Abstract

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergic condition that is characterized by eosinophils infiltrating the esophageal wall. The treatment of the disease may require multiple follow up sedated endoscopies and biopsies to confirm elimination of eosinophils. These procedures are expensive, time consuming, and may be difficult for patients to tolerate. Here we report on the development of a confocal microscopy capsule for diagnosis and monitoring of EoE. The swallowable capsule implements a high-speed fiber-based reflectance confocal microscopy technique termed Spectrally Encoded Confocal Microscopy (SECM). SECM scans the sample in one dimension without moving parts by using wavelength swept source illumination and a diffraction grating at the back plane of the objective lens. As the wavelength of the source is tuned, the SECM optics within the 7 x 30 mm capsule are rotated using a driveshaft enclosed in a 0.8 mm flexible tether. A single rotation of the optics covered a field of view of 22 mm x 223 µm. The lateral and axial resolutions of the device were measured to be 2.1 and 14 µm, respectively. Images of Acetic Acid stained swine esophagus obtained with the capsule ex vivo and in vivo clearly showed squamous epithelial nuclei, which are smaller and less reflective than eosinophils. Imaging of esophageal biopsies from EoE patients ex vivo demonstrated the capability of this technology to visualize individual eosinophils. Based on the results of this study, we believe that this capsule will be a simpler and more effective device for diagnosing EoE and monitoring the therapeutic response of this disease.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (4)

H. Neumann and K. Monkemuller, “Endoscopic characterization of eosinophilic esophagitis,” Video J. Encyclopedia GI Endosc.1(1), 23–24 (2013).

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med.19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Schlachter, D. Kang, M. J. Gora, P. Vacas-Jacques, T. Wu, R. W. Carruth, E. J. Wilsterman, B. E. Bouma, K. Woods, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy of esophageal tissues at 100 kHz line rate,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(9), 1636–1645 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, R. W. Carruth, M. Kim, S. C. Schlachter, M. Shishkov, K. Woods, N. Tabatabaei, T. Wu, and G. J. Tearney, “Endoscopic probe optics for spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(10), 1925–1936 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

N. Safdarian, Z. Liu, X. Zhou, H. Appelman, T. T. Nostrant, T. D. Wang, and E. T. Wang, “Quantifying Human Eosinophils using Three-Dimensional Volumetric Images Collected with Multiphoton Fluorescence Microscopy,” Gastroenterology142(1), 15–20 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Bertani, F. Pigò, E. Dabizzi, M. Frazzoni, V. G. Mirante, M. Manno, R. Manta, and R. Conigliaro, “Advances in Endoscopic Visualization of Barrett’s Esophagus: The Role of Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterol. Res. Pract.2012, 493961 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mascolo, S. Staibano, G. Ilardi, M. Siano, M. L. Vecchione, D. Esposito, G. De Rosa, and G. D. De Palma, “Probe-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy Evaluation of Colon Preneoplastic Lesions, with Particular Attention to the Aberrant Crypt Foci, and Comparative Assessment with Histological Features Obtained by Conventional Endoscopy,” Gastroenterol. Res. Pract.2012, 645173 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Ussui and M. B. Wallace, “Confocal Endomicroscopy of Colorectal Polyps,” Gastroenterol. Res. Pract.2012, 545679 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Salvatori, S. Siciliano, F. Maione, D. Esposito, S. Masone, M. Persico, and G. D. De Palma, “Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in the Study of Colonic Mucosa in IBD Patients: A Review,” Gastroenterol. Res. Pract.2012, 525098 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

H. Neumann, M. Vieth, R. Atreya, J. Mudter, and M. F. Neurath, “First description of eosinophilic esophagitis using confocal laser endomicroscopy (with video),” Endoscopy43(S 02Suppl 2 UCTN), E66 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Liacouras, G. T. Furuta, I. Hirano, D. Atkins, S. E. Attwood, P. A. Bonis, A. W. Burks, M. Chehade, M. H. Collins, E. S. Dellon, R. Dohil, G. W. Falk, N. Gonsalves, S. K. Gupta, D. A. Katzka, A. J. Lucendo, J. E. Markowitz, R. J. Noel, R. D. Odze, P. E. Putnam, J. E. Richter, Y. Romero, E. Ruchelli, H. A. Sampson, A. Schoepfer, N. J. Shaheen, S. H. Sicherer, S. Spechler, J. M. Spergel, A. Straumann, B. K. Wershil, M. E. Rothenberg, and S. S. Aceves, “Eosinophilic esophagitis: Updated consensus recommendations for children and adults,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.128(1), 3–20 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoo, D. Kang, A. J. Katz, G. Y. Lauwers, N. S. Nishioka, Y. Yagi, P. Tanpowpong, J. Namati, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Reflectance confocal microscopy for the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis: a pilot study conducted on biopsy specimens,” Gastrointest. Endosc.74(5), 992–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Paull, B. J. Hyatt, W. Wassef, and A. H. Fischer, “Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy: A Primer for Pathologists,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.135(10), 1343–1348 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, H. Yoo, P. Jillella, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive volumetric confocal microscopy with adaptive focusing,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1412–1422 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

W. Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “>400 kHz repetition rate wavelength-swept laser and application to high-speed optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Lett.35(17), 2919–2921 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical microscopy of the pediatric vocal fold,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.135(1), 53–64 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

Y. Kawase, Y. Suzuki, F. Ikeno, R. Yoneyama, K. Hoshino, H. Q. Ly, G. T. Lau, M. Hayase, A. C. Yeung, R. J. Hajjar, and I. K. Jang, “Comparison of nonuniform rotational distortion between mechanical IVUS and OCT using a phantom model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.33(1), 67–73 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Wong Kee Song, D. G. Adler, B. Chand, J. D. Conway, J. M. B. Croffie, J. A. Disario, D. S. Mishkin, R. J. Shah, L. Somogyi, W. M. Tierney, B. T. Petersen, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Chromoendoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.66(4), 639–649 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

N. Gonsalves, M. Policarpio-Nicolas, Q. Zhang, M. S. Rao, and I. Hirano, “Histopathologic variability and endoscopic correlates in adults with eosinophilic esophagitis,” Gastrointest. Endosc.64(3), 313–319 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

R. A. Drezek, T. Collier, C. K. Brookner, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, R. R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Laser scanning confocal microscopy of cervical tissue before and after application of acetic acid,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.182(5), 1135–1139 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1965 (1)

D. E. Fuerst and J. R. Jannach, “Autofluorescence of eosinophils: a bone marrow study,” Nature205(4978), 1333–1334 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Aceves, S. S.

C. A. Liacouras, G. T. Furuta, I. Hirano, D. Atkins, S. E. Attwood, P. A. Bonis, A. W. Burks, M. Chehade, M. H. Collins, E. S. Dellon, R. Dohil, G. W. Falk, N. Gonsalves, S. K. Gupta, D. A. Katzka, A. J. Lucendo, J. E. Markowitz, R. J. Noel, R. D. Odze, P. E. Putnam, J. E. Richter, Y. Romero, E. Ruchelli, H. A. Sampson, A. Schoepfer, N. J. Shaheen, S. H. Sicherer, S. Spechler, J. M. Spergel, A. Straumann, B. K. Wershil, M. E. Rothenberg, and S. S. Aceves, “Eosinophilic esophagitis: Updated consensus recommendations for children and adults,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.128(1), 3–20 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adler, D. G.

L. M. Wong Kee Song, D. G. Adler, B. Chand, J. D. Conway, J. M. B. Croffie, J. A. Disario, D. S. Mishkin, R. J. Shah, L. Somogyi, W. M. Tierney, B. T. Petersen, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Chromoendoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.66(4), 639–649 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appelman, H.

N. Safdarian, Z. Liu, X. Zhou, H. Appelman, T. T. Nostrant, T. D. Wang, and E. T. Wang, “Quantifying Human Eosinophils using Three-Dimensional Volumetric Images Collected with Multiphoton Fluorescence Microscopy,” Gastroenterology142(1), 15–20 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atkins, D.

C. A. Liacouras, G. T. Furuta, I. Hirano, D. Atkins, S. E. Attwood, P. A. Bonis, A. W. Burks, M. Chehade, M. H. Collins, E. S. Dellon, R. Dohil, G. W. Falk, N. Gonsalves, S. K. Gupta, D. A. Katzka, A. J. Lucendo, J. E. Markowitz, R. J. Noel, R. D. Odze, P. E. Putnam, J. E. Richter, Y. Romero, E. Ruchelli, H. A. Sampson, A. Schoepfer, N. J. Shaheen, S. H. Sicherer, S. Spechler, J. M. Spergel, A. Straumann, B. K. Wershil, M. E. Rothenberg, and S. S. Aceves, “Eosinophilic esophagitis: Updated consensus recommendations for children and adults,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.128(1), 3–20 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atreya, R.

H. Neumann, M. Vieth, R. Atreya, J. Mudter, and M. F. Neurath, “First description of eosinophilic esophagitis using confocal laser endomicroscopy (with video),” Endoscopy43(S 02Suppl 2 UCTN), E66 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, S. E.

C. A. Liacouras, G. T. Furuta, I. Hirano, D. Atkins, S. E. Attwood, P. A. Bonis, A. W. Burks, M. Chehade, M. H. Collins, E. S. Dellon, R. Dohil, G. W. Falk, N. Gonsalves, S. K. Gupta, D. A. Katzka, A. J. Lucendo, J. E. Markowitz, R. J. Noel, R. D. Odze, P. E. Putnam, J. E. Richter, Y. Romero, E. Ruchelli, H. A. Sampson, A. Schoepfer, N. J. Shaheen, S. H. Sicherer, S. Spechler, J. M. Spergel, A. Straumann, B. K. Wershil, M. E. Rothenberg, and S. S. Aceves, “Eosinophilic esophagitis: Updated consensus recommendations for children and adults,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.128(1), 3–20 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertani, H.

H. Bertani, F. Pigò, E. Dabizzi, M. Frazzoni, V. G. Mirante, M. Manno, R. Manta, and R. Conigliaro, “Advances in Endoscopic Visualization of Barrett’s Esophagus: The Role of Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterol. Res. Pract.2012, 493961 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonis, P. A.

C. A. Liacouras, G. T. Furuta, I. Hirano, D. Atkins, S. E. Attwood, P. A. Bonis, A. W. Burks, M. Chehade, M. H. Collins, E. S. Dellon, R. Dohil, G. W. Falk, N. Gonsalves, S. K. Gupta, D. A. Katzka, A. J. Lucendo, J. E. Markowitz, R. J. Noel, R. D. Odze, P. E. Putnam, J. E. Richter, Y. Romero, E. Ruchelli, H. A. Sampson, A. Schoepfer, N. J. Shaheen, S. H. Sicherer, S. Spechler, J. M. Spergel, A. Straumann, B. K. Wershil, M. E. Rothenberg, and S. S. Aceves, “Eosinophilic esophagitis: Updated consensus recommendations for children and adults,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.128(1), 3–20 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boudoux, C.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical microscopy of the pediatric vocal fold,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.135(1), 53–64 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Boudoux, S. Yun, W. Oh, W. White, N. Iftimia, M. Shishkov, B. Bouma, and G. Tearney, “Rapid wavelength-swept spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Express13(20), 8214–8221 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

S. C. Schlachter, D. Kang, M. J. Gora, P. Vacas-Jacques, T. Wu, R. W. Carruth, E. J. Wilsterman, B. E. Bouma, K. Woods, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy of esophageal tissues at 100 kHz line rate,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(9), 1636–1645 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med.19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, H. Yoo, P. Jillella, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive volumetric confocal microscopy with adaptive focusing,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1412–1422 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoo, D. Kang, A. J. Katz, G. Y. Lauwers, N. S. Nishioka, Y. Yagi, P. Tanpowpong, J. Namati, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Reflectance confocal microscopy for the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis: a pilot study conducted on biopsy specimens,” Gastrointest. Endosc.74(5), 992–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “>400 kHz repetition rate wavelength-swept laser and application to high-speed optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Lett.35(17), 2919–2921 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical microscopy of the pediatric vocal fold,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.135(1), 53–64 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, R. H. Webb, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett.23(15), 1152–1154 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brookner, C. K.

R. A. Drezek, T. Collier, C. K. Brookner, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, R. R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Laser scanning confocal microscopy of cervical tissue before and after application of acetic acid,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.182(5), 1135–1139 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burks, A. W.

C. A. Liacouras, G. T. Furuta, I. Hirano, D. Atkins, S. E. Attwood, P. A. Bonis, A. W. Burks, M. Chehade, M. H. Collins, E. S. Dellon, R. Dohil, G. W. Falk, N. Gonsalves, S. K. Gupta, D. A. Katzka, A. J. Lucendo, J. E. Markowitz, R. J. Noel, R. D. Odze, P. E. Putnam, J. E. Richter, Y. Romero, E. Ruchelli, H. A. Sampson, A. Schoepfer, N. J. Shaheen, S. H. Sicherer, S. Spechler, J. M. Spergel, A. Straumann, B. K. Wershil, M. E. Rothenberg, and S. S. Aceves, “Eosinophilic esophagitis: Updated consensus recommendations for children and adults,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.128(1), 3–20 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carruth, R. W.

Chand, B.

L. M. Wong Kee Song, D. G. Adler, B. Chand, J. D. Conway, J. M. B. Croffie, J. A. Disario, D. S. Mishkin, R. J. Shah, L. Somogyi, W. M. Tierney, B. T. Petersen, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Chromoendoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.66(4), 639–649 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chehade, M.

C. A. Liacouras, G. T. Furuta, I. Hirano, D. Atkins, S. E. Attwood, P. A. Bonis, A. W. Burks, M. Chehade, M. H. Collins, E. S. Dellon, R. Dohil, G. W. Falk, N. Gonsalves, S. K. Gupta, D. A. Katzka, A. J. Lucendo, J. E. Markowitz, R. J. Noel, R. D. Odze, P. E. Putnam, J. E. Richter, Y. Romero, E. Ruchelli, H. A. Sampson, A. Schoepfer, N. J. Shaheen, S. H. Sicherer, S. Spechler, J. M. Spergel, A. Straumann, B. K. Wershil, M. E. Rothenberg, and S. S. Aceves, “Eosinophilic esophagitis: Updated consensus recommendations for children and adults,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.128(1), 3–20 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collier, T.

R. A. Drezek, T. Collier, C. K. Brookner, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, R. R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Laser scanning confocal microscopy of cervical tissue before and after application of acetic acid,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.182(5), 1135–1139 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collins, M. H.

C. A. Liacouras, G. T. Furuta, I. Hirano, D. Atkins, S. E. Attwood, P. A. Bonis, A. W. Burks, M. Chehade, M. H. Collins, E. S. Dellon, R. Dohil, G. W. Falk, N. Gonsalves, S. K. Gupta, D. A. Katzka, A. J. Lucendo, J. E. Markowitz, R. J. Noel, R. D. Odze, P. E. Putnam, J. E. Richter, Y. Romero, E. Ruchelli, H. A. Sampson, A. Schoepfer, N. J. Shaheen, S. H. Sicherer, S. Spechler, J. M. Spergel, A. Straumann, B. K. Wershil, M. E. Rothenberg, and S. S. Aceves, “Eosinophilic esophagitis: Updated consensus recommendations for children and adults,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.128(1), 3–20 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conigliaro, R.

H. Bertani, F. Pigò, E. Dabizzi, M. Frazzoni, V. G. Mirante, M. Manno, R. Manta, and R. Conigliaro, “Advances in Endoscopic Visualization of Barrett’s Esophagus: The Role of Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterol. Res. Pract.2012, 493961 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conway, J. D.

L. M. Wong Kee Song, D. G. Adler, B. Chand, J. D. Conway, J. M. B. Croffie, J. A. Disario, D. S. Mishkin, R. J. Shah, L. Somogyi, W. M. Tierney, B. T. Petersen, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Chromoendoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.66(4), 639–649 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Croffie, J. M. B.

L. M. Wong Kee Song, D. G. Adler, B. Chand, J. D. Conway, J. M. B. Croffie, J. A. Disario, D. S. Mishkin, R. J. Shah, L. Somogyi, W. M. Tierney, B. T. Petersen, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Chromoendoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.66(4), 639–649 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dabizzi, E.

H. Bertani, F. Pigò, E. Dabizzi, M. Frazzoni, V. G. Mirante, M. Manno, R. Manta, and R. Conigliaro, “Advances in Endoscopic Visualization of Barrett’s Esophagus: The Role of Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterol. Res. Pract.2012, 493961 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Palma, G. D.

M. Mascolo, S. Staibano, G. Ilardi, M. Siano, M. L. Vecchione, D. Esposito, G. De Rosa, and G. D. De Palma, “Probe-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy Evaluation of Colon Preneoplastic Lesions, with Particular Attention to the Aberrant Crypt Foci, and Comparative Assessment with Histological Features Obtained by Conventional Endoscopy,” Gastroenterol. Res. Pract.2012, 645173 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Salvatori, S. Siciliano, F. Maione, D. Esposito, S. Masone, M. Persico, and G. D. De Palma, “Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in the Study of Colonic Mucosa in IBD Patients: A Review,” Gastroenterol. Res. Pract.2012, 525098 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Rosa, G.

M. Mascolo, S. Staibano, G. Ilardi, M. Siano, M. L. Vecchione, D. Esposito, G. De Rosa, and G. D. De Palma, “Probe-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy Evaluation of Colon Preneoplastic Lesions, with Particular Attention to the Aberrant Crypt Foci, and Comparative Assessment with Histological Features Obtained by Conventional Endoscopy,” Gastroenterol. Res. Pract.2012, 645173 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dellon, E. S.

C. A. Liacouras, G. T. Furuta, I. Hirano, D. Atkins, S. E. Attwood, P. A. Bonis, A. W. Burks, M. Chehade, M. H. Collins, E. S. Dellon, R. Dohil, G. W. Falk, N. Gonsalves, S. K. Gupta, D. A. Katzka, A. J. Lucendo, J. E. Markowitz, R. J. Noel, R. D. Odze, P. E. Putnam, J. E. Richter, Y. Romero, E. Ruchelli, H. A. Sampson, A. Schoepfer, N. J. Shaheen, S. H. Sicherer, S. Spechler, J. M. Spergel, A. Straumann, B. K. Wershil, M. E. Rothenberg, and S. S. Aceves, “Eosinophilic esophagitis: Updated consensus recommendations for children and adults,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.128(1), 3–20 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desjardins, A. E.

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical microscopy of the pediatric vocal fold,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.135(1), 53–64 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Disario, J. A.

L. M. Wong Kee Song, D. G. Adler, B. Chand, J. D. Conway, J. M. B. Croffie, J. A. Disario, D. S. Mishkin, R. J. Shah, L. Somogyi, W. M. Tierney, B. T. Petersen, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Chromoendoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.66(4), 639–649 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dohil, R.

C. A. Liacouras, G. T. Furuta, I. Hirano, D. Atkins, S. E. Attwood, P. A. Bonis, A. W. Burks, M. Chehade, M. H. Collins, E. S. Dellon, R. Dohil, G. W. Falk, N. Gonsalves, S. K. Gupta, D. A. Katzka, A. J. Lucendo, J. E. Markowitz, R. J. Noel, R. D. Odze, P. E. Putnam, J. E. Richter, Y. Romero, E. Ruchelli, H. A. Sampson, A. Schoepfer, N. J. Shaheen, S. H. Sicherer, S. Spechler, J. M. Spergel, A. Straumann, B. K. Wershil, M. E. Rothenberg, and S. S. Aceves, “Eosinophilic esophagitis: Updated consensus recommendations for children and adults,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.128(1), 3–20 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drezek, R. A.

R. A. Drezek, T. Collier, C. K. Brookner, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, R. R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Laser scanning confocal microscopy of cervical tissue before and after application of acetic acid,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.182(5), 1135–1139 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esposito, D.

M. Mascolo, S. Staibano, G. Ilardi, M. Siano, M. L. Vecchione, D. Esposito, G. De Rosa, and G. D. De Palma, “Probe-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy Evaluation of Colon Preneoplastic Lesions, with Particular Attention to the Aberrant Crypt Foci, and Comparative Assessment with Histological Features Obtained by Conventional Endoscopy,” Gastroenterol. Res. Pract.2012, 645173 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Salvatori, S. Siciliano, F. Maione, D. Esposito, S. Masone, M. Persico, and G. D. De Palma, “Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in the Study of Colonic Mucosa in IBD Patients: A Review,” Gastroenterol. Res. Pract.2012, 525098 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falk, G. W.

C. A. Liacouras, G. T. Furuta, I. Hirano, D. Atkins, S. E. Attwood, P. A. Bonis, A. W. Burks, M. Chehade, M. H. Collins, E. S. Dellon, R. Dohil, G. W. Falk, N. Gonsalves, S. K. Gupta, D. A. Katzka, A. J. Lucendo, J. E. Markowitz, R. J. Noel, R. D. Odze, P. E. Putnam, J. E. Richter, Y. Romero, E. Ruchelli, H. A. Sampson, A. Schoepfer, N. J. Shaheen, S. H. Sicherer, S. Spechler, J. M. Spergel, A. Straumann, B. K. Wershil, M. E. Rothenberg, and S. S. Aceves, “Eosinophilic esophagitis: Updated consensus recommendations for children and adults,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.128(1), 3–20 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, A. H.

P. E. Paull, B. J. Hyatt, W. Wassef, and A. H. Fischer, “Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy: A Primer for Pathologists,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.135(10), 1343–1348 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Follen, M.

R. A. Drezek, T. Collier, C. K. Brookner, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, R. R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Laser scanning confocal microscopy of cervical tissue before and after application of acetic acid,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.182(5), 1135–1139 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frazzoni, M.

H. Bertani, F. Pigò, E. Dabizzi, M. Frazzoni, V. G. Mirante, M. Manno, R. Manta, and R. Conigliaro, “Advances in Endoscopic Visualization of Barrett’s Esophagus: The Role of Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterol. Res. Pract.2012, 493961 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuerst, D. E.

D. E. Fuerst and J. R. Jannach, “Autofluorescence of eosinophils: a bone marrow study,” Nature205(4978), 1333–1334 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Furuta, G. T.

C. A. Liacouras, G. T. Furuta, I. Hirano, D. Atkins, S. E. Attwood, P. A. Bonis, A. W. Burks, M. Chehade, M. H. Collins, E. S. Dellon, R. Dohil, G. W. Falk, N. Gonsalves, S. K. Gupta, D. A. Katzka, A. J. Lucendo, J. E. Markowitz, R. J. Noel, R. D. Odze, P. E. Putnam, J. E. Richter, Y. Romero, E. Ruchelli, H. A. Sampson, A. Schoepfer, N. J. Shaheen, S. H. Sicherer, S. Spechler, J. M. Spergel, A. Straumann, B. K. Wershil, M. E. Rothenberg, and S. S. Aceves, “Eosinophilic esophagitis: Updated consensus recommendations for children and adults,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.128(1), 3–20 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallagher, K. A.

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med.19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gonsalves, N.

C. A. Liacouras, G. T. Furuta, I. Hirano, D. Atkins, S. E. Attwood, P. A. Bonis, A. W. Burks, M. Chehade, M. H. Collins, E. S. Dellon, R. Dohil, G. W. Falk, N. Gonsalves, S. K. Gupta, D. A. Katzka, A. J. Lucendo, J. E. Markowitz, R. J. Noel, R. D. Odze, P. E. Putnam, J. E. Richter, Y. Romero, E. Ruchelli, H. A. Sampson, A. Schoepfer, N. J. Shaheen, S. H. Sicherer, S. Spechler, J. M. Spergel, A. Straumann, B. K. Wershil, M. E. Rothenberg, and S. S. Aceves, “Eosinophilic esophagitis: Updated consensus recommendations for children and adults,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.128(1), 3–20 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Gonsalves, M. Policarpio-Nicolas, Q. Zhang, M. S. Rao, and I. Hirano, “Histopathologic variability and endoscopic correlates in adults with eosinophilic esophagitis,” Gastrointest. Endosc.64(3), 313–319 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gora, M. J.

S. C. Schlachter, D. Kang, M. J. Gora, P. Vacas-Jacques, T. Wu, R. W. Carruth, E. J. Wilsterman, B. E. Bouma, K. Woods, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy of esophageal tissues at 100 kHz line rate,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(9), 1636–1645 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med.19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gupta, S. K.

C. A. Liacouras, G. T. Furuta, I. Hirano, D. Atkins, S. E. Attwood, P. A. Bonis, A. W. Burks, M. Chehade, M. H. Collins, E. S. Dellon, R. Dohil, G. W. Falk, N. Gonsalves, S. K. Gupta, D. A. Katzka, A. J. Lucendo, J. E. Markowitz, R. J. Noel, R. D. Odze, P. E. Putnam, J. E. Richter, Y. Romero, E. Ruchelli, H. A. Sampson, A. Schoepfer, N. J. Shaheen, S. H. Sicherer, S. Spechler, J. M. Spergel, A. Straumann, B. K. Wershil, M. E. Rothenberg, and S. S. Aceves, “Eosinophilic esophagitis: Updated consensus recommendations for children and adults,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.128(1), 3–20 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hajjar, R. J.

Y. Kawase, Y. Suzuki, F. Ikeno, R. Yoneyama, K. Hoshino, H. Q. Ly, G. T. Lau, M. Hayase, A. C. Yeung, R. J. Hajjar, and I. K. Jang, “Comparison of nonuniform rotational distortion between mechanical IVUS and OCT using a phantom model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.33(1), 67–73 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartnick, C. J.

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical microscopy of the pediatric vocal fold,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.135(1), 53–64 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayase, M.

Y. Kawase, Y. Suzuki, F. Ikeno, R. Yoneyama, K. Hoshino, H. Q. Ly, G. T. Lau, M. Hayase, A. C. Yeung, R. J. Hajjar, and I. K. Jang, “Comparison of nonuniform rotational distortion between mechanical IVUS and OCT using a phantom model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.33(1), 67–73 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirano, I.

C. A. Liacouras, G. T. Furuta, I. Hirano, D. Atkins, S. E. Attwood, P. A. Bonis, A. W. Burks, M. Chehade, M. H. Collins, E. S. Dellon, R. Dohil, G. W. Falk, N. Gonsalves, S. K. Gupta, D. A. Katzka, A. J. Lucendo, J. E. Markowitz, R. J. Noel, R. D. Odze, P. E. Putnam, J. E. Richter, Y. Romero, E. Ruchelli, H. A. Sampson, A. Schoepfer, N. J. Shaheen, S. H. Sicherer, S. Spechler, J. M. Spergel, A. Straumann, B. K. Wershil, M. E. Rothenberg, and S. S. Aceves, “Eosinophilic esophagitis: Updated consensus recommendations for children and adults,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.128(1), 3–20 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Gonsalves, M. Policarpio-Nicolas, Q. Zhang, M. S. Rao, and I. Hirano, “Histopathologic variability and endoscopic correlates in adults with eosinophilic esophagitis,” Gastrointest. Endosc.64(3), 313–319 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoshino, K.

Y. Kawase, Y. Suzuki, F. Ikeno, R. Yoneyama, K. Hoshino, H. Q. Ly, G. T. Lau, M. Hayase, A. C. Yeung, R. J. Hajjar, and I. K. Jang, “Comparison of nonuniform rotational distortion between mechanical IVUS and OCT using a phantom model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.33(1), 67–73 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hyatt, B. J.

P. E. Paull, B. J. Hyatt, W. Wassef, and A. H. Fischer, “Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy: A Primer for Pathologists,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.135(10), 1343–1348 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N.

Ikeno, F.

Y. Kawase, Y. Suzuki, F. Ikeno, R. Yoneyama, K. Hoshino, H. Q. Ly, G. T. Lau, M. Hayase, A. C. Yeung, R. J. Hajjar, and I. K. Jang, “Comparison of nonuniform rotational distortion between mechanical IVUS and OCT using a phantom model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.33(1), 67–73 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ilardi, G.

M. Mascolo, S. Staibano, G. Ilardi, M. Siano, M. L. Vecchione, D. Esposito, G. De Rosa, and G. D. De Palma, “Probe-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy Evaluation of Colon Preneoplastic Lesions, with Particular Attention to the Aberrant Crypt Foci, and Comparative Assessment with Histological Features Obtained by Conventional Endoscopy,” Gastroenterol. Res. Pract.2012, 645173 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jang, I. K.

Y. Kawase, Y. Suzuki, F. Ikeno, R. Yoneyama, K. Hoshino, H. Q. Ly, G. T. Lau, M. Hayase, A. C. Yeung, R. J. Hajjar, and I. K. Jang, “Comparison of nonuniform rotational distortion between mechanical IVUS and OCT using a phantom model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.33(1), 67–73 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jannach, J. R.

D. E. Fuerst and J. R. Jannach, “Autofluorescence of eosinophils: a bone marrow study,” Nature205(4978), 1333–1334 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Jillella, P.

Kang, D.

D. Kang, R. W. Carruth, M. Kim, S. C. Schlachter, M. Shishkov, K. Woods, N. Tabatabaei, T. Wu, and G. J. Tearney, “Endoscopic probe optics for spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(10), 1925–1936 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Schlachter, D. Kang, M. J. Gora, P. Vacas-Jacques, T. Wu, R. W. Carruth, E. J. Wilsterman, B. E. Bouma, K. Woods, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy of esophageal tissues at 100 kHz line rate,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(9), 1636–1645 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, H. Yoo, P. Jillella, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive volumetric confocal microscopy with adaptive focusing,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1412–1422 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoo, D. Kang, A. J. Katz, G. Y. Lauwers, N. S. Nishioka, Y. Yagi, P. Tanpowpong, J. Namati, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Reflectance confocal microscopy for the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis: a pilot study conducted on biopsy specimens,” Gastrointest. Endosc.74(5), 992–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katz, A. J.

H. Yoo, D. Kang, A. J. Katz, G. Y. Lauwers, N. S. Nishioka, Y. Yagi, P. Tanpowpong, J. Namati, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Reflectance confocal microscopy for the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis: a pilot study conducted on biopsy specimens,” Gastrointest. Endosc.74(5), 992–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katzka, D. A.

C. A. Liacouras, G. T. Furuta, I. Hirano, D. Atkins, S. E. Attwood, P. A. Bonis, A. W. Burks, M. Chehade, M. H. Collins, E. S. Dellon, R. Dohil, G. W. Falk, N. Gonsalves, S. K. Gupta, D. A. Katzka, A. J. Lucendo, J. E. Markowitz, R. J. Noel, R. D. Odze, P. E. Putnam, J. E. Richter, Y. Romero, E. Ruchelli, H. A. Sampson, A. Schoepfer, N. J. Shaheen, S. H. Sicherer, S. Spechler, J. M. Spergel, A. Straumann, B. K. Wershil, M. E. Rothenberg, and S. S. Aceves, “Eosinophilic esophagitis: Updated consensus recommendations for children and adults,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.128(1), 3–20 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kava, L. E.

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med.19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawase, Y.

Y. Kawase, Y. Suzuki, F. Ikeno, R. Yoneyama, K. Hoshino, H. Q. Ly, G. T. Lau, M. Hayase, A. C. Yeung, R. J. Hajjar, and I. K. Jang, “Comparison of nonuniform rotational distortion between mechanical IVUS and OCT using a phantom model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.33(1), 67–73 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, M.

Lau, G. T.

Y. Kawase, Y. Suzuki, F. Ikeno, R. Yoneyama, K. Hoshino, H. Q. Ly, G. T. Lau, M. Hayase, A. C. Yeung, R. J. Hajjar, and I. K. Jang, “Comparison of nonuniform rotational distortion between mechanical IVUS and OCT using a phantom model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.33(1), 67–73 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lauwers, G. Y.

H. Yoo, D. Kang, A. J. Katz, G. Y. Lauwers, N. S. Nishioka, Y. Yagi, P. Tanpowpong, J. Namati, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Reflectance confocal microscopy for the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis: a pilot study conducted on biopsy specimens,” Gastrointest. Endosc.74(5), 992–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leuin, S. C.

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical microscopy of the pediatric vocal fold,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.135(1), 53–64 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liacouras, C. A.

C. A. Liacouras, G. T. Furuta, I. Hirano, D. Atkins, S. E. Attwood, P. A. Bonis, A. W. Burks, M. Chehade, M. H. Collins, E. S. Dellon, R. Dohil, G. W. Falk, N. Gonsalves, S. K. Gupta, D. A. Katzka, A. J. Lucendo, J. E. Markowitz, R. J. Noel, R. D. Odze, P. E. Putnam, J. E. Richter, Y. Romero, E. Ruchelli, H. A. Sampson, A. Schoepfer, N. J. Shaheen, S. H. Sicherer, S. Spechler, J. M. Spergel, A. Straumann, B. K. Wershil, M. E. Rothenberg, and S. S. Aceves, “Eosinophilic esophagitis: Updated consensus recommendations for children and adults,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.128(1), 3–20 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

N. Safdarian, Z. Liu, X. Zhou, H. Appelman, T. T. Nostrant, T. D. Wang, and E. T. Wang, “Quantifying Human Eosinophils using Three-Dimensional Volumetric Images Collected with Multiphoton Fluorescence Microscopy,” Gastroenterology142(1), 15–20 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lotan, R.

R. A. Drezek, T. Collier, C. K. Brookner, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, R. R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Laser scanning confocal microscopy of cervical tissue before and after application of acetic acid,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.182(5), 1135–1139 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lucendo, A. J.

C. A. Liacouras, G. T. Furuta, I. Hirano, D. Atkins, S. E. Attwood, P. A. Bonis, A. W. Burks, M. Chehade, M. H. Collins, E. S. Dellon, R. Dohil, G. W. Falk, N. Gonsalves, S. K. Gupta, D. A. Katzka, A. J. Lucendo, J. E. Markowitz, R. J. Noel, R. D. Odze, P. E. Putnam, J. E. Richter, Y. Romero, E. Ruchelli, H. A. Sampson, A. Schoepfer, N. J. Shaheen, S. H. Sicherer, S. Spechler, J. M. Spergel, A. Straumann, B. K. Wershil, M. E. Rothenberg, and S. S. Aceves, “Eosinophilic esophagitis: Updated consensus recommendations for children and adults,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.128(1), 3–20 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ly, H. Q.

Y. Kawase, Y. Suzuki, F. Ikeno, R. Yoneyama, K. Hoshino, H. Q. Ly, G. T. Lau, M. Hayase, A. C. Yeung, R. J. Hajjar, and I. K. Jang, “Comparison of nonuniform rotational distortion between mechanical IVUS and OCT using a phantom model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.33(1), 67–73 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maione, F.

F. Salvatori, S. Siciliano, F. Maione, D. Esposito, S. Masone, M. Persico, and G. D. De Palma, “Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in the Study of Colonic Mucosa in IBD Patients: A Review,” Gastroenterol. Res. Pract.2012, 525098 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malpica, A.

R. A. Drezek, T. Collier, C. K. Brookner, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, R. R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Laser scanning confocal microscopy of cervical tissue before and after application of acetic acid,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.182(5), 1135–1139 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manno, M.

H. Bertani, F. Pigò, E. Dabizzi, M. Frazzoni, V. G. Mirante, M. Manno, R. Manta, and R. Conigliaro, “Advances in Endoscopic Visualization of Barrett’s Esophagus: The Role of Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterol. Res. Pract.2012, 493961 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manta, R.

H. Bertani, F. Pigò, E. Dabizzi, M. Frazzoni, V. G. Mirante, M. Manno, R. Manta, and R. Conigliaro, “Advances in Endoscopic Visualization of Barrett’s Esophagus: The Role of Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterol. Res. Pract.2012, 493961 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markowitz, J. E.

C. A. Liacouras, G. T. Furuta, I. Hirano, D. Atkins, S. E. Attwood, P. A. Bonis, A. W. Burks, M. Chehade, M. H. Collins, E. S. Dellon, R. Dohil, G. W. Falk, N. Gonsalves, S. K. Gupta, D. A. Katzka, A. J. Lucendo, J. E. Markowitz, R. J. Noel, R. D. Odze, P. E. Putnam, J. E. Richter, Y. Romero, E. Ruchelli, H. A. Sampson, A. Schoepfer, N. J. Shaheen, S. H. Sicherer, S. Spechler, J. M. Spergel, A. Straumann, B. K. Wershil, M. E. Rothenberg, and S. S. Aceves, “Eosinophilic esophagitis: Updated consensus recommendations for children and adults,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.128(1), 3–20 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mascolo, M.

M. Mascolo, S. Staibano, G. Ilardi, M. Siano, M. L. Vecchione, D. Esposito, G. De Rosa, and G. D. De Palma, “Probe-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy Evaluation of Colon Preneoplastic Lesions, with Particular Attention to the Aberrant Crypt Foci, and Comparative Assessment with Histological Features Obtained by Conventional Endoscopy,” Gastroenterol. Res. Pract.2012, 645173 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masone, S.

F. Salvatori, S. Siciliano, F. Maione, D. Esposito, S. Masone, M. Persico, and G. D. De Palma, “Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in the Study of Colonic Mucosa in IBD Patients: A Review,” Gastroenterol. Res. Pract.2012, 525098 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mino-Kenudson, M.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirante, V. G.

H. Bertani, F. Pigò, E. Dabizzi, M. Frazzoni, V. G. Mirante, M. Manno, R. Manta, and R. Conigliaro, “Advances in Endoscopic Visualization of Barrett’s Esophagus: The Role of Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterol. Res. Pract.2012, 493961 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mishkin, D. S.

L. M. Wong Kee Song, D. G. Adler, B. Chand, J. D. Conway, J. M. B. Croffie, J. A. Disario, D. S. Mishkin, R. J. Shah, L. Somogyi, W. M. Tierney, B. T. Petersen, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Chromoendoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.66(4), 639–649 (2007).
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Monkemuller, K.

H. Neumann and K. Monkemuller, “Endoscopic characterization of eosinophilic esophagitis,” Video J. Encyclopedia GI Endosc.1(1), 23–24 (2013).

Mudter, J.

H. Neumann, M. Vieth, R. Atreya, J. Mudter, and M. F. Neurath, “First description of eosinophilic esophagitis using confocal laser endomicroscopy (with video),” Endoscopy43(S 02Suppl 2 UCTN), E66 (2011).
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Namati, J.

H. Yoo, D. Kang, A. J. Katz, G. Y. Lauwers, N. S. Nishioka, Y. Yagi, P. Tanpowpong, J. Namati, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Reflectance confocal microscopy for the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis: a pilot study conducted on biopsy specimens,” Gastrointest. Endosc.74(5), 992–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neumann, H.

H. Neumann and K. Monkemuller, “Endoscopic characterization of eosinophilic esophagitis,” Video J. Encyclopedia GI Endosc.1(1), 23–24 (2013).

H. Neumann, M. Vieth, R. Atreya, J. Mudter, and M. F. Neurath, “First description of eosinophilic esophagitis using confocal laser endomicroscopy (with video),” Endoscopy43(S 02Suppl 2 UCTN), E66 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neurath, M. F.

H. Neumann, M. Vieth, R. Atreya, J. Mudter, and M. F. Neurath, “First description of eosinophilic esophagitis using confocal laser endomicroscopy (with video),” Endoscopy43(S 02Suppl 2 UCTN), E66 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishioka, N. S.

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med.19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoo, D. Kang, A. J. Katz, G. Y. Lauwers, N. S. Nishioka, Y. Yagi, P. Tanpowpong, J. Namati, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Reflectance confocal microscopy for the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis: a pilot study conducted on biopsy specimens,” Gastrointest. Endosc.74(5), 992–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noel, R. J.

C. A. Liacouras, G. T. Furuta, I. Hirano, D. Atkins, S. E. Attwood, P. A. Bonis, A. W. Burks, M. Chehade, M. H. Collins, E. S. Dellon, R. Dohil, G. W. Falk, N. Gonsalves, S. K. Gupta, D. A. Katzka, A. J. Lucendo, J. E. Markowitz, R. J. Noel, R. D. Odze, P. E. Putnam, J. E. Richter, Y. Romero, E. Ruchelli, H. A. Sampson, A. Schoepfer, N. J. Shaheen, S. H. Sicherer, S. Spechler, J. M. Spergel, A. Straumann, B. K. Wershil, M. E. Rothenberg, and S. S. Aceves, “Eosinophilic esophagitis: Updated consensus recommendations for children and adults,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.128(1), 3–20 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nostrant, T. T.

N. Safdarian, Z. Liu, X. Zhou, H. Appelman, T. T. Nostrant, T. D. Wang, and E. T. Wang, “Quantifying Human Eosinophils using Three-Dimensional Volumetric Images Collected with Multiphoton Fluorescence Microscopy,” Gastroenterology142(1), 15–20 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Odze, R. D.

C. A. Liacouras, G. T. Furuta, I. Hirano, D. Atkins, S. E. Attwood, P. A. Bonis, A. W. Burks, M. Chehade, M. H. Collins, E. S. Dellon, R. Dohil, G. W. Falk, N. Gonsalves, S. K. Gupta, D. A. Katzka, A. J. Lucendo, J. E. Markowitz, R. J. Noel, R. D. Odze, P. E. Putnam, J. E. Richter, Y. Romero, E. Ruchelli, H. A. Sampson, A. Schoepfer, N. J. Shaheen, S. H. Sicherer, S. Spechler, J. M. Spergel, A. Straumann, B. K. Wershil, M. E. Rothenberg, and S. S. Aceves, “Eosinophilic esophagitis: Updated consensus recommendations for children and adults,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.128(1), 3–20 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, W.

Oh, W. Y.

W. Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “>400 kHz repetition rate wavelength-swept laser and application to high-speed optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Lett.35(17), 2919–2921 (2010).
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C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical microscopy of the pediatric vocal fold,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.135(1), 53–64 (2009).
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Paull, P. E.

P. E. Paull, B. J. Hyatt, W. Wassef, and A. H. Fischer, “Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy: A Primer for Pathologists,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.135(10), 1343–1348 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Persico, M.

F. Salvatori, S. Siciliano, F. Maione, D. Esposito, S. Masone, M. Persico, and G. D. De Palma, “Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in the Study of Colonic Mucosa in IBD Patients: A Review,” Gastroenterol. Res. Pract.2012, 525098 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petersen, B. T.

L. M. Wong Kee Song, D. G. Adler, B. Chand, J. D. Conway, J. M. B. Croffie, J. A. Disario, D. S. Mishkin, R. J. Shah, L. Somogyi, W. M. Tierney, B. T. Petersen, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Chromoendoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.66(4), 639–649 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pigò, F.

H. Bertani, F. Pigò, E. Dabizzi, M. Frazzoni, V. G. Mirante, M. Manno, R. Manta, and R. Conigliaro, “Advances in Endoscopic Visualization of Barrett’s Esophagus: The Role of Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterol. Res. Pract.2012, 493961 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitris, C.

Policarpio-Nicolas, M.

N. Gonsalves, M. Policarpio-Nicolas, Q. Zhang, M. S. Rao, and I. Hirano, “Histopathologic variability and endoscopic correlates in adults with eosinophilic esophagitis,” Gastrointest. Endosc.64(3), 313–319 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puricelli, W. P.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Putnam, P. E.

C. A. Liacouras, G. T. Furuta, I. Hirano, D. Atkins, S. E. Attwood, P. A. Bonis, A. W. Burks, M. Chehade, M. H. Collins, E. S. Dellon, R. Dohil, G. W. Falk, N. Gonsalves, S. K. Gupta, D. A. Katzka, A. J. Lucendo, J. E. Markowitz, R. J. Noel, R. D. Odze, P. E. Putnam, J. E. Richter, Y. Romero, E. Ruchelli, H. A. Sampson, A. Schoepfer, N. J. Shaheen, S. H. Sicherer, S. Spechler, J. M. Spergel, A. Straumann, B. K. Wershil, M. E. Rothenberg, and S. S. Aceves, “Eosinophilic esophagitis: Updated consensus recommendations for children and adults,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.128(1), 3–20 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, M. S.

N. Gonsalves, M. Policarpio-Nicolas, Q. Zhang, M. S. Rao, and I. Hirano, “Histopathologic variability and endoscopic correlates in adults with eosinophilic esophagitis,” Gastrointest. Endosc.64(3), 313–319 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R. R.

R. A. Drezek, T. Collier, C. K. Brookner, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, R. R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Laser scanning confocal microscopy of cervical tissue before and after application of acetic acid,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.182(5), 1135–1139 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richter, J. E.

C. A. Liacouras, G. T. Furuta, I. Hirano, D. Atkins, S. E. Attwood, P. A. Bonis, A. W. Burks, M. Chehade, M. H. Collins, E. S. Dellon, R. Dohil, G. W. Falk, N. Gonsalves, S. K. Gupta, D. A. Katzka, A. J. Lucendo, J. E. Markowitz, R. J. Noel, R. D. Odze, P. E. Putnam, J. E. Richter, Y. Romero, E. Ruchelli, H. A. Sampson, A. Schoepfer, N. J. Shaheen, S. H. Sicherer, S. Spechler, J. M. Spergel, A. Straumann, B. K. Wershil, M. E. Rothenberg, and S. S. Aceves, “Eosinophilic esophagitis: Updated consensus recommendations for children and adults,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.128(1), 3–20 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romero, Y.

C. A. Liacouras, G. T. Furuta, I. Hirano, D. Atkins, S. E. Attwood, P. A. Bonis, A. W. Burks, M. Chehade, M. H. Collins, E. S. Dellon, R. Dohil, G. W. Falk, N. Gonsalves, S. K. Gupta, D. A. Katzka, A. J. Lucendo, J. E. Markowitz, R. J. Noel, R. D. Odze, P. E. Putnam, J. E. Richter, Y. Romero, E. Ruchelli, H. A. Sampson, A. Schoepfer, N. J. Shaheen, S. H. Sicherer, S. Spechler, J. M. Spergel, A. Straumann, B. K. Wershil, M. E. Rothenberg, and S. S. Aceves, “Eosinophilic esophagitis: Updated consensus recommendations for children and adults,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.128(1), 3–20 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenberg, M.

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med.19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rothenberg, M. E.

C. A. Liacouras, G. T. Furuta, I. Hirano, D. Atkins, S. E. Attwood, P. A. Bonis, A. W. Burks, M. Chehade, M. H. Collins, E. S. Dellon, R. Dohil, G. W. Falk, N. Gonsalves, S. K. Gupta, D. A. Katzka, A. J. Lucendo, J. E. Markowitz, R. J. Noel, R. D. Odze, P. E. Putnam, J. E. Richter, Y. Romero, E. Ruchelli, H. A. Sampson, A. Schoepfer, N. J. Shaheen, S. H. Sicherer, S. Spechler, J. M. Spergel, A. Straumann, B. K. Wershil, M. E. Rothenberg, and S. S. Aceves, “Eosinophilic esophagitis: Updated consensus recommendations for children and adults,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.128(1), 3–20 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruchelli, E.

C. A. Liacouras, G. T. Furuta, I. Hirano, D. Atkins, S. E. Attwood, P. A. Bonis, A. W. Burks, M. Chehade, M. H. Collins, E. S. Dellon, R. Dohil, G. W. Falk, N. Gonsalves, S. K. Gupta, D. A. Katzka, A. J. Lucendo, J. E. Markowitz, R. J. Noel, R. D. Odze, P. E. Putnam, J. E. Richter, Y. Romero, E. Ruchelli, H. A. Sampson, A. Schoepfer, N. J. Shaheen, S. H. Sicherer, S. Spechler, J. M. Spergel, A. Straumann, B. K. Wershil, M. E. Rothenberg, and S. S. Aceves, “Eosinophilic esophagitis: Updated consensus recommendations for children and adults,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.128(1), 3–20 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Safdarian, N.

N. Safdarian, Z. Liu, X. Zhou, H. Appelman, T. T. Nostrant, T. D. Wang, and E. T. Wang, “Quantifying Human Eosinophils using Three-Dimensional Volumetric Images Collected with Multiphoton Fluorescence Microscopy,” Gastroenterology142(1), 15–20 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salvatori, F.

F. Salvatori, S. Siciliano, F. Maione, D. Esposito, S. Masone, M. Persico, and G. D. De Palma, “Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in the Study of Colonic Mucosa in IBD Patients: A Review,” Gastroenterol. Res. Pract.2012, 525098 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sampson, H. A.

C. A. Liacouras, G. T. Furuta, I. Hirano, D. Atkins, S. E. Attwood, P. A. Bonis, A. W. Burks, M. Chehade, M. H. Collins, E. S. Dellon, R. Dohil, G. W. Falk, N. Gonsalves, S. K. Gupta, D. A. Katzka, A. J. Lucendo, J. E. Markowitz, R. J. Noel, R. D. Odze, P. E. Putnam, J. E. Richter, Y. Romero, E. Ruchelli, H. A. Sampson, A. Schoepfer, N. J. Shaheen, S. H. Sicherer, S. Spechler, J. M. Spergel, A. Straumann, B. K. Wershil, M. E. Rothenberg, and S. S. Aceves, “Eosinophilic esophagitis: Updated consensus recommendations for children and adults,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.128(1), 3–20 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sauk, J. S.

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med.19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlachter, S. C.

Schoepfer, A.

C. A. Liacouras, G. T. Furuta, I. Hirano, D. Atkins, S. E. Attwood, P. A. Bonis, A. W. Burks, M. Chehade, M. H. Collins, E. S. Dellon, R. Dohil, G. W. Falk, N. Gonsalves, S. K. Gupta, D. A. Katzka, A. J. Lucendo, J. E. Markowitz, R. J. Noel, R. D. Odze, P. E. Putnam, J. E. Richter, Y. Romero, E. Ruchelli, H. A. Sampson, A. Schoepfer, N. J. Shaheen, S. H. Sicherer, S. Spechler, J. M. Spergel, A. Straumann, B. K. Wershil, M. E. Rothenberg, and S. S. Aceves, “Eosinophilic esophagitis: Updated consensus recommendations for children and adults,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.128(1), 3–20 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, R. J.

L. M. Wong Kee Song, D. G. Adler, B. Chand, J. D. Conway, J. M. B. Croffie, J. A. Disario, D. S. Mishkin, R. J. Shah, L. Somogyi, W. M. Tierney, B. T. Petersen, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Chromoendoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.66(4), 639–649 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaheen, N. J.

C. A. Liacouras, G. T. Furuta, I. Hirano, D. Atkins, S. E. Attwood, P. A. Bonis, A. W. Burks, M. Chehade, M. H. Collins, E. S. Dellon, R. Dohil, G. W. Falk, N. Gonsalves, S. K. Gupta, D. A. Katzka, A. J. Lucendo, J. E. Markowitz, R. J. Noel, R. D. Odze, P. E. Putnam, J. E. Richter, Y. Romero, E. Ruchelli, H. A. Sampson, A. Schoepfer, N. J. Shaheen, S. H. Sicherer, S. Spechler, J. M. Spergel, A. Straumann, B. K. Wershil, M. E. Rothenberg, and S. S. Aceves, “Eosinophilic esophagitis: Updated consensus recommendations for children and adults,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.128(1), 3–20 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

Shiskov, M.

Siano, M.

M. Mascolo, S. Staibano, G. Ilardi, M. Siano, M. L. Vecchione, D. Esposito, G. De Rosa, and G. D. De Palma, “Probe-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy Evaluation of Colon Preneoplastic Lesions, with Particular Attention to the Aberrant Crypt Foci, and Comparative Assessment with Histological Features Obtained by Conventional Endoscopy,” Gastroenterol. Res. Pract.2012, 645173 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sicherer, S. H.

C. A. Liacouras, G. T. Furuta, I. Hirano, D. Atkins, S. E. Attwood, P. A. Bonis, A. W. Burks, M. Chehade, M. H. Collins, E. S. Dellon, R. Dohil, G. W. Falk, N. Gonsalves, S. K. Gupta, D. A. Katzka, A. J. Lucendo, J. E. Markowitz, R. J. Noel, R. D. Odze, P. E. Putnam, J. E. Richter, Y. Romero, E. Ruchelli, H. A. Sampson, A. Schoepfer, N. J. Shaheen, S. H. Sicherer, S. Spechler, J. M. Spergel, A. Straumann, B. K. Wershil, M. E. Rothenberg, and S. S. Aceves, “Eosinophilic esophagitis: Updated consensus recommendations for children and adults,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.128(1), 3–20 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siciliano, S.

F. Salvatori, S. Siciliano, F. Maione, D. Esposito, S. Masone, M. Persico, and G. D. De Palma, “Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in the Study of Colonic Mucosa in IBD Patients: A Review,” Gastroenterol. Res. Pract.2012, 525098 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Somogyi, L.

L. M. Wong Kee Song, D. G. Adler, B. Chand, J. D. Conway, J. M. B. Croffie, J. A. Disario, D. S. Mishkin, R. J. Shah, L. Somogyi, W. M. Tierney, B. T. Petersen, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Chromoendoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.66(4), 639–649 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spechler, S.

C. A. Liacouras, G. T. Furuta, I. Hirano, D. Atkins, S. E. Attwood, P. A. Bonis, A. W. Burks, M. Chehade, M. H. Collins, E. S. Dellon, R. Dohil, G. W. Falk, N. Gonsalves, S. K. Gupta, D. A. Katzka, A. J. Lucendo, J. E. Markowitz, R. J. Noel, R. D. Odze, P. E. Putnam, J. E. Richter, Y. Romero, E. Ruchelli, H. A. Sampson, A. Schoepfer, N. J. Shaheen, S. H. Sicherer, S. Spechler, J. M. Spergel, A. Straumann, B. K. Wershil, M. E. Rothenberg, and S. S. Aceves, “Eosinophilic esophagitis: Updated consensus recommendations for children and adults,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.128(1), 3–20 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spergel, J. M.

C. A. Liacouras, G. T. Furuta, I. Hirano, D. Atkins, S. E. Attwood, P. A. Bonis, A. W. Burks, M. Chehade, M. H. Collins, E. S. Dellon, R. Dohil, G. W. Falk, N. Gonsalves, S. K. Gupta, D. A. Katzka, A. J. Lucendo, J. E. Markowitz, R. J. Noel, R. D. Odze, P. E. Putnam, J. E. Richter, Y. Romero, E. Ruchelli, H. A. Sampson, A. Schoepfer, N. J. Shaheen, S. H. Sicherer, S. Spechler, J. M. Spergel, A. Straumann, B. K. Wershil, M. E. Rothenberg, and S. S. Aceves, “Eosinophilic esophagitis: Updated consensus recommendations for children and adults,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.128(1), 3–20 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Staibano, S.

M. Mascolo, S. Staibano, G. Ilardi, M. Siano, M. L. Vecchione, D. Esposito, G. De Rosa, and G. D. De Palma, “Probe-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy Evaluation of Colon Preneoplastic Lesions, with Particular Attention to the Aberrant Crypt Foci, and Comparative Assessment with Histological Features Obtained by Conventional Endoscopy,” Gastroenterol. Res. Pract.2012, 645173 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Straumann, A.

C. A. Liacouras, G. T. Furuta, I. Hirano, D. Atkins, S. E. Attwood, P. A. Bonis, A. W. Burks, M. Chehade, M. H. Collins, E. S. Dellon, R. Dohil, G. W. Falk, N. Gonsalves, S. K. Gupta, D. A. Katzka, A. J. Lucendo, J. E. Markowitz, R. J. Noel, R. D. Odze, P. E. Putnam, J. E. Richter, Y. Romero, E. Ruchelli, H. A. Sampson, A. Schoepfer, N. J. Shaheen, S. H. Sicherer, S. Spechler, J. M. Spergel, A. Straumann, B. K. Wershil, M. E. Rothenberg, and S. S. Aceves, “Eosinophilic esophagitis: Updated consensus recommendations for children and adults,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.128(1), 3–20 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suter, M. J.

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med.19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical microscopy of the pediatric vocal fold,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.135(1), 53–64 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuki, Y.

Y. Kawase, Y. Suzuki, F. Ikeno, R. Yoneyama, K. Hoshino, H. Q. Ly, G. T. Lau, M. Hayase, A. C. Yeung, R. J. Hajjar, and I. K. Jang, “Comparison of nonuniform rotational distortion between mechanical IVUS and OCT using a phantom model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.33(1), 67–73 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tabatabaei, N.

Tanpowpong, P.

H. Yoo, D. Kang, A. J. Katz, G. Y. Lauwers, N. S. Nishioka, Y. Yagi, P. Tanpowpong, J. Namati, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Reflectance confocal microscopy for the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis: a pilot study conducted on biopsy specimens,” Gastrointest. Endosc.74(5), 992–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

D. Kang, R. W. Carruth, M. Kim, S. C. Schlachter, M. Shishkov, K. Woods, N. Tabatabaei, T. Wu, and G. J. Tearney, “Endoscopic probe optics for spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(10), 1925–1936 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Schlachter, D. Kang, M. J. Gora, P. Vacas-Jacques, T. Wu, R. W. Carruth, E. J. Wilsterman, B. E. Bouma, K. Woods, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy of esophageal tissues at 100 kHz line rate,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(9), 1636–1645 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med.19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, H. Yoo, P. Jillella, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive volumetric confocal microscopy with adaptive focusing,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1412–1422 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoo, D. Kang, A. J. Katz, G. Y. Lauwers, N. S. Nishioka, Y. Yagi, P. Tanpowpong, J. Namati, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Reflectance confocal microscopy for the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis: a pilot study conducted on biopsy specimens,” Gastrointest. Endosc.74(5), 992–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “>400 kHz repetition rate wavelength-swept laser and application to high-speed optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Lett.35(17), 2919–2921 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical microscopy of the pediatric vocal fold,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.135(1), 53–64 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, R. H. Webb, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett.23(15), 1152–1154 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tierney, W. M.

L. M. Wong Kee Song, D. G. Adler, B. Chand, J. D. Conway, J. M. B. Croffie, J. A. Disario, D. S. Mishkin, R. J. Shah, L. Somogyi, W. M. Tierney, B. T. Petersen, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Chromoendoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.66(4), 639–649 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ussui, V. M.

V. M. Ussui and M. B. Wallace, “Confocal Endomicroscopy of Colorectal Polyps,” Gastroenterol. Res. Pract.2012, 545679 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vacas-Jacques, P.

Vakoc, B. J.

W. Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “>400 kHz repetition rate wavelength-swept laser and application to high-speed optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Lett.35(17), 2919–2921 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical microscopy of the pediatric vocal fold,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.135(1), 53–64 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vecchione, M. L.

M. Mascolo, S. Staibano, G. Ilardi, M. Siano, M. L. Vecchione, D. Esposito, G. De Rosa, and G. D. De Palma, “Probe-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy Evaluation of Colon Preneoplastic Lesions, with Particular Attention to the Aberrant Crypt Foci, and Comparative Assessment with Histological Features Obtained by Conventional Endoscopy,” Gastroenterol. Res. Pract.2012, 645173 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vieth, M.

H. Neumann, M. Vieth, R. Atreya, J. Mudter, and M. F. Neurath, “First description of eosinophilic esophagitis using confocal laser endomicroscopy (with video),” Endoscopy43(S 02Suppl 2 UCTN), E66 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallace, M. B.

V. M. Ussui and M. B. Wallace, “Confocal Endomicroscopy of Colorectal Polyps,” Gastroenterol. Res. Pract.2012, 545679 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, E. T.

N. Safdarian, Z. Liu, X. Zhou, H. Appelman, T. T. Nostrant, T. D. Wang, and E. T. Wang, “Quantifying Human Eosinophils using Three-Dimensional Volumetric Images Collected with Multiphoton Fluorescence Microscopy,” Gastroenterology142(1), 15–20 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, T. D.

N. Safdarian, Z. Liu, X. Zhou, H. Appelman, T. T. Nostrant, T. D. Wang, and E. T. Wang, “Quantifying Human Eosinophils using Three-Dimensional Volumetric Images Collected with Multiphoton Fluorescence Microscopy,” Gastroenterology142(1), 15–20 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wassef, W.

P. E. Paull, B. J. Hyatt, W. Wassef, and A. H. Fischer, “Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy: A Primer for Pathologists,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.135(10), 1343–1348 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

Wershil, B. K.

C. A. Liacouras, G. T. Furuta, I. Hirano, D. Atkins, S. E. Attwood, P. A. Bonis, A. W. Burks, M. Chehade, M. H. Collins, E. S. Dellon, R. Dohil, G. W. Falk, N. Gonsalves, S. K. Gupta, D. A. Katzka, A. J. Lucendo, J. E. Markowitz, R. J. Noel, R. D. Odze, P. E. Putnam, J. E. Richter, Y. Romero, E. Ruchelli, H. A. Sampson, A. Schoepfer, N. J. Shaheen, S. H. Sicherer, S. Spechler, J. M. Spergel, A. Straumann, B. K. Wershil, M. E. Rothenberg, and S. S. Aceves, “Eosinophilic esophagitis: Updated consensus recommendations for children and adults,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.128(1), 3–20 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, W.

Wilsterman, E. J.

Wong Kee Song, L. M.

L. M. Wong Kee Song, D. G. Adler, B. Chand, J. D. Conway, J. M. B. Croffie, J. A. Disario, D. S. Mishkin, R. J. Shah, L. Somogyi, W. M. Tierney, B. T. Petersen, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Chromoendoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.66(4), 639–649 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woods, K.

Wu, T.

Yachimski, P. S.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yagi, Y.

H. Yoo, D. Kang, A. J. Katz, G. Y. Lauwers, N. S. Nishioka, Y. Yagi, P. Tanpowpong, J. Namati, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Reflectance confocal microscopy for the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis: a pilot study conducted on biopsy specimens,” Gastrointest. Endosc.74(5), 992–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeung, A. C.

Y. Kawase, Y. Suzuki, F. Ikeno, R. Yoneyama, K. Hoshino, H. Q. Ly, G. T. Lau, M. Hayase, A. C. Yeung, R. J. Hajjar, and I. K. Jang, “Comparison of nonuniform rotational distortion between mechanical IVUS and OCT using a phantom model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.33(1), 67–73 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoneyama, R.

Y. Kawase, Y. Suzuki, F. Ikeno, R. Yoneyama, K. Hoshino, H. Q. Ly, G. T. Lau, M. Hayase, A. C. Yeung, R. J. Hajjar, and I. K. Jang, “Comparison of nonuniform rotational distortion between mechanical IVUS and OCT using a phantom model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.33(1), 67–73 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoo, H.

H. Yoo, D. Kang, A. J. Katz, G. Y. Lauwers, N. S. Nishioka, Y. Yagi, P. Tanpowpong, J. Namati, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Reflectance confocal microscopy for the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis: a pilot study conducted on biopsy specimens,” Gastrointest. Endosc.74(5), 992–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, H. Yoo, P. Jillella, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive volumetric confocal microscopy with adaptive focusing,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1412–1422 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, S.

Zhang, Q.

N. Gonsalves, M. Policarpio-Nicolas, Q. Zhang, M. S. Rao, and I. Hirano, “Histopathologic variability and endoscopic correlates in adults with eosinophilic esophagitis,” Gastrointest. Endosc.64(3), 313–319 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, X.

N. Safdarian, Z. Liu, X. Zhou, H. Appelman, T. T. Nostrant, T. D. Wang, and E. T. Wang, “Quantifying Human Eosinophils using Three-Dimensional Volumetric Images Collected with Multiphoton Fluorescence Microscopy,” Gastroenterology142(1), 15–20 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1)

R. A. Drezek, T. Collier, C. K. Brookner, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, R. R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Laser scanning confocal microscopy of cervical tissue before and after application of acetic acid,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.182(5), 1135–1139 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. (1)

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical microscopy of the pediatric vocal fold,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.135(1), 53–64 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. (1)

P. E. Paull, B. J. Hyatt, W. Wassef, and A. H. Fischer, “Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy: A Primer for Pathologists,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.135(10), 1343–1348 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

Endoscopy (1)

H. Neumann, M. Vieth, R. Atreya, J. Mudter, and M. F. Neurath, “First description of eosinophilic esophagitis using confocal laser endomicroscopy (with video),” Endoscopy43(S 02Suppl 2 UCTN), E66 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastroenterol. Res. Pract. (4)

H. Bertani, F. Pigò, E. Dabizzi, M. Frazzoni, V. G. Mirante, M. Manno, R. Manta, and R. Conigliaro, “Advances in Endoscopic Visualization of Barrett’s Esophagus: The Role of Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterol. Res. Pract.2012, 493961 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mascolo, S. Staibano, G. Ilardi, M. Siano, M. L. Vecchione, D. Esposito, G. De Rosa, and G. D. De Palma, “Probe-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy Evaluation of Colon Preneoplastic Lesions, with Particular Attention to the Aberrant Crypt Foci, and Comparative Assessment with Histological Features Obtained by Conventional Endoscopy,” Gastroenterol. Res. Pract.2012, 645173 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Ussui and M. B. Wallace, “Confocal Endomicroscopy of Colorectal Polyps,” Gastroenterol. Res. Pract.2012, 545679 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Salvatori, S. Siciliano, F. Maione, D. Esposito, S. Masone, M. Persico, and G. D. De Palma, “Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in the Study of Colonic Mucosa in IBD Patients: A Review,” Gastroenterol. Res. Pract.2012, 525098 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology (1)

N. Safdarian, Z. Liu, X. Zhou, H. Appelman, T. T. Nostrant, T. D. Wang, and E. T. Wang, “Quantifying Human Eosinophils using Three-Dimensional Volumetric Images Collected with Multiphoton Fluorescence Microscopy,” Gastroenterology142(1), 15–20 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (4)

H. Yoo, D. Kang, A. J. Katz, G. Y. Lauwers, N. S. Nishioka, Y. Yagi, P. Tanpowpong, J. Namati, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Reflectance confocal microscopy for the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis: a pilot study conducted on biopsy specimens,” Gastrointest. Endosc.74(5), 992–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Wong Kee Song, D. G. Adler, B. Chand, J. D. Conway, J. M. B. Croffie, J. A. Disario, D. S. Mishkin, R. J. Shah, L. Somogyi, W. M. Tierney, B. T. Petersen, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Chromoendoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.66(4), 639–649 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Gonsalves, M. Policarpio-Nicolas, Q. Zhang, M. S. Rao, and I. Hirano, “Histopathologic variability and endoscopic correlates in adults with eosinophilic esophagitis,” Gastrointest. Endosc.64(3), 313–319 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1)

C. A. Liacouras, G. T. Furuta, I. Hirano, D. Atkins, S. E. Attwood, P. A. Bonis, A. W. Burks, M. Chehade, M. H. Collins, E. S. Dellon, R. Dohil, G. W. Falk, N. Gonsalves, S. K. Gupta, D. A. Katzka, A. J. Lucendo, J. E. Markowitz, R. J. Noel, R. D. Odze, P. E. Putnam, J. E. Richter, Y. Romero, E. Ruchelli, H. A. Sampson, A. Schoepfer, N. J. Shaheen, S. H. Sicherer, S. Spechler, J. M. Spergel, A. Straumann, B. K. Wershil, M. E. Rothenberg, and S. S. Aceves, “Eosinophilic esophagitis: Updated consensus recommendations for children and adults,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.128(1), 3–20 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Med. (1)

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med.19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

D. E. Fuerst and J. R. Jannach, “Autofluorescence of eosinophils: a bone marrow study,” Nature205(4978), 1333–1334 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Ultrasound Med. Biol. (1)

Y. Kawase, Y. Suzuki, F. Ikeno, R. Yoneyama, K. Hoshino, H. Q. Ly, G. T. Lau, M. Hayase, A. C. Yeung, R. J. Hajjar, and I. K. Jang, “Comparison of nonuniform rotational distortion between mechanical IVUS and OCT using a phantom model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.33(1), 67–73 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Video J. Encyclopedia GI Endosc. (1)

H. Neumann and K. Monkemuller, “Endoscopic characterization of eosinophilic esophagitis,” Video J. Encyclopedia GI Endosc.1(1), 23–24 (2013).

Other (1)

B. E. Bouma, M. Shishkov, and G. J. Tearney, “Fiber-optic rotational device, optical system and method for imaging a sample,” PCT Patent WO2006050453 A1, issued May 11, 2006.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic view of the SECM clinical system and SECM tethered capsule. (b) ZEMAX optical design integrated to the mechanical design of the capsule. (c) Close up view of the tilted focal line based on the ZEMAX simulation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a-c) Representative frames captured from the optics housing while rotating, showing the principles of the NURD assessment image processing. (b) Plot of the radial mark’s angular position as a function of time over a course of 10 revolutions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) SECM image of a USAF resolution target constructed by raster scanning the capsule optics over the target. Panels (b) and (c) are the magnified view of regions of interest delineated in panels (a) and (b), respectively. (d) Intensity axial plot obtained by scanning a mirror through the focus. The FWHM is 14 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Large area SECM image of swine esophageal tissue ex vivo stained with 6% AA. The image was formed by raster scanning the capsule optics over the tissue. (b) Magnified view of the region of interest delineated in (a) demonstrates brightly scattering structures consistent with epithelial nuclei (arrows).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Large area SECM image of a de-identified biopsy sample obtained from an EoE patient. The SECM image was formed by acquiring frames as the capsule optics were raster scanned over the tissue. The spongy feature enclosing the tissue is water condensation. (b) Magnified view of a region of interest, showing brightly reflecting cells (arrows) with size and distribution that are consistent with the eosinophils seen in corresponding histology (e, arrows). (c) Z-stack of a magnified portion of (b). (d) Histology of biopsy sample (H&E, magnification 3x). (e) Magnified view of a region within (d). Red rectangles show the regions of interest in (a), (b), and (d) that are shown magnified in (b), (c), and (e), respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Photograph of the SECM tethered capsule. (b) SECM image of swine esophagus mucosa, obtained in vivo. The image was captured while the capsule was stationary within the esophagus. SECM scans obtained from a total of 188 revolutions are seen from top to bottom. Arrows indicate partial drop outs of focal line due to peristaltic waves. (c) Magnified image of the area highlighted in panel (b) showing structures consistent with nuclei of epithelial cells (arrows).

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