Abstract

We have developed an extremely miniaturized optical coherence tomography (OCT) needle probe (outer diameter 310 µm) with high sensitivity (108 dB) to enable minimally invasive imaging of cellular structure deep within skeletal muscle. Three-dimensional volumetric images were acquired from ex vivo mouse tissue, examining both healthy and pathological dystrophic muscle. Individual myofibers were visualized as striations in the images. Degradation of cellular structure in necrotic regions was seen as a loss of these striations. Tendon and connective tissue were also visualized. The observed structures were validated against co-registered hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histology sections. These images of internal cellular structure of skeletal muscle acquired with an OCT needle probe demonstrate the potential of this technique to visualize structure at the microscopic level deep in biological tissue in situ.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (3)

R. M. Lovering, S. B. Shah, S. J. P. Pratt, W. Gong, and Y. Chen, “Architecture of healthy and dystrophic muscles detected by optical coherence tomography,” Muscle Nerve47(4), 588–590 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Yang, L. Chin, B. R. Klyen, T. Shavlakadze, R. A. McLaughlin, M. D. Grounds, and D. D. Sampson, “Quantitative assessment of muscle damage in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Appl. Physiol.115(9), 1393–1401 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. X. Chin, X. J. Yang, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “En face parametric imaging of tissue birefringence using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(6), 066005 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (6)

A. Curatolo, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, A. G. Bourke, B. A. Wood, P. D. Robbins, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Ultrasound-guided optical coherence tomography needle probe for the assessment of breast cancer tumor margins,” Am. J. Roentgenol.199(4), W520–W522 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Scolaro, R. A. McLaughlin, B. R. Klyen, B. A. Wood, P. D. Robbins, C. M. Saunders, S. L. Jacques, and D. D. Sampson, “Parametric imaging of the local attenuation coefficient in human axillary lymph nodes assessed using optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(2), 366–379 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. A. McLaughlin, X. Yang, B. C. Quirk, D. Lorenser, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “Static and dynamic imaging of alveoli using optical coherence tomography needle probes,” J. Appl. Physiol.113(6), 967–974 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, and D. D. Sampson, “High-sensitivity anastigmatic imaging needle for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.37(24), 5247–5249 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Tan, M. Shishkov, A. Chee, M. B. Applegate, B. E. Bouma, and M. J. Suter, “Flexible transbronchial optical frequency domain imaging smart needle for biopsy guidance,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(8), 1947–1954 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

B. R. Klyen, T. Shavlakadze, H. G. Radley-Crabb, M. D. Grounds, and D. D. Sampson, “Identification of muscle necrosis in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy using three-dimensional optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “In situ imaging of lung alveoli with an optical coherence tomography needle probe,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(3), 036009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Lorenser, X. Yang, R. W. Kirk, B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Ultrathin side-viewing needle probe for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.36(19), 3894–3896 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Pillai, D. Lorenser, and D. D. Sampson, “Deep-tissue access with confocal fluorescence microendoscopy through hypodermic needles,” Opt. Express19(8), 7213–7221 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (7)

A. R. Patel, E. S. Y. Chan, D. E. Hansel, C. T. Powell, W. D. Heston, and W. A. Larchian, “Transabdominal micro-ultrasound imaging of bladder cancer in a mouse model: a validation study,” Urology75(4), 799–804 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Schambach, S. Bag, L. Schilling, C. Groden, and M. A. Brockmann, “Application of micro-CT in small animal imaging,” Methods50(1), 2–13 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. C. Wu, J. F. Xi, L. Huo, J. Padvorac, E. J. Shin, S. A. Giday, A. M. Lennon, M. I. F. Canto, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “Robust high-resolution fine OCT needle for side-viewing interstitial tissue imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 863–869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Friedrich, M. Both, C. Weber, S. Schürmann, M. D. H. Teichmann, F. von Wegner, R. H. A. Fink, M. Vogel, J. S. Chamberlain, and C. Garbe, “Microarchitecture is severely compromised but motor protein function is preserved in dystrophic mdx skeletal muscle,” Biophys. J.98(4), 606–616 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bushby, R. Finkel, D. J. Birnkrant, L. E. Case, P. R. Clemens, L. Cripe, A. Kaul, K. Kinnett, C. McDonald, S. Pandya, J. Poysky, F. Shapiro, J. Tomezsko, C. Constantin, and DMD Care Considerations Working Group, “Diagnosis and management of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, part 1: diagnosis, and pharmacological and psychosocial management,” Lancet Neurol.9(1), 77–93 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Kornegay, J. A. Li, J. R. Bogan, D. J. Bogan, C. L. Chen, H. Zheng, B. Wang, C. P. Qiao, J. F. Howard, and X. A. Xiao, “Widespread muscle expression of an AAV9 human mini-dystrophin vector after intravenous injection in neonatal dystrophin-deficient dogs,” Mol. Ther.18(8), 1501–1508 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, C. Saunders, S. L. Jacques, and D. D. Sampson, “Parametric imaging of cancer with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 046029 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

M. S. Jafri, R. Tang, and C. M. Tang, “Optical coherence tomography guided neurosurgical procedures in small rodents,” J. Neurosci. Methods176(2), 85–95 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Schambach, S. Bag, V. Steil, C. Isaza, L. Schilling, C. Groden, and M. A. Brockmann, “Ultrafast high-resolution in vivo volume-CTA of mice cerebral vessels,” Stroke40(4), 1444–1450 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kobayashi, A. Nakamura, D. Hasegawa, M. Fujita, H. Orima, and S. Takeda, “Evaluation of dystrophic dog pathology by fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging,” Muscle Nerve40(5), 815–826 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

M. D. Grounds, H. G. Radley, G. S. Lynch, K. Nagaraju, and A. De Luca, “Towards developing standard operating procedures for pre-clinical testing in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy,” Neurobiol. Dis.31(1), 1–19 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ni, M. Zhang, S. F. Ding, W. Q. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Micro-ultrasound imaging assessment of carotid plaque characteristics in apolipoprotein-E knockout mice,” Atherosclerosis197(1), 64–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Klyen, J. J. Armstrong, S. G. Adie, H. G. Radley, M. D. Grounds, and D. D. Sampson, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of whole-muscle autografts as a precursor to morphological assessment of muscular dystrophy in mice,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 011003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Llewellyn, R. P. J. Barretto, S. L. Delp, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Minimally invasive high-speed imaging of sarcomere contractile dynamics in mice and humans,” Nature454(7205), 784–788 (2008).
[PubMed]

S. V. Plotnikov, A. M. Kenny, S. J. Walsh, B. Zubrowski, C. Joseph, V. L. Scranton, G. A. Kuchel, D. Dauser, M. S. Xu, C. C. Pilbeam, D. J. Adams, R. P. Dougherty, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Measurement of muscle disease by quantitative second-harmonic generation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 044018 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Standish, K. K. C. Lee, X. Jin, A. Mariampillai, N. R. Munce, M. F. G. Wood, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Interstitial Doppler optical coherence tomography as a local tumor necrosis predictor in photodynamic therapy of prostatic carcinoma: an in vivo study,” Cancer Res.68(23), 9987–9995 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

K. D. Wallace, J. N. Marsh, S. L. Baldwin, A. M. Connolly, R. Keeling, G. M. Lanza, S. A. Wickline, and M. S. Hughes, “Sensitive ultrasonic delineation of steroid treatment in living dystrophic mice with energy-based and entropy-based radio frequency signal processing,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control54(11), 2291–2299 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

M. Bartoli, N. Bourg, D. Stockholm, F. Raynaud, A. Delevacque, Y. Han, P. Borel, K. Seddik, N. Armande, and I. Richard, “A mouse model for monitoring calpain activity under physiological and pathological conditions,” J. Biol. Chem.281(51), 39672–39680 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Bolan, E. Yacoub, M. Garwood, K. Ugurbil, and N. Harel, “In vivo micro-MRI of intracortical neurovasculature,” Neuroimage32(1), 62–69 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Pasquesi, S. C. Schlachter, M. D. Boppart, E. Chaney, S. J. Kaufman, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo detection of exercised-induced ultrastructural changes in genetically-altered murine skeletal muscle using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express14(4), 1547–1556 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

V. X. D. Yang, Y. X. Mao, N. Munce, B. Standish, W. Kucharczyk, N. E. Marcon, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Interstitial Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1791–1793 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Walter, L. Cordier, D. Bloy, and H. L. Sweeney, “Noninvasive monitoring of gene correction in dystrophic muscle,” Magn. Reson. Med.54(6), 1369–1376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

H. Amthor, T. Egelhof, I. McKinnell, M. E. Ladd, I. Janssen, J. Weber, H. Sinn, H. H. Schrenk, M. Forsting, T. Voit, and V. Straub, “Albumin targeting of damaged muscle fibres in the mdx mouse can be monitored by MRI,” Neuromuscul. Disord.14(12), 791–796 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Y. Zhu, M. Rodriguez-Porcel, M. D. Bentley, A. R. Chade, V. Sica, C. Napoli, N. Caplice, E. L. Ritman, A. Lerman, and L. O. Lerman, “Antioxidant intervention attenuates myocardial neovascularization in hypercholesterolemia,” Circulation109(17), 2109–2115 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Sainter, T. A. King, and M. R. Dickinson, “Effect of target biological tissue and choice of light source on penetration depth and resolution in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(1), 193–199 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2000 (3)

V. Straub, K. M. Donahue, V. Allamand, R. L. Davisson, Y. R. Kim, and K. P. Campbell, “Contrast agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of skeletal muscle damage in animal models of muscular dystrophy,” Magn. Reson. Med.44(4), 655–659 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. S. Foster, C. J. Pavlin, K. A. Harasiewicz, D. A. Christopher, and D. H. Turnbull, “Advances in ultrasound biomicroscopy,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.26(1), 1–27 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. D. Li, C. Chudoba, T. Ko, C. Pitris, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging needle for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.25(20), 1520–1522 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

L. M. McIntosh, R. E. Baker, and J. E. Anderson, “Magnetic resonance imaging of regenerating and dystrophic mouse muscle,” Biochem. Cell Biol.76(2-3), 532–541 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

J. Phoenix, D. Betal, N. Roberts, T. R. Helliwell, and R. H. T. Edwards, “Objective quantification of muscle and fat in human dystrophic muscle by magnetic resonance image analysis,” Muscle Nerve19(3), 302–310 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

J. Philpot, C. Sewry, J. Pennock, and V. Dubowitz, “Clinical phenotype in congenital muscular dystrophy: correlation with expression of merosin in skeletal muscle,” Neuromuscul. Disord.5(4), 301–305 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Swash, M. M. Brown, and C. Thakkar, “CT muscle imaging and the clinical assessment of neuromuscular disease,” Muscle Nerve18(7), 708–714 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: Statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol.39(10), 1705–1720 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

T. Masuda, N. Fujimaki, E. Ozawa, and H. Ishikawa, “Confocal laser microscopy of dystrophin localization in guinea pig skeletal muscle fibers,” J. Cell Biol.119(3), 543–548 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sipilä and H. Suominen, “Ultrasound imaging of the quadriceps muscle in elderly athletes and untrained men,” Muscle Nerve14(6), 527–533 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

R. C. Haskell, F. D. Carlson, and P. S. Blank, “Form birefringence of muscle,” Biophys. J.56(2), 401–413 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

E. P. Hoffman, K. H. Fischbeck, R. H. Brown, M. Johnson, R. Medori, J. D. Loire, J. B. Harris, R. Waterston, M. Brooke, L. Specht, W. Kupsky, J. Chamberlain, C. T. Caskey, F. Shapiro, and L. M. Kunkel, “Characterization of dystrophin in muscle-biopsy specimens from patients with Duchenne’s or Becker’s muscular dystrophy,” N. Engl. J. Med.318(21), 1363–1368 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

Y. Yeh, R. J. Baskin, R. A. Brown, and K. Burton, “Depolarization spectrum of diffracted light from muscle fiber. The intrinsic anisotropy component,” Biophys. J.47(5), 739–742 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

R. H. Colby, “Intrinsic birefringence of glycerinated myofibrils,” J. Cell Biol.51(3), 763–771 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adams, D. J.

S. V. Plotnikov, A. M. Kenny, S. J. Walsh, B. Zubrowski, C. Joseph, V. L. Scranton, G. A. Kuchel, D. Dauser, M. S. Xu, C. C. Pilbeam, D. J. Adams, R. P. Dougherty, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Measurement of muscle disease by quantitative second-harmonic generation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 044018 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adie, S. G.

B. R. Klyen, J. J. Armstrong, S. G. Adie, H. G. Radley, M. D. Grounds, and D. D. Sampson, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of whole-muscle autografts as a precursor to morphological assessment of muscular dystrophy in mice,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 011003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allamand, V.

V. Straub, K. M. Donahue, V. Allamand, R. L. Davisson, Y. R. Kim, and K. P. Campbell, “Contrast agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of skeletal muscle damage in animal models of muscular dystrophy,” Magn. Reson. Med.44(4), 655–659 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amthor, H.

H. Amthor, T. Egelhof, I. McKinnell, M. E. Ladd, I. Janssen, J. Weber, H. Sinn, H. H. Schrenk, M. Forsting, T. Voit, and V. Straub, “Albumin targeting of damaged muscle fibres in the mdx mouse can be monitored by MRI,” Neuromuscul. Disord.14(12), 791–796 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, J. E.

L. M. McIntosh, R. E. Baker, and J. E. Anderson, “Magnetic resonance imaging of regenerating and dystrophic mouse muscle,” Biochem. Cell Biol.76(2-3), 532–541 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Applegate, M. B.

Armande, N.

M. Bartoli, N. Bourg, D. Stockholm, F. Raynaud, A. Delevacque, Y. Han, P. Borel, K. Seddik, N. Armande, and I. Richard, “A mouse model for monitoring calpain activity under physiological and pathological conditions,” J. Biol. Chem.281(51), 39672–39680 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armstrong, J. J.

B. R. Klyen, J. J. Armstrong, S. G. Adie, H. G. Radley, M. D. Grounds, and D. D. Sampson, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of whole-muscle autografts as a precursor to morphological assessment of muscular dystrophy in mice,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 011003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bag, S.

S. J. Schambach, S. Bag, L. Schilling, C. Groden, and M. A. Brockmann, “Application of micro-CT in small animal imaging,” Methods50(1), 2–13 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Schambach, S. Bag, V. Steil, C. Isaza, L. Schilling, C. Groden, and M. A. Brockmann, “Ultrafast high-resolution in vivo volume-CTA of mice cerebral vessels,” Stroke40(4), 1444–1450 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, R. E.

L. M. McIntosh, R. E. Baker, and J. E. Anderson, “Magnetic resonance imaging of regenerating and dystrophic mouse muscle,” Biochem. Cell Biol.76(2-3), 532–541 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baldwin, S. L.

K. D. Wallace, J. N. Marsh, S. L. Baldwin, A. M. Connolly, R. Keeling, G. M. Lanza, S. A. Wickline, and M. S. Hughes, “Sensitive ultrasonic delineation of steroid treatment in living dystrophic mice with energy-based and entropy-based radio frequency signal processing,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control54(11), 2291–2299 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barretto, R. P. J.

M. E. Llewellyn, R. P. J. Barretto, S. L. Delp, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Minimally invasive high-speed imaging of sarcomere contractile dynamics in mice and humans,” Nature454(7205), 784–788 (2008).
[PubMed]

Bartoli, M.

M. Bartoli, N. Bourg, D. Stockholm, F. Raynaud, A. Delevacque, Y. Han, P. Borel, K. Seddik, N. Armande, and I. Richard, “A mouse model for monitoring calpain activity under physiological and pathological conditions,” J. Biol. Chem.281(51), 39672–39680 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baskin, R. J.

Y. Yeh, R. J. Baskin, R. A. Brown, and K. Burton, “Depolarization spectrum of diffracted light from muscle fiber. The intrinsic anisotropy component,” Biophys. J.47(5), 739–742 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bentley, M. D.

X. Y. Zhu, M. Rodriguez-Porcel, M. D. Bentley, A. R. Chade, V. Sica, C. Napoli, N. Caplice, E. L. Ritman, A. Lerman, and L. O. Lerman, “Antioxidant intervention attenuates myocardial neovascularization in hypercholesterolemia,” Circulation109(17), 2109–2115 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Betal, D.

J. Phoenix, D. Betal, N. Roberts, T. R. Helliwell, and R. H. T. Edwards, “Objective quantification of muscle and fat in human dystrophic muscle by magnetic resonance image analysis,” Muscle Nerve19(3), 302–310 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birnkrant, D. J.

K. Bushby, R. Finkel, D. J. Birnkrant, L. E. Case, P. R. Clemens, L. Cripe, A. Kaul, K. Kinnett, C. McDonald, S. Pandya, J. Poysky, F. Shapiro, J. Tomezsko, C. Constantin, and DMD Care Considerations Working Group, “Diagnosis and management of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, part 1: diagnosis, and pharmacological and psychosocial management,” Lancet Neurol.9(1), 77–93 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blank, P. S.

R. C. Haskell, F. D. Carlson, and P. S. Blank, “Form birefringence of muscle,” Biophys. J.56(2), 401–413 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bloy, D.

G. Walter, L. Cordier, D. Bloy, and H. L. Sweeney, “Noninvasive monitoring of gene correction in dystrophic muscle,” Magn. Reson. Med.54(6), 1369–1376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogan, D. J.

J. N. Kornegay, J. A. Li, J. R. Bogan, D. J. Bogan, C. L. Chen, H. Zheng, B. Wang, C. P. Qiao, J. F. Howard, and X. A. Xiao, “Widespread muscle expression of an AAV9 human mini-dystrophin vector after intravenous injection in neonatal dystrophin-deficient dogs,” Mol. Ther.18(8), 1501–1508 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogan, J. R.

J. N. Kornegay, J. A. Li, J. R. Bogan, D. J. Bogan, C. L. Chen, H. Zheng, B. Wang, C. P. Qiao, J. F. Howard, and X. A. Xiao, “Widespread muscle expression of an AAV9 human mini-dystrophin vector after intravenous injection in neonatal dystrophin-deficient dogs,” Mol. Ther.18(8), 1501–1508 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolan, P. J.

P. J. Bolan, E. Yacoub, M. Garwood, K. Ugurbil, and N. Harel, “In vivo micro-MRI of intracortical neurovasculature,” Neuroimage32(1), 62–69 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, M. D.

Boppart, S. A.

Borel, P.

M. Bartoli, N. Bourg, D. Stockholm, F. Raynaud, A. Delevacque, Y. Han, P. Borel, K. Seddik, N. Armande, and I. Richard, “A mouse model for monitoring calpain activity under physiological and pathological conditions,” J. Biol. Chem.281(51), 39672–39680 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Both, M.

O. Friedrich, M. Both, C. Weber, S. Schürmann, M. D. H. Teichmann, F. von Wegner, R. H. A. Fink, M. Vogel, J. S. Chamberlain, and C. Garbe, “Microarchitecture is severely compromised but motor protein function is preserved in dystrophic mdx skeletal muscle,” Biophys. J.98(4), 606–616 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

Bourg, N.

M. Bartoli, N. Bourg, D. Stockholm, F. Raynaud, A. Delevacque, Y. Han, P. Borel, K. Seddik, N. Armande, and I. Richard, “A mouse model for monitoring calpain activity under physiological and pathological conditions,” J. Biol. Chem.281(51), 39672–39680 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bourke, A. G.

A. Curatolo, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, A. G. Bourke, B. A. Wood, P. D. Robbins, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Ultrasound-guided optical coherence tomography needle probe for the assessment of breast cancer tumor margins,” Am. J. Roentgenol.199(4), W520–W522 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brockmann, M. A.

S. J. Schambach, S. Bag, L. Schilling, C. Groden, and M. A. Brockmann, “Application of micro-CT in small animal imaging,” Methods50(1), 2–13 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Schambach, S. Bag, V. Steil, C. Isaza, L. Schilling, C. Groden, and M. A. Brockmann, “Ultrafast high-resolution in vivo volume-CTA of mice cerebral vessels,” Stroke40(4), 1444–1450 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brooke, M.

E. P. Hoffman, K. H. Fischbeck, R. H. Brown, M. Johnson, R. Medori, J. D. Loire, J. B. Harris, R. Waterston, M. Brooke, L. Specht, W. Kupsky, J. Chamberlain, C. T. Caskey, F. Shapiro, and L. M. Kunkel, “Characterization of dystrophin in muscle-biopsy specimens from patients with Duchenne’s or Becker’s muscular dystrophy,” N. Engl. J. Med.318(21), 1363–1368 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, M. M.

M. Swash, M. M. Brown, and C. Thakkar, “CT muscle imaging and the clinical assessment of neuromuscular disease,” Muscle Nerve18(7), 708–714 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, R. A.

Y. Yeh, R. J. Baskin, R. A. Brown, and K. Burton, “Depolarization spectrum of diffracted light from muscle fiber. The intrinsic anisotropy component,” Biophys. J.47(5), 739–742 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, R. H.

E. P. Hoffman, K. H. Fischbeck, R. H. Brown, M. Johnson, R. Medori, J. D. Loire, J. B. Harris, R. Waterston, M. Brooke, L. Specht, W. Kupsky, J. Chamberlain, C. T. Caskey, F. Shapiro, and L. M. Kunkel, “Characterization of dystrophin in muscle-biopsy specimens from patients with Duchenne’s or Becker’s muscular dystrophy,” N. Engl. J. Med.318(21), 1363–1368 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burton, K.

Y. Yeh, R. J. Baskin, R. A. Brown, and K. Burton, “Depolarization spectrum of diffracted light from muscle fiber. The intrinsic anisotropy component,” Biophys. J.47(5), 739–742 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bushby, K.

K. Bushby, R. Finkel, D. J. Birnkrant, L. E. Case, P. R. Clemens, L. Cripe, A. Kaul, K. Kinnett, C. McDonald, S. Pandya, J. Poysky, F. Shapiro, J. Tomezsko, C. Constantin, and DMD Care Considerations Working Group, “Diagnosis and management of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, part 1: diagnosis, and pharmacological and psychosocial management,” Lancet Neurol.9(1), 77–93 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campagnola, P. J.

S. V. Plotnikov, A. M. Kenny, S. J. Walsh, B. Zubrowski, C. Joseph, V. L. Scranton, G. A. Kuchel, D. Dauser, M. S. Xu, C. C. Pilbeam, D. J. Adams, R. P. Dougherty, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Measurement of muscle disease by quantitative second-harmonic generation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 044018 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, K. P.

V. Straub, K. M. Donahue, V. Allamand, R. L. Davisson, Y. R. Kim, and K. P. Campbell, “Contrast agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of skeletal muscle damage in animal models of muscular dystrophy,” Magn. Reson. Med.44(4), 655–659 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Canto, M. I. F.

Y. C. Wu, J. F. Xi, L. Huo, J. Padvorac, E. J. Shin, S. A. Giday, A. M. Lennon, M. I. F. Canto, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “Robust high-resolution fine OCT needle for side-viewing interstitial tissue imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 863–869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Caplice, N.

X. Y. Zhu, M. Rodriguez-Porcel, M. D. Bentley, A. R. Chade, V. Sica, C. Napoli, N. Caplice, E. L. Ritman, A. Lerman, and L. O. Lerman, “Antioxidant intervention attenuates myocardial neovascularization in hypercholesterolemia,” Circulation109(17), 2109–2115 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlson, F. D.

R. C. Haskell, F. D. Carlson, and P. S. Blank, “Form birefringence of muscle,” Biophys. J.56(2), 401–413 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Case, L. E.

K. Bushby, R. Finkel, D. J. Birnkrant, L. E. Case, P. R. Clemens, L. Cripe, A. Kaul, K. Kinnett, C. McDonald, S. Pandya, J. Poysky, F. Shapiro, J. Tomezsko, C. Constantin, and DMD Care Considerations Working Group, “Diagnosis and management of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, part 1: diagnosis, and pharmacological and psychosocial management,” Lancet Neurol.9(1), 77–93 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caskey, C. T.

E. P. Hoffman, K. H. Fischbeck, R. H. Brown, M. Johnson, R. Medori, J. D. Loire, J. B. Harris, R. Waterston, M. Brooke, L. Specht, W. Kupsky, J. Chamberlain, C. T. Caskey, F. Shapiro, and L. M. Kunkel, “Characterization of dystrophin in muscle-biopsy specimens from patients with Duchenne’s or Becker’s muscular dystrophy,” N. Engl. J. Med.318(21), 1363–1368 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chade, A. R.

X. Y. Zhu, M. Rodriguez-Porcel, M. D. Bentley, A. R. Chade, V. Sica, C. Napoli, N. Caplice, E. L. Ritman, A. Lerman, and L. O. Lerman, “Antioxidant intervention attenuates myocardial neovascularization in hypercholesterolemia,” Circulation109(17), 2109–2115 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chamberlain, J.

E. P. Hoffman, K. H. Fischbeck, R. H. Brown, M. Johnson, R. Medori, J. D. Loire, J. B. Harris, R. Waterston, M. Brooke, L. Specht, W. Kupsky, J. Chamberlain, C. T. Caskey, F. Shapiro, and L. M. Kunkel, “Characterization of dystrophin in muscle-biopsy specimens from patients with Duchenne’s or Becker’s muscular dystrophy,” N. Engl. J. Med.318(21), 1363–1368 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chamberlain, J. S.

O. Friedrich, M. Both, C. Weber, S. Schürmann, M. D. H. Teichmann, F. von Wegner, R. H. A. Fink, M. Vogel, J. S. Chamberlain, and C. Garbe, “Microarchitecture is severely compromised but motor protein function is preserved in dystrophic mdx skeletal muscle,” Biophys. J.98(4), 606–616 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, E. S. Y.

A. R. Patel, E. S. Y. Chan, D. E. Hansel, C. T. Powell, W. D. Heston, and W. A. Larchian, “Transabdominal micro-ultrasound imaging of bladder cancer in a mouse model: a validation study,” Urology75(4), 799–804 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaney, E.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chee, A.

Chen, C. L.

J. N. Kornegay, J. A. Li, J. R. Bogan, D. J. Bogan, C. L. Chen, H. Zheng, B. Wang, C. P. Qiao, J. F. Howard, and X. A. Xiao, “Widespread muscle expression of an AAV9 human mini-dystrophin vector after intravenous injection in neonatal dystrophin-deficient dogs,” Mol. Ther.18(8), 1501–1508 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W. Q.

M. Ni, M. Zhang, S. F. Ding, W. Q. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Micro-ultrasound imaging assessment of carotid plaque characteristics in apolipoprotein-E knockout mice,” Atherosclerosis197(1), 64–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

R. M. Lovering, S. B. Shah, S. J. P. Pratt, W. Gong, and Y. Chen, “Architecture of healthy and dystrophic muscles detected by optical coherence tomography,” Muscle Nerve47(4), 588–590 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, L.

X. Yang, L. Chin, B. R. Klyen, T. Shavlakadze, R. A. McLaughlin, M. D. Grounds, and D. D. Sampson, “Quantitative assessment of muscle damage in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Appl. Physiol.115(9), 1393–1401 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, L. X.

L. X. Chin, X. J. Yang, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “En face parametric imaging of tissue birefringence using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(6), 066005 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christopher, D. A.

F. S. Foster, C. J. Pavlin, K. A. Harasiewicz, D. A. Christopher, and D. H. Turnbull, “Advances in ultrasound biomicroscopy,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.26(1), 1–27 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chudoba, C.

Clemens, P. R.

K. Bushby, R. Finkel, D. J. Birnkrant, L. E. Case, P. R. Clemens, L. Cripe, A. Kaul, K. Kinnett, C. McDonald, S. Pandya, J. Poysky, F. Shapiro, J. Tomezsko, C. Constantin, and DMD Care Considerations Working Group, “Diagnosis and management of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, part 1: diagnosis, and pharmacological and psychosocial management,” Lancet Neurol.9(1), 77–93 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colby, R. H.

R. H. Colby, “Intrinsic birefringence of glycerinated myofibrils,” J. Cell Biol.51(3), 763–771 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Connolly, A. M.

K. D. Wallace, J. N. Marsh, S. L. Baldwin, A. M. Connolly, R. Keeling, G. M. Lanza, S. A. Wickline, and M. S. Hughes, “Sensitive ultrasonic delineation of steroid treatment in living dystrophic mice with energy-based and entropy-based radio frequency signal processing,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control54(11), 2291–2299 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Constantin, C.

K. Bushby, R. Finkel, D. J. Birnkrant, L. E. Case, P. R. Clemens, L. Cripe, A. Kaul, K. Kinnett, C. McDonald, S. Pandya, J. Poysky, F. Shapiro, J. Tomezsko, C. Constantin, and DMD Care Considerations Working Group, “Diagnosis and management of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, part 1: diagnosis, and pharmacological and psychosocial management,” Lancet Neurol.9(1), 77–93 (2010).
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Cordier, L.

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J. Phoenix, D. Betal, N. Roberts, T. R. Helliwell, and R. H. T. Edwards, “Objective quantification of muscle and fat in human dystrophic muscle by magnetic resonance image analysis,” Muscle Nerve19(3), 302–310 (1996).
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A. R. Patel, E. S. Y. Chan, D. E. Hansel, C. T. Powell, W. D. Heston, and W. A. Larchian, “Transabdominal micro-ultrasound imaging of bladder cancer in a mouse model: a validation study,” Urology75(4), 799–804 (2010).
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Y. C. Wu, J. F. Xi, L. Huo, J. Padvorac, E. J. Shin, S. A. Giday, A. M. Lennon, M. I. F. Canto, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “Robust high-resolution fine OCT needle for side-viewing interstitial tissue imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 863–869 (2010).
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S. J. Schambach, S. Bag, V. Steil, C. Isaza, L. Schilling, C. Groden, and M. A. Brockmann, “Ultrafast high-resolution in vivo volume-CTA of mice cerebral vessels,” Stroke40(4), 1444–1450 (2009).
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T. Masuda, N. Fujimaki, E. Ozawa, and H. Ishikawa, “Confocal laser microscopy of dystrophin localization in guinea pig skeletal muscle fibers,” J. Cell Biol.119(3), 543–548 (1992).
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Jafri, M. S.

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S. V. Plotnikov, A. M. Kenny, S. J. Walsh, B. Zubrowski, C. Joseph, V. L. Scranton, G. A. Kuchel, D. Dauser, M. S. Xu, C. C. Pilbeam, D. J. Adams, R. P. Dougherty, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Measurement of muscle disease by quantitative second-harmonic generation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 044018 (2008).
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Kaul, A.

K. Bushby, R. Finkel, D. J. Birnkrant, L. E. Case, P. R. Clemens, L. Cripe, A. Kaul, K. Kinnett, C. McDonald, S. Pandya, J. Poysky, F. Shapiro, J. Tomezsko, C. Constantin, and DMD Care Considerations Working Group, “Diagnosis and management of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, part 1: diagnosis, and pharmacological and psychosocial management,” Lancet Neurol.9(1), 77–93 (2010).
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K. D. Wallace, J. N. Marsh, S. L. Baldwin, A. M. Connolly, R. Keeling, G. M. Lanza, S. A. Wickline, and M. S. Hughes, “Sensitive ultrasonic delineation of steroid treatment in living dystrophic mice with energy-based and entropy-based radio frequency signal processing,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control54(11), 2291–2299 (2007).
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V. Straub, K. M. Donahue, V. Allamand, R. L. Davisson, Y. R. Kim, and K. P. Campbell, “Contrast agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of skeletal muscle damage in animal models of muscular dystrophy,” Magn. Reson. Med.44(4), 655–659 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. W. Sainter, T. A. King, and M. R. Dickinson, “Effect of target biological tissue and choice of light source on penetration depth and resolution in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(1), 193–199 (2004).
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R. A. McLaughlin, X. Yang, B. C. Quirk, D. Lorenser, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “Static and dynamic imaging of alveoli using optical coherence tomography needle probes,” J. Appl. Physiol.113(6), 967–974 (2012).
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A. Curatolo, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, A. G. Bourke, B. A. Wood, P. D. Robbins, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Ultrasound-guided optical coherence tomography needle probe for the assessment of breast cancer tumor margins,” Am. J. Roentgenol.199(4), W520–W522 (2012).
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B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “In situ imaging of lung alveoli with an optical coherence tomography needle probe,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(3), 036009 (2011).
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X. Yang, L. Chin, B. R. Klyen, T. Shavlakadze, R. A. McLaughlin, M. D. Grounds, and D. D. Sampson, “Quantitative assessment of muscle damage in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Appl. Physiol.115(9), 1393–1401 (2013).
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A. R. Patel, E. S. Y. Chan, D. E. Hansel, C. T. Powell, W. D. Heston, and W. A. Larchian, “Transabdominal micro-ultrasound imaging of bladder cancer in a mouse model: a validation study,” Urology75(4), 799–804 (2010).
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R. A. McLaughlin, X. Yang, B. C. Quirk, D. Lorenser, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “Static and dynamic imaging of alveoli using optical coherence tomography needle probes,” J. Appl. Physiol.113(6), 967–974 (2012).
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L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, and D. D. Sampson, “High-sensitivity anastigmatic imaging needle for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.37(24), 5247–5249 (2012).
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D. Lorenser, X. Yang, R. W. Kirk, B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Ultrathin side-viewing needle probe for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.36(19), 3894–3896 (2011).
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R. M. Lovering, S. B. Shah, S. J. P. Pratt, W. Gong, and Y. Chen, “Architecture of healthy and dystrophic muscles detected by optical coherence tomography,” Muscle Nerve47(4), 588–590 (2013).
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M. D. Grounds, H. G. Radley, G. S. Lynch, K. Nagaraju, and A. De Luca, “Towards developing standard operating procedures for pre-clinical testing in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy,” Neurobiol. Dis.31(1), 1–19 (2008).
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K. D. Wallace, J. N. Marsh, S. L. Baldwin, A. M. Connolly, R. Keeling, G. M. Lanza, S. A. Wickline, and M. S. Hughes, “Sensitive ultrasonic delineation of steroid treatment in living dystrophic mice with energy-based and entropy-based radio frequency signal processing,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control54(11), 2291–2299 (2007).
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X. Yang, L. Chin, B. R. Klyen, T. Shavlakadze, R. A. McLaughlin, M. D. Grounds, and D. D. Sampson, “Quantitative assessment of muscle damage in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Appl. Physiol.115(9), 1393–1401 (2013).
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L. X. Chin, X. J. Yang, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “En face parametric imaging of tissue birefringence using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(6), 066005 (2013).
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L. Scolaro, R. A. McLaughlin, B. R. Klyen, B. A. Wood, P. D. Robbins, C. M. Saunders, S. L. Jacques, and D. D. Sampson, “Parametric imaging of the local attenuation coefficient in human axillary lymph nodes assessed using optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(2), 366–379 (2012).
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A. Curatolo, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, A. G. Bourke, B. A. Wood, P. D. Robbins, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Ultrasound-guided optical coherence tomography needle probe for the assessment of breast cancer tumor margins,” Am. J. Roentgenol.199(4), W520–W522 (2012).
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L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, and D. D. Sampson, “High-sensitivity anastigmatic imaging needle for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.37(24), 5247–5249 (2012).
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R. A. McLaughlin, X. Yang, B. C. Quirk, D. Lorenser, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “Static and dynamic imaging of alveoli using optical coherence tomography needle probes,” J. Appl. Physiol.113(6), 967–974 (2012).
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R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
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D. Lorenser, X. Yang, R. W. Kirk, B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Ultrathin side-viewing needle probe for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.36(19), 3894–3896 (2011).
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B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “In situ imaging of lung alveoli with an optical coherence tomography needle probe,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(3), 036009 (2011).
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R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, C. Saunders, S. L. Jacques, and D. D. Sampson, “Parametric imaging of cancer with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 046029 (2010).
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M. D. Grounds, H. G. Radley, G. S. Lynch, K. Nagaraju, and A. De Luca, “Towards developing standard operating procedures for pre-clinical testing in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy,” Neurobiol. Dis.31(1), 1–19 (2008).
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M. Kobayashi, A. Nakamura, D. Hasegawa, M. Fujita, H. Orima, and S. Takeda, “Evaluation of dystrophic dog pathology by fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging,” Muscle Nerve40(5), 815–826 (2009).
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L. X. Chin, X. J. Yang, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “En face parametric imaging of tissue birefringence using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(6), 066005 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, X. Yang, B. C. Quirk, D. Lorenser, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “Static and dynamic imaging of alveoli using optical coherence tomography needle probes,” J. Appl. Physiol.113(6), 967–974 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “In situ imaging of lung alveoli with an optical coherence tomography needle probe,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(3), 036009 (2011).
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M. Kobayashi, A. Nakamura, D. Hasegawa, M. Fujita, H. Orima, and S. Takeda, “Evaluation of dystrophic dog pathology by fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging,” Muscle Nerve40(5), 815–826 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Masuda, N. Fujimaki, E. Ozawa, and H. Ishikawa, “Confocal laser microscopy of dystrophin localization in guinea pig skeletal muscle fibers,” J. Cell Biol.119(3), 543–548 (1992).
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Y. C. Wu, J. F. Xi, L. Huo, J. Padvorac, E. J. Shin, S. A. Giday, A. M. Lennon, M. I. F. Canto, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “Robust high-resolution fine OCT needle for side-viewing interstitial tissue imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 863–869 (2010).
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A. R. Patel, E. S. Y. Chan, D. E. Hansel, C. T. Powell, W. D. Heston, and W. A. Larchian, “Transabdominal micro-ultrasound imaging of bladder cancer in a mouse model: a validation study,” Urology75(4), 799–804 (2010).
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S. V. Plotnikov, A. M. Kenny, S. J. Walsh, B. Zubrowski, C. Joseph, V. L. Scranton, G. A. Kuchel, D. Dauser, M. S. Xu, C. C. Pilbeam, D. J. Adams, R. P. Dougherty, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Measurement of muscle disease by quantitative second-harmonic generation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 044018 (2008).
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Pitris, C.

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S. V. Plotnikov, A. M. Kenny, S. J. Walsh, B. Zubrowski, C. Joseph, V. L. Scranton, G. A. Kuchel, D. Dauser, M. S. Xu, C. C. Pilbeam, D. J. Adams, R. P. Dougherty, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Measurement of muscle disease by quantitative second-harmonic generation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 044018 (2008).
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A. R. Patel, E. S. Y. Chan, D. E. Hansel, C. T. Powell, W. D. Heston, and W. A. Larchian, “Transabdominal micro-ultrasound imaging of bladder cancer in a mouse model: a validation study,” Urology75(4), 799–804 (2010).
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K. Bushby, R. Finkel, D. J. Birnkrant, L. E. Case, P. R. Clemens, L. Cripe, A. Kaul, K. Kinnett, C. McDonald, S. Pandya, J. Poysky, F. Shapiro, J. Tomezsko, C. Constantin, and DMD Care Considerations Working Group, “Diagnosis and management of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, part 1: diagnosis, and pharmacological and psychosocial management,” Lancet Neurol.9(1), 77–93 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pratt, S. J. P.

R. M. Lovering, S. B. Shah, S. J. P. Pratt, W. Gong, and Y. Chen, “Architecture of healthy and dystrophic muscles detected by optical coherence tomography,” Muscle Nerve47(4), 588–590 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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J. N. Kornegay, J. A. Li, J. R. Bogan, D. J. Bogan, C. L. Chen, H. Zheng, B. Wang, C. P. Qiao, J. F. Howard, and X. A. Xiao, “Widespread muscle expression of an AAV9 human mini-dystrophin vector after intravenous injection in neonatal dystrophin-deficient dogs,” Mol. Ther.18(8), 1501–1508 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. A. McLaughlin, X. Yang, B. C. Quirk, D. Lorenser, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “Static and dynamic imaging of alveoli using optical coherence tomography needle probes,” J. Appl. Physiol.113(6), 967–974 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, and D. D. Sampson, “High-sensitivity anastigmatic imaging needle for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.37(24), 5247–5249 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Curatolo, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, A. G. Bourke, B. A. Wood, P. D. Robbins, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Ultrasound-guided optical coherence tomography needle probe for the assessment of breast cancer tumor margins,” Am. J. Roentgenol.199(4), W520–W522 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Lorenser, X. Yang, R. W. Kirk, B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Ultrathin side-viewing needle probe for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.36(19), 3894–3896 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “In situ imaging of lung alveoli with an optical coherence tomography needle probe,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(3), 036009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. R. Klyen, J. J. Armstrong, S. G. Adie, H. G. Radley, M. D. Grounds, and D. D. Sampson, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of whole-muscle autografts as a precursor to morphological assessment of muscular dystrophy in mice,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 011003 (2008).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Bartoli, N. Bourg, D. Stockholm, F. Raynaud, A. Delevacque, Y. Han, P. Borel, K. Seddik, N. Armande, and I. Richard, “A mouse model for monitoring calpain activity under physiological and pathological conditions,” J. Biol. Chem.281(51), 39672–39680 (2006).
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R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, C. Saunders, S. L. Jacques, and D. D. Sampson, “Parametric imaging of cancer with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 046029 (2010).
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L. Scolaro, R. A. McLaughlin, B. R. Klyen, B. A. Wood, P. D. Robbins, C. M. Saunders, S. L. Jacques, and D. D. Sampson, “Parametric imaging of the local attenuation coefficient in human axillary lymph nodes assessed using optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(2), 366–379 (2012).
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A. Curatolo, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, A. G. Bourke, B. A. Wood, P. D. Robbins, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Ultrasound-guided optical coherence tomography needle probe for the assessment of breast cancer tumor margins,” Am. J. Roentgenol.199(4), W520–W522 (2012).
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R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
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A. Curatolo, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, A. G. Bourke, B. A. Wood, P. D. Robbins, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Ultrasound-guided optical coherence tomography needle probe for the assessment of breast cancer tumor margins,” Am. J. Roentgenol.199(4), W520–W522 (2012).
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L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, and D. D. Sampson, “High-sensitivity anastigmatic imaging needle for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.37(24), 5247–5249 (2012).
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R. A. McLaughlin, X. Yang, B. C. Quirk, D. Lorenser, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “Static and dynamic imaging of alveoli using optical coherence tomography needle probes,” J. Appl. Physiol.113(6), 967–974 (2012).
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D. Lorenser, X. Yang, R. W. Kirk, B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Ultrathin side-viewing needle probe for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.36(19), 3894–3896 (2011).
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R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, C. Saunders, S. L. Jacques, and D. D. Sampson, “Parametric imaging of cancer with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 046029 (2010).
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O. Friedrich, M. Both, C. Weber, S. Schürmann, M. D. H. Teichmann, F. von Wegner, R. H. A. Fink, M. Vogel, J. S. Chamberlain, and C. Garbe, “Microarchitecture is severely compromised but motor protein function is preserved in dystrophic mdx skeletal muscle,” Biophys. J.98(4), 606–616 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. D. Wallace, J. N. Marsh, S. L. Baldwin, A. M. Connolly, R. Keeling, G. M. Lanza, S. A. Wickline, and M. S. Hughes, “Sensitive ultrasonic delineation of steroid treatment in living dystrophic mice with energy-based and entropy-based radio frequency signal processing,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control54(11), 2291–2299 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsh, S. J.

S. V. Plotnikov, A. M. Kenny, S. J. Walsh, B. Zubrowski, C. Joseph, V. L. Scranton, G. A. Kuchel, D. Dauser, M. S. Xu, C. C. Pilbeam, D. J. Adams, R. P. Dougherty, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Measurement of muscle disease by quantitative second-harmonic generation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 044018 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walter, G.

G. Walter, L. Cordier, D. Bloy, and H. L. Sweeney, “Noninvasive monitoring of gene correction in dystrophic muscle,” Magn. Reson. Med.54(6), 1369–1376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

J. N. Kornegay, J. A. Li, J. R. Bogan, D. J. Bogan, C. L. Chen, H. Zheng, B. Wang, C. P. Qiao, J. F. Howard, and X. A. Xiao, “Widespread muscle expression of an AAV9 human mini-dystrophin vector after intravenous injection in neonatal dystrophin-deficient dogs,” Mol. Ther.18(8), 1501–1508 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waterston, R.

E. P. Hoffman, K. H. Fischbeck, R. H. Brown, M. Johnson, R. Medori, J. D. Loire, J. B. Harris, R. Waterston, M. Brooke, L. Specht, W. Kupsky, J. Chamberlain, C. T. Caskey, F. Shapiro, and L. M. Kunkel, “Characterization of dystrophin in muscle-biopsy specimens from patients with Duchenne’s or Becker’s muscular dystrophy,” N. Engl. J. Med.318(21), 1363–1368 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, C.

O. Friedrich, M. Both, C. Weber, S. Schürmann, M. D. H. Teichmann, F. von Wegner, R. H. A. Fink, M. Vogel, J. S. Chamberlain, and C. Garbe, “Microarchitecture is severely compromised but motor protein function is preserved in dystrophic mdx skeletal muscle,” Biophys. J.98(4), 606–616 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, J.

H. Amthor, T. Egelhof, I. McKinnell, M. E. Ladd, I. Janssen, J. Weber, H. Sinn, H. H. Schrenk, M. Forsting, T. Voit, and V. Straub, “Albumin targeting of damaged muscle fibres in the mdx mouse can be monitored by MRI,” Neuromuscul. Disord.14(12), 791–796 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wickline, S. A.

K. D. Wallace, J. N. Marsh, S. L. Baldwin, A. M. Connolly, R. Keeling, G. M. Lanza, S. A. Wickline, and M. S. Hughes, “Sensitive ultrasonic delineation of steroid treatment in living dystrophic mice with energy-based and entropy-based radio frequency signal processing,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control54(11), 2291–2299 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

B. A. Standish, K. K. C. Lee, X. Jin, A. Mariampillai, N. R. Munce, M. F. G. Wood, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Interstitial Doppler optical coherence tomography as a local tumor necrosis predictor in photodynamic therapy of prostatic carcinoma: an in vivo study,” Cancer Res.68(23), 9987–9995 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X. D. Yang, Y. X. Mao, N. Munce, B. Standish, W. Kucharczyk, N. E. Marcon, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Interstitial Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1791–1793 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wood, B. A.

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Curatolo, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, A. G. Bourke, B. A. Wood, P. D. Robbins, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Ultrasound-guided optical coherence tomography needle probe for the assessment of breast cancer tumor margins,” Am. J. Roentgenol.199(4), W520–W522 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Scolaro, R. A. McLaughlin, B. R. Klyen, B. A. Wood, P. D. Robbins, C. M. Saunders, S. L. Jacques, and D. D. Sampson, “Parametric imaging of the local attenuation coefficient in human axillary lymph nodes assessed using optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(2), 366–379 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wood, M. F. G.

B. A. Standish, K. K. C. Lee, X. Jin, A. Mariampillai, N. R. Munce, M. F. G. Wood, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Interstitial Doppler optical coherence tomography as a local tumor necrosis predictor in photodynamic therapy of prostatic carcinoma: an in vivo study,” Cancer Res.68(23), 9987–9995 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y. C.

Y. C. Wu, J. F. Xi, L. Huo, J. Padvorac, E. J. Shin, S. A. Giday, A. M. Lennon, M. I. F. Canto, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “Robust high-resolution fine OCT needle for side-viewing interstitial tissue imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 863–869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Y. C. Wu, J. F. Xi, L. Huo, J. Padvorac, E. J. Shin, S. A. Giday, A. M. Lennon, M. I. F. Canto, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, “Robust high-resolution fine OCT needle for side-viewing interstitial tissue imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 863–869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, X. A.

J. N. Kornegay, J. A. Li, J. R. Bogan, D. J. Bogan, C. L. Chen, H. Zheng, B. Wang, C. P. Qiao, J. F. Howard, and X. A. Xiao, “Widespread muscle expression of an AAV9 human mini-dystrophin vector after intravenous injection in neonatal dystrophin-deficient dogs,” Mol. Ther.18(8), 1501–1508 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. V. Plotnikov, A. M. Kenny, S. J. Walsh, B. Zubrowski, C. Joseph, V. L. Scranton, G. A. Kuchel, D. Dauser, M. S. Xu, C. C. Pilbeam, D. J. Adams, R. P. Dougherty, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Measurement of muscle disease by quantitative second-harmonic generation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 044018 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yacoub, E.

P. J. Bolan, E. Yacoub, M. Garwood, K. Ugurbil, and N. Harel, “In vivo micro-MRI of intracortical neurovasculature,” Neuroimage32(1), 62–69 (2006).
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J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: Statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol.39(10), 1705–1720 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, M. F.

Yang, V. X. D.

B. A. Standish, K. K. C. Lee, X. Jin, A. Mariampillai, N. R. Munce, M. F. G. Wood, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Interstitial Doppler optical coherence tomography as a local tumor necrosis predictor in photodynamic therapy of prostatic carcinoma: an in vivo study,” Cancer Res.68(23), 9987–9995 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X. D. Yang, Y. X. Mao, N. Munce, B. Standish, W. Kucharczyk, N. E. Marcon, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Interstitial Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1791–1793 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, X.

X. Yang, L. Chin, B. R. Klyen, T. Shavlakadze, R. A. McLaughlin, M. D. Grounds, and D. D. Sampson, “Quantitative assessment of muscle damage in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Appl. Physiol.115(9), 1393–1401 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, X. Yang, B. C. Quirk, D. Lorenser, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “Static and dynamic imaging of alveoli using optical coherence tomography needle probes,” J. Appl. Physiol.113(6), 967–974 (2012).
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D. Lorenser, X. Yang, R. W. Kirk, B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Ultrathin side-viewing needle probe for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.36(19), 3894–3896 (2011).
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Yang, X. J.

L. X. Chin, X. J. Yang, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “En face parametric imaging of tissue birefringence using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(6), 066005 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeh, Y.

Y. Yeh, R. J. Baskin, R. A. Brown, and K. Burton, “Depolarization spectrum of diffracted light from muscle fiber. The intrinsic anisotropy component,” Biophys. J.47(5), 739–742 (1985).
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M. Ni, M. Zhang, S. F. Ding, W. Q. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Micro-ultrasound imaging assessment of carotid plaque characteristics in apolipoprotein-E knockout mice,” Atherosclerosis197(1), 64–71 (2008).
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M. Ni, M. Zhang, S. F. Ding, W. Q. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Micro-ultrasound imaging assessment of carotid plaque characteristics in apolipoprotein-E knockout mice,” Atherosclerosis197(1), 64–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, H.

J. N. Kornegay, J. A. Li, J. R. Bogan, D. J. Bogan, C. L. Chen, H. Zheng, B. Wang, C. P. Qiao, J. F. Howard, and X. A. Xiao, “Widespread muscle expression of an AAV9 human mini-dystrophin vector after intravenous injection in neonatal dystrophin-deficient dogs,” Mol. Ther.18(8), 1501–1508 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, X. Y.

X. Y. Zhu, M. Rodriguez-Porcel, M. D. Bentley, A. R. Chade, V. Sica, C. Napoli, N. Caplice, E. L. Ritman, A. Lerman, and L. O. Lerman, “Antioxidant intervention attenuates myocardial neovascularization in hypercholesterolemia,” Circulation109(17), 2109–2115 (2004).
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S. V. Plotnikov, A. M. Kenny, S. J. Walsh, B. Zubrowski, C. Joseph, V. L. Scranton, G. A. Kuchel, D. Dauser, M. S. Xu, C. C. Pilbeam, D. J. Adams, R. P. Dougherty, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Measurement of muscle disease by quantitative second-harmonic generation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 044018 (2008).
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Am. J. Roentgenol. (1)

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Atherosclerosis (1)

M. Ni, M. Zhang, S. F. Ding, W. Q. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Micro-ultrasound imaging assessment of carotid plaque characteristics in apolipoprotein-E knockout mice,” Atherosclerosis197(1), 64–71 (2008).
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B. A. Standish, K. K. C. Lee, X. Jin, A. Mariampillai, N. R. Munce, M. F. G. Wood, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Interstitial Doppler optical coherence tomography as a local tumor necrosis predictor in photodynamic therapy of prostatic carcinoma: an in vivo study,” Cancer Res.68(23), 9987–9995 (2008).
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Circulation (1)

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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

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[CrossRef]

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
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IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (1)

K. D. Wallace, J. N. Marsh, S. L. Baldwin, A. M. Connolly, R. Keeling, G. M. Lanza, S. A. Wickline, and M. S. Hughes, “Sensitive ultrasonic delineation of steroid treatment in living dystrophic mice with energy-based and entropy-based radio frequency signal processing,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control54(11), 2291–2299 (2007).
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R. A. McLaughlin, X. Yang, B. C. Quirk, D. Lorenser, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “Static and dynamic imaging of alveoli using optical coherence tomography needle probes,” J. Appl. Physiol.113(6), 967–974 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Yang, L. Chin, B. R. Klyen, T. Shavlakadze, R. A. McLaughlin, M. D. Grounds, and D. D. Sampson, “Quantitative assessment of muscle damage in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Appl. Physiol.115(9), 1393–1401 (2013).
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L. X. Chin, X. J. Yang, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “En face parametric imaging of tissue birefringence using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(6), 066005 (2013).
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B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “In situ imaging of lung alveoli with an optical coherence tomography needle probe,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(3), 036009 (2011).
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Muscle Nerve (5)

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E. P. Hoffman, K. H. Fischbeck, R. H. Brown, M. Johnson, R. Medori, J. D. Loire, J. B. Harris, R. Waterston, M. Brooke, L. Specht, W. Kupsky, J. Chamberlain, C. T. Caskey, F. Shapiro, and L. M. Kunkel, “Characterization of dystrophin in muscle-biopsy specimens from patients with Duchenne’s or Becker’s muscular dystrophy,” N. Engl. J. Med.318(21), 1363–1368 (1988).
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Opt. Express (2)

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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the ultrathin OCT needle probe. (b) Microscope image of the angle-polished fiber probe before metallization. (c) SEM image of the laser-drilled side opening. (d) Fully assembled needle probe showing the laser-drilled side opening. In the photo, red light from the aiming laser is visible.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Beam profile and sensitivity characterization of the probe. (a) Illustration of the astigmatism introduced by the fiber, resulting in different working distances WDx and WDy in the x- and y-directions. (b) Measured, simulated and fitted FWHM output beam diameters in water, and calculated normalized on-axis intensity (see text for details). (c) Transverse intensity profile of the beam in water at the focus of the x-direction, at a distance of 330 µm from the fiber. (d) Averaged OCT A-scan of a silica/water interface (Peak 4) located at the distance of maximum SNR. The SNR of Peak 4 over a range of distances from the probe is also shown (circles). See text for discussion of the remaining peaks.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the 1300-nm SSOCT needle imaging system. MZI, Mach-Zehnder interferometer; WDM, wavelength-division multiplexer; VOA, variable optical attenuator; SYNC, synchronization signal; PC, polarization controller.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Representative images of normal mouse skeletal muscle. (Left) OCT oblique slice taken from the 3D OCT volumetric data set. The striated appearance indicates the highly organized arrangement of the myofibers (MF and/or arrowhead). Several structures with higher signal intensity indicate tendon (T) and connective tissue (C). (Right) Corresponding H&E histology.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Representative images of dystrophic mouse skeletal muscle. (Left) OCT oblique slice taken from the 3D OCT volumetric data set. The striated appearance indicates the highly organized arrangement of myofibers (MF and/or arrowhead). The structure with higher intensity indicates connective tissue (C). Muscle necrosis is visible as a region without striated appearance (Necrosis). (Right) Corresponding H&E histology.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

A 3D-rendered volumetric OCT data set of normal mouse muscle at an approximate depth of 10 mm in a) and three orthogonal cross sections in b), c) and d). The cross section in d) shows the same image plane as that of Fig. 4, but the brightness and contrast in the visualization software were adjusted differently in this 3D view to enhance the appearance of the full data set, yielding a slightly different dynamic range on the color bar compared to Fig. 4. B, birefringence artifacts; C, connective tissue; MF, myofibers; N, needle tract; T, tendon. The 3D scale bar in a) represents 500 µm in each direction (Media 1).

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