Abstract

Intravascular optical frequency-domain imaging (OFDI), a second-generation optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology, enables imaging of the three-dimensional (3D) microstructure of the vessel wall following a short and nonocclusive clear liquid flush. Although 3D vascular visualization provides a greater appreciation of the vessel wall and intraluminal structures, a longitudinal imaging pitch that is several times bigger than the optical imaging resolution of the system has limited true high-resolution 3D imaging, mainly due to the slow scanning speed of previous imaging catheters. Here, we demonstrate high frame-rate intravascular OFDI in vivo, acquiring images at a rate of 350 frames per second. A custom-built, high-speed, and high-precision fiber-optic rotary junction provided uniform and high-speed beam scanning through a custom-made imaging catheter with an outer diameter of 0.87 mm. A 47-mm-long rabbit aorta was imaged in 3.7 seconds after a short contrast agent flush. The longitudinal imaging pitch was 34 μm, comparable to the transverse imaging resolution of the system. Three-dimensional volume-rendering showed greatly enhanced visualization of tissue microstructure and stent struts relative to what is provided by conventional intravascular imaging speeds.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013

V. Farooq, B. D. Gogas, T. Okamura, J. H. Heo, M. Magro, J. Gomez-Lara, Y. Onuma, M. D. Radu, S. Brugaletta, G. van Bochove, R. J. van Geuns, H. M. Garcìa-Garcìa, and P. W. Serruys, “Three-dimensional optical frequency domain imaging in conventional percutaneous coronary intervention: the potential for clinical application,” Eur. Heart J.34(12), 875–885 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wang, W. Wieser, G. Springeling, R. Beurskens, C. T. Lancee, T. Pfeiffer, A. F. W. van der Steen, R. Huber, and G. van Soest, “Intravascular optical coherence tomography imaging at 3200 frames per second,” Opt. Lett.38(10), 1715–1717 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

T. Okamura, Y. Onuma, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, N. Bruining, and P. W. Serruys, “High-speed intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging: Implications for three-dimensional reconstruction and quantitative analysis,” EuroIntervention7(10), 1216–1226 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, M. de Groot, F. Helderman, J. Mo, J. M. Daniels, K. Grünberg, T. G. Sutedja, and J. F. de Boer, “High speed miniature motorized endoscopic probe for optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express20(22), 24132–24138 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

T. Okamura, Y. Onuma, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, R. J. van Geuns, J. J. Wykrzykowska, C. Schultz, W. J. van der Giessen, J. Ligthart, E. Regar, and P. W. Serruys, “First-in-man evaluation of intravascular optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) of Terumo: a comparison with intravascular ultrasound and quantitative coronary angiography,” EuroIntervention6(9), 1037–1045 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2008

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Ultrahigh-speed optical frequency domain imaging and application to laser ablation monitoring,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(10), 103902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

2002

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: Comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.39(4), 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

Aretz, H. T.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: Comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.39(4), 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartlett, L. A.

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beurskens, R.

Biedermann, B. R.

Bouma, B. E.

W. Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “>400 kHz repetition rate wavelength-swept laser and application to high-speed optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Lett.35(17), 2919–2921 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Ultrahigh-speed optical frequency domain imaging and application to laser ablation monitoring,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(10), 103902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Removing the depth-degeneracy in optical frequency domain imaging with frequency shifting,” Opt. Express12(20), 4822–4828 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express11(22), 2953–2963 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: Comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.39(4), 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brugaletta, S.

V. Farooq, B. D. Gogas, T. Okamura, J. H. Heo, M. Magro, J. Gomez-Lara, Y. Onuma, M. D. Radu, S. Brugaletta, G. van Bochove, R. J. van Geuns, H. M. Garcìa-Garcìa, and P. W. Serruys, “Three-dimensional optical frequency domain imaging in conventional percutaneous coronary intervention: the potential for clinical application,” Eur. Heart J.34(12), 875–885 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruining, N.

T. Okamura, Y. Onuma, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, N. Bruining, and P. W. Serruys, “High-speed intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging: Implications for three-dimensional reconstruction and quantitative analysis,” EuroIntervention7(10), 1216–1226 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

Chan, R. C.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Choi, K. B.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: Comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.39(4), 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choma, M. A.

Daniels, J. M.

de Boer, J. F.

J. Li, M. de Groot, F. Helderman, J. Mo, J. M. Daniels, K. Grünberg, T. G. Sutedja, and J. F. de Boer, “High speed miniature motorized endoscopic probe for optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express20(22), 24132–24138 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Removing the depth-degeneracy in optical frequency domain imaging with frequency shifting,” Opt. Express12(20), 4822–4828 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express11(22), 2953–2963 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Real-time multi-functional optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(7), 782–793 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “High-speed fiber based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of in vivo human skin,” Opt. Lett.25(18), 1355–1357 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Groot, M.

Desjardins, A. E.

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eigenwillig, C. M.

Evans, J. A.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farooq, V.

V. Farooq, B. D. Gogas, T. Okamura, J. H. Heo, M. Magro, J. Gomez-Lara, Y. Onuma, M. D. Radu, S. Brugaletta, G. van Bochove, R. J. van Geuns, H. M. Garcìa-Garcìa, and P. W. Serruys, “Three-dimensional optical frequency domain imaging in conventional percutaneous coronary intervention: the potential for clinical application,” Eur. Heart J.34(12), 875–885 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

Freilich, M. I.

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Garcia, H. M.

T. Okamura, Y. Onuma, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, N. Bruining, and P. W. Serruys, “High-speed intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging: Implications for three-dimensional reconstruction and quantitative analysis,” EuroIntervention7(10), 1216–1226 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Okamura, Y. Onuma, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, R. J. van Geuns, J. J. Wykrzykowska, C. Schultz, W. J. van der Giessen, J. Ligthart, E. Regar, and P. W. Serruys, “First-in-man evaluation of intravascular optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) of Terumo: a comparison with intravascular ultrasound and quantitative coronary angiography,” EuroIntervention6(9), 1037–1045 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcìa-Garcìa, H. M.

V. Farooq, B. D. Gogas, T. Okamura, J. H. Heo, M. Magro, J. Gomez-Lara, Y. Onuma, M. D. Radu, S. Brugaletta, G. van Bochove, R. J. van Geuns, H. M. Garcìa-Garcìa, and P. W. Serruys, “Three-dimensional optical frequency domain imaging in conventional percutaneous coronary intervention: the potential for clinical application,” Eur. Heart J.34(12), 875–885 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gogas, B. D.

V. Farooq, B. D. Gogas, T. Okamura, J. H. Heo, M. Magro, J. Gomez-Lara, Y. Onuma, M. D. Radu, S. Brugaletta, G. van Bochove, R. J. van Geuns, H. M. Garcìa-Garcìa, and P. W. Serruys, “Three-dimensional optical frequency domain imaging in conventional percutaneous coronary intervention: the potential for clinical application,” Eur. Heart J.34(12), 875–885 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gomez-Lara, J.

V. Farooq, B. D. Gogas, T. Okamura, J. H. Heo, M. Magro, J. Gomez-Lara, Y. Onuma, M. D. Radu, S. Brugaletta, G. van Bochove, R. J. van Geuns, H. M. Garcìa-Garcìa, and P. W. Serruys, “Three-dimensional optical frequency domain imaging in conventional percutaneous coronary intervention: the potential for clinical application,” Eur. Heart J.34(12), 875–885 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grünberg, K.

Halpern, E. F.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helderman, F.

Heo, J. H.

V. Farooq, B. D. Gogas, T. Okamura, J. H. Heo, M. Magro, J. Gomez-Lara, Y. Onuma, M. D. Radu, S. Brugaletta, G. van Bochove, R. J. van Geuns, H. M. Garcìa-Garcìa, and P. W. Serruys, “Three-dimensional optical frequency domain imaging in conventional percutaneous coronary intervention: the potential for clinical application,” Eur. Heart J.34(12), 875–885 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Houser, S. L.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: Comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.39(4), 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

Iftimia, N.

Izatt, J. A.

Jang, I. K.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: Comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.39(4), 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, D. H.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: Comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.39(4), 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kauffman, C. R.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klein, T.

Lancee, C. T.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Li, J.

Ligthart, J.

T. Okamura, Y. Onuma, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, R. J. van Geuns, J. J. Wykrzykowska, C. Schultz, W. J. van der Giessen, J. Ligthart, E. Regar, and P. W. Serruys, “First-in-man evaluation of intravascular optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) of Terumo: a comparison with intravascular ultrasound and quantitative coronary angiography,” EuroIntervention6(9), 1037–1045 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magro, M.

V. Farooq, B. D. Gogas, T. Okamura, J. H. Heo, M. Magro, J. Gomez-Lara, Y. Onuma, M. D. Radu, S. Brugaletta, G. van Bochove, R. J. van Geuns, H. M. Garcìa-Garcìa, and P. W. Serruys, “Three-dimensional optical frequency domain imaging in conventional percutaneous coronary intervention: the potential for clinical application,” Eur. Heart J.34(12), 875–885 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mo, J.

Nelson, J. S.

Nishioka, N. S.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, W. Y.

W. Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “>400 kHz repetition rate wavelength-swept laser and application to high-speed optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Lett.35(17), 2919–2921 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Ultrahigh-speed optical frequency domain imaging and application to laser ablation monitoring,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(10), 103902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Okamura, T.

V. Farooq, B. D. Gogas, T. Okamura, J. H. Heo, M. Magro, J. Gomez-Lara, Y. Onuma, M. D. Radu, S. Brugaletta, G. van Bochove, R. J. van Geuns, H. M. Garcìa-Garcìa, and P. W. Serruys, “Three-dimensional optical frequency domain imaging in conventional percutaneous coronary intervention: the potential for clinical application,” Eur. Heart J.34(12), 875–885 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Okamura, Y. Onuma, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, N. Bruining, and P. W. Serruys, “High-speed intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging: Implications for three-dimensional reconstruction and quantitative analysis,” EuroIntervention7(10), 1216–1226 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Okamura, Y. Onuma, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, R. J. van Geuns, J. J. Wykrzykowska, C. Schultz, W. J. van der Giessen, J. Ligthart, E. Regar, and P. W. Serruys, “First-in-man evaluation of intravascular optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) of Terumo: a comparison with intravascular ultrasound and quantitative coronary angiography,” EuroIntervention6(9), 1037–1045 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Onuma, Y.

V. Farooq, B. D. Gogas, T. Okamura, J. H. Heo, M. Magro, J. Gomez-Lara, Y. Onuma, M. D. Radu, S. Brugaletta, G. van Bochove, R. J. van Geuns, H. M. Garcìa-Garcìa, and P. W. Serruys, “Three-dimensional optical frequency domain imaging in conventional percutaneous coronary intervention: the potential for clinical application,” Eur. Heart J.34(12), 875–885 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Okamura, Y. Onuma, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, N. Bruining, and P. W. Serruys, “High-speed intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging: Implications for three-dimensional reconstruction and quantitative analysis,” EuroIntervention7(10), 1216–1226 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Okamura, Y. Onuma, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, R. J. van Geuns, J. J. Wykrzykowska, C. Schultz, W. J. van der Giessen, J. Ligthart, E. Regar, and P. W. Serruys, “First-in-man evaluation of intravascular optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) of Terumo: a comparison with intravascular ultrasound and quantitative coronary angiography,” EuroIntervention6(9), 1037–1045 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B. H.

Park, S. J.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: Comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.39(4), 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, S. W.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: Comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.39(4), 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfeiffer, T.

Pierce, M. C.

Pomerantsev, E.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: Comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.39(4), 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radu, M. D.

V. Farooq, B. D. Gogas, T. Okamura, J. H. Heo, M. Magro, J. Gomez-Lara, Y. Onuma, M. D. Radu, S. Brugaletta, G. van Bochove, R. J. van Geuns, H. M. Garcìa-Garcìa, and P. W. Serruys, “Three-dimensional optical frequency domain imaging in conventional percutaneous coronary intervention: the potential for clinical application,” Eur. Heart J.34(12), 875–885 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Regar, E.

T. Okamura, Y. Onuma, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, R. J. van Geuns, J. J. Wykrzykowska, C. Schultz, W. J. van der Giessen, J. Ligthart, E. Regar, and P. W. Serruys, “First-in-man evaluation of intravascular optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) of Terumo: a comparison with intravascular ultrasound and quantitative coronary angiography,” EuroIntervention6(9), 1037–1045 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenberg, M.

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarunic, M. V.

Saxer, C. E.

Schlendorf, K.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: Comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.39(4), 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlendorf, K. H.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, C.

T. Okamura, Y. Onuma, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, R. J. van Geuns, J. J. Wykrzykowska, C. Schultz, W. J. van der Giessen, J. Ligthart, E. Regar, and P. W. Serruys, “First-in-man evaluation of intravascular optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) of Terumo: a comparison with intravascular ultrasound and quantitative coronary angiography,” EuroIntervention6(9), 1037–1045 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serruys, P. W.

V. Farooq, B. D. Gogas, T. Okamura, J. H. Heo, M. Magro, J. Gomez-Lara, Y. Onuma, M. D. Radu, S. Brugaletta, G. van Bochove, R. J. van Geuns, H. M. Garcìa-Garcìa, and P. W. Serruys, “Three-dimensional optical frequency domain imaging in conventional percutaneous coronary intervention: the potential for clinical application,” Eur. Heart J.34(12), 875–885 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Okamura, Y. Onuma, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, N. Bruining, and P. W. Serruys, “High-speed intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging: Implications for three-dimensional reconstruction and quantitative analysis,” EuroIntervention7(10), 1216–1226 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Okamura, Y. Onuma, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, R. J. van Geuns, J. J. Wykrzykowska, C. Schultz, W. J. van der Giessen, J. Ligthart, E. Regar, and P. W. Serruys, “First-in-man evaluation of intravascular optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) of Terumo: a comparison with intravascular ultrasound and quantitative coronary angiography,” EuroIntervention6(9), 1037–1045 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seung, K. B.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: Comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.39(4), 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

W. Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “>400 kHz repetition rate wavelength-swept laser and application to high-speed optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Lett.35(17), 2919–2921 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: Comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.39(4), 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Springeling, G.

Sutedja, T. G.

Suter, M. J.

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

W. Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “>400 kHz repetition rate wavelength-swept laser and application to high-speed optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Lett.35(17), 2919–2921 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Ultrahigh-speed optical frequency domain imaging and application to laser ablation monitoring,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(10), 103902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Removing the depth-degeneracy in optical frequency domain imaging with frequency shifting,” Opt. Express12(20), 4822–4828 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express11(22), 2953–2963 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: Comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.39(4), 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vakoc, B. J.

W. Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “>400 kHz repetition rate wavelength-swept laser and application to high-speed optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Lett.35(17), 2919–2921 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Ultrahigh-speed optical frequency domain imaging and application to laser ablation monitoring,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(10), 103902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Bochove, G.

V. Farooq, B. D. Gogas, T. Okamura, J. H. Heo, M. Magro, J. Gomez-Lara, Y. Onuma, M. D. Radu, S. Brugaletta, G. van Bochove, R. J. van Geuns, H. M. Garcìa-Garcìa, and P. W. Serruys, “Three-dimensional optical frequency domain imaging in conventional percutaneous coronary intervention: the potential for clinical application,” Eur. Heart J.34(12), 875–885 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Giessen, W. J.

T. Okamura, Y. Onuma, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, R. J. van Geuns, J. J. Wykrzykowska, C. Schultz, W. J. van der Giessen, J. Ligthart, E. Regar, and P. W. Serruys, “First-in-man evaluation of intravascular optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) of Terumo: a comparison with intravascular ultrasound and quantitative coronary angiography,” EuroIntervention6(9), 1037–1045 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Steen, A. F. W.

van Geuns, R. J.

V. Farooq, B. D. Gogas, T. Okamura, J. H. Heo, M. Magro, J. Gomez-Lara, Y. Onuma, M. D. Radu, S. Brugaletta, G. van Bochove, R. J. van Geuns, H. M. Garcìa-Garcìa, and P. W. Serruys, “Three-dimensional optical frequency domain imaging in conventional percutaneous coronary intervention: the potential for clinical application,” Eur. Heart J.34(12), 875–885 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Okamura, Y. Onuma, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, R. J. van Geuns, J. J. Wykrzykowska, C. Schultz, W. J. van der Giessen, J. Ligthart, E. Regar, and P. W. Serruys, “First-in-man evaluation of intravascular optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) of Terumo: a comparison with intravascular ultrasound and quantitative coronary angiography,” EuroIntervention6(9), 1037–1045 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Soest, G.

Wang, T.

Waxman, S.

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wieser, W.

Wykrzykowska, J. J.

T. Okamura, Y. Onuma, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, R. J. van Geuns, J. J. Wykrzykowska, C. Schultz, W. J. van der Giessen, J. Ligthart, E. Regar, and P. W. Serruys, “First-in-man evaluation of intravascular optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) of Terumo: a comparison with intravascular ultrasound and quantitative coronary angiography,” EuroIntervention6(9), 1037–1045 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yabushita, H.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

Yun, S. H.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Ultrahigh-speed optical frequency domain imaging and application to laser ablation monitoring,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(10), 103902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Removing the depth-degeneracy in optical frequency domain imaging with frequency shifting,” Opt. Express12(20), 4822–4828 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express11(22), 2953–2963 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Ultrahigh-speed optical frequency domain imaging and application to laser ablation monitoring,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(10), 103902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Circulation

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. Heart J.

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I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: Comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.39(4), 604–609 (2002).
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These specifications were identified by the reviewer. The authors could not identify a publicly accessible confirmation.

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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the high frame-rate intravascular OFDI system. PC, polarization controller; FBG, fiber Bragg grating; Pol, polarizer; PM, polarization modulator; FRJ, fiber-optic rotary junction; PB, pull-back; FS, acousto-optic frequency shifter; DC, AMTIR dispersion compensator; BS, beam splitter; PBS, polarization beam splitter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic diagram of the short cavity length high-speed wavelength-swept laser. SOA, semiconductor optical amplifier; TFPF, tunable Fabry-Perot filter; FDL, fiber delay line; BOA, booster optical amplifier. (b) Fiber delay line using Faraday rotator mirrors (FRMs). (c) Modulation, cut and paste, and booster amplification scheme.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fiber-optic rotary junction. (a) Schematic diagram of the core optical junction part of the FRJ. P, pulley; F, angle-polished ceramic ferrule; B, bearing; C, fiber-pigtailed collimator. (b) Fiber-optic rotary junction unit assembled and connected to an imaging catheter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of the imaging ball lens, (a) side view (coronal plane beam propagation), and (b) front view (transverse plane beam propagation). SMF, single mode fiber; CLF, coreless fiber. (c) Fiber-optic ball lens fabricated, before and after polishing. The red circle represents transverse plane curvature and the blue circle represents coronal plane curvature of the lens. (d) Ball lens enclosed within a 3-layer torque coil with a hypotube at the distal end, Scale bar: 0.5 mm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

OFDI image of human fingers acquired at a rate of 350 frames/s (21,000 rpm) through a spinning imaging catheter (Media 1).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Three-dimensional, volume-rendered intravascular OFDI images acquired in vivo. (a) Longitudinal cutaway view of a 45-mm-long rabbit aorta acquired in 3.7 s with an imaging pitch of 34 μm (350 frames/s). Longitudinal cutaway views of the stented vessel segment with (b) 34 μm and (c) 200 μm longitudinal pitches, respectively. (d) Fly-through views of the same stented vessel segment with (d) 34 μm and (e) 200 μm longitudinal pitches, respectively.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Performance of the imaging ball lens

Metrics