Abstract

The large consumer market has made cellphone lens modules available at low-cost and in high-quality. In a conventional cellphone camera, the lens module is used to demagnify the scene onto the image plane of the camera, where image sensor is located. In this work, we report a 3D-printed high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscope, termed FPscope, which uses a cellphone lens in a reverse manner. In our platform, we replace the image sensor with sample specimens, and use the cellphone lens to project the magnified image to the detector. To supersede the diffraction limit of the lens module, we use an LED array to illuminate the sample from different incident angles and synthesize the acquired images using the Fourier ptychographic algorithm. As a demonstration, we use the reported platform to acquire high-resolution images of resolution target and biological specimens, with a maximum synthetic numerical aperture (NA) of 0.5. We also show that, the depth-of-focus of the reported platform is about 0.1 mm, orders of magnitude longer than that of a conventional microscope objective with a similar NA. The reported platform may enable healthcare accesses in low-resource settings. It can also be used to demonstrate the concept of computational optics for educational purposes.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2014 (6)

2013 (3)

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

G. Zheng, S. A. Lee, Y. Antebi, M. B. Elowitz, and C. Yang, “The ePetri dish, an on-chip cell imaging platform based on subpixel perspective sweeping microscopy (SPSM),” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(41), 16889–16894 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

W. Bishara, T.-W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree on-chip microscopy over a wide field-of-view using pixel super-resolution,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11181–11191 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zheng, S. A. Lee, S. Yang, and C. Yang, “Sub-pixel resolving optofluidic microscope for on-chip cell imaging,” Lab Chip 10(22), 3125–3129 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, Battery-Operated, Low-Cost, Bright Field and Fluorescence Microscope,” PLoS ONE 5(8), e11890 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile Phone Based Clinical Microscopy for Global Health Applications,” PLoS ONE 4(7), e6320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. R. Hillman, T. Gutzler, S. A. Alexandrov, and D. D. Sampson, “High-resolution, wide-field object reconstruction with synthetic aperture Fourier holographic optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7873–7892 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

J. Rodenburg, “Ptychography and related diffractive imaging methods,” Adv. Imaging Electron Phys. 150, 87–184 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, “Optofluidic microscopy--a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip,” Lab Chip 6(10), 1274–1276 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ryu, S. S. Hong, B. K. P. Horn, D. M. Freeman, and M. S. Mermelstein, “Multibeam interferometric illumination as the primary source of resolution in optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171112 (2006).

2004 (1)

2001 (1)

W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holography for biological applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(20), 11301–11305 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. G. Gustafsson, “Surpassing the lateral resolution limit by a factor of two using structured illumination microscopy,” J. Microsc. 198(2), 82–87 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

Abdolrahimi, F.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, Battery-Operated, Low-Cost, Bright Field and Fluorescence Microscope,” PLoS ONE 5(8), e11890 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alexandrov, S. A.

Antebi, Y.

G. Zheng, S. A. Lee, Y. Antebi, M. B. Elowitz, and C. Yang, “The ePetri dish, an on-chip cell imaging platform based on subpixel perspective sweeping microscopy (SPSM),” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(41), 16889–16894 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bahrmand, A. R.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, Battery-Operated, Low-Cost, Bright Field and Fluorescence Microscope,” PLoS ONE 5(8), e11890 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baugh, L. R.

X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, “Optofluidic microscopy--a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip,” Lab Chip 6(10), 1274–1276 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bian, Z.

Bishara, W.

Breslauer, D. N.

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile Phone Based Clinical Microscopy for Global Health Applications,” PLoS ONE 4(7), e6320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coskun, A. F.

Davis, G. L.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, Battery-Operated, Low-Cost, Bright Field and Fluorescence Microscope,” PLoS ONE 5(8), e11890 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, S.

Elowitz, M. B.

G. Zheng, S. A. Lee, Y. Antebi, M. B. Elowitz, and C. Yang, “The ePetri dish, an on-chip cell imaging platform based on subpixel perspective sweeping microscopy (SPSM),” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(41), 16889–16894 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Erickson, D.

X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, “Optofluidic microscopy--a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip,” Lab Chip 6(10), 1274–1276 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fateh, A.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, Battery-Operated, Low-Cost, Bright Field and Fluorescence Microscope,” PLoS ONE 5(8), e11890 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fienup, J. R.

Fletcher, D. A.

A. Skandarajah, C. D. Reber, N. A. Switz, and D. A. Fletcher, “Quantitative Imaging with a Mobile Phone Microscope,” PLoS ONE 9(5), e96906 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile Phone Based Clinical Microscopy for Global Health Applications,” PLoS ONE 4(7), e6320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freeman, D. M.

J. Ryu, S. S. Hong, B. K. P. Horn, D. M. Freeman, and M. S. Mermelstein, “Multibeam interferometric illumination as the primary source of resolution in optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171112 (2006).

Garcia, J.

Garcia-Martinez, P.

Ghazanfari, M.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, Battery-Operated, Low-Cost, Bright Field and Fluorescence Microscope,” PLoS ONE 5(8), e11890 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Graviss, E. A.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, Battery-Operated, Low-Cost, Bright Field and Fluorescence Microscope,” PLoS ONE 5(8), e11890 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, K.

Gustafsson, M. G.

M. G. Gustafsson, “Surpassing the lateral resolution limit by a factor of two using structured illumination microscopy,” J. Microsc. 198(2), 82–87 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gutzler, T.

Heng, X.

X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, “Optofluidic microscopy--a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip,” Lab Chip 6(10), 1274–1276 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hillman, T. R.

Hong, S. S.

J. Ryu, S. S. Hong, B. K. P. Horn, D. M. Freeman, and M. S. Mermelstein, “Multibeam interferometric illumination as the primary source of resolution in optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171112 (2006).

Horn, B. K. P.

J. Ryu, S. S. Hong, B. K. P. Horn, D. M. Freeman, and M. S. Mermelstein, “Multibeam interferometric illumination as the primary source of resolution in optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171112 (2006).

Horstmeyer, R.

Jericho, M. H.

W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holography for biological applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(20), 11301–11305 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kreuzer, H. J.

W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holography for biological applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(20), 11301–11305 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lam, W. A.

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile Phone Based Clinical Microscopy for Global Health Applications,” PLoS ONE 4(7), e6320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. A.

G. Zheng, S. A. Lee, Y. Antebi, M. B. Elowitz, and C. Yang, “The ePetri dish, an on-chip cell imaging platform based on subpixel perspective sweeping microscopy (SPSM),” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(41), 16889–16894 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zheng, S. A. Lee, S. Yang, and C. Yang, “Sub-pixel resolving optofluidic microscope for on-chip cell imaging,” Lab Chip 10(22), 3125–3129 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maamari, R. N.

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile Phone Based Clinical Microscopy for Global Health Applications,” PLoS ONE 4(7), e6320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meinertzhagen, I. A.

W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holography for biological applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(20), 11301–11305 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mermelstein, M. S.

J. Ryu, S. S. Hong, B. K. P. Horn, D. M. Freeman, and M. S. Mermelstein, “Multibeam interferometric illumination as the primary source of resolution in optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171112 (2006).

Mico, V.

Micó, V.

Miller, A. R.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, Battery-Operated, Low-Cost, Bright Field and Fluorescence Microscope,” PLoS ONE 5(8), e11890 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanda, P.

Oden, Z. M.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, Battery-Operated, Low-Cost, Bright Field and Fluorescence Microscope,” PLoS ONE 5(8), e11890 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Olsen, R. J.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, Battery-Operated, Low-Cost, Bright Field and Fluorescence Microscope,” PLoS ONE 5(8), e11890 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ou, X.

Ozcan, A.

Pierce, M. C.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, Battery-Operated, Low-Cost, Bright Field and Fluorescence Microscope,” PLoS ONE 5(8), e11890 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poorazar, S.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, Battery-Operated, Low-Cost, Bright Field and Fluorescence Microscope,” PLoS ONE 5(8), e11890 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Psaltis, D.

X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, “Optofluidic microscopy--a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip,” Lab Chip 6(10), 1274–1276 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Razavi, M. R.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, Battery-Operated, Low-Cost, Bright Field and Fluorescence Microscope,” PLoS ONE 5(8), e11890 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reber, C. D.

A. Skandarajah, C. D. Reber, N. A. Switz, and D. A. Fletcher, “Quantitative Imaging with a Mobile Phone Microscope,” PLoS ONE 9(5), e96906 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, Battery-Operated, Low-Cost, Bright Field and Fluorescence Microscope,” PLoS ONE 5(8), e11890 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodenburg, J.

J. Rodenburg, “Ptychography and related diffractive imaging methods,” Adv. Imaging Electron Phys. 150, 87–184 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ryu, J.

J. Ryu, S. S. Hong, B. K. P. Horn, D. M. Freeman, and M. S. Mermelstein, “Multibeam interferometric illumination as the primary source of resolution in optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171112 (2006).

Sakhaie, F.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, Battery-Operated, Low-Cost, Bright Field and Fluorescence Microscope,” PLoS ONE 5(8), e11890 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sampson, D. D.

Shiradkar, R.

Skandarajah, A.

A. Skandarajah, C. D. Reber, N. A. Switz, and D. A. Fletcher, “Quantitative Imaging with a Mobile Phone Microscope,” PLoS ONE 9(5), e96906 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sternberg, P. W.

X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, “Optofluidic microscopy--a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip,” Lab Chip 6(10), 1274–1276 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, T.-W.

Switz, N. A.

A. Skandarajah, C. D. Reber, N. A. Switz, and D. A. Fletcher, “Quantitative Imaging with a Mobile Phone Microscope,” PLoS ONE 9(5), e96906 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile Phone Based Clinical Microscopy for Global Health Applications,” PLoS ONE 4(7), e6320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xin, H.

Xu, W.

W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holography for biological applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(20), 11301–11305 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

X. Ou, G. Zheng, and C. Yang, “Embedded pupil function recovery for Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Opt. Express 22(5), 4960–4972 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zheng, X. Ou, and C. Yang, “0.5 gigapixel microscopy using a flatbed scanner,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(1), 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ou, R. Horstmeyer, C. Yang, and G. Zheng, “Quantitative phase imaging via Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4845–4848 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 739–745 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Zheng, S. A. Lee, Y. Antebi, M. B. Elowitz, and C. Yang, “The ePetri dish, an on-chip cell imaging platform based on subpixel perspective sweeping microscopy (SPSM),” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(41), 16889–16894 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zheng, S. A. Lee, S. Yang, and C. Yang, “Sub-pixel resolving optofluidic microscope for on-chip cell imaging,” Lab Chip 10(22), 3125–3129 (2010).
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X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, “Optofluidic microscopy--a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip,” Lab Chip 6(10), 1274–1276 (2006).
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Yang, S.

G. Zheng, S. A. Lee, S. Yang, and C. Yang, “Sub-pixel resolving optofluidic microscope for on-chip cell imaging,” Lab Chip 10(22), 3125–3129 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yaqoob, Z.

X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, “Optofluidic microscopy--a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip,” Lab Chip 6(10), 1274–1276 (2006).
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Zalevsky, Z.

Zheng, G.

G. Zheng, X. Ou, and C. Yang, “0.5 gigapixel microscopy using a flatbed scanner,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(1), 1–8 (2014).
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X. Ou, G. Zheng, and C. Yang, “Embedded pupil function recovery for Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Opt. Express 22(5), 4960–4972 (2014).
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S. Dong, Z. Bian, R. Shiradkar, and G. Zheng, “Sparsely sampled Fourier ptychography,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5455–5464 (2014).
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S. Dong, R. Horstmeyer, R. Shiradkar, K. Guo, X. Ou, Z. Bian, H. Xin, and G. Zheng, “Aperture-scanning Fourier ptychography for 3D refocusing and super-resolution macroscopic imaging,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13586–13599 (2014).
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S. Dong, R. Shiradkar, P. Nanda, and G. Zheng, “Spectral multiplexing and coherent-state decomposition in Fourier ptychographic imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(6), 1757–1767 (2014).
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X. Ou, R. Horstmeyer, C. Yang, and G. Zheng, “Quantitative phase imaging via Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4845–4848 (2013).
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Z. Bian, S. Dong, and G. Zheng, “Adaptive system correction for robust Fourier ptychographic imaging,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32400–32410 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 739–745 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Zheng, S. A. Lee, Y. Antebi, M. B. Elowitz, and C. Yang, “The ePetri dish, an on-chip cell imaging platform based on subpixel perspective sweeping microscopy (SPSM),” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(41), 16889–16894 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zheng, S. A. Lee, S. Yang, and C. Yang, “Sub-pixel resolving optofluidic microscope for on-chip cell imaging,” Lab Chip 10(22), 3125–3129 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Appl. Opt. (1)

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Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

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Lab Chip (2)

X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, “Optofluidic microscopy--a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip,” Lab Chip 6(10), 1274–1276 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zheng, S. A. Lee, S. Yang, and C. Yang, “Sub-pixel resolving optofluidic microscope for on-chip cell imaging,” Lab Chip 10(22), 3125–3129 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 739–745 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (2)

PLoS ONE (3)

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, Battery-Operated, Low-Cost, Bright Field and Fluorescence Microscope,” PLoS ONE 5(8), e11890 (2010).
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G. Zheng, S. A. Lee, Y. Antebi, M. B. Elowitz, and C. Yang, “The ePetri dish, an on-chip cell imaging platform based on subpixel perspective sweeping microscopy (SPSM),” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(41), 16889–16894 (2011).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

System design of FPscope. (a) A cellphone lens is used in a reverse manner. The magnified sample image is projected onto a CCD sensor. An 8 by 8 LED matrix is used for sample illumination. (b) The assembled FPscope connected to a computer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The assembling process of the FPscope. (a) A Nokia cellphone lens is fitted in to a plastic case. The case is assembled onto a CCD camera. (b) The assembling of the x-y stage and the slide holder. (c) The assembling of the z stage. (d) The final assembled FPscope.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Resolution characterization of the FPscope. (a) One of the 64 low-resolution raw images captured using the cellphone lens. (b) The FP recovered image, where feature of group 9, element 3 can be clearly resolved.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Depth-of-focus characterization of the FPscope. One of the low-resolution raw images captured at (b1) z = 50 µm and (c1) z = −50 µm. (b2-b3), (c2-c3) The FP reconstructions by introducing defocused pupil functions at the recovery process. The depth-of-focus is orders of magnitude longer than that of conventional microscope objective lens with a similar NA.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Raw image of a blood smear (0.15 NA). (b) FP recovered intensity image, phase, and color image. The maximum synthetic NA is 0.5. (c) The image captured using a conventional microscope with a 40X, 0.75 NA objective lens.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Demonstration of the FPscope using a pathology slide. The full field-of-view is about 1.1 mm by 0.8 mm. The maximum synthetic NA is 0.5. Images captured using conventional microscope with a 0.75 NA objective lens are also shown for comparison.

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