Abstract

Acquired airway injury is frequently caused by endotracheal intubations, long-term tracheostomies, trauma, airway burns, and some systemic diseases. An effective and less invasive technique for both the early assessment and the early interventional treatment of acquired airway stenosis is therefore needed. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been proposed to have unique potential for early monitoring from the proliferative epithelium to the cartilage in acute airway injury. Additionally, stem cell therapy using adipose stem cells is being investigated as an option for early interventional treatment in airway and lung injury. Over the past decade, it has become possible to monitor the level of injury using OCT and to track the engraftment of stem cells using stem cell imaging in regenerative tissue. The purpose of this study was to assess the engraftment of exogenous adipose stem cells in injured tracheal epithelium with fluorescent microscopy and to detect and monitor the degree of airway injury in the same tracheal epithelium with OCT. OCT detected thickening of both the epithelium and basement membrane after tracheal scraping. The engraftment of adipose stem cells was successfully detected by fluorescent staining in the regenerative epithelium of injured tracheas. OCT has the potential to be a high-resolution imaging modality capable of detecting airway injury in combination with stem cell imaging in the same tracheal mucosa.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2013 (1)

J. L. Lin, A. Y. Yau, J. Boyd, A. Hamamoto, E. Su, L. Tracy, A. E. Heidari, A. H. Wang, G. Ahuja, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “Real-time subglottic stenosis imaging using optical coherence tomography in the rabbit,” JAMA Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.139(5), 502–509 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

J. Xu, Y. Chen, Y. Yue, J. Sun, and L. Cui, “Reconstruction of epidural fat with engineered adipose tissue from adipose derived stem cells and PLGA in the rabbit dorsal laminectomy model,” Biomaterials33(29), 6965–6973 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Hegab, D. W. Nickerson, V. L. Ha, D. O. Darmawan, and B. N. Gomperts, “Repair and regeneration of tracheal surface epithelium and submucosal glands in a mouse model of hypoxic-ischemic injury,” Respirology17(7), 1101–1113 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Bhatia, V. Abraham, and L. Louis, “Tracheal granulation as a cause of unrecognized airway narrowing,” J. Anaesthesiol. Clin. Pharmacol.28(2), 235–238 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Nam, L. M. Ricles, L. J. Suggs, and S. Y. Emelianov, “In vivo ultrasound and photoacoustic monitoring of mesenchymal stem cells labeled with gold nanotracers,” PLoS ONE7(5), e37267 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. V. Jokerst, M. Thangaraj, P. J. Kempen, R. Sinclair, and S. S. Gambhir, “Photoacoustic imaging of mesenchymal stem cells in living mice via silica-coated gold nanorods,” ACS Nano6(7), 5920–5930 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

D. A. Chistiakov, “Endogenous and exogenous stem cells: a role in lung repair and use in airway tissue engineering and transplantation,” J. Biomed. Sci.17(1), 92–100 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pulavendran, J. Vignesh, and C. Rose, “Differential anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic activity of transplanted mesenchymal vs. hematopoietic stem cells in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in mice,” Int. Immunopharmacol.10(4), 513–519 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, A. S. Jang, Y. E. Kim, J. Y. Cha, T. H. Kim, S. Jung, S. K. Park, Y. K. Lee, J. H. Won, Y. H. Kim, and C. S. Park, “Modulation of cytokine and nitric oxide by mesenchymal stem cell transfer in lung injury/fibrosis,” Respir. Res.11(1), 16 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

K. A. Kreuter, S. B. Mahon, D. S. Mukai, J. Su, W. G. Jung, N. Narula, S. Guo, N. Wakida, C. Raub, M. W. Berns, S. C. George, Z. Chen, and M. Brenner, “Detection and monitoring of early airway injury effects of half-mustard (2-chloroethylethylsulfide) exposure using high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044037 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Zhao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. G. Liu, J. J. Zhou, Z. K. Li, C. G. Wu, and H. W. Qi, “Therapeutic Effects of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Engraftment on Bleomycin-Induced Lung Injury in Rats,” Transplant. Proc.40(5), 1700–1705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, S. Mahon, A. Tran, L. Tseng, J. Ju, and Z. Chen, “Detection of acute smoke-induced airway injury in a New Zealand white rabbit model using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

E. Puchelle, J. M. Zahm, J. M. Tournier, and C. Coraux, “Airway epithelial repair, regeneration, and remodeling after injury in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” Proc. Am. Thorac. Soc.3(8), 726–733 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

Y. Nakagishi, Y. Morimoto, M. Fujita, Y. Ozeki, T. Maehara, and M. Kikuchi, “Rabbit model of airway stenosis induced by scraping of the tracheal mucosa,” Laryngoscope115(6), 1087–1092 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

D. Preciado, R. T. Cotton, and M. J. Rutter, “Single-stage tracheal resection for severe tracheal stenosis in older children,” Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.68(1), 1–6 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

D. L. Kraitchman, A. W. Heldman, E. Atalar, L. C. Amado, B. J. Martin, M. F. Pittenger, J. M. Hare, and J. W. M. Bulte, “In vivo magnetic resonance imaging of mesenchymal stem cells in myocardial infarction,” Circulation107(18), 2290–2293 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. R. Burningham, M. K. Wax, P. E. Andersen, E. C. Everts, and J. I. Cohen, “Metallic tracheal stents: complications associated with long-term use in the upper airway,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.111(4), 285–290 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (1)

D. W. Borthwick, M. Shahbazian, Q. T. Krantz, J. R. Dorin, and S. H. Randell, “Evidence for stem-cell niches in the tracheal epithelium,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.24(6), 662–670 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

D. J. Mathisen, “Surgery of the trachea,” Curr. Probl. Surg.35(6), 453–542 (1998).
[PubMed]

1991 (1)

T. R. Weber, R. H. Connors, and T. F. Tracy., “Acquired tracheal stenosis in infants and children,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.102(1), 29–34 (1991).
[PubMed]

1987 (1)

B. Minnigerode and H. G. Richter, “Pathophysiology of subglottic tracheal stenosis in childhood,” Prog. Pediatr. Surg.21, 1–7 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

C. Personne, A. Colchen, M. Leroy, G. Vourc’h, and L. Toty, “Indications and technique for endoscopic laser resections in bronchology. A critical analysis based upon 2,284 resections,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.91(5), 710–715 (1986).
[PubMed]

Abraham, V.

G. Bhatia, V. Abraham, and L. Louis, “Tracheal granulation as a cause of unrecognized airway narrowing,” J. Anaesthesiol. Clin. Pharmacol.28(2), 235–238 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahuja, G.

J. L. Lin, A. Y. Yau, J. Boyd, A. Hamamoto, E. Su, L. Tracy, A. E. Heidari, A. H. Wang, G. Ahuja, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “Real-time subglottic stenosis imaging using optical coherence tomography in the rabbit,” JAMA Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.139(5), 502–509 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amado, L. C.

D. L. Kraitchman, A. W. Heldman, E. Atalar, L. C. Amado, B. J. Martin, M. F. Pittenger, J. M. Hare, and J. W. M. Bulte, “In vivo magnetic resonance imaging of mesenchymal stem cells in myocardial infarction,” Circulation107(18), 2290–2293 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersen, P. E.

A. R. Burningham, M. K. Wax, P. E. Andersen, E. C. Everts, and J. I. Cohen, “Metallic tracheal stents: complications associated with long-term use in the upper airway,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.111(4), 285–290 (2002).
[PubMed]

Atalar, E.

D. L. Kraitchman, A. W. Heldman, E. Atalar, L. C. Amado, B. J. Martin, M. F. Pittenger, J. M. Hare, and J. W. M. Bulte, “In vivo magnetic resonance imaging of mesenchymal stem cells in myocardial infarction,” Circulation107(18), 2290–2293 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Batchinsky, A.

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berns, M. W.

K. A. Kreuter, S. B. Mahon, D. S. Mukai, J. Su, W. G. Jung, N. Narula, S. Guo, N. Wakida, C. Raub, M. W. Berns, S. C. George, Z. Chen, and M. Brenner, “Detection and monitoring of early airway injury effects of half-mustard (2-chloroethylethylsulfide) exposure using high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044037 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhatia, G.

G. Bhatia, V. Abraham, and L. Louis, “Tracheal granulation as a cause of unrecognized airway narrowing,” J. Anaesthesiol. Clin. Pharmacol.28(2), 235–238 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borthwick, D. W.

D. W. Borthwick, M. Shahbazian, Q. T. Krantz, J. R. Dorin, and S. H. Randell, “Evidence for stem-cell niches in the tracheal epithelium,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.24(6), 662–670 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, J.

J. L. Lin, A. Y. Yau, J. Boyd, A. Hamamoto, E. Su, L. Tracy, A. E. Heidari, A. H. Wang, G. Ahuja, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “Real-time subglottic stenosis imaging using optical coherence tomography in the rabbit,” JAMA Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.139(5), 502–509 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brenner, M.

S. W. Lee, A. E. Heidary, D. Yoon, D. Mukai, T. Ramalingam, S. Mahon, J. Yin, J. Jing, G. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Brenner, “Quantification of airway thickness changes in smoke-inhalation injury using in-vivo 3-D endoscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(2), 243–254 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Kreuter, S. B. Mahon, D. S. Mukai, J. Su, W. G. Jung, N. Narula, S. Guo, N. Wakida, C. Raub, M. W. Berns, S. C. George, Z. Chen, and M. Brenner, “Detection and monitoring of early airway injury effects of half-mustard (2-chloroethylethylsulfide) exposure using high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044037 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, S. Mahon, A. Tran, L. Tseng, J. Ju, and Z. Chen, “Detection of acute smoke-induced airway injury in a New Zealand white rabbit model using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bulte, J. W. M.

D. L. Kraitchman, A. W. Heldman, E. Atalar, L. C. Amado, B. J. Martin, M. F. Pittenger, J. M. Hare, and J. W. M. Bulte, “In vivo magnetic resonance imaging of mesenchymal stem cells in myocardial infarction,” Circulation107(18), 2290–2293 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burney, T.

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, S. Mahon, A. Tran, L. Tseng, J. Ju, and Z. Chen, “Detection of acute smoke-induced airway injury in a New Zealand white rabbit model using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burningham, A. R.

A. R. Burningham, M. K. Wax, P. E. Andersen, E. C. Everts, and J. I. Cohen, “Metallic tracheal stents: complications associated with long-term use in the upper airway,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.111(4), 285–290 (2002).
[PubMed]

Cancio, L. C.

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cha, J. Y.

S. H. Lee, A. S. Jang, Y. E. Kim, J. Y. Cha, T. H. Kim, S. Jung, S. K. Park, Y. K. Lee, J. H. Won, Y. H. Kim, and C. S. Park, “Modulation of cytokine and nitric oxide by mesenchymal stem cell transfer in lung injury/fibrosis,” Respir. Res.11(1), 16 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

J. Xu, Y. Chen, Y. Yue, J. Sun, and L. Cui, “Reconstruction of epidural fat with engineered adipose tissue from adipose derived stem cells and PLGA in the rabbit dorsal laminectomy model,” Biomaterials33(29), 6965–6973 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

J. L. Lin, A. Y. Yau, J. Boyd, A. Hamamoto, E. Su, L. Tracy, A. E. Heidari, A. H. Wang, G. Ahuja, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “Real-time subglottic stenosis imaging using optical coherence tomography in the rabbit,” JAMA Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.139(5), 502–509 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Lee, A. E. Heidary, D. Yoon, D. Mukai, T. Ramalingam, S. Mahon, J. Yin, J. Jing, G. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Brenner, “Quantification of airway thickness changes in smoke-inhalation injury using in-vivo 3-D endoscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(2), 243–254 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Kreuter, S. B. Mahon, D. S. Mukai, J. Su, W. G. Jung, N. Narula, S. Guo, N. Wakida, C. Raub, M. W. Berns, S. C. George, Z. Chen, and M. Brenner, “Detection and monitoring of early airway injury effects of half-mustard (2-chloroethylethylsulfide) exposure using high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044037 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, S. Mahon, A. Tran, L. Tseng, J. Ju, and Z. Chen, “Detection of acute smoke-induced airway injury in a New Zealand white rabbit model using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chistiakov, D. A.

D. A. Chistiakov, “Endogenous and exogenous stem cells: a role in lung repair and use in airway tissue engineering and transplantation,” J. Biomed. Sci.17(1), 92–100 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, J. I.

A. R. Burningham, M. K. Wax, P. E. Andersen, E. C. Everts, and J. I. Cohen, “Metallic tracheal stents: complications associated with long-term use in the upper airway,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.111(4), 285–290 (2002).
[PubMed]

Colchen, A.

C. Personne, A. Colchen, M. Leroy, G. Vourc’h, and L. Toty, “Indications and technique for endoscopic laser resections in bronchology. A critical analysis based upon 2,284 resections,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.91(5), 710–715 (1986).
[PubMed]

Connors, R. H.

T. R. Weber, R. H. Connors, and T. F. Tracy., “Acquired tracheal stenosis in infants and children,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.102(1), 29–34 (1991).
[PubMed]

Coraux, C.

E. Puchelle, J. M. Zahm, J. M. Tournier, and C. Coraux, “Airway epithelial repair, regeneration, and remodeling after injury in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” Proc. Am. Thorac. Soc.3(8), 726–733 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cotton, R. T.

D. Preciado, R. T. Cotton, and M. J. Rutter, “Single-stage tracheal resection for severe tracheal stenosis in older children,” Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.68(1), 1–6 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, L.

J. Xu, Y. Chen, Y. Yue, J. Sun, and L. Cui, “Reconstruction of epidural fat with engineered adipose tissue from adipose derived stem cells and PLGA in the rabbit dorsal laminectomy model,” Biomaterials33(29), 6965–6973 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Darmawan, D. O.

A. E. Hegab, D. W. Nickerson, V. L. Ha, D. O. Darmawan, and B. N. Gomperts, “Repair and regeneration of tracheal surface epithelium and submucosal glands in a mouse model of hypoxic-ischemic injury,” Respirology17(7), 1101–1113 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorin, J. R.

D. W. Borthwick, M. Shahbazian, Q. T. Krantz, J. R. Dorin, and S. H. Randell, “Evidence for stem-cell niches in the tracheal epithelium,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.24(6), 662–670 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emelianov, S. Y.

S. Y. Nam, L. M. Ricles, L. J. Suggs, and S. Y. Emelianov, “In vivo ultrasound and photoacoustic monitoring of mesenchymal stem cells labeled with gold nanotracers,” PLoS ONE7(5), e37267 (2012).
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A. R. Burningham, M. K. Wax, P. E. Andersen, E. C. Everts, and J. I. Cohen, “Metallic tracheal stents: complications associated with long-term use in the upper airway,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.111(4), 285–290 (2002).
[PubMed]

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Y. Nakagishi, Y. Morimoto, M. Fujita, Y. Ozeki, T. Maehara, and M. Kikuchi, “Rabbit model of airway stenosis induced by scraping of the tracheal mucosa,” Laryngoscope115(6), 1087–1092 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gambhir, S. S.

J. V. Jokerst, M. Thangaraj, P. J. Kempen, R. Sinclair, and S. S. Gambhir, “Photoacoustic imaging of mesenchymal stem cells in living mice via silica-coated gold nanorods,” ACS Nano6(7), 5920–5930 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

George, S. C.

K. A. Kreuter, S. B. Mahon, D. S. Mukai, J. Su, W. G. Jung, N. Narula, S. Guo, N. Wakida, C. Raub, M. W. Berns, S. C. George, Z. Chen, and M. Brenner, “Detection and monitoring of early airway injury effects of half-mustard (2-chloroethylethylsulfide) exposure using high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044037 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gomperts, B. N.

A. E. Hegab, D. W. Nickerson, V. L. Ha, D. O. Darmawan, and B. N. Gomperts, “Repair and regeneration of tracheal surface epithelium and submucosal glands in a mouse model of hypoxic-ischemic injury,” Respirology17(7), 1101–1113 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, S.

K. A. Kreuter, S. B. Mahon, D. S. Mukai, J. Su, W. G. Jung, N. Narula, S. Guo, N. Wakida, C. Raub, M. W. Berns, S. C. George, Z. Chen, and M. Brenner, “Detection and monitoring of early airway injury effects of half-mustard (2-chloroethylethylsulfide) exposure using high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044037 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, S. Mahon, A. Tran, L. Tseng, J. Ju, and Z. Chen, “Detection of acute smoke-induced airway injury in a New Zealand white rabbit model using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. E. Hegab, D. W. Nickerson, V. L. Ha, D. O. Darmawan, and B. N. Gomperts, “Repair and regeneration of tracheal surface epithelium and submucosal glands in a mouse model of hypoxic-ischemic injury,” Respirology17(7), 1101–1113 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. L. Lin, A. Y. Yau, J. Boyd, A. Hamamoto, E. Su, L. Tracy, A. E. Heidari, A. H. Wang, G. Ahuja, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “Real-time subglottic stenosis imaging using optical coherence tomography in the rabbit,” JAMA Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.139(5), 502–509 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. L. Kraitchman, A. W. Heldman, E. Atalar, L. C. Amado, B. J. Martin, M. F. Pittenger, J. M. Hare, and J. W. M. Bulte, “In vivo magnetic resonance imaging of mesenchymal stem cells in myocardial infarction,” Circulation107(18), 2290–2293 (2003).
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A. E. Hegab, D. W. Nickerson, V. L. Ha, D. O. Darmawan, and B. N. Gomperts, “Repair and regeneration of tracheal surface epithelium and submucosal glands in a mouse model of hypoxic-ischemic injury,” Respirology17(7), 1101–1113 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heidari, A. E.

J. L. Lin, A. Y. Yau, J. Boyd, A. Hamamoto, E. Su, L. Tracy, A. E. Heidari, A. H. Wang, G. Ahuja, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “Real-time subglottic stenosis imaging using optical coherence tomography in the rabbit,” JAMA Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.139(5), 502–509 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heidary, A. E.

Heldman, A. W.

D. L. Kraitchman, A. W. Heldman, E. Atalar, L. C. Amado, B. J. Martin, M. F. Pittenger, J. M. Hare, and J. W. M. Bulte, “In vivo magnetic resonance imaging of mesenchymal stem cells in myocardial infarction,” Circulation107(18), 2290–2293 (2003).
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S. H. Lee, A. S. Jang, Y. E. Kim, J. Y. Cha, T. H. Kim, S. Jung, S. K. Park, Y. K. Lee, J. H. Won, Y. H. Kim, and C. S. Park, “Modulation of cytokine and nitric oxide by mesenchymal stem cell transfer in lung injury/fibrosis,” Respir. Res.11(1), 16 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jing, J.

Jokerst, J. V.

J. V. Jokerst, M. Thangaraj, P. J. Kempen, R. Sinclair, and S. S. Gambhir, “Photoacoustic imaging of mesenchymal stem cells in living mice via silica-coated gold nanorods,” ACS Nano6(7), 5920–5930 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ju, J.

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, S. Mahon, A. Tran, L. Tseng, J. Ju, and Z. Chen, “Detection of acute smoke-induced airway injury in a New Zealand white rabbit model using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051701 (2007).
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Jung, S.

S. H. Lee, A. S. Jang, Y. E. Kim, J. Y. Cha, T. H. Kim, S. Jung, S. K. Park, Y. K. Lee, J. H. Won, Y. H. Kim, and C. S. Park, “Modulation of cytokine and nitric oxide by mesenchymal stem cell transfer in lung injury/fibrosis,” Respir. Res.11(1), 16 (2010).
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Jung, W. G.

K. A. Kreuter, S. B. Mahon, D. S. Mukai, J. Su, W. G. Jung, N. Narula, S. Guo, N. Wakida, C. Raub, M. W. Berns, S. C. George, Z. Chen, and M. Brenner, “Detection and monitoring of early airway injury effects of half-mustard (2-chloroethylethylsulfide) exposure using high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044037 (2009).
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Kempen, P. J.

J. V. Jokerst, M. Thangaraj, P. J. Kempen, R. Sinclair, and S. S. Gambhir, “Photoacoustic imaging of mesenchymal stem cells in living mice via silica-coated gold nanorods,” ACS Nano6(7), 5920–5930 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kikuchi, M.

Y. Nakagishi, Y. Morimoto, M. Fujita, Y. Ozeki, T. Maehara, and M. Kikuchi, “Rabbit model of airway stenosis induced by scraping of the tracheal mucosa,” Laryngoscope115(6), 1087–1092 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, T. H.

S. H. Lee, A. S. Jang, Y. E. Kim, J. Y. Cha, T. H. Kim, S. Jung, S. K. Park, Y. K. Lee, J. H. Won, Y. H. Kim, and C. S. Park, “Modulation of cytokine and nitric oxide by mesenchymal stem cell transfer in lung injury/fibrosis,” Respir. Res.11(1), 16 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. E.

S. H. Lee, A. S. Jang, Y. E. Kim, J. Y. Cha, T. H. Kim, S. Jung, S. K. Park, Y. K. Lee, J. H. Won, Y. H. Kim, and C. S. Park, “Modulation of cytokine and nitric oxide by mesenchymal stem cell transfer in lung injury/fibrosis,” Respir. Res.11(1), 16 (2010).
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Kim, Y. H.

S. H. Lee, A. S. Jang, Y. E. Kim, J. Y. Cha, T. H. Kim, S. Jung, S. K. Park, Y. K. Lee, J. H. Won, Y. H. Kim, and C. S. Park, “Modulation of cytokine and nitric oxide by mesenchymal stem cell transfer in lung injury/fibrosis,” Respir. Res.11(1), 16 (2010).
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Kraitchman, D. L.

D. L. Kraitchman, A. W. Heldman, E. Atalar, L. C. Amado, B. J. Martin, M. F. Pittenger, J. M. Hare, and J. W. M. Bulte, “In vivo magnetic resonance imaging of mesenchymal stem cells in myocardial infarction,” Circulation107(18), 2290–2293 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krantz, Q. T.

D. W. Borthwick, M. Shahbazian, Q. T. Krantz, J. R. Dorin, and S. H. Randell, “Evidence for stem-cell niches in the tracheal epithelium,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.24(6), 662–670 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kreuter, K.

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, S. Mahon, A. Tran, L. Tseng, J. Ju, and Z. Chen, “Detection of acute smoke-induced airway injury in a New Zealand white rabbit model using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kreuter, K. A.

K. A. Kreuter, S. B. Mahon, D. S. Mukai, J. Su, W. G. Jung, N. Narula, S. Guo, N. Wakida, C. Raub, M. W. Berns, S. C. George, Z. Chen, and M. Brenner, “Detection and monitoring of early airway injury effects of half-mustard (2-chloroethylethylsulfide) exposure using high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044037 (2009).
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Lee, S. H.

S. H. Lee, A. S. Jang, Y. E. Kim, J. Y. Cha, T. H. Kim, S. Jung, S. K. Park, Y. K. Lee, J. H. Won, Y. H. Kim, and C. S. Park, “Modulation of cytokine and nitric oxide by mesenchymal stem cell transfer in lung injury/fibrosis,” Respir. Res.11(1), 16 (2010).
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Lee, S. W.

Lee, Y. K.

S. H. Lee, A. S. Jang, Y. E. Kim, J. Y. Cha, T. H. Kim, S. Jung, S. K. Park, Y. K. Lee, J. H. Won, Y. H. Kim, and C. S. Park, “Modulation of cytokine and nitric oxide by mesenchymal stem cell transfer in lung injury/fibrosis,” Respir. Res.11(1), 16 (2010).
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C. Personne, A. Colchen, M. Leroy, G. Vourc’h, and L. Toty, “Indications and technique for endoscopic laser resections in bronchology. A critical analysis based upon 2,284 resections,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.91(5), 710–715 (1986).
[PubMed]

Li, Z. K.

F. Zhao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. G. Liu, J. J. Zhou, Z. K. Li, C. G. Wu, and H. W. Qi, “Therapeutic Effects of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Engraftment on Bleomycin-Induced Lung Injury in Rats,” Transplant. Proc.40(5), 1700–1705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, J. L.

J. L. Lin, A. Y. Yau, J. Boyd, A. Hamamoto, E. Su, L. Tracy, A. E. Heidari, A. H. Wang, G. Ahuja, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “Real-time subglottic stenosis imaging using optical coherence tomography in the rabbit,” JAMA Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.139(5), 502–509 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Liu, Y. G.

F. Zhao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. G. Liu, J. J. Zhou, Z. K. Li, C. G. Wu, and H. W. Qi, “Therapeutic Effects of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Engraftment on Bleomycin-Induced Lung Injury in Rats,” Transplant. Proc.40(5), 1700–1705 (2008).
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G. Bhatia, V. Abraham, and L. Louis, “Tracheal granulation as a cause of unrecognized airway narrowing,” J. Anaesthesiol. Clin. Pharmacol.28(2), 235–238 (2012).
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Y. Nakagishi, Y. Morimoto, M. Fujita, Y. Ozeki, T. Maehara, and M. Kikuchi, “Rabbit model of airway stenosis induced by scraping of the tracheal mucosa,” Laryngoscope115(6), 1087–1092 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahon, S.

S. W. Lee, A. E. Heidary, D. Yoon, D. Mukai, T. Ramalingam, S. Mahon, J. Yin, J. Jing, G. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Brenner, “Quantification of airway thickness changes in smoke-inhalation injury using in-vivo 3-D endoscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(2), 243–254 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, S. Mahon, A. Tran, L. Tseng, J. Ju, and Z. Chen, “Detection of acute smoke-induced airway injury in a New Zealand white rabbit model using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahon, S. B.

K. A. Kreuter, S. B. Mahon, D. S. Mukai, J. Su, W. G. Jung, N. Narula, S. Guo, N. Wakida, C. Raub, M. W. Berns, S. C. George, Z. Chen, and M. Brenner, “Detection and monitoring of early airway injury effects of half-mustard (2-chloroethylethylsulfide) exposure using high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044037 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, B. J.

D. L. Kraitchman, A. W. Heldman, E. Atalar, L. C. Amado, B. J. Martin, M. F. Pittenger, J. M. Hare, and J. W. M. Bulte, “In vivo magnetic resonance imaging of mesenchymal stem cells in myocardial infarction,” Circulation107(18), 2290–2293 (2003).
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B. Minnigerode and H. G. Richter, “Pathophysiology of subglottic tracheal stenosis in childhood,” Prog. Pediatr. Surg.21, 1–7 (1987).
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Y. Nakagishi, Y. Morimoto, M. Fujita, Y. Ozeki, T. Maehara, and M. Kikuchi, “Rabbit model of airway stenosis induced by scraping of the tracheal mucosa,” Laryngoscope115(6), 1087–1092 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mukai, D.

S. W. Lee, A. E. Heidary, D. Yoon, D. Mukai, T. Ramalingam, S. Mahon, J. Yin, J. Jing, G. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Brenner, “Quantification of airway thickness changes in smoke-inhalation injury using in-vivo 3-D endoscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(2), 243–254 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, S. Mahon, A. Tran, L. Tseng, J. Ju, and Z. Chen, “Detection of acute smoke-induced airway injury in a New Zealand white rabbit model using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mukai, D. S.

K. A. Kreuter, S. B. Mahon, D. S. Mukai, J. Su, W. G. Jung, N. Narula, S. Guo, N. Wakida, C. Raub, M. W. Berns, S. C. George, Z. Chen, and M. Brenner, “Detection and monitoring of early airway injury effects of half-mustard (2-chloroethylethylsulfide) exposure using high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044037 (2009).
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Nakagishi, Y.

Y. Nakagishi, Y. Morimoto, M. Fujita, Y. Ozeki, T. Maehara, and M. Kikuchi, “Rabbit model of airway stenosis induced by scraping of the tracheal mucosa,” Laryngoscope115(6), 1087–1092 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nam, S. Y.

S. Y. Nam, L. M. Ricles, L. J. Suggs, and S. Y. Emelianov, “In vivo ultrasound and photoacoustic monitoring of mesenchymal stem cells labeled with gold nanotracers,” PLoS ONE7(5), e37267 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narula, N.

K. A. Kreuter, S. B. Mahon, D. S. Mukai, J. Su, W. G. Jung, N. Narula, S. Guo, N. Wakida, C. Raub, M. W. Berns, S. C. George, Z. Chen, and M. Brenner, “Detection and monitoring of early airway injury effects of half-mustard (2-chloroethylethylsulfide) exposure using high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044037 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nickerson, D. W.

A. E. Hegab, D. W. Nickerson, V. L. Ha, D. O. Darmawan, and B. N. Gomperts, “Repair and regeneration of tracheal surface epithelium and submucosal glands in a mouse model of hypoxic-ischemic injury,” Respirology17(7), 1101–1113 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozeki, Y.

Y. Nakagishi, Y. Morimoto, M. Fujita, Y. Ozeki, T. Maehara, and M. Kikuchi, “Rabbit model of airway stenosis induced by scraping of the tracheal mucosa,” Laryngoscope115(6), 1087–1092 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, C. S.

S. H. Lee, A. S. Jang, Y. E. Kim, J. Y. Cha, T. H. Kim, S. Jung, S. K. Park, Y. K. Lee, J. H. Won, Y. H. Kim, and C. S. Park, “Modulation of cytokine and nitric oxide by mesenchymal stem cell transfer in lung injury/fibrosis,” Respir. Res.11(1), 16 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, S. K.

S. H. Lee, A. S. Jang, Y. E. Kim, J. Y. Cha, T. H. Kim, S. Jung, S. K. Park, Y. K. Lee, J. H. Won, Y. H. Kim, and C. S. Park, “Modulation of cytokine and nitric oxide by mesenchymal stem cell transfer in lung injury/fibrosis,” Respir. Res.11(1), 16 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Personne, C.

C. Personne, A. Colchen, M. Leroy, G. Vourc’h, and L. Toty, “Indications and technique for endoscopic laser resections in bronchology. A critical analysis based upon 2,284 resections,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.91(5), 710–715 (1986).
[PubMed]

Pittenger, M. F.

D. L. Kraitchman, A. W. Heldman, E. Atalar, L. C. Amado, B. J. Martin, M. F. Pittenger, J. M. Hare, and J. W. M. Bulte, “In vivo magnetic resonance imaging of mesenchymal stem cells in myocardial infarction,” Circulation107(18), 2290–2293 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. Preciado, R. T. Cotton, and M. J. Rutter, “Single-stage tracheal resection for severe tracheal stenosis in older children,” Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.68(1), 1–6 (2004).
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E. Puchelle, J. M. Zahm, J. M. Tournier, and C. Coraux, “Airway epithelial repair, regeneration, and remodeling after injury in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” Proc. Am. Thorac. Soc.3(8), 726–733 (2006).
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S. Pulavendran, J. Vignesh, and C. Rose, “Differential anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic activity of transplanted mesenchymal vs. hematopoietic stem cells in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in mice,” Int. Immunopharmacol.10(4), 513–519 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, H. W.

F. Zhao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. G. Liu, J. J. Zhou, Z. K. Li, C. G. Wu, and H. W. Qi, “Therapeutic Effects of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Engraftment on Bleomycin-Induced Lung Injury in Rats,” Transplant. Proc.40(5), 1700–1705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramalingam, T.

Randell, S. H.

D. W. Borthwick, M. Shahbazian, Q. T. Krantz, J. R. Dorin, and S. H. Randell, “Evidence for stem-cell niches in the tracheal epithelium,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.24(6), 662–670 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raub, C.

K. A. Kreuter, S. B. Mahon, D. S. Mukai, J. Su, W. G. Jung, N. Narula, S. Guo, N. Wakida, C. Raub, M. W. Berns, S. C. George, Z. Chen, and M. Brenner, “Detection and monitoring of early airway injury effects of half-mustard (2-chloroethylethylsulfide) exposure using high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044037 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richter, H. G.

B. Minnigerode and H. G. Richter, “Pathophysiology of subglottic tracheal stenosis in childhood,” Prog. Pediatr. Surg.21, 1–7 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ricles, L. M.

S. Y. Nam, L. M. Ricles, L. J. Suggs, and S. Y. Emelianov, “In vivo ultrasound and photoacoustic monitoring of mesenchymal stem cells labeled with gold nanotracers,” PLoS ONE7(5), e37267 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rose, C.

S. Pulavendran, J. Vignesh, and C. Rose, “Differential anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic activity of transplanted mesenchymal vs. hematopoietic stem cells in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in mice,” Int. Immunopharmacol.10(4), 513–519 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rutter, M. J.

D. Preciado, R. T. Cotton, and M. J. Rutter, “Single-stage tracheal resection for severe tracheal stenosis in older children,” Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.68(1), 1–6 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shahbazian, M.

D. W. Borthwick, M. Shahbazian, Q. T. Krantz, J. R. Dorin, and S. H. Randell, “Evidence for stem-cell niches in the tracheal epithelium,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.24(6), 662–670 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sinclair, R.

J. V. Jokerst, M. Thangaraj, P. J. Kempen, R. Sinclair, and S. S. Gambhir, “Photoacoustic imaging of mesenchymal stem cells in living mice via silica-coated gold nanorods,” ACS Nano6(7), 5920–5930 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, E.

J. L. Lin, A. Y. Yau, J. Boyd, A. Hamamoto, E. Su, L. Tracy, A. E. Heidari, A. H. Wang, G. Ahuja, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “Real-time subglottic stenosis imaging using optical coherence tomography in the rabbit,” JAMA Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.139(5), 502–509 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, J.

K. A. Kreuter, S. B. Mahon, D. S. Mukai, J. Su, W. G. Jung, N. Narula, S. Guo, N. Wakida, C. Raub, M. W. Berns, S. C. George, Z. Chen, and M. Brenner, “Detection and monitoring of early airway injury effects of half-mustard (2-chloroethylethylsulfide) exposure using high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044037 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, S. Mahon, A. Tran, L. Tseng, J. Ju, and Z. Chen, “Detection of acute smoke-induced airway injury in a New Zealand white rabbit model using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suggs, L. J.

S. Y. Nam, L. M. Ricles, L. J. Suggs, and S. Y. Emelianov, “In vivo ultrasound and photoacoustic monitoring of mesenchymal stem cells labeled with gold nanotracers,” PLoS ONE7(5), e37267 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, J.

J. Xu, Y. Chen, Y. Yue, J. Sun, and L. Cui, “Reconstruction of epidural fat with engineered adipose tissue from adipose derived stem cells and PLGA in the rabbit dorsal laminectomy model,” Biomaterials33(29), 6965–6973 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thangaraj, M.

J. V. Jokerst, M. Thangaraj, P. J. Kempen, R. Sinclair, and S. S. Gambhir, “Photoacoustic imaging of mesenchymal stem cells in living mice via silica-coated gold nanorods,” ACS Nano6(7), 5920–5930 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toty, L.

C. Personne, A. Colchen, M. Leroy, G. Vourc’h, and L. Toty, “Indications and technique for endoscopic laser resections in bronchology. A critical analysis based upon 2,284 resections,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.91(5), 710–715 (1986).
[PubMed]

Tournier, J. M.

E. Puchelle, J. M. Zahm, J. M. Tournier, and C. Coraux, “Airway epithelial repair, regeneration, and remodeling after injury in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” Proc. Am. Thorac. Soc.3(8), 726–733 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tracy, L.

J. L. Lin, A. Y. Yau, J. Boyd, A. Hamamoto, E. Su, L. Tracy, A. E. Heidari, A. H. Wang, G. Ahuja, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “Real-time subglottic stenosis imaging using optical coherence tomography in the rabbit,” JAMA Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.139(5), 502–509 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tracy, T. F.

T. R. Weber, R. H. Connors, and T. F. Tracy., “Acquired tracheal stenosis in infants and children,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.102(1), 29–34 (1991).
[PubMed]

Tran, A.

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, S. Mahon, A. Tran, L. Tseng, J. Ju, and Z. Chen, “Detection of acute smoke-induced airway injury in a New Zealand white rabbit model using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tseng, L.

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, S. Mahon, A. Tran, L. Tseng, J. Ju, and Z. Chen, “Detection of acute smoke-induced airway injury in a New Zealand white rabbit model using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vignesh, J.

S. Pulavendran, J. Vignesh, and C. Rose, “Differential anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic activity of transplanted mesenchymal vs. hematopoietic stem cells in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in mice,” Int. Immunopharmacol.10(4), 513–519 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vourc’h, G.

C. Personne, A. Colchen, M. Leroy, G. Vourc’h, and L. Toty, “Indications and technique for endoscopic laser resections in bronchology. A critical analysis based upon 2,284 resections,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.91(5), 710–715 (1986).
[PubMed]

Wakida, N.

K. A. Kreuter, S. B. Mahon, D. S. Mukai, J. Su, W. G. Jung, N. Narula, S. Guo, N. Wakida, C. Raub, M. W. Berns, S. C. George, Z. Chen, and M. Brenner, “Detection and monitoring of early airway injury effects of half-mustard (2-chloroethylethylsulfide) exposure using high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044037 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, A. H.

J. L. Lin, A. Y. Yau, J. Boyd, A. Hamamoto, E. Su, L. Tracy, A. E. Heidari, A. H. Wang, G. Ahuja, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “Real-time subglottic stenosis imaging using optical coherence tomography in the rabbit,” JAMA Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.139(5), 502–509 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wax, M. K.

A. R. Burningham, M. K. Wax, P. E. Andersen, E. C. Everts, and J. I. Cohen, “Metallic tracheal stents: complications associated with long-term use in the upper airway,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.111(4), 285–290 (2002).
[PubMed]

Weber, T. R.

T. R. Weber, R. H. Connors, and T. F. Tracy., “Acquired tracheal stenosis in infants and children,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.102(1), 29–34 (1991).
[PubMed]

Won, J. H.

S. H. Lee, A. S. Jang, Y. E. Kim, J. Y. Cha, T. H. Kim, S. Jung, S. K. Park, Y. K. Lee, J. H. Won, Y. H. Kim, and C. S. Park, “Modulation of cytokine and nitric oxide by mesenchymal stem cell transfer in lung injury/fibrosis,” Respir. Res.11(1), 16 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, B. J.

J. L. Lin, A. Y. Yau, J. Boyd, A. Hamamoto, E. Su, L. Tracy, A. E. Heidari, A. H. Wang, G. Ahuja, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “Real-time subglottic stenosis imaging using optical coherence tomography in the rabbit,” JAMA Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.139(5), 502–509 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, C. G.

F. Zhao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. G. Liu, J. J. Zhou, Z. K. Li, C. G. Wu, and H. W. Qi, “Therapeutic Effects of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Engraftment on Bleomycin-Induced Lung Injury in Rats,” Transplant. Proc.40(5), 1700–1705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

J. Xu, Y. Chen, Y. Yue, J. Sun, and L. Cui, “Reconstruction of epidural fat with engineered adipose tissue from adipose derived stem cells and PLGA in the rabbit dorsal laminectomy model,” Biomaterials33(29), 6965–6973 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yau, A. Y.

J. L. Lin, A. Y. Yau, J. Boyd, A. Hamamoto, E. Su, L. Tracy, A. E. Heidari, A. H. Wang, G. Ahuja, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “Real-time subglottic stenosis imaging using optical coherence tomography in the rabbit,” JAMA Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.139(5), 502–509 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, J.

Yoon, D.

Yue, Y.

J. Xu, Y. Chen, Y. Yue, J. Sun, and L. Cui, “Reconstruction of epidural fat with engineered adipose tissue from adipose derived stem cells and PLGA in the rabbit dorsal laminectomy model,” Biomaterials33(29), 6965–6973 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zahm, J. M.

E. Puchelle, J. M. Zahm, J. M. Tournier, and C. Coraux, “Airway epithelial repair, regeneration, and remodeling after injury in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” Proc. Am. Thorac. Soc.3(8), 726–733 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y. F.

F. Zhao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. G. Liu, J. J. Zhou, Z. K. Li, C. G. Wu, and H. W. Qi, “Therapeutic Effects of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Engraftment on Bleomycin-Induced Lung Injury in Rats,” Transplant. Proc.40(5), 1700–1705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, F.

F. Zhao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. G. Liu, J. J. Zhou, Z. K. Li, C. G. Wu, and H. W. Qi, “Therapeutic Effects of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Engraftment on Bleomycin-Induced Lung Injury in Rats,” Transplant. Proc.40(5), 1700–1705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J. J.

F. Zhao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. G. Liu, J. J. Zhou, Z. K. Li, C. G. Wu, and H. W. Qi, “Therapeutic Effects of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Engraftment on Bleomycin-Induced Lung Injury in Rats,” Transplant. Proc.40(5), 1700–1705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

J. V. Jokerst, M. Thangaraj, P. J. Kempen, R. Sinclair, and S. S. Gambhir, “Photoacoustic imaging of mesenchymal stem cells in living mice via silica-coated gold nanorods,” ACS Nano6(7), 5920–5930 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (1)

D. W. Borthwick, M. Shahbazian, Q. T. Krantz, J. R. Dorin, and S. H. Randell, “Evidence for stem-cell niches in the tracheal epithelium,” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.24(6), 662–670 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. (1)

A. R. Burningham, M. K. Wax, P. E. Andersen, E. C. Everts, and J. I. Cohen, “Metallic tracheal stents: complications associated with long-term use in the upper airway,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.111(4), 285–290 (2002).
[PubMed]

Biomaterials (1)

J. Xu, Y. Chen, Y. Yue, J. Sun, and L. Cui, “Reconstruction of epidural fat with engineered adipose tissue from adipose derived stem cells and PLGA in the rabbit dorsal laminectomy model,” Biomaterials33(29), 6965–6973 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Circulation (1)

D. L. Kraitchman, A. W. Heldman, E. Atalar, L. C. Amado, B. J. Martin, M. F. Pittenger, J. M. Hare, and J. W. M. Bulte, “In vivo magnetic resonance imaging of mesenchymal stem cells in myocardial infarction,” Circulation107(18), 2290–2293 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Probl. Surg. (1)

D. J. Mathisen, “Surgery of the trachea,” Curr. Probl. Surg.35(6), 453–542 (1998).
[PubMed]

Int. Immunopharmacol. (1)

S. Pulavendran, J. Vignesh, and C. Rose, “Differential anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic activity of transplanted mesenchymal vs. hematopoietic stem cells in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in mice,” Int. Immunopharmacol.10(4), 513–519 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. (1)

D. Preciado, R. T. Cotton, and M. J. Rutter, “Single-stage tracheal resection for severe tracheal stenosis in older children,” Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.68(1), 1–6 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Anaesthesiol. Clin. Pharmacol. (1)

G. Bhatia, V. Abraham, and L. Louis, “Tracheal granulation as a cause of unrecognized airway narrowing,” J. Anaesthesiol. Clin. Pharmacol.28(2), 235–238 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, S. Mahon, A. Tran, L. Tseng, J. Ju, and Z. Chen, “Detection of acute smoke-induced airway injury in a New Zealand white rabbit model using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Kreuter, S. B. Mahon, D. S. Mukai, J. Su, W. G. Jung, N. Narula, S. Guo, N. Wakida, C. Raub, M. W. Berns, S. C. George, Z. Chen, and M. Brenner, “Detection and monitoring of early airway injury effects of half-mustard (2-chloroethylethylsulfide) exposure using high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044037 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brenner, K. Kreuter, J. Ju, S. Mahon, L. Tseng, D. Mukai, T. Burney, S. Guo, J. Su, A. Tran, A. Batchinsky, L. C. Cancio, N. Narula, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography detection of differences in regional large airway smoke inhalation induced injury in a rabbit model,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Sci. (1)

D. A. Chistiakov, “Endogenous and exogenous stem cells: a role in lung repair and use in airway tissue engineering and transplantation,” J. Biomed. Sci.17(1), 92–100 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. (2)

T. R. Weber, R. H. Connors, and T. F. Tracy., “Acquired tracheal stenosis in infants and children,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.102(1), 29–34 (1991).
[PubMed]

C. Personne, A. Colchen, M. Leroy, G. Vourc’h, and L. Toty, “Indications and technique for endoscopic laser resections in bronchology. A critical analysis based upon 2,284 resections,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.91(5), 710–715 (1986).
[PubMed]

JAMA Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. (1)

J. L. Lin, A. Y. Yau, J. Boyd, A. Hamamoto, E. Su, L. Tracy, A. E. Heidari, A. H. Wang, G. Ahuja, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “Real-time subglottic stenosis imaging using optical coherence tomography in the rabbit,” JAMA Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.139(5), 502–509 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laryngoscope (1)

Y. Nakagishi, Y. Morimoto, M. Fujita, Y. Ozeki, T. Maehara, and M. Kikuchi, “Rabbit model of airway stenosis induced by scraping of the tracheal mucosa,” Laryngoscope115(6), 1087–1092 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

PLoS ONE (1)

S. Y. Nam, L. M. Ricles, L. J. Suggs, and S. Y. Emelianov, “In vivo ultrasound and photoacoustic monitoring of mesenchymal stem cells labeled with gold nanotracers,” PLoS ONE7(5), e37267 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Am. Thorac. Soc. (1)

E. Puchelle, J. M. Zahm, J. M. Tournier, and C. Coraux, “Airway epithelial repair, regeneration, and remodeling after injury in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” Proc. Am. Thorac. Soc.3(8), 726–733 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Pediatr. Surg. (1)

B. Minnigerode and H. G. Richter, “Pathophysiology of subglottic tracheal stenosis in childhood,” Prog. Pediatr. Surg.21, 1–7 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Respir. Res. (1)

S. H. Lee, A. S. Jang, Y. E. Kim, J. Y. Cha, T. H. Kim, S. Jung, S. K. Park, Y. K. Lee, J. H. Won, Y. H. Kim, and C. S. Park, “Modulation of cytokine and nitric oxide by mesenchymal stem cell transfer in lung injury/fibrosis,” Respir. Res.11(1), 16 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Respirology (1)

A. E. Hegab, D. W. Nickerson, V. L. Ha, D. O. Darmawan, and B. N. Gomperts, “Repair and regeneration of tracheal surface epithelium and submucosal glands in a mouse model of hypoxic-ischemic injury,” Respirology17(7), 1101–1113 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Transplant. Proc. (1)

F. Zhao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. G. Liu, J. J. Zhou, Z. K. Li, C. G. Wu, and H. W. Qi, “Therapeutic Effects of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Engraftment on Bleomycin-Induced Lung Injury in Rats,” Transplant. Proc.40(5), 1700–1705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental procedure. (A) General anesthesia. (B) Tracheal scraping. (C) Adipose stem cell injection through the peritoneum. (D) Tracheal preparation after resection. (E) OCT scanning. (F) Microscopic examination.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of an 850 nm spectrometer-based OCT. CM, collimator; FL, focusing lens; DG, diffraction grating; LSC, line scan camera.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Gross findings of normal (A), mild (B), and moderate (C) injuries on the tenth day after airway scraping. A. Normal finding. B. Mildly injured airway epithelium showed hyperemic and hemorrhagic spot (white circle). C. Moderately injured epithelium showed hyperemic nodular granulation (white circle) on the tenth day after airway scrapping.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

OCT findings according to the degree of the airway injury. OCT findings on the tenth day after scraping (A-C) and corresponding pathologic findings (D-F). (A,D) OCT finding of normal airway wall and normal pathology. (B,E) OCT and pathology finding of mild airway injury. The thickness of epithelium and basement membrane become slightly increased. (C,F) OCT and pathology finding of moderate airway injury. The thickness of epithelium and basement membrane become significantly increased. EP: Epithelium, BM: Basement membrane, SM: Submucosa, C: Capillary.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Three-dimensional OCT images for (a) normal, (b) mild, and (c) moderate cases. Each image was reconstructed using 512 two-dimensional images.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

OCT Measurement of the thickness of epithelium and basement membrane in normal and injured airways. Statistically significant increases of the thicknesses of epithelial layer and basement membrane were seen according to the degree of injury (p<0.01). EP: Epithelium, BM: Basement membrane.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Fluorescence microscopic findings (A,B,C) and the corresponding pathologies (D,E,F). A,D. Fluorescence microscopic finding of the injured airway epithelium with stem cell injection and pathology (x400). A. Significant amount of green fluorescence was observed in the rASCs-transplanted tracheas (arrows). B,E. Fluorescence microscopic finding of the uninjured airway epithelium with stem cell injection and pathology (x400). C,F. Fluorescence microscopic finding of the injured airway epithelium with saline injection and pathology (x400). No green fluorescence was observed in the uninjured epithelium in stem cell group and the injured epithelium in saline group (B,C). The basement membrane showed auto-fluorescence in both experimental and control groups. EP: Epithelium, BM: Basement Membrane, SM: Submucosa.

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