Abstract

Three-dimensional imaging of the mucosa of the lower lip and labial minor salivary glands is demonstrated in vivo using swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system at 1310 nm with modified interface. Volumetric data sets of the inner surface of the lower lip covering ~230 mm2 field are obtained from patients with Sjögren’s syndrome and a control group. OCT enables high-resolution visualization of mucosal architecture using cross-sectional images as well as en-face projection images. Comprehensive morphometry of the labial minor salivary glands is performed, and statistical significance is assessed. Statistically significant differences in morphometric parameters are found when subgroups of patients with Sjögren’s syndrome are analyzed.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (6)

A. Tincani, L. Andreoli, I. Cavazzana, A. Doria, M. Favero, M.-G. Fenini, F. Franceschini, A. Lojacono, G. Nascimbeni, A. Santoro, F. Semeraro, P. Toniati, and Y. Shoenfeld, “Novel aspects of Sjögren’s syndrome in 2012,” BMC Med.11(1), 93 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Guellec, D. Cornec, S. Jousse-Joulin, T. Marhadour, P. Marcorelles, J.-O. Pers, A. Saraux, and V. Devauchelle-Pensec, “Diagnostic value of labial minor salivary gland biopsy for Sjögren’s syndrome: A systematic review,” Autoimmun. Rev.12(3), 416–420 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Lee, S. J. Han, S. M. Nam, S. C. Yoon, J. M. Ahn, T.-I. Kim, E. K. Kim, and K. Y. Seo, “Analysis of tear cytokines and clinical correlations in Sjögren cyndrome dry eye patients and non-Sjögren syndrome dry eye patients,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.156(2), 247–253 (2013).

P. Zengel, F. Schrötzlmair, C. Reichel, P. Paprottka, and D. A. Clevert, “Sonography: The Leading Diagnostic Tool for Diseases of the Salivary Glands,” Semin. Ultrasound CT MR34(3), 196–203 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tandon, N. N. Singh, and G. Sreedhar, “Minor salivary glands and dental caries: Approach towards a new horizon,” J. Nat. Sci. Biol. Med.4(2), 364–368 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Sattler, R. Kästle, and J. Welzel, “Optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(6), 061224 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

Cda. M. Brasil, C. M. Ribeiro, D. D. Fonseca, L. A. Gueiros, and J. C. Leao, “Chloroquine-induced hyperpigmentation of the hard palate,” Gen. Dent.60(2), e74–e78 (2012).
[PubMed]

M. Lida Santiago, M. R. Seisdedos, R. N. García Salinas, A. Secco, L. Marino Claverie, L. Techera, L. Takashima, P. Aicardi, M. A. Sandi Rosales, E. Knobel, S. J. Magri, and A. C. Catalán Pellet, “Frequency of Complications and Usefulness of the Minor Salivary Gland Biopsy,” Reumatol. Clín.8, 255–258 (2012).

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Shiboski, C. H. Shiboski, L. A. Criswell, A. N. Baer, S. Challacombe, H. Lanfranchi, M. Schiødt, H. Umehara, F. Vivino, Y. Zhao, Y. Dong, D. Greenspan, A. M. Heidenreich, P. Helin, B. Kirkham, K. Kitagawa, G. Larkin, M. Li, T. Lietman, J. Lindegaard, N. McNamara, K. Sack, P. Shirlaw, S. Sugai, C. Vollenweider, J. Whitcher, A. Wu, S. Zhang, W. Zhang, J. S. Greenspan, and T. E. Daniels, “American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome: A data-driven, expert consensus approach in the Sjögren’s International Collaborative Clinical Alliance Cohort,” Arth. Care Res.64(4), 475–487 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Baldini, R. Talarico, A. G. Tzioufas, and S. Bombardieri, “Classification criteria for Sjogren’s syndrome: a critical review,” J. Autoimmun.39(1-2), 9–14 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

C. J. Burke, R. H. Thomas, and D. Howlett, “Imaging the major salivary glands,” Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.49(4), 261–269 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

2009 (6)

D. C. Adler, C. Zhou, T.-H. Tsai, J. Schmitt, Q. Huang, H. Mashimo, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy of the human colon using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express17(2), 784–796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Lee, M.-T. Tsai, H.-C. Lee, H.-M. Chen, C.-P. Chiang, Y.-M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Diagnosis of oral submucous fibrosis with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ozawa, Y. Sumi, K. Shimozato, C. Chong, and T. Kurabayashi, “In vivo imaging of human labial glands using advanced optical coherence tomography,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod.108(3), 425–429 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pijpe, J. M. Meijer, H. Bootsma, J. E. van der Wal, F. K. L. Spijkervet, C. G. M. Kallenberg, A. Vissink, and S. Ihrler, “Clinical and histologic evidence of salivary gland restoration supports the efficacy of rituximab treatment in Sjögren’s syndrome,” Arthritis Rheum.60(11), 3251–3256 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bamba, N. J. Sweiss, A. J. Langerman, J. B. Taxy, and E. A. Blair, “The minor salivary gland biopsy as a diagnostic tool for Sjogren syndrome,” Laryngoscope119(10), 1922–1926 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Iwata, T. Miyamae, M. Kikuchi, T. Kishi, R. Hara, U. Kaneko, T. Shinoki, T. Imagawa, Y. Inayama, and S. Yokota, “Clinical and histological experience of labial lip biopsy in juvenile Sjögren syndrome [in Japanese],” Nihon Rinsho Meneki Gakkai Kaishi32(3), 195–200 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

A. Uchugonova and K. König, “Two-photon autofluorescence and second-harmonic imaging of adult stem cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(5), 054068 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Baeteman, L. Guyot, J. Bouvenot, C. Chossegros, F. Cheynet, C. Loudot, J. Serratrice, and S. Attarian, “Should minor salivary gland biopsy still be performed?” Rev. Stomatol. Chir. Maxillofac.109(3), 143–147 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Mathews, B. T. Kurien, and R. H. Scofield, “Oral Manifestations of Sjögren’s Syndrome,” J. Dent. Res.87(4), 308–318 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, C. K. Lee, C. H. Yu, H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, C. C. Chang, Y. M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Effective indicators for diagnosis of oral cancer using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(20), 15847–15862 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

M. Sumi, T. Yamada, Y. Takagi, and T. Nakamura, “MR imaging of labial glands,” AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol.28(8), 1552–1556 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.132(10), 1074–1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

A. M. Pedersen, A. Bardow, and B. Nauntofte, “Salivary changes and dental caries as potential oral markers of autoimmune salivary gland dysfunction in primary Sjogren’s syndrome,” BMC Clin. Pathol.5(1), 4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Dawson, V. L. Caulfield, J. B. Stanbury, A. E. Field, S. E. Christmas, and P. M. Smith, “Hydroxychloroquine therapy in patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome may improve salivary gland hypofunction by inhibition of glandular cholinesterase,” Rheumatology (Oxford)44(4), 449–455 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

2003 (3)

2002 (3)

C. Vitali, S. Bombardieri, R. Jonsson, H. M. Moutsopoulos, E. L. Alexander, S. E. Carsons, T. E. Daniels, P. C. Fox, R. I. Fox, S. S. Kassan, S. R. Pillemer, N. Talal, M. H. Weisman, and European Study Group on Classification Criteria for Sjögren’s Syndrome, “Classification criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome: a revised version of the European criteria proposed by the American-European Consensus Group,” Ann. Rheum. Dis.61(6), 554–558 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. W. I. Kalk, A. Vissink, F. K. L. Spijkervet, H. Bootsma, C. G. M. Kallenberg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “Parotid sialography for diagnosing Sjögren syndrome,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod.94(1), 131–137 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. García-Carrasco, A. Sisó, M. Ramos-Casals, J. Rosas, G. de la Red, V. Gil, S. Lasterra, R. Cervera, J. Font, and M. Ingelmo, “Raynaud’s phenomenon in primary Sjögren’s syndrome. Prevalence and clinical characteristics in a series of 320 patients,” J. Rheumatol.29(4), 726–730 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (3)

D. Beroukas, J. Hiscock, R. Jonsson, S. A. Waterman, and T. P. Gordon, “Subcellular distribution of aquaporin 5 in salivary glands in primary Sjögren’s syndrome,” Lancet358(9296), 1875–1876 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Inamura, C. Ino, M. Katoh, A. Kishimoto, H. Kumazawa, A. Matsumoto, and T. Yamashita, “A Simple Method to Estimate the Secretion of Saliva From Minor Salivary Glands Using Iodine-Starch Reaction,” Laryngoscope111(2), 272–277 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tonami, K. Higashi, M. Matoba, H. Yokota, I. Yamamoto, and S. Sugai, “A comparative study between MR sialography and salivary gland scintigraphy in the diagnosis of Sjögren syndrome,” J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr.25(2), 262–268 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

I. Umehara, I. Yamada, Y. Murata, Y. Takahashi, N. Okada, and H. Shibuya, “Quantitative evaluation of salivary gland scintigraphy in Sjörgen’s syndrome,” J. Nucl. Med.40(1), 64–69 (1999).
[PubMed]

M. Bell, A. Askari, A. Bookman, S. Frydrych, J. Lamont, J. McComb, C. Muscoplat, and A. Slomovic, “Sjögren’s syndrome: A critical review of clinical management,” J. Rheumatol.26(9), 2051–2061 (1999).
[PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, A. Goodman, J. Libus, C. Pitris, C. A. Jesser, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High resolution imaging of endometriosis and ovarian carcinoma with optical coherence tomography: feasibility for laparoscopic-based imaging,” Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol.106(10), 1071–1077 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (3)

1997 (4)

1993 (1)

P. Z. Wang, Q. Lu, S. L. Chen, and Y. H. Jiang, “[The pathological changes of lip biopsies and dental caries on Sjogren’s syndrome],” Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue2(2), 77–79 (1993).
[PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

L. S. de Clerck, R. Corthouts, L. Francx, C. Brussaard, A. de Schepper, H. A. Vercruysse, and W. J. Stevens, “Ultrasonography and computer tomography of the salivary glands in the evaluation of Sjögren’s syndrome. comparison with parotid sialography,” J. Rheumatol.15(12), 1777–1781 (1988).
[PubMed]

1986 (1)

A. M. Lindvall and R. Jonsson, “The salivary gland component of Sjögren’s syndrome: An evaluation of diagnostic methods,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol.62(1), 32–42 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adler, D. C.

Agmon-Levin, N.

Y. Shapira, N. Agmon-Levin, and Y. Shoenfeld, “Geoepidemiology of autoimmune rheumatic diseases,” Nat Rev Rheumatol6(8), 468–476 (2010).
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Ahn, J. M.

S. Y. Lee, S. J. Han, S. M. Nam, S. C. Yoon, J. M. Ahn, T.-I. Kim, E. K. Kim, and K. Y. Seo, “Analysis of tear cytokines and clinical correlations in Sjögren cyndrome dry eye patients and non-Sjögren syndrome dry eye patients,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.156(2), 247–253 (2013).

Aicardi, P.

M. Lida Santiago, M. R. Seisdedos, R. N. García Salinas, A. Secco, L. Marino Claverie, L. Techera, L. Takashima, P. Aicardi, M. A. Sandi Rosales, E. Knobel, S. J. Magri, and A. C. Catalán Pellet, “Frequency of Complications and Usefulness of the Minor Salivary Gland Biopsy,” Reumatol. Clín.8, 255–258 (2012).

Alexander, E. L.

C. Vitali, S. Bombardieri, R. Jonsson, H. M. Moutsopoulos, E. L. Alexander, S. E. Carsons, T. E. Daniels, P. C. Fox, R. I. Fox, S. S. Kassan, S. R. Pillemer, N. Talal, M. H. Weisman, and European Study Group on Classification Criteria for Sjögren’s Syndrome, “Classification criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome: a revised version of the European criteria proposed by the American-European Consensus Group,” Ann. Rheum. Dis.61(6), 554–558 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andreoli, L.

A. Tincani, L. Andreoli, I. Cavazzana, A. Doria, M. Favero, M.-G. Fenini, F. Franceschini, A. Lojacono, G. Nascimbeni, A. Santoro, F. Semeraro, P. Toniati, and Y. Shoenfeld, “Novel aspects of Sjögren’s syndrome in 2012,” BMC Med.11(1), 93 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arganda-Carreras, I.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armstrong, W. B.

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.132(10), 1074–1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Askari, A.

M. Bell, A. Askari, A. Bookman, S. Frydrych, J. Lamont, J. McComb, C. Muscoplat, and A. Slomovic, “Sjögren’s syndrome: A critical review of clinical management,” J. Rheumatol.26(9), 2051–2061 (1999).
[PubMed]

Attarian, S.

C. Baeteman, L. Guyot, J. Bouvenot, C. Chossegros, F. Cheynet, C. Loudot, J. Serratrice, and S. Attarian, “Should minor salivary gland biopsy still be performed?” Rev. Stomatol. Chir. Maxillofac.109(3), 143–147 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baer, A. N.

S. C. Shiboski, C. H. Shiboski, L. A. Criswell, A. N. Baer, S. Challacombe, H. Lanfranchi, M. Schiødt, H. Umehara, F. Vivino, Y. Zhao, Y. Dong, D. Greenspan, A. M. Heidenreich, P. Helin, B. Kirkham, K. Kitagawa, G. Larkin, M. Li, T. Lietman, J. Lindegaard, N. McNamara, K. Sack, P. Shirlaw, S. Sugai, C. Vollenweider, J. Whitcher, A. Wu, S. Zhang, W. Zhang, J. S. Greenspan, and T. E. Daniels, “American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome: A data-driven, expert consensus approach in the Sjögren’s International Collaborative Clinical Alliance Cohort,” Arth. Care Res.64(4), 475–487 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baeteman, C.

C. Baeteman, L. Guyot, J. Bouvenot, C. Chossegros, F. Cheynet, C. Loudot, J. Serratrice, and S. Attarian, “Should minor salivary gland biopsy still be performed?” Rev. Stomatol. Chir. Maxillofac.109(3), 143–147 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bailey, D. J.

M. Lee, J. A. Rutka, A. R. Slomovic, J. McComb, D. J. Bailey, and A. A. M. Bookman, “Establishing guidelines for the role of minor salivary gland biopsy in clinical practice for Sjögren’s syndrome,” J. Rheumatol.25(2), 247–253 (1998).
[PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

Baldini, C.

C. Baldini, R. Talarico, A. G. Tzioufas, and S. Bombardieri, “Classification criteria for Sjogren’s syndrome: a critical review,” J. Autoimmun.39(1-2), 9–14 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bamba, R.

R. Bamba, N. J. Sweiss, A. J. Langerman, J. B. Taxy, and E. A. Blair, “The minor salivary gland biopsy as a diagnostic tool for Sjogren syndrome,” Laryngoscope119(10), 1922–1926 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bardow, A.

A. M. Pedersen, A. Bardow, and B. Nauntofte, “Salivary changes and dental caries as potential oral markers of autoimmune salivary gland dysfunction in primary Sjogren’s syndrome,” BMC Clin. Pathol.5(1), 4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bell, M.

M. Bell, A. Askari, A. Bookman, S. Frydrych, J. Lamont, J. McComb, C. Muscoplat, and A. Slomovic, “Sjögren’s syndrome: A critical review of clinical management,” J. Rheumatol.26(9), 2051–2061 (1999).
[PubMed]

Beroukas, D.

D. Beroukas, J. Hiscock, R. Jonsson, S. A. Waterman, and T. P. Gordon, “Subcellular distribution of aquaporin 5 in salivary glands in primary Sjögren’s syndrome,” Lancet358(9296), 1875–1876 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biedermann, B. R.

Blair, E. A.

R. Bamba, N. J. Sweiss, A. J. Langerman, J. B. Taxy, and E. A. Blair, “The minor salivary gland biopsy as a diagnostic tool for Sjogren syndrome,” Laryngoscope119(10), 1922–1926 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bombardieri, S.

C. Baldini, R. Talarico, A. G. Tzioufas, and S. Bombardieri, “Classification criteria for Sjogren’s syndrome: a critical review,” J. Autoimmun.39(1-2), 9–14 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vitali, S. Bombardieri, R. Jonsson, H. M. Moutsopoulos, E. L. Alexander, S. E. Carsons, T. E. Daniels, P. C. Fox, R. I. Fox, S. S. Kassan, S. R. Pillemer, N. Talal, M. H. Weisman, and European Study Group on Classification Criteria for Sjögren’s Syndrome, “Classification criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome: a revised version of the European criteria proposed by the American-European Consensus Group,” Ann. Rheum. Dis.61(6), 554–558 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bookman, A.

M. Bell, A. Askari, A. Bookman, S. Frydrych, J. Lamont, J. McComb, C. Muscoplat, and A. Slomovic, “Sjögren’s syndrome: A critical review of clinical management,” J. Rheumatol.26(9), 2051–2061 (1999).
[PubMed]

Bookman, A. A. M.

M. Lee, J. A. Rutka, A. R. Slomovic, J. McComb, D. J. Bailey, and A. A. M. Bookman, “Establishing guidelines for the role of minor salivary gland biopsy in clinical practice for Sjögren’s syndrome,” J. Rheumatol.25(2), 247–253 (1998).
[PubMed]

Bootsma, H.

J. Pijpe, J. M. Meijer, H. Bootsma, J. E. van der Wal, F. K. L. Spijkervet, C. G. M. Kallenberg, A. Vissink, and S. Ihrler, “Clinical and histologic evidence of salivary gland restoration supports the efficacy of rituximab treatment in Sjögren’s syndrome,” Arthritis Rheum.60(11), 3251–3256 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. W. I. Kalk, A. Vissink, F. K. L. Spijkervet, H. Bootsma, C. G. M. Kallenberg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “Parotid sialography for diagnosing Sjögren syndrome,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod.94(1), 131–137 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

S. A. Boppart, A. Goodman, J. Libus, C. Pitris, C. A. Jesser, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High resolution imaging of endometriosis and ovarian carcinoma with optical coherence tomography: feasibility for laparoscopic-based imaging,” Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol.106(10), 1071–1077 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, G. J. Tearney, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Forward-imaging instruments for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.22(21), 1618–1620 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

Bouvenot, J.

C. Baeteman, L. Guyot, J. Bouvenot, C. Chossegros, F. Cheynet, C. Loudot, J. Serratrice, and S. Attarian, “Should minor salivary gland biopsy still be performed?” Rev. Stomatol. Chir. Maxillofac.109(3), 143–147 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brasil, Cda. M.

Cda. M. Brasil, C. M. Ribeiro, D. D. Fonseca, L. A. Gueiros, and J. C. Leao, “Chloroquine-induced hyperpigmentation of the hard palate,” Gen. Dent.60(2), e74–e78 (2012).
[PubMed]

Brenner, M.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

S. A. Boppart, A. Goodman, J. Libus, C. Pitris, C. A. Jesser, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High resolution imaging of endometriosis and ovarian carcinoma with optical coherence tomography: feasibility for laparoscopic-based imaging,” Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol.106(10), 1071–1077 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, G. J. Tearney, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Forward-imaging instruments for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.22(21), 1618–1620 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brussaard, C.

L. S. de Clerck, R. Corthouts, L. Francx, C. Brussaard, A. de Schepper, H. A. Vercruysse, and W. J. Stevens, “Ultrasonography and computer tomography of the salivary glands in the evaluation of Sjögren’s syndrome. comparison with parotid sialography,” J. Rheumatol.15(12), 1777–1781 (1988).
[PubMed]

Burke, C. J.

C. J. Burke, R. H. Thomas, and D. Howlett, “Imaging the major salivary glands,” Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.49(4), 261–269 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cardona, A.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carsons, S. E.

C. Vitali, S. Bombardieri, R. Jonsson, H. M. Moutsopoulos, E. L. Alexander, S. E. Carsons, T. E. Daniels, P. C. Fox, R. I. Fox, S. S. Kassan, S. R. Pillemer, N. Talal, M. H. Weisman, and European Study Group on Classification Criteria for Sjögren’s Syndrome, “Classification criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome: a revised version of the European criteria proposed by the American-European Consensus Group,” Ann. Rheum. Dis.61(6), 554–558 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Catalán Pellet, A. C.

M. Lida Santiago, M. R. Seisdedos, R. N. García Salinas, A. Secco, L. Marino Claverie, L. Techera, L. Takashima, P. Aicardi, M. A. Sandi Rosales, E. Knobel, S. J. Magri, and A. C. Catalán Pellet, “Frequency of Complications and Usefulness of the Minor Salivary Gland Biopsy,” Reumatol. Clín.8, 255–258 (2012).

Caulfield, V. L.

L. J. Dawson, V. L. Caulfield, J. B. Stanbury, A. E. Field, S. E. Christmas, and P. M. Smith, “Hydroxychloroquine therapy in patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome may improve salivary gland hypofunction by inhibition of glandular cholinesterase,” Rheumatology (Oxford)44(4), 449–455 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cavazzana, I.

A. Tincani, L. Andreoli, I. Cavazzana, A. Doria, M. Favero, M.-G. Fenini, F. Franceschini, A. Lojacono, G. Nascimbeni, A. Santoro, F. Semeraro, P. Toniati, and Y. Shoenfeld, “Novel aspects of Sjögren’s syndrome in 2012,” BMC Med.11(1), 93 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

Cervera, R.

M. García-Carrasco, A. Sisó, M. Ramos-Casals, J. Rosas, G. de la Red, V. Gil, S. Lasterra, R. Cervera, J. Font, and M. Ingelmo, “Raynaud’s phenomenon in primary Sjögren’s syndrome. Prevalence and clinical characteristics in a series of 320 patients,” J. Rheumatol.29(4), 726–730 (2002).
[PubMed]

Challacombe, S.

S. C. Shiboski, C. H. Shiboski, L. A. Criswell, A. N. Baer, S. Challacombe, H. Lanfranchi, M. Schiødt, H. Umehara, F. Vivino, Y. Zhao, Y. Dong, D. Greenspan, A. M. Heidenreich, P. Helin, B. Kirkham, K. Kitagawa, G. Larkin, M. Li, T. Lietman, J. Lindegaard, N. McNamara, K. Sack, P. Shirlaw, S. Sugai, C. Vollenweider, J. Whitcher, A. Wu, S. Zhang, W. Zhang, J. S. Greenspan, and T. E. Daniels, “American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome: A data-driven, expert consensus approach in the Sjögren’s International Collaborative Clinical Alliance Cohort,” Arth. Care Res.64(4), 475–487 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. C.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H. M.

Chen, H.-M.

C.-K. Lee, M.-T. Tsai, H.-C. Lee, H.-M. Chen, C.-P. Chiang, Y.-M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Diagnosis of oral submucous fibrosis with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S. L.

P. Z. Wang, Q. Lu, S. L. Chen, and Y. H. Jiang, “[The pathological changes of lip biopsies and dental caries on Sjogren’s syndrome],” Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue2(2), 77–79 (1993).
[PubMed]

Chen, Z.

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J. F. Wong, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.132(10), 1074–1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheynet, F.

C. Baeteman, L. Guyot, J. Bouvenot, C. Chossegros, F. Cheynet, C. Loudot, J. Serratrice, and S. Attarian, “Should minor salivary gland biopsy still be performed?” Rev. Stomatol. Chir. Maxillofac.109(3), 143–147 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiang, C. P.

Chiang, C.-P.

C.-K. Lee, M.-T. Tsai, H.-C. Lee, H.-M. Chen, C.-P. Chiang, Y.-M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Diagnosis of oral submucous fibrosis with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chinn, S. R.

Choma, M. A.

Chong, C.

N. Ozawa, Y. Sumi, K. Shimozato, C. Chong, and T. Kurabayashi, “In vivo imaging of human labial glands using advanced optical coherence tomography,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod.108(3), 425–429 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chossegros, C.

C. Baeteman, L. Guyot, J. Bouvenot, C. Chossegros, F. Cheynet, C. Loudot, J. Serratrice, and S. Attarian, “Should minor salivary gland biopsy still be performed?” Rev. Stomatol. Chir. Maxillofac.109(3), 143–147 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christmas, S. E.

L. J. Dawson, V. L. Caulfield, J. B. Stanbury, A. E. Field, S. E. Christmas, and P. M. Smith, “Hydroxychloroquine therapy in patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome may improve salivary gland hypofunction by inhibition of glandular cholinesterase,” Rheumatology (Oxford)44(4), 449–455 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chumakov, Y.

Clevert, D. A.

P. Zengel, F. Schrötzlmair, C. Reichel, P. Paprottka, and D. A. Clevert, “Sonography: The Leading Diagnostic Tool for Diseases of the Salivary Glands,” Semin. Ultrasound CT MR34(3), 196–203 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colt, H.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornec, D.

D. Guellec, D. Cornec, S. Jousse-Joulin, T. Marhadour, P. Marcorelles, J.-O. Pers, A. Saraux, and V. Devauchelle-Pensec, “Diagnostic value of labial minor salivary gland biopsy for Sjögren’s syndrome: A systematic review,” Autoimmun. Rev.12(3), 416–420 (2013).
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Corthouts, R.

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Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: MPG (3874 KB)     
» Media 2: MPG (2768 KB)     
» Media 3: MPG (3814 KB)     
» Media 4: MPG (3882 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental SS-OCT set-up at 1310 nm. Schematic of the instrument. CPI – common path interferometer, PDB – dual-balance photodetector, RM – reference mirror, SC – galvanometric scanners, SL – scan lens, GP – glass plate, ADC – analog-to-digital converter (acquisition card), COMP – computer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Quantitative assessment of the mucosa of the lower lip and LMSGs. (a) Observable mucosal tissue (blue) and individual glands (violet) were segmented to determine the corresponding areas. (b) The analyses were performed at three depths to provide with volumetric analysis. (c) Measurement of the average thickness of the epithelium (left) and the hyperreflective part of the lamina propria (right). (d) Estimation of the reflectivity and heterogeneity of the epithelium and the lamina propria. (e) Estimation of the reflectivity and heterogeneity of the glandular tissue.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

In vivo wide-field SS-OCT imaging of the labial minor salivary glands. (a) Rendering of the volumetric data set along with segmented glands (Media 1). (b) Two cross-sectional images (B-scans) of the mucosal tissue. (c) En-face image. (d) C-scan image at depth z = 657 μm showing rich glandular tissue. A flythrough demonstrating structures at different depths (Media 2).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

High-definition imaging of the LMSGs. (a) Rendering of the volumetric data set with the corner cut. (b) Cross-sectional image of the mucosal tissue. The arrow indicates the excretory salivary duct. (c) Segmentation of the glandular units and the salivary duct (Media 3). (d) C-scans at different depths showing anatomical features of the mucosa and details of the glandular tissue. Asterisk indicates blood vessels in oral mucosa. A flythrough demonstrating structures at different depths (Media 4).

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Group characteristics

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Table 2 Intersession reproducibility of the measurement of mucosal tissue morphometric parameters

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Table 3 Morphometric parameters of the inner surface of the lower lip measured in Sjögren’s syndrome patients and in the control group

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Table 4 Comparison of the morphometric parameters in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome with and without xerostomia-related dental disease

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

F F j = S j / T j ,
IFF= j=1 3 S j / j=1 3 T j ,
ρ j = n j / T j ,
ρ= j=1 3 n j / j=1 3 T j ,
A ¯ j = S j / n j and A ¯ = j=1 3 S j / j=1 3 n j .
t ep = 1 3 i=1 3 t epi ,
t lp = 1 3 i=1 3 t lpi ,

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