Abstract

Proof of concept results are presented towards an in situ bimodal proximity sensor for neurovascular bundle detection during dental implant surgery using combined near infrared absorption (NIR) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) techniques. These modalities are shown to have different sensitivity to the proximity of optical contrast from neurovascular bundles. NIR AC and DC signals from the pulsing of an artery enable qualitative ranging of the bundle in the millimeter range, with best sensitivity around 0.5-3mm distance in a custom phantom setup. OCT provides structural mapping of the neurovascular bundle at sub-millimeter distances in an ex vivo human jaw bone. Combining the two techniques suggests a novel ranging system for the surgeon that could be implemented in a “smart drill.” The proximity to the neurovascular bundle can be tracked in real time in the range of a few millimeters with NIR signals, after which higher resolution imaging OCT to provide finer ranging in the sub-millimeter distances.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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M. Choi, M. O. Culjat, R. S. Singh, and S. N. White, “Ultrasound imagery for dental implant diagnosis and treatment planning in a porcine model,” J. Prosthet. Dent.108(6), 344–353 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Stuban, M. Niwayama, and H. Santha, “Phantom with Pulsatile Arteries to Investigate the Influence of Blood Vessel Depth on Pulse Oximeter Signal Strength,” Sensors (Basel)12(12), 895–904 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

J. P. Bouchard, I. Veilleux, R. Jedidi, I. Noiseux, M. Fortin, and O. Mermut, “Reference optical phantoms for diffuse optical spectroscopy. Part 1--Error analysis of a time resolved transmittance characterization method,” Opt. Express18(11), 11495–11507 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kilic, K. Kamburoğlu, T. Ozen, H. A. Balcioglu, B. Kurt, T. Kutoglu, and H. Ozan, “The position of the mandibular canal and histologic feature of the inferior alveolar nerve,” Clin. Anat.23(1), 34–42 (2010).
[PubMed]

C. E. Misch and R. Resnik, “Mandibular Nerve Neurosensory Impairment After Dental Implant Surgery: Management and Protocol,” Implant Dent.19(5), 378–386 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

C. Xiaojun, Y. Ming, L. Yanping, W. Yiqun, and W. Chengtao, “Image guided oral implantology and its application in the placement of zygoma implants,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed.93(2), 162–173 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

G. Greenstein and D. Tarnow, “The mental foramen and nerve: clinical and anatomical factors related to dental implant placement: a literature review,” J. Periodontol.77(12), 1933–1943 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, E. Chikoidze, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Optical biopsy of bone tissue: a step toward the diagnosis of bone pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(3), 474–480 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ugryumova, S. J. Matcher, and D. P. Attenburrow, “Measurement of bone mineral density via light scattering,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(3), 469–483 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Reuss and D. S. Siker, “The pulse in reflectance pulse oximetry: modeling and experimental studies,” J. Clin. Monit. Comput.18(4), 289–299 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

P. Studinger, Z. Lénárd, Z. Kováts, L. Kocsis, and M. Kollai, “Static and dynamic changes in carotid artery diameter in humans during and after strenuous exercise,” J. Physiol.550(2), 575–583 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

A. Elayouti, R. Weiger, and C. Löst, “The ability of root ZX apex locator to reduce the frequency of overestimated radiographic working length,” J. Endod.28(2), 116–119 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

1997

1996

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

Y. Mendelson, “Pulse Oximetry: Theory and Applications for Noninvasive Monitoring,” Clin. Chem.38(9), 1601–1607 (1992).
[PubMed]

1990

G. A. Zarb and A. Schmitt, “The longitudinal clinical effectiveness of osseointegrated dental implants: The Toronto study. Part III: Problems and complications encountered,” J. Prosthet. Dent.64(2), 185–194 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

G. Poirot, J. F. Delattre, C. Palot, and J. B. Flament, “The inferior alveolar artery in its bony course,” Surg. Radiol. Anat.8(4), 237–244 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attenburrow, D. P.

N. Ugryumova, S. J. Matcher, and D. P. Attenburrow, “Measurement of bone mineral density via light scattering,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(3), 469–483 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcioglu, H. A.

C. Kilic, K. Kamburoğlu, T. Ozen, H. A. Balcioglu, B. Kurt, T. Kutoglu, and H. Ozan, “The position of the mandibular canal and histologic feature of the inferior alveolar nerve,” Clin. Anat.23(1), 34–42 (2010).
[PubMed]

Bassi, A.

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, E. Chikoidze, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Optical biopsy of bone tissue: a step toward the diagnosis of bone pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(3), 474–480 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beaudry, P.

Boppart, S. A.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouchard, J. P.

Bouma, B. E.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caron, S.

Chengtao, W.

C. Xiaojun, Y. Ming, L. Yanping, W. Yiqun, and W. Chengtao, “Image guided oral implantology and its application in the placement of zygoma implants,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed.93(2), 162–173 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chikoidze, E.

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, E. Chikoidze, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Optical biopsy of bone tissue: a step toward the diagnosis of bone pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(3), 474–480 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chinn, S. R.

Choi, M.

M. Choi, M. O. Culjat, R. S. Singh, and S. N. White, “Ultrasound imagery for dental implant diagnosis and treatment planning in a porcine model,” J. Prosthet. Dent.108(6), 344–353 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cubeddu, R.

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, E. Chikoidze, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Optical biopsy of bone tissue: a step toward the diagnosis of bone pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(3), 474–480 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Culjat, M. O.

M. Choi, M. O. Culjat, R. S. Singh, and S. N. White, “Ultrasound imagery for dental implant diagnosis and treatment planning in a porcine model,” J. Prosthet. Dent.108(6), 344–353 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delattre, J. F.

G. Poirot, J. F. Delattre, C. Palot, and J. B. Flament, “The inferior alveolar artery in its bony course,” Surg. Radiol. Anat.8(4), 237–244 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elayouti, A.

A. Elayouti, R. Weiger, and C. Löst, “The ability of root ZX apex locator to reduce the frequency of overestimated radiographic working length,” J. Endod.28(2), 116–119 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flament, J. B.

G. Poirot, J. F. Delattre, C. Palot, and J. B. Flament, “The inferior alveolar artery in its bony course,” Surg. Radiol. Anat.8(4), 237–244 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fortin, M.

Freàchette, J.

Fujimoto, J. G.

S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source,” Opt. Lett.22(5), 340–342 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ganz, S. D.

D. A. Tyndall, J. B. Price, S. Tetradis, S. D. Ganz, C. Hildebolt, W. C. Scarfe, and American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, “Position statement of the American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology on selection criteria for the use of radiology in dental implantology with emphasis on cone beam computed tomography,” Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol113(6), 817–826 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giambattistelli, E.

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, E. Chikoidze, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Optical biopsy of bone tissue: a step toward the diagnosis of bone pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(3), 474–480 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenstein, G.

G. Greenstein and D. Tarnow, “The mental foramen and nerve: clinical and anatomical factors related to dental implant placement: a literature review,” J. Periodontol.77(12), 1933–1943 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hildebolt, C.

D. A. Tyndall, J. B. Price, S. Tetradis, S. D. Ganz, C. Hildebolt, W. C. Scarfe, and American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, “Position statement of the American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology on selection criteria for the use of radiology in dental implantology with emphasis on cone beam computed tomography,” Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol113(6), 817–826 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jedidi, R.

Kamburoglu, K.

C. Kilic, K. Kamburoğlu, T. Ozen, H. A. Balcioglu, B. Kurt, T. Kutoglu, and H. Ozan, “The position of the mandibular canal and histologic feature of the inferior alveolar nerve,” Clin. Anat.23(1), 34–42 (2010).
[PubMed]

Kilic, C.

C. Kilic, K. Kamburoğlu, T. Ozen, H. A. Balcioglu, B. Kurt, T. Kutoglu, and H. Ozan, “The position of the mandibular canal and histologic feature of the inferior alveolar nerve,” Clin. Anat.23(1), 34–42 (2010).
[PubMed]

Kocsis, L.

P. Studinger, Z. Lénárd, Z. Kováts, L. Kocsis, and M. Kollai, “Static and dynamic changes in carotid artery diameter in humans during and after strenuous exercise,” J. Physiol.550(2), 575–583 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kollai, M.

P. Studinger, Z. Lénárd, Z. Kováts, L. Kocsis, and M. Kollai, “Static and dynamic changes in carotid artery diameter in humans during and after strenuous exercise,” J. Physiol.550(2), 575–583 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kováts, Z.

P. Studinger, Z. Lénárd, Z. Kováts, L. Kocsis, and M. Kollai, “Static and dynamic changes in carotid artery diameter in humans during and after strenuous exercise,” J. Physiol.550(2), 575–583 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurt, B.

C. Kilic, K. Kamburoğlu, T. Ozen, H. A. Balcioglu, B. Kurt, T. Kutoglu, and H. Ozan, “The position of the mandibular canal and histologic feature of the inferior alveolar nerve,” Clin. Anat.23(1), 34–42 (2010).
[PubMed]

Kutoglu, T.

C. Kilic, K. Kamburoğlu, T. Ozen, H. A. Balcioglu, B. Kurt, T. Kutoglu, and H. Ozan, “The position of the mandibular canal and histologic feature of the inferior alveolar nerve,” Clin. Anat.23(1), 34–42 (2010).
[PubMed]

Lénárd, Z.

P. Studinger, Z. Lénárd, Z. Kováts, L. Kocsis, and M. Kollai, “Static and dynamic changes in carotid artery diameter in humans during and after strenuous exercise,” J. Physiol.550(2), 575–583 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Löst, C.

A. Elayouti, R. Weiger, and C. Löst, “The ability of root ZX apex locator to reduce the frequency of overestimated radiographic working length,” J. Endod.28(2), 116–119 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marks, D. L.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matcher, S. J.

N. Ugryumova, S. J. Matcher, and D. P. Attenburrow, “Measurement of bone mineral density via light scattering,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(3), 469–483 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mendelson, Y.

Y. Mendelson, “Pulse Oximetry: Theory and Applications for Noninvasive Monitoring,” Clin. Chem.38(9), 1601–1607 (1992).
[PubMed]

Mermut, O.

Ming, Y.

C. Xiaojun, Y. Ming, L. Yanping, W. Yiqun, and W. Chengtao, “Image guided oral implantology and its application in the placement of zygoma implants,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed.93(2), 162–173 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Misch, C. E.

C. E. Misch and R. Resnik, “Mandibular Nerve Neurosensory Impairment After Dental Implant Surgery: Management and Protocol,” Implant Dent.19(5), 378–386 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, F. T.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niwayama, M.

N. Stuban, M. Niwayama, and H. Santha, “Phantom with Pulsatile Arteries to Investigate the Influence of Blood Vessel Depth on Pulse Oximeter Signal Strength,” Sensors (Basel)12(12), 895–904 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noiseux, I.

Oldenburg, A. L.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozan, H.

C. Kilic, K. Kamburoğlu, T. Ozen, H. A. Balcioglu, B. Kurt, T. Kutoglu, and H. Ozan, “The position of the mandibular canal and histologic feature of the inferior alveolar nerve,” Clin. Anat.23(1), 34–42 (2010).
[PubMed]

Ozen, T.

C. Kilic, K. Kamburoğlu, T. Ozen, H. A. Balcioglu, B. Kurt, T. Kutoglu, and H. Ozan, “The position of the mandibular canal and histologic feature of the inferior alveolar nerve,” Clin. Anat.23(1), 34–42 (2010).
[PubMed]

Painchaud, Y.

Palot, C.

G. Poirot, J. F. Delattre, C. Palot, and J. B. Flament, “The inferior alveolar artery in its bony course,” Surg. Radiol. Anat.8(4), 237–244 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pifferi, A.

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, E. Chikoidze, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Optical biopsy of bone tissue: a step toward the diagnosis of bone pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(3), 474–480 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poirot, G.

G. Poirot, J. F. Delattre, C. Palot, and J. B. Flament, “The inferior alveolar artery in its bony course,” Surg. Radiol. Anat.8(4), 237–244 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Price, J. B.

D. A. Tyndall, J. B. Price, S. Tetradis, S. D. Ganz, C. Hildebolt, W. C. Scarfe, and American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, “Position statement of the American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology on selection criteria for the use of radiology in dental implantology with emphasis on cone beam computed tomography,” Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol113(6), 817–826 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Resnik, R.

C. E. Misch and R. Resnik, “Mandibular Nerve Neurosensory Impairment After Dental Implant Surgery: Management and Protocol,” Implant Dent.19(5), 378–386 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reuss, J. L.

J. L. Reuss and D. S. Siker, “The pulse in reflectance pulse oximetry: modeling and experimental studies,” J. Clin. Monit. Comput.18(4), 289–299 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santha, H.

N. Stuban, M. Niwayama, and H. Santha, “Phantom with Pulsatile Arteries to Investigate the Influence of Blood Vessel Depth on Pulse Oximeter Signal Strength,” Sensors (Basel)12(12), 895–904 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scarfe, W. C.

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G. A. Zarb and A. Schmitt, “The longitudinal clinical effectiveness of osseointegrated dental implants: The Toronto study. Part III: Problems and complications encountered,” J. Prosthet. Dent.64(2), 185–194 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. L. Reuss and D. S. Siker, “The pulse in reflectance pulse oximetry: modeling and experimental studies,” J. Clin. Monit. Comput.18(4), 289–299 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, R. S.

M. Choi, M. O. Culjat, R. S. Singh, and S. N. White, “Ultrasound imagery for dental implant diagnosis and treatment planning in a porcine model,” J. Prosthet. Dent.108(6), 344–353 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stuban, N.

N. Stuban, M. Niwayama, and H. Santha, “Phantom with Pulsatile Arteries to Investigate the Influence of Blood Vessel Depth on Pulse Oximeter Signal Strength,” Sensors (Basel)12(12), 895–904 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Studinger, P.

P. Studinger, Z. Lénárd, Z. Kováts, L. Kocsis, and M. Kollai, “Static and dynamic changes in carotid artery diameter in humans during and after strenuous exercise,” J. Physiol.550(2), 575–583 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source,” Opt. Lett.22(5), 340–342 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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G. Greenstein and D. Tarnow, “The mental foramen and nerve: clinical and anatomical factors related to dental implant placement: a literature review,” J. Periodontol.77(12), 1933–1943 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, E. Chikoidze, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Optical biopsy of bone tissue: a step toward the diagnosis of bone pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(3), 474–480 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. A. Tyndall, J. B. Price, S. Tetradis, S. D. Ganz, C. Hildebolt, W. C. Scarfe, and American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, “Position statement of the American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology on selection criteria for the use of radiology in dental implantology with emphasis on cone beam computed tomography,” Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol113(6), 817–826 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, E. Chikoidze, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Optical biopsy of bone tissue: a step toward the diagnosis of bone pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(3), 474–480 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. A. Tyndall, J. B. Price, S. Tetradis, S. D. Ganz, C. Hildebolt, W. C. Scarfe, and American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, “Position statement of the American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology on selection criteria for the use of radiology in dental implantology with emphasis on cone beam computed tomography,” Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol113(6), 817–826 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Weiger, R.

A. Elayouti, R. Weiger, and C. Löst, “The ability of root ZX apex locator to reduce the frequency of overestimated radiographic working length,” J. Endod.28(2), 116–119 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Choi, M. O. Culjat, R. S. Singh, and S. N. White, “Ultrasound imagery for dental implant diagnosis and treatment planning in a porcine model,” J. Prosthet. Dent.108(6), 344–353 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Xiaojun, Y. Ming, L. Yanping, W. Yiqun, and W. Chengtao, “Image guided oral implantology and its application in the placement of zygoma implants,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed.93(2), 162–173 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Xiaojun, Y. Ming, L. Yanping, W. Yiqun, and W. Chengtao, “Image guided oral implantology and its application in the placement of zygoma implants,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed.93(2), 162–173 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yiqun, W.

C. Xiaojun, Y. Ming, L. Yanping, W. Yiqun, and W. Chengtao, “Image guided oral implantology and its application in the placement of zygoma implants,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed.93(2), 162–173 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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G. A. Zarb and A. Schmitt, “The longitudinal clinical effectiveness of osseointegrated dental implants: The Toronto study. Part III: Problems and complications encountered,” J. Prosthet. Dent.64(2), 185–194 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Anat.

C. Kilic, K. Kamburoğlu, T. Ozen, H. A. Balcioglu, B. Kurt, T. Kutoglu, and H. Ozan, “The position of the mandibular canal and histologic feature of the inferior alveolar nerve,” Clin. Anat.23(1), 34–42 (2010).
[PubMed]

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[PubMed]

Comput. Methods Programs Biomed.

C. Xiaojun, Y. Ming, L. Yanping, W. Yiqun, and W. Chengtao, “Image guided oral implantology and its application in the placement of zygoma implants,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed.93(2), 162–173 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, E. Chikoidze, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Optical biopsy of bone tissue: a step toward the diagnosis of bone pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(3), 474–480 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Clin. Monit. Comput.

J. L. Reuss and D. S. Siker, “The pulse in reflectance pulse oximetry: modeling and experimental studies,” J. Clin. Monit. Comput.18(4), 289–299 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Endod.

A. Elayouti, R. Weiger, and C. Löst, “The ability of root ZX apex locator to reduce the frequency of overestimated radiographic working length,” J. Endod.28(2), 116–119 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Periodontol.

G. Greenstein and D. Tarnow, “The mental foramen and nerve: clinical and anatomical factors related to dental implant placement: a literature review,” J. Periodontol.77(12), 1933–1943 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Physiol.

P. Studinger, Z. Lénárd, Z. Kováts, L. Kocsis, and M. Kollai, “Static and dynamic changes in carotid artery diameter in humans during and after strenuous exercise,” J. Physiol.550(2), 575–583 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Prosthet. Dent.

M. Choi, M. O. Culjat, R. S. Singh, and S. N. White, “Ultrasound imagery for dental implant diagnosis and treatment planning in a porcine model,” J. Prosthet. Dent.108(6), 344–353 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Zarb and A. Schmitt, “The longitudinal clinical effectiveness of osseointegrated dental implants: The Toronto study. Part III: Problems and complications encountered,” J. Prosthet. Dent.64(2), 185–194 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol

D. A. Tyndall, J. B. Price, S. Tetradis, S. D. Ganz, C. Hildebolt, W. C. Scarfe, and American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, “Position statement of the American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology on selection criteria for the use of radiology in dental implantology with emphasis on cone beam computed tomography,” Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol113(6), 817–826 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol.

N. Ugryumova, S. J. Matcher, and D. P. Attenburrow, “Measurement of bone mineral density via light scattering,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(3), 469–483 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sensors (Basel)

N. Stuban, M. Niwayama, and H. Santha, “Phantom with Pulsatile Arteries to Investigate the Influence of Blood Vessel Depth on Pulse Oximeter Signal Strength,” Sensors (Basel)12(12), 895–904 (2012).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(A) The mandibular canal shown within the mandible, containing the neurovascular bundle, and (B) A cross section of view of the mandible showing the neurovascular bundle within the canal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

“Smart drill” concept using a bimodal NIR and OCT approach (Patent pending: US 2012/0271176 A1).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

NIR measurement setup for simulating a pulsing artery embedded in bone phantom, using a cardiac pulsatile pump, silicone tubes and liquid tissue-simulating phantoms. A fibered laser source sends light to the sample and a fiber probe with multiple source-detector separation options (collection optical fibers) collects the light and sends it to the customized detector, whose signal is recorded on an oscilloscope.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fiber optic probe for NIR experiments. The fibers are each 600μm core diameter and fixed next to each other with a center-to-center distances of approximately 650μm. Typically fiber 1 is used as the source channel, and one of the remaining fibers can be used as the detection channel.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A sample oscilloscope screenshot of the raw pulse signal (yellow, CH1), and reference signal from the pressure gauge (cyan, CH2), showing the cardiac-simulated pressure generated by the pump and detected by the probe. Horizontal axis: time, 500ms per division.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Picture of one human mandible sample used in the OCT measurements (shown with neurovascular bundle removed). The OCT measurement was taken as indicated just above the mandibular canal (the hole under the black arrow) where the IAN neurovascular bundle is located. The bone was filed into a taper shape to give varying thickness of bone tissue above the canal.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

DC (mean raw signal) (A) and AC (peak-to-peak amplitude) (B) vs. distance from probe to tube for different source-detector separations.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

An SS-OCT B-scan of the tapered jaw bone, with the tapered edge placed horizontally at the top of the image so that the mandibular canal and IAN descend in depth from left to right. The position of the first surface of the canal containing the IAN neurovascular bundle is indicated by the white arrows.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Bimodal data. OCT: A: measurement scheme, B: sample data at 1mm phantom thickness over artery-simulating tube. NIR: C: measurement scheme, D: NIR 650nm source-detector separation pulse data at the same position as the OCT measurement, 1mm thickness over the artery-simulating tube: top curve (yellow) and reference pressure gauge signal bottom curve (cyan).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Phantom optical properties at 850nm

Tables Icon

Table 2 NIR in vitro setup equipment

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