versus binocular visual acuity,” Nature 208(5006), 191–192 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cánovas, C.

C. Schwarz, C. Cánovas, S. Manzanera, H. Weeber, P. M. Prieto, P. Piers, and P. Artal, “Binocular visual acuity for the correction of spherical aberration in polychromatic and monochromatic light,” J. Vis. 14(2), 1–11 (2014).
[PubMed]

Castro, J. J.

J. J. Castro, J. R. Jiménez, E. Hita, and C. Ortiz, “Influence of interocular differences in the Strehl ratio on binocular summation,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 29(3), 370–374 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Jiménez, J. J. Castro, R. Jiménez, and E. Hita, “Interocular differences in higher-order aberrations on binocular visual performance,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 85(3), 174–179 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chateau, N.

R. Legras, V. Hornain, A. Monot, and N. Chateau, “Effect of induced anisometropia on binocular through-focus contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 78(7), 503–509 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Legras, V. Hornain, A. Monot, and N. Chateau, “Effect of induced anisometropia on binocular through-focus contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 78(7), 503–509 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Collins, M.

M. Collins, A. Goode, and B. Brown, “Distance Visual Acuity and Monovision,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 70(9), 723–728 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cox, I. G.

Cuesta, J. R. J.

J. R. J. Cuesta, R. G. Anera, R. Jiménez, and C. Salas, “Impact of interocular differences in corneal asphericity on binocular summation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135(3), 279–284 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dexl, A. K.

A. K. Dexl, O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, T. Rückl, A. Bachernegg, M. Emesz, J. Ruckhofer, and G. Grabner, “Reading performance and patient satisfaction after corneal inlay implantation for presbyopia correction: two-year follow-up,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(10), 1808–1816 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Seyeddain, M. Hohensinn, W. Riha, G. Nix, T. Rückl, G. Grabner, and A. K. Dexl, “Small-aperture corneal inlay for the correction of presbyopia: 3-year follow-up,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(1), 35–45 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Dexl, O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, T. Rückl, A. Bachernegg, M. Emesz, J. Ruckhofer, and G. Grabner, “Reading performance and patient satisfaction after corneal inlay implantation for presbyopia correction: two-year follow-up,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(10), 1808–1816 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, M. Hohensinn, G. Nix, A. K. Dexl, and G. Grabner, “Refractive surgical correction of presbyopia with the AcuFocus small aperture corneal inlay: two-year follow-up,” J. Refract. Surg. 26(10), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duane, A.

A. Duane, “Normal Values of the Accommodation at all Ages,” J. Amercian Med. Assoc. 59(12), 1010–1013 (1912).
[Crossref]

Efron, N.

D. A. Atchison, G. Smith, and N. Efron, “The effect of pupil size on visual acuity in uncorrected and corrected myopia,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 56(5), 315–323 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Emesz, M.

A. K. Dexl, O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, T. Rückl, A. Bachernegg, M. Emesz, J. Ruckhofer, and G. Grabner, “Reading performance and patient satisfaction after corneal inlay implantation for presbyopia correction: two-year follow-up,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(10), 1808–1816 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Dexl, O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, T. Rückl, A. Bachernegg, M. Emesz, J. Ruckhofer, and G. Grabner, “Reading performance and patient satisfaction after corneal inlay implantation for presbyopia correction: two-year follow-up,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(10), 1808–1816 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Erickson, P.

C. Schor, L. Landsman, and P. Erickson, “Ocular dominance and the interocular suppression of blur in monovision,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 64(10), 723–730 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Evans, B. J. W.

B. J. W. Evans, “Monovision: a review,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 27(5), 417–439 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fernandez, E. J.

J. Tabernero, C. Schwarz, P. Artal, and E. J. Fernandez, “Binocular visual simulation of a corneal inlay to increase depth of focus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5273–5277 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fernández, E. J.

Giannakopoulou, T.

S. Plainis, D. Petratou, T. Giannakopoulou, D. A. Atchison, and M. K. Tsilimbaris, “Binocular summation improves performance to defocus-induced blur,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(5), 2784–2789 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gilchrist, J.

S. Pardhan and J. Gilchrist, “The effect of monocular defocus on binocular contrast sensitivity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 10(1), 33–36 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gilchrist and S. Pardhan, “Binocular contrast detection with unequal monocular illuminance,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 7(4), 373–377 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goode, A.

M. Collins, A. Goode, and B. Brown, “Distance Visual Acuity and Monovision,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 70(9), 723–728 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grabner, G.

A. K. Dexl, O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, T. Rückl, A. Bachernegg, M. Emesz, J. Ruckhofer, and G. Grabner, “Reading performance and patient satisfaction after corneal inlay implantation for presbyopia correction: two-year follow-up,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(10), 1808–1816 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Seyeddain, M. Hohensinn, W. Riha, G. Nix, T. Rückl, G. Grabner, and A. K. Dexl, “Small-aperture corneal inlay for the correction of presbyopia: 3-year follow-up,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(1), 35–45 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Dexl, O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, T. Rückl, A. Bachernegg, M. Emesz, J. Ruckhofer, and G. Grabner, “Reading performance and patient satisfaction after corneal inlay implantation for presbyopia correction: two-year follow-up,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(10), 1808–1816 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, M. Hohensinn, G. Nix, A. K. Dexl, and G. Grabner, “Refractive surgical correction of presbyopia with the AcuFocus small aperture corneal inlay: two-year follow-up,” J. Refract. Surg. 26(10), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Green, D. G.

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, “Monocular versus binocular visual acuity,” Nature 208(5006), 191–192 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guirao, A.

Halpern, D. L.

Hickenbotham, A.

A. Hickenbotham, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “Comparison of spherical aberration and small-pupil profiles in improving depth of focus for presbyopic corrections,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(12), 2071–2079 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hita, E.

J. J. Castro, J. R. Jiménez, E. Hita, and C. Ortiz, “Influence of interocular differences in the Strehl ratio on binocular summation,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 29(3), 370–374 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Jiménez, J. J. Castro, R. Jiménez, and E. Hita, “Interocular differences in higher-order aberrations on binocular visual performance,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 85(3), 174–179 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hohensinn, M.

O. Seyeddain, M. Hohensinn, W. Riha, G. Nix, T. Rückl, G. Grabner, and A. K. Dexl, “Small-aperture corneal inlay for the correction of presbyopia: 3-year follow-up,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(1), 35–45 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, M. Hohensinn, G. Nix, A. K. Dexl, and G. Grabner, “Refractive surgical correction of presbyopia with the AcuFocus small aperture corneal inlay: two-year follow-up,” J. Refract. Surg. 26(10), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hornain, V.

R. Legras, V. Hornain, A. Monot, and N. Chateau, “Effect of induced anisometropia on binocular through-focus contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 78(7), 503–509 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Legras, V. Hornain, A. Monot, and N. Chateau, “Effect of induced anisometropia on binocular through-focus contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 78(7), 503–509 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiménez, J. R.

J. J. Castro, J. R. Jiménez, E. Hita, and C. Ortiz, “Influence of interocular differences in the Strehl ratio on binocular summation,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 29(3), 370–374 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Jiménez, J. J. Castro, R. Jiménez, and E. Hita, “Interocular differences in higher-order aberrations on binocular visual performance,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 85(3), 174–179 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiménez, R.

J. R. Jiménez, J. J. Castro, R. Jiménez, and E. Hita, “Interocular differences in higher-order aberrations on binocular visual performance,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 85(3), 174–179 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. J. Cuesta, R. G. Anera, R. Jiménez, and C. Salas, “Impact of interocular differences in corneal asphericity on binocular summation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135(3), 279–284 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Landsman, L.

C. Schor, L. Landsman, and P. Erickson, “Ocular dominance and the interocular suppression of blur in monovision,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 64(10), 723–730 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Legras, R.

R. Legras, V. Hornain, A. Monot, and N. Chateau, “Effect of induced anisometropia on binocular through-focus contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 78(7), 503–509 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Legras, V. Hornain, A. Monot, and N. Chateau, “Effect of induced anisometropia on binocular through-focus contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 78(7), 503–509 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levi, D. M.

MacRae, S.

L. Zheleznyak, R. Sabesan, J.-S. Oh, S. MacRae, and G. Yoon, “Modified monovision with spherical aberration to improve presbyopic through-focus visual performance,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(5), 3157–3165 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manzanera, S.

C. Schwarz, C. Cánovas, S. Manzanera, H. Weeber, P. M. Prieto, P. Piers, and P. Artal, “Binocular visual acuity for the correction of spherical aberration in polychromatic and monochromatic light,” J. Vis. 14(2), 1–11 (2014).
[PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, C. Schwarz, P. M. Prieto, S. Manzanera, and P. Artal, “Impact on stereo-acuity of two presbyopia correction approaches: monovision and small aperture inlay,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(6), 822–830 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Manzanera, J. Tabernero, A. Benito, A. S. Vilupuru, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Distribution of Achromatizing Pupil Positions and First Purkinje Reflections in a Normal Population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, E–Abstract 4281 (2013).

McDonald, M. B.

O. F. Yilmaz, S. Bayraktar, A. Agca, B. Yilmaz, M. B. McDonald, and C. van de Pol, “Intracorneal inlay for the surgical correction of presbyopia,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(11), 1921–1927 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miles, W.

W. Miles, “Ocular dominance demonstrated by unconscious sighting,” J. Exp. Psychol. 12(2), 113–126 (1929).
[Crossref]

Monot, A.

R. Legras, V. Hornain, A. Monot, and N. Chateau, “Effect of induced anisometropia on binocular through-focus contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 78(7), 503–509 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Legras, V. Hornain, A. Monot, and N. Chateau, “Effect of induced anisometropia on binocular through-focus contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 78(7), 503–509 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nix, G.

O. Seyeddain, M. Hohensinn, W. Riha, G. Nix, T. Rückl, G. Grabner, and A. K. Dexl, “Small-aperture corneal inlay for the correction of presbyopia: 3-year follow-up,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(1), 35–45 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, M. Hohensinn, G. Nix, A. K. Dexl, and G. Grabner, “Refractive surgical correction of presbyopia with the AcuFocus small aperture corneal inlay: two-year follow-up,” J. Refract. Surg. 26(10), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, J.-S.

L. Zheleznyak, R. Sabesan, J.-S. Oh, S. MacRae, and G. Yoon, “Modified monovision with spherical aberration to improve presbyopic through-focus visual performance,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(5), 3157–3165 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ortiz, C.

J. J. Castro, J. R. Jiménez, E. Hita, and C. Ortiz, “Influence of interocular differences in the Strehl ratio on binocular summation,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 29(3), 370–374 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pardhan, S.

S. Pardhan and J. Gilchrist, “The effect of monocular defocus on binocular contrast sensitivity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 10(1), 33–36 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gilchrist and S. Pardhan, “Binocular contrast detection with unequal monocular illuminance,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 7(4), 373–377 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petratou, D.

S. Plainis, D. Petratou, T. Giannakopoulou, D. A. Atchison, and M. K. Tsilimbaris, “Binocular summation improves performance to defocus-induced blur,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(5), 2784–2789 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piers, P.

C. Schwarz, C. Cánovas, S. Manzanera, H. Weeber, P. M. Prieto, P. Piers, and P. Artal, “Binocular visual acuity for the correction of spherical aberration in polychromatic and monochromatic light,” J. Vis. 14(2), 1–11 (2014).
[PubMed]

Plainis, S.

S. Plainis, D. Petratou, T. Giannakopoulou, D. A. Atchison, and M. K. Tsilimbaris, “Binocular summation improves performance to defocus-induced blur,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(5), 2784–2789 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Porter, J.

Prieto, P. M.

C. Schwarz, C. Cánovas, S. Manzanera, H. Weeber, P. M. Prieto, P. Piers, and P. Artal, “Binocular visual acuity for the correction of spherical aberration in polychromatic and monochromatic light,” J. Vis. 14(2), 1–11 (2014).
[PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, C. Schwarz, P. M. Prieto, S. Manzanera, and P. Artal, “Impact on stereo-acuity of two presbyopia correction approaches: monovision and small aperture inlay,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(6), 822–830 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Manzanera, J. Tabernero, A. Benito, A. S. Vilupuru, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Distribution of Achromatizing Pupil Positions and First Purkinje Reflections in a Normal Population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, E–Abstract 4281 (2013).

C. Schwarz, P. M. Prieto, E. J. Fernández, and P. Artal, “Binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer with full control over the complex pupil functions,” Opt. Lett. 36(24), 4779–4781 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Binocular adaptive optics visual simulator,” Opt. Lett. 34(17), 2628–2630 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riha, W.

A. K. Dexl, O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, T. Rückl, A. Bachernegg, M. Emesz, J. Ruckhofer, and G. Grabner, “Reading performance and patient satisfaction after corneal inlay implantation for presbyopia correction: two-year follow-up,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(10), 1808–1816 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Seyeddain, M. Hohensinn, W. Riha, G. Nix, T. Rückl, G. Grabner, and A. K. Dexl, “Small-aperture corneal inlay for the correction of presbyopia: 3-year follow-up,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(1), 35–45 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Dexl, O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, T. Rückl, A. Bachernegg, M. Emesz, J. Ruckhofer, and G. Grabner, “Reading performance and patient satisfaction after corneal inlay implantation for presbyopia correction: two-year follow-up,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(10), 1808–1816 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, M. Hohensinn, G. Nix, A. K. Dexl, and G. Grabner, “Refractive surgical correction of presbyopia with the AcuFocus small aperture corneal inlay: two-year follow-up,” J. Refract. Surg. 26(10), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roorda, A.

A. Hickenbotham, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “Comparison of spherical aberration and small-pupil profiles in improving depth of focus for presbyopic corrections,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(12), 2071–2079 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruckhofer, J.

A. K. Dexl, O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, T. Rückl, A. Bachernegg, M. Emesz, J. Ruckhofer, and G. Grabner, “Reading performance and patient satisfaction after corneal inlay implantation for presbyopia correction: two-year follow-up,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(10), 1808–1816 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Dexl, O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, T. Rückl, A. Bachernegg, M. Emesz, J. Ruckhofer, and G. Grabner, “Reading performance and patient satisfaction after corneal inlay implantation for presbyopia correction: two-year follow-up,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(10), 1808–1816 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rückl, T.

A. K. Dexl, O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, T. Rückl, A. Bachernegg, M. Emesz, J. Ruckhofer, and G. Grabner, “Reading performance and patient satisfaction after corneal inlay implantation for presbyopia correction: two-year follow-up,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(10), 1808–1816 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Dexl, O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, T. Rückl, A. Bachernegg, M. Emesz, J. Ruckhofer, and G. Grabner, “Reading performance and patient satisfaction after corneal inlay implantation for presbyopia correction: two-year follow-up,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(10), 1808–1816 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Seyeddain, M. Hohensinn, W. Riha, G. Nix, T. Rückl, G. Grabner, and A. K. Dexl, “Small-aperture corneal inlay for the correction of presbyopia: 3-year follow-up,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(1), 35–45 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sabesan, R.

L. Zheleznyak, R. Sabesan, J.-S. Oh, S. MacRae, and G. Yoon, “Modified monovision with spherical aberration to improve presbyopic through-focus visual performance,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(5), 3157–3165 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Sabesan, L. Zheleznyak, and G. Yoon, “Binocular visual performance and summation after correcting higher order aberrations,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(12), 3176–3189 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salas, C.

J. R. J. Cuesta, R. G. Anera, R. Jiménez, and C. Salas, “Impact of interocular differences in corneal asphericity on binocular summation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135(3), 279–284 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schor, C.

C. Schor, L. Landsman, and P. Erickson, “Ocular dominance and the interocular suppression of blur in monovision,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 64(10), 723–730 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwarz, C.

C. Schwarz, C. Cánovas, S. Manzanera, H. Weeber, P. M. Prieto, P. Piers, and P. Artal, “Binocular visual acuity for the correction of spherical aberration in polychromatic and monochromatic light,” J. Vis. 14(2), 1–11 (2014).
[PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, C. Schwarz, P. M. Prieto, S. Manzanera, and P. Artal, “Impact on stereo-acuity of two presbyopia correction approaches: monovision and small aperture inlay,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(6), 822–830 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Schwarz, P. M. Prieto, E. J. Fernández, and P. Artal, “Binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer with full control over the complex pupil functions,” Opt. Lett. 36(24), 4779–4781 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Tabernero, C. Schwarz, P. Artal, and E. J. Fernandez, “Binocular visual simulation of a corneal inlay to increase depth of focus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5273–5277 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seyeddain, O.

A. K. Dexl, O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, T. Rückl, A. Bachernegg, M. Emesz, J. Ruckhofer, and G. Grabner, “Reading performance and patient satisfaction after corneal inlay implantation for presbyopia correction: two-year follow-up,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(10), 1808–1816 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Seyeddain, M. Hohensinn, W. Riha, G. Nix, T. Rückl, G. Grabner, and A. K. Dexl, “Small-aperture corneal inlay for the correction of presbyopia: 3-year follow-up,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(1), 35–45 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Dexl, O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, T. Rückl, A. Bachernegg, M. Emesz, J. Ruckhofer, and G. Grabner, “Reading performance and patient satisfaction after corneal inlay implantation for presbyopia correction: two-year follow-up,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(10), 1808–1816 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Seyeddain, W. Riha, M. Hohensinn, G. Nix, A. K. Dexl, and G. Grabner, “Refractive surgical correction of presbyopia with the AcuFocus small aperture corneal inlay: two-year follow-up,” J. Refract. Surg. 26(10), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, G.

D. A. Atchison, G. Smith, and N. Efron, “The effect of pupil size on visual acuity in uncorrected and corrected myopia,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 56(5), 315–323 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tabernero, J.

S. Manzanera, J. Tabernero, A. Benito, A. S. Vilupuru, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Distribution of Achromatizing Pupil Positions and First Purkinje Reflections in a Normal Population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, E–Abstract 4281 (2013).

J. Tabernero and P. Artal, “Optical modeling of a corneal inlay in real eyes to increase depth of focus: optimum centration and residual defocus,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(2), 270–277 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Tabernero, C. Schwarz, P. Artal, and E. J. Fernandez, “Binocular visual simulation of a corneal inlay to increase depth of focus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5273–5277 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tiruveedhula, P.

A. Hickenbotham, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “Comparison of spherical aberration and small-pupil profiles in improving depth of focus for presbyopic corrections,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 38(12), 2071–2079 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsilimbaris, M. K.

S. Plainis, D. Petratou, T. Giannakopoulou, D. A. Atchison, and M. K. Tsilimbaris, “Binocular summation improves performance to defocus-induced blur,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(5), 2784–2789 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van de Pol, C.

O. F. Yilmaz, S. Bayraktar, A. Agca, B. Yilmaz, M. B. McDonald, and C. van de Pol, “Intracorneal inlay for the surgical correction of presbyopia,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(11), 1921–1927 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vilupuru, A. S.

S. Manzanera, J. Tabernero, A. Benito, A. S. Vilupuru, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Distribution of Achromatizing Pupil Positions and First Purkinje Reflections in a Normal Population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, E–Abstract 4281 (2013).

Weeber, H.

C. Schwarz, C. Cánovas, S. Manzanera, H. Weeber, P. M. Prieto, P. Piers, and P. Artal, “Binocular visual acuity for the correction of spherical aberration in polychromatic and monochromatic light,” J. Vis. 14(2), 1–11 (2014).
[PubMed]

Williams, D. R.

Yilmaz, B.

O. F. Yilmaz, S. Bayraktar, A. Agca, B. Yilmaz, M. B. McDonald, and C. van de Pol, “Intracorneal inlay for the surgical correction of presbyopia,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(11), 1921–1927 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yilmaz, O. F.

O. F. Yilmaz, S. Bayraktar, A. Agca, B. Yilmaz, M. B. McDonald, and C. van de Pol, “Intracorneal inlay for the surgical correction of presbyopia,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(11), 1921–1927 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, G.

L. Zheleznyak, R. Sabesan, J.-S. Oh, S. MacRae, and G. Yoon, “Modified monovision with spherical aberration to improve presbyopic through-focus visual performance,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(5), 3157–3165 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Sabesan, L. Zheleznyak, and G. Yoon, “Binocular visual performance and summation after correcting higher order aberrations,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(12), 3176–3189 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, G.-Y.

Zheleznyak, L.

L. Zheleznyak, R. Sabesan, J.-S. Oh, S. MacRae, and G. Yoon, “Modified monovision with spherical aberration to improve presbyopic through-focus visual performance,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(5), 3157–3165 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Sabesan, L. Zheleznyak, and G. Yoon, “Binocular visual performance and summation after correcting higher order aberrations,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(12), 3176–3189 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

J. R. J. Cuesta, R. G. Anera, R. Jiménez, and C. Salas, “Impact of interocular differences in corneal asphericity on binocular summation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135(3), 279–284 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. (2)

C. Schor, L. Landsman, and P. Erickson, “Ocular dominance and the interocular suppression of blur in monovision,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 64(10), 723–730 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Atchison, G. Smith, and N. Efron, “The effect of pupil size on visual acuity in uncorrected and corrected myopia,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 56(5), 315–323 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Estud. E. Inf. Oftalmológicas (1)

J. Barraquer, “Queratoplastia refractiva,” Estud. E. Inf. Oftalmológicas 2, 10–30 (1949).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (4)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Pupils for which monocular through-focus visual acuity was measured: a 1.6 mm pupil, a 4 mm pupil, and a 5 mm pupil with obscuring annulus (inner inlay diameter 1.6 mm, outer inlay diameter 3.8 mm).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Overview of the binocular optical conditions for which through-focus visual acuity was assessed. The upper row shows the binary amplitude and the lower row shows the phase maps of the complex pupil functions for the dominant and nondominant eye (DE and NDE). Natural vision was simulated with 4mm pupils and best corrected distance vision in both eyes. For the different types of monovision, the optics of the NDE was modified as depicted in the Figure.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Monocular through-focus visual acuity (VA) for the 1.6 mm pupil (green squares), the 4 mm pupil (red squares), and the 5 mm pupil with obscuring annulus (green diamonds). When compared to performance with the 1.6 mm pupil, the 5 mm pupil with obscuring annulus decreases distance VA but increases performance at vergences greater than 1 D.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Visual acuity (VA) as a function of the small pupil inlay centration shows that correct centration is critical to achieve good VA.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Monocular (dominant eye: DE; nondominant eye: NDE) and binocular visual acuity (VA) as a function of object vergence in photopic light. In the upper row, conditions with equal pupil sizes are shown, whereas in the lower row, conditions with differently sized pupils are illustrated. In the left and right column, results for conditions without and with unilaterally induced defocus are given. Standard deviations were in the range of 0.1 logMAR.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The left panel compares binocular through-focus visual acuities (VA) for the four optical conditions in photopic light. All types of monovision improve binocular VA for vergences greater than 0.5 D. In the right panel, binocular depth of focus (DOF) is shown when a threshold of 0.18 logMAR (J2) is set. The greatest DOF is achieved with traditional monovision and combined monovision.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Binocular summation ratio versus object vergence for the four optical conditions in photopic light. The black dashed line marks a binocular summation ratio of one. All types of monovision caused a decrease in the binocular summation ratio.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The left panel compares binocular through-focus visual acuities (VA) for the four optical conditions in mesopic light. All types of monovision improve binocular VA for vergences greater than 0.5 D, just as in photopic light. In the right panel, binocular depth of focus (DOF) is shown when a threshold of 0.18 logMAR (J2) is set. The greatest DOF is achieved with traditional monovision.

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