Abstract

We present a novel polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) system with an integrated retinal tracker. The tracking operates at up to 60 Hz, correcting PS-OCT scanning positions during the acquisition to avoid artifacts caused by eye motion. To demonstrate the practical performance of the system, we imaged several healthy volunteers and patients with AMD both with B-scan repetitions for frame averaging and with 3D raster scans. Under large retinal motions with up to 1 mm amplitude at 0.5 ~a few Hz frequency range, motion artifact suppression in the PS-OCT images as well as standard deviation noise reduction in the frame averaged retardation images are presented.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization-Sensitive Low-Coherence Reflectometer for Birefringence Characterization and Ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B9(6), 903–908 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, “Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.22(12), 934–936 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. F. De Boer, S. M. Srinivas, A. Malekafzali, Z. P. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Imaging thermally damaged tissue by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express3(6), 212–218 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of the depth-resolved Stokes parameters of light backscattered from turbid media by use of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.24(5), 300–302 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Goetzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express9(13), 780–790 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Invivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.27(18), 1610–1612 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. F. de Boer and T. E. Milner, “Review of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography and Stokes vector determination,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 359–371 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, Y. Sutoh, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Birefringence imaging of human skin by polarization-sensitive spectral interferometric optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.27(20), 1803–1805 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(8), 2606–2612 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Yamanari, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography with continuous source polarization modulation,” Opt. Express16(8), 5892–5906 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Yasuno, M. Yamanari, K. Kawana, M. Miura, S. Fukuda, S. Makita, S. Sakai, and T. Oshika, “Visibility of trabecular meshwork by standard and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061705 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human eye,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.30(6), 431–451 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT,” Opt. Express12(24), 5940–5951 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Phase retardation measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014013 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.92(2), 204–209 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. Schütze, M. Bolz, R. Sayegh, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Lesion Size Detection in Geographic Atrophy by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography and Correlation to Conventional Imaging Techniques,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(1), 739–745 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. Lammer, M. Bolz, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, G. Mylonas, C. K. Hitzenberger, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and Diabetic Retinopathy Research Group (DRRG) Vienna, “Imaging retinal pigment epithelial proliferation secondary to PASCAL photocoagulation in vivo by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.155(6), 1058–1067 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, H. Sattmann, C. Schuutze, F. Schlanitz, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061704 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. F. G. Schlanitz, B. Baumann, T. Spalek, C. Schütze, C. Ahlers, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Performance of Automated Drusen Detection by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 4571–4579 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, T. Schmoll, H. Sattmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle noise reduction in high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express19(15), 14568–14585 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. S. Martinez-Conde, S. L. Macknik, and D. H. Hubel, “The role of fixational eye movements in visual perception,” Nat. Rev. Neurosci.5(3), 229–240 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, L. A. Paunescu, S. Beaton, and J. S. Schuman, “Tracking optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.29(18), 2139–2141 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, N. V. Iftimia, T. Ustun, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, W. D. Dilworth, L. Kagemann, and J. Schuman, “Advanced scanning methods with tracking optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express13(20), 7937–7947 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. Spectralis (Heidelberg Engineering GmbH., Heidelberg, Germany), http://www.heidelbergengineering.com/international/products/spectralis/
  28. M. Fleckenstein, P. Issa, H. M. Helb, S. Schmitz-Valckenberg, R. P. Finger, H. P. Scholl, K. U. Loeffler, and F. G. Holz, “High-Resolution Spectral Domain-OCT Imaging in Geographic Atrophy Associated with Age-related Macular Degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(9), 4137–4144 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. M. Hangai, M. Yamamoto, A. Sakamoto, and N. Yoshimura, “Ultrahigh-resolution versus speckle noise-reduction in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express17(5), 4221–4235 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. M. N. Menke, S. Dabov, P. Knecht, and V. Sturm, “Reproducibility of Retinal Thickness Measurements in Healthy Subjects Using Spectralis Optical Coherence Tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.147(3), 467–472 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. D. W. Arathorn, Q. Yang, C. R. Vogel, Y. Zhang, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “Retinally stabilized cone-targeted stimulus delivery,” Opt. Express15(21), 13731–13744 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. Q. Yang, D. W. Arathorn, P. Tiruveedhula, C. R. Vogel, and A. Roorda, “Design of an integrated hardware interface for AOSLO image capture and cone-targeted stimulus delivery,” Opt. Express18(17), 17841–17858 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. C. K. Sheehy, Q. Yang, D. W. Arathorn, P. Tiruveedhula, J. F. de Boer, and A. Roorda, “High-speed, image-based eye tracking with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(10), 2611–2622 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. K. V. Vienola, B. Braaf, C. K. Sheehy, Q. Yang, P. Tiruveedhula, D. W. Arathorn, J. F. de Boer, and A. Roorda, “Real-time eye motion compensation for OCT imaging with tracking SLO,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2950–2963 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. B. Braaf, K. V. Vienola, C. K. Sheehy, Q. Yang, K. A. Vermeer, P. Tiruveedhula, D. W. Arathorn, A. Roorda, and J. F. de Boer, “Real-time eye motion correction in phase-resolved OCT angiography with tracking SLO,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(1), 51–65 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. E. Götzinger, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarization maintaining fiber based ultra-high resolution spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express17(25), 22704–22717 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. InternationaI Electrotechnical Comission, “Safety of laser products – Part 1: equipment classication and requirements,” IEC 60825–1 Ed. 2 (2007).
  38. S. Zotter, M. Pircher, T. Torzicky, B. Baumann, H. Yoshida, F. Hirose, P. Roberts, M. Ritter, C. Schütze, E. Götzinger, W. Trasischker, C. Vass, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Large-field high-speed polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and its applications in ophthalmology,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2720–2732 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. H. B. Brink and G. J. van Blokland, “Birefringence of the human foveal area assessed in vivo with Mueller-matrix ellipsometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A5(1), 49–57 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, B. Baumann, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Corneal birefringence compensation for polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 041210 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. B. Cense, Q. Wang, S. Lee, L. Zhao, A. E. Elsner, C. K. Hitzenberger, and D. T. Miller, “Henle fiber layer phase retardation measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(11), 2296–2306 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, and K. Reiter, “Histopathologic validation of Fourier-ellipsometry measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,” Arch. Ophthalmol.108(4), 557–560 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. A. W. Dreher, K. Reiter, and R. N. Weinreb, “Spatially resolved birefringence of the retinal nerve fiber layer assessed with a retinal laser ellipsometer,” Appl. Opt.31(19), 3730–3735 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, M. Sylwestrzak, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Efficient reduction of speckle noise in Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express20(2), 1337–1359 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. O. Tan, Y. Li, Y. Wang, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Speckle reduction in swept source optical coherence tomography images with slow-axis averaging,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82132Z (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (4)

C. Schütze, M. Bolz, R. Sayegh, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Lesion Size Detection in Geographic Atrophy by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography and Correlation to Conventional Imaging Techniques,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(1), 739–745 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lammer, M. Bolz, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, G. Mylonas, C. K. Hitzenberger, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and Diabetic Retinopathy Research Group (DRRG) Vienna, “Imaging retinal pigment epithelial proliferation secondary to PASCAL photocoagulation in vivo by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.155(6), 1058–1067 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Braaf, K. V. Vienola, C. K. Sheehy, Q. Yang, K. A. Vermeer, P. Tiruveedhula, D. W. Arathorn, A. Roorda, and J. F. de Boer, “Real-time eye motion correction in phase-resolved OCT angiography with tracking SLO,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(1), 51–65 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, Q. Wang, S. Lee, L. Zhao, A. E. Elsner, C. K. Hitzenberger, and D. T. Miller, “Henle fiber layer phase retardation measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(11), 2296–2306 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

2011 (3)

F. G. Schlanitz, B. Baumann, T. Spalek, C. Schütze, C. Ahlers, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Performance of Automated Drusen Detection by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 4571–4579 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human eye,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.30(6), 431–451 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, T. Schmoll, H. Sattmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle noise reduction in high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express19(15), 14568–14585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

Q. Yang, D. W. Arathorn, P. Tiruveedhula, C. R. Vogel, and A. Roorda, “Design of an integrated hardware interface for AOSLO image capture and cone-targeted stimulus delivery,” Opt. Express18(17), 17841–17858 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, H. Sattmann, C. Schuutze, F. Schlanitz, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, M. Yamanari, K. Kawana, M. Miura, S. Fukuda, S. Makita, S. Sakai, and T. Oshika, “Visibility of trabecular meshwork by standard and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061705 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

2008 (5)

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography with continuous source polarization modulation,” Opt. Express16(8), 5892–5906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fleckenstein, P. Issa, H. M. Helb, S. Schmitz-Valckenberg, R. P. Finger, H. P. Scholl, K. U. Loeffler, and F. G. Holz, “High-Resolution Spectral Domain-OCT Imaging in Geographic Atrophy Associated with Age-related Macular Degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(9), 4137–4144 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Phase retardation measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014013 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.92(2), 204–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, B. Baumann, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Corneal birefringence compensation for polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 041210 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Arathorn, Q. Yang, C. R. Vogel, Y. Zhang, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “Retinally stabilized cone-targeted stimulus delivery,” Opt. Express15(21), 13731–13744 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (4)

R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, L. A. Paunescu, S. Beaton, and J. S. Schuman, “Tracking optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.29(18), 2139–2141 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT,” Opt. Express12(24), 5940–5951 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(8), 2606–2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Martinez-Conde, S. L. Macknik, and D. H. Hubel, “The role of fixational eye movements in visual perception,” Nat. Rev. Neurosci.5(3), 229–240 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1992 (2)

1990 (1)

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, and K. Reiter, “Histopathologic validation of Fourier-ellipsometry measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,” Arch. Ophthalmol.108(4), 557–560 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

Ahlers, C.

F. G. Schlanitz, B. Baumann, T. Spalek, C. Schütze, C. Ahlers, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Performance of Automated Drusen Detection by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 4571–4579 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, H. Sattmann, C. Schuutze, F. Schlanitz, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arathorn, D. W.

Baumann, B.

J. Lammer, M. Bolz, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, G. Mylonas, C. K. Hitzenberger, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and Diabetic Retinopathy Research Group (DRRG) Vienna, “Imaging retinal pigment epithelial proliferation secondary to PASCAL photocoagulation in vivo by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.155(6), 1058–1067 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Schütze, M. Bolz, R. Sayegh, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Lesion Size Detection in Geographic Atrophy by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography and Correlation to Conventional Imaging Techniques,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(1), 739–745 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zotter, M. Pircher, T. Torzicky, B. Baumann, H. Yoshida, F. Hirose, P. Roberts, M. Ritter, C. Schütze, E. Götzinger, W. Trasischker, C. Vass, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Large-field high-speed polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and its applications in ophthalmology,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2720–2732 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Tan, Y. Li, Y. Wang, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Speckle reduction in swept source optical coherence tomography images with slow-axis averaging,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82132Z (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, T. Schmoll, H. Sattmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle noise reduction in high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express19(15), 14568–14585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Schlanitz, B. Baumann, T. Spalek, C. Schütze, C. Ahlers, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Performance of Automated Drusen Detection by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 4571–4579 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, H. Sattmann, C. Schuutze, F. Schlanitz, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarization maintaining fiber based ultra-high resolution spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express17(25), 22704–22717 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, B. Baumann, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Corneal birefringence compensation for polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 041210 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beaton, S.

Bolz, M.

C. Schütze, M. Bolz, R. Sayegh, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Lesion Size Detection in Geographic Atrophy by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography and Correlation to Conventional Imaging Techniques,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(1), 739–745 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lammer, M. Bolz, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, G. Mylonas, C. K. Hitzenberger, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and Diabetic Retinopathy Research Group (DRRG) Vienna, “Imaging retinal pigment epithelial proliferation secondary to PASCAL photocoagulation in vivo by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.155(6), 1058–1067 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braaf, B.

Brink, H. B.

Cense, B.

Chen, T. C.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(8), 2606–2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Invivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.27(18), 1610–1612 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z. P.

Coleman, A.

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, and K. Reiter, “Histopathologic validation of Fourier-ellipsometry measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,” Arch. Ophthalmol.108(4), 557–560 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dabov, S.

M. N. Menke, S. Dabov, P. Knecht, and V. Sturm, “Reproducibility of Retinal Thickness Measurements in Healthy Subjects Using Spectralis Optical Coherence Tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.147(3), 467–472 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

B. Braaf, K. V. Vienola, C. K. Sheehy, Q. Yang, K. A. Vermeer, P. Tiruveedhula, D. W. Arathorn, A. Roorda, and J. F. de Boer, “Real-time eye motion correction in phase-resolved OCT angiography with tracking SLO,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(1), 51–65 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. V. Vienola, B. Braaf, C. K. Sheehy, Q. Yang, P. Tiruveedhula, D. W. Arathorn, J. F. de Boer, and A. Roorda, “Real-time eye motion compensation for OCT imaging with tracking SLO,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2950–2963 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Sheehy, Q. Yang, D. W. Arathorn, P. Tiruveedhula, J. F. de Boer, and A. Roorda, “High-speed, image-based eye tracking with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(10), 2611–2622 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(8), 2606–2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer and T. E. Milner, “Review of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography and Stokes vector determination,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 359–371 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Invivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.27(18), 1610–1612 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of the depth-resolved Stokes parameters of light backscattered from turbid media by use of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.24(5), 300–302 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. De Boer, S. M. Srinivas, A. Malekafzali, Z. P. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Imaging thermally damaged tissue by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express3(6), 212–218 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, “Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.22(12), 934–936 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dilworth, W. D.

Dreher, A. W.

A. W. Dreher, K. Reiter, and R. N. Weinreb, “Spatially resolved birefringence of the retinal nerve fiber layer assessed with a retinal laser ellipsometer,” Appl. Opt.31(19), 3730–3735 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, and K. Reiter, “Histopathologic validation of Fourier-ellipsometry measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,” Arch. Ophthalmol.108(4), 557–560 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elsner, A. E.

Fercher, A. F.

Ferguson, R. D.

Findl, O.

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.92(2), 204–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT,” Opt. Express12(24), 5940–5951 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finger, R. P.

M. Fleckenstein, P. Issa, H. M. Helb, S. Schmitz-Valckenberg, R. P. Finger, H. P. Scholl, K. U. Loeffler, and F. G. Holz, “High-Resolution Spectral Domain-OCT Imaging in Geographic Atrophy Associated with Age-related Macular Degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(9), 4137–4144 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleckenstein, M.

M. Fleckenstein, P. Issa, H. M. Helb, S. Schmitz-Valckenberg, R. P. Finger, H. P. Scholl, K. U. Loeffler, and F. G. Holz, “High-Resolution Spectral Domain-OCT Imaging in Geographic Atrophy Associated with Age-related Macular Degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(9), 4137–4144 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

O. Tan, Y. Li, Y. Wang, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Speckle reduction in swept source optical coherence tomography images with slow-axis averaging,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82132Z (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization-Sensitive Low-Coherence Reflectometer for Birefringence Characterization and Ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B9(6), 903–908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, S.

Y. Yasuno, M. Yamanari, K. Kawana, M. Miura, S. Fukuda, S. Makita, S. Sakai, and T. Oshika, “Visibility of trabecular meshwork by standard and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061705 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gabriele, M. L.

Geitzenauer, W.

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.92(2), 204–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goetzinger, E.

Golbaz, I.

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorczynska, I.

Götzinger, E.

C. Schütze, M. Bolz, R. Sayegh, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Lesion Size Detection in Geographic Atrophy by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography and Correlation to Conventional Imaging Techniques,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(1), 739–745 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lammer, M. Bolz, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, G. Mylonas, C. K. Hitzenberger, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and Diabetic Retinopathy Research Group (DRRG) Vienna, “Imaging retinal pigment epithelial proliferation secondary to PASCAL photocoagulation in vivo by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.155(6), 1058–1067 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zotter, M. Pircher, T. Torzicky, B. Baumann, H. Yoshida, F. Hirose, P. Roberts, M. Ritter, C. Schütze, E. Götzinger, W. Trasischker, C. Vass, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Large-field high-speed polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and its applications in ophthalmology,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2720–2732 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, T. Schmoll, H. Sattmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle noise reduction in high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express19(15), 14568–14585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Schlanitz, B. Baumann, T. Spalek, C. Schütze, C. Ahlers, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Performance of Automated Drusen Detection by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 4571–4579 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, H. Sattmann, C. Schuutze, F. Schlanitz, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarization maintaining fiber based ultra-high resolution spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express17(25), 22704–22717 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.92(2), 204–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, B. Baumann, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Corneal birefringence compensation for polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 041210 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT,” Opt. Express12(24), 5940–5951 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hammer, D. X.

Hangai, M.

Hee, M. R.

Helb, H. M.

M. Fleckenstein, P. Issa, H. M. Helb, S. Schmitz-Valckenberg, R. P. Finger, H. P. Scholl, K. U. Loeffler, and F. G. Holz, “High-Resolution Spectral Domain-OCT Imaging in Geographic Atrophy Associated with Age-related Macular Degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(9), 4137–4144 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirose, F.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

J. Lammer, M. Bolz, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, G. Mylonas, C. K. Hitzenberger, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and Diabetic Retinopathy Research Group (DRRG) Vienna, “Imaging retinal pigment epithelial proliferation secondary to PASCAL photocoagulation in vivo by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.155(6), 1058–1067 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Schütze, M. Bolz, R. Sayegh, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Lesion Size Detection in Geographic Atrophy by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography and Correlation to Conventional Imaging Techniques,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(1), 739–745 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, Q. Wang, S. Lee, L. Zhao, A. E. Elsner, C. K. Hitzenberger, and D. T. Miller, “Henle fiber layer phase retardation measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(11), 2296–2306 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zotter, M. Pircher, T. Torzicky, B. Baumann, H. Yoshida, F. Hirose, P. Roberts, M. Ritter, C. Schütze, E. Götzinger, W. Trasischker, C. Vass, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Large-field high-speed polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and its applications in ophthalmology,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2720–2732 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human eye,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.30(6), 431–451 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, T. Schmoll, H. Sattmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle noise reduction in high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express19(15), 14568–14585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Schlanitz, B. Baumann, T. Spalek, C. Schütze, C. Ahlers, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Performance of Automated Drusen Detection by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 4571–4579 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, H. Sattmann, C. Schuutze, F. Schlanitz, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarization maintaining fiber based ultra-high resolution spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express17(25), 22704–22717 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.92(2), 204–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, B. Baumann, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Corneal birefringence compensation for polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 041210 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT,” Opt. Express12(24), 5940–5951 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Goetzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express9(13), 780–790 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holz, F. G.

M. Fleckenstein, P. Issa, H. M. Helb, S. Schmitz-Valckenberg, R. P. Finger, H. P. Scholl, K. U. Loeffler, and F. G. Holz, “High-Resolution Spectral Domain-OCT Imaging in Geographic Atrophy Associated with Age-related Macular Degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(9), 4137–4144 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

O. Tan, Y. Li, Y. Wang, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Speckle reduction in swept source optical coherence tomography images with slow-axis averaging,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82132Z (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization-Sensitive Low-Coherence Reflectometer for Birefringence Characterization and Ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B9(6), 903–908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hubel, D. H.

S. Martinez-Conde, S. L. Macknik, and D. H. Hubel, “The role of fixational eye movements in visual perception,” Nat. Rev. Neurosci.5(3), 229–240 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N. V.

Ishikawa, H.

Issa, P.

M. Fleckenstein, P. Issa, H. M. Helb, S. Schmitz-Valckenberg, R. P. Finger, H. P. Scholl, K. U. Loeffler, and F. G. Holz, “High-Resolution Spectral Domain-OCT Imaging in Geographic Atrophy Associated with Age-related Macular Degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(9), 4137–4144 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itoh, M.

Kagemann, L.

Kawana, K.

Y. Yasuno, M. Yamanari, K. Kawana, M. Miura, S. Fukuda, S. Makita, S. Sakai, and T. Oshika, “Visibility of trabecular meshwork by standard and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061705 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knecht, P.

M. N. Menke, S. Dabov, P. Knecht, and V. Sturm, “Reproducibility of Retinal Thickness Measurements in Healthy Subjects Using Spectralis Optical Coherence Tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.147(3), 467–472 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

Kraus, M. F.

O. Tan, Y. Li, Y. Wang, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Speckle reduction in swept source optical coherence tomography images with slow-axis averaging,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82132Z (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lammer, J.

J. Lammer, M. Bolz, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, G. Mylonas, C. K. Hitzenberger, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and Diabetic Retinopathy Research Group (DRRG) Vienna, “Imaging retinal pigment epithelial proliferation secondary to PASCAL photocoagulation in vivo by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.155(6), 1058–1067 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

Leitgeb, R.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Leydolt, C.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

O. Tan, Y. Li, Y. Wang, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Speckle reduction in swept source optical coherence tomography images with slow-axis averaging,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82132Z (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. J.

O. Tan, Y. Li, Y. Wang, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Speckle reduction in swept source optical coherence tomography images with slow-axis averaging,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82132Z (2012).
[CrossRef]

Loeffler, K. U.

M. Fleckenstein, P. Issa, H. M. Helb, S. Schmitz-Valckenberg, R. P. Finger, H. P. Scholl, K. U. Loeffler, and F. G. Holz, “High-Resolution Spectral Domain-OCT Imaging in Geographic Atrophy Associated with Age-related Macular Degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(9), 4137–4144 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macknik, S. L.

S. Martinez-Conde, S. L. Macknik, and D. H. Hubel, “The role of fixational eye movements in visual perception,” Nat. Rev. Neurosci.5(3), 229–240 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Makita, S.

Y. Yasuno, M. Yamanari, K. Kawana, M. Miura, S. Fukuda, S. Makita, S. Sakai, and T. Oshika, “Visibility of trabecular meshwork by standard and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061705 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Phase retardation measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014013 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography with continuous source polarization modulation,” Opt. Express16(8), 5892–5906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, Y. Sutoh, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Birefringence imaging of human skin by polarization-sensitive spectral interferometric optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.27(20), 1803–1805 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malekafzali, A.

Martinez-Conde, S.

S. Martinez-Conde, S. L. Macknik, and D. H. Hubel, “The role of fixational eye movements in visual perception,” Nat. Rev. Neurosci.5(3), 229–240 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menke, M. N.

M. N. Menke, S. Dabov, P. Knecht, and V. Sturm, “Reproducibility of Retinal Thickness Measurements in Healthy Subjects Using Spectralis Optical Coherence Tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.147(3), 467–472 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michels, S.

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.92(2), 204–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, D. T.

Milner, T. E.

Miura, M.

Y. Yasuno, M. Yamanari, K. Kawana, M. Miura, S. Fukuda, S. Makita, S. Sakai, and T. Oshika, “Visibility of trabecular meshwork by standard and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061705 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Phase retardation measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014013 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mylonas, G.

J. Lammer, M. Bolz, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, G. Mylonas, C. K. Hitzenberger, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and Diabetic Retinopathy Research Group (DRRG) Vienna, “Imaging retinal pigment epithelial proliferation secondary to PASCAL photocoagulation in vivo by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.155(6), 1058–1067 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, J. S.

Oshika, T.

Y. Yasuno, M. Yamanari, K. Kawana, M. Miura, S. Fukuda, S. Makita, S. Sakai, and T. Oshika, “Visibility of trabecular meshwork by standard and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061705 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B. H.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(8), 2606–2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Invivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.27(18), 1610–1612 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paunescu, L. A.

Pierce, M. C.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(8), 2606–2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Invivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.27(18), 1610–1612 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pircher, M.

J. Lammer, M. Bolz, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, G. Mylonas, C. K. Hitzenberger, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and Diabetic Retinopathy Research Group (DRRG) Vienna, “Imaging retinal pigment epithelial proliferation secondary to PASCAL photocoagulation in vivo by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.155(6), 1058–1067 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Schütze, M. Bolz, R. Sayegh, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Lesion Size Detection in Geographic Atrophy by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography and Correlation to Conventional Imaging Techniques,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(1), 739–745 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zotter, M. Pircher, T. Torzicky, B. Baumann, H. Yoshida, F. Hirose, P. Roberts, M. Ritter, C. Schütze, E. Götzinger, W. Trasischker, C. Vass, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Large-field high-speed polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and its applications in ophthalmology,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2720–2732 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human eye,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.30(6), 431–451 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, T. Schmoll, H. Sattmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle noise reduction in high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express19(15), 14568–14585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Schlanitz, B. Baumann, T. Spalek, C. Schütze, C. Ahlers, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Performance of Automated Drusen Detection by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 4571–4579 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, H. Sattmann, C. Schuutze, F. Schlanitz, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarization maintaining fiber based ultra-high resolution spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express17(25), 22704–22717 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.92(2), 204–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, B. Baumann, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Corneal birefringence compensation for polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 041210 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT,” Opt. Express12(24), 5940–5951 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Goetzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express9(13), 780–790 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potsaid, B.

O. Tan, Y. Li, Y. Wang, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Speckle reduction in swept source optical coherence tomography images with slow-axis averaging,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82132Z (2012).
[CrossRef]

Prager, F.

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quigley, H.

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, and K. Reiter, “Histopathologic validation of Fourier-ellipsometry measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,” Arch. Ophthalmol.108(4), 557–560 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reiter, K.

A. W. Dreher, K. Reiter, and R. N. Weinreb, “Spatially resolved birefringence of the retinal nerve fiber layer assessed with a retinal laser ellipsometer,” Appl. Opt.31(19), 3730–3735 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, and K. Reiter, “Histopathologic validation of Fourier-ellipsometry measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,” Arch. Ophthalmol.108(4), 557–560 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritter, M.

Roberts, P.

Roorda, A.

Sakai, S.

Y. Yasuno, M. Yamanari, K. Kawana, M. Miura, S. Fukuda, S. Makita, S. Sakai, and T. Oshika, “Visibility of trabecular meshwork by standard and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061705 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakamoto, A.

Sattmann, H.

Sayegh, R.

C. Schütze, M. Bolz, R. Sayegh, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Lesion Size Detection in Geographic Atrophy by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography and Correlation to Conventional Imaging Techniques,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(1), 739–745 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlanitz, F.

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, H. Sattmann, C. Schuutze, F. Schlanitz, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlanitz, F. G.

F. G. Schlanitz, B. Baumann, T. Spalek, C. Schütze, C. Ahlers, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Performance of Automated Drusen Detection by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 4571–4579 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt-Erfurth, U.

C. Schütze, M. Bolz, R. Sayegh, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Lesion Size Detection in Geographic Atrophy by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography and Correlation to Conventional Imaging Techniques,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(1), 739–745 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lammer, M. Bolz, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, G. Mylonas, C. K. Hitzenberger, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and Diabetic Retinopathy Research Group (DRRG) Vienna, “Imaging retinal pigment epithelial proliferation secondary to PASCAL photocoagulation in vivo by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.155(6), 1058–1067 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zotter, M. Pircher, T. Torzicky, B. Baumann, H. Yoshida, F. Hirose, P. Roberts, M. Ritter, C. Schütze, E. Götzinger, W. Trasischker, C. Vass, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Large-field high-speed polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and its applications in ophthalmology,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2720–2732 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human eye,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.30(6), 431–451 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Schlanitz, B. Baumann, T. Spalek, C. Schütze, C. Ahlers, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Performance of Automated Drusen Detection by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 4571–4579 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, H. Sattmann, C. Schuutze, F. Schlanitz, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.92(2), 204–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitz-Valckenberg, S.

M. Fleckenstein, P. Issa, H. M. Helb, S. Schmitz-Valckenberg, R. P. Finger, H. P. Scholl, K. U. Loeffler, and F. G. Holz, “High-Resolution Spectral Domain-OCT Imaging in Geographic Atrophy Associated with Age-related Macular Degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(9), 4137–4144 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmoll, T.

Scholl, H. P.

M. Fleckenstein, P. Issa, H. M. Helb, S. Schmitz-Valckenberg, R. P. Finger, H. P. Scholl, K. U. Loeffler, and F. G. Holz, “High-Resolution Spectral Domain-OCT Imaging in Geographic Atrophy Associated with Age-related Macular Degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(9), 4137–4144 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J.

Schuman, J. S.

Schütze, C.

C. Schütze, M. Bolz, R. Sayegh, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Lesion Size Detection in Geographic Atrophy by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography and Correlation to Conventional Imaging Techniques,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(1), 739–745 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zotter, M. Pircher, T. Torzicky, B. Baumann, H. Yoshida, F. Hirose, P. Roberts, M. Ritter, C. Schütze, E. Götzinger, W. Trasischker, C. Vass, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Large-field high-speed polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and its applications in ophthalmology,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2720–2732 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Schlanitz, B. Baumann, T. Spalek, C. Schütze, C. Ahlers, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Performance of Automated Drusen Detection by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 4571–4579 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuutze, C.

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, H. Sattmann, C. Schuutze, F. Schlanitz, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaw, B.

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, and K. Reiter, “Histopathologic validation of Fourier-ellipsometry measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,” Arch. Ophthalmol.108(4), 557–560 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheehy, C. K.

Simader, C.

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.92(2), 204–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spalek, T.

F. G. Schlanitz, B. Baumann, T. Spalek, C. Schütze, C. Ahlers, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Performance of Automated Drusen Detection by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 4571–4579 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivas, S. M.

Sticker, M.

Sturm, V.

M. N. Menke, S. Dabov, P. Knecht, and V. Sturm, “Reproducibility of Retinal Thickness Measurements in Healthy Subjects Using Spectralis Optical Coherence Tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.147(3), 467–472 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sutoh, Y.

Swanson, E. A.

Sylwestrzak, M.

Szkulmowski, M.

Szlag, D.

Tan, O.

O. Tan, Y. Li, Y. Wang, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Speckle reduction in swept source optical coherence tomography images with slow-axis averaging,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82132Z (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tiruveedhula, P.

Torzicky, T.

Trasischker, W.

Ustun, T.

van Blokland, G. J.

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Vass, C.

Vermeer, K. A.

Vienola, K. V.

Vogel, C. R.

Wang, Q.

Wang, Y.

O. Tan, Y. Li, Y. Wang, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Speckle reduction in swept source optical coherence tomography images with slow-axis averaging,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82132Z (2012).
[CrossRef]

Weinreb, R. N.

A. W. Dreher, K. Reiter, and R. N. Weinreb, “Spatially resolved birefringence of the retinal nerve fiber layer assessed with a retinal laser ellipsometer,” Appl. Opt.31(19), 3730–3735 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, and K. Reiter, “Histopathologic validation of Fourier-ellipsometry measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,” Arch. Ophthalmol.108(4), 557–560 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

Wollstein, G.

Yamamoto, M.

Yamanari, M.

Y. Yasuno, M. Yamanari, K. Kawana, M. Miura, S. Fukuda, S. Makita, S. Sakai, and T. Oshika, “Visibility of trabecular meshwork by standard and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061705 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography with continuous source polarization modulation,” Opt. Express16(8), 5892–5906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Phase retardation measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014013 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Q.

Yasuno, Y.

Y. Yasuno, M. Yamanari, K. Kawana, M. Miura, S. Fukuda, S. Makita, S. Sakai, and T. Oshika, “Visibility of trabecular meshwork by standard and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061705 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Phase retardation measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014013 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography with continuous source polarization modulation,” Opt. Express16(8), 5892–5906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, Y. Sutoh, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Birefringence imaging of human skin by polarization-sensitive spectral interferometric optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.27(20), 1803–1805 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yatagai, T.

M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Phase retardation measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014013 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, Y. Sutoh, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Birefringence imaging of human skin by polarization-sensitive spectral interferometric optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.27(20), 1803–1805 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshida, H.

Yoshimura, N.

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, L.

Zotter, S.

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (2)

J. Lammer, M. Bolz, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, G. Mylonas, C. K. Hitzenberger, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and Diabetic Retinopathy Research Group (DRRG) Vienna, “Imaging retinal pigment epithelial proliferation secondary to PASCAL photocoagulation in vivo by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.155(6), 1058–1067 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Menke, S. Dabov, P. Knecht, and V. Sturm, “Reproducibility of Retinal Thickness Measurements in Healthy Subjects Using Spectralis Optical Coherence Tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.147(3), 467–472 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, and K. Reiter, “Histopathologic validation of Fourier-ellipsometry measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,” Arch. Ophthalmol.108(4), 557–560 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (5)

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.92(2), 204–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (6)

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Schütze, M. Bolz, R. Sayegh, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Lesion Size Detection in Geographic Atrophy by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography and Correlation to Conventional Imaging Techniques,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(1), 739–745 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(8), 2606–2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fleckenstein, P. Issa, H. M. Helb, S. Schmitz-Valckenberg, R. P. Finger, H. P. Scholl, K. U. Loeffler, and F. G. Holz, “High-Resolution Spectral Domain-OCT Imaging in Geographic Atrophy Associated with Age-related Macular Degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(9), 4137–4144 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Schlanitz, B. Baumann, T. Spalek, C. Schütze, C. Ahlers, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Performance of Automated Drusen Detection by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(7), 4571–4579 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (5)

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, H. Sattmann, C. Schuutze, F. Schlanitz, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, B. Baumann, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Corneal birefringence compensation for polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(4), 041210 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, M. Yamanari, K. Kawana, M. Miura, S. Fukuda, S. Makita, S. Sakai, and T. Oshika, “Visibility of trabecular meshwork by standard and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061705 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer and T. E. Milner, “Review of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography and Stokes vector determination,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 359–371 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Phase retardation measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014013 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (1)

S. Martinez-Conde, S. L. Macknik, and D. H. Hubel, “The role of fixational eye movements in visual perception,” Nat. Rev. Neurosci.5(3), 229–240 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (12)

J. F. De Boer, S. M. Srinivas, A. Malekafzali, Z. P. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Imaging thermally damaged tissue by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express3(6), 212–218 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Goetzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express9(13), 780–790 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT,” Opt. Express12(24), 5940–5951 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, N. V. Iftimia, T. Ustun, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, W. D. Dilworth, L. Kagemann, and J. Schuman, “Advanced scanning methods with tracking optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express13(20), 7937–7947 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Arathorn, Q. Yang, C. R. Vogel, Y. Zhang, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “Retinally stabilized cone-targeted stimulus delivery,” Opt. Express15(21), 13731–13744 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography with continuous source polarization modulation,” Opt. Express16(8), 5892–5906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hangai, M. Yamamoto, A. Sakamoto, and N. Yoshimura, “Ultrahigh-resolution versus speckle noise-reduction in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express17(5), 4221–4235 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarization maintaining fiber based ultra-high resolution spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express17(25), 22704–22717 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Yang, D. W. Arathorn, P. Tiruveedhula, C. R. Vogel, and A. Roorda, “Design of an integrated hardware interface for AOSLO image capture and cone-targeted stimulus delivery,” Opt. Express18(17), 17841–17858 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, T. Schmoll, H. Sattmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle noise reduction in high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express19(15), 14568–14585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, M. Sylwestrzak, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Efficient reduction of speckle noise in Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express20(2), 1337–1359 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Proc. SPIE (1)

O. Tan, Y. Li, Y. Wang, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Speckle reduction in swept source optical coherence tomography images with slow-axis averaging,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82132Z (2012).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Retin. Eye Res. (1)

M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human eye,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.30(6), 431–451 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

Spectralis (Heidelberg Engineering GmbH., Heidelberg, Germany), http://www.heidelbergengineering.com/international/products/spectralis/

InternationaI Electrotechnical Comission, “Safety of laser products – Part 1: equipment classication and requirements,” IEC 60825–1 Ed. 2 (2007).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of the PS-OCT system. SLD, superluminescent diode; LD, laser diode; FBS, fiber non-polarizing beam splitter; PBS, fiber polarizing beam splitter; FC, fiber collimator; QWP, quarter-wave plate; M, mirror; MS, motorized stage.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

LSLO image and template for tracking in a healthy eye: yellow square marks the template position (64 × 64 pixels). Frame rate of LSLO: 60 fps. Scale bars: 1 mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Retinal motions detected by LSLO. (a) x and y direction shifts (dx in blue and dy in red) under condition of a static fixation target (FT1). (b) x and y direction shifts (dx in blue and dy in red) under condition of a moving fixation target (FT2), which moves along a 1 mm dia. circle with a time period of 2 sec. Frame rate of LSLO: 60 fps.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PS-OCT measurement result from a healthy eye with static fixation target (FT1); tracking-on at 60Hz. (a) Pseudo SLO image by intensity projection; yellow line marks the position of the B-scans; red arrows mark motion artifacts caused by microsaccades. B-scan images: (b) intensity, (c) retardation (color scale: 0° – 90°), (d) axis-orientation (color scale: −90° – + 90°), (e) DOPU (color scale: 0 – 1), and (f) overlay of segmented depolarizing material pixels (in red) on intensity image.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

PS-OCT intensity projection images from a healthy eye with moving fixation target (FT2). (a) – (c) M-mode B-scan images with (a) tracking-off, (b) tracking-on at 60 Hz, and (c) tracking-on at 20 Hz; yellow arrows mark positions of jitter. (d) Pseudo SLO image; yellow and red lines mark the positions and range of the M-mode B-scans. Scale bars: 1 mm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

PS-OCT en face images from a healthy eye. (a) – (c) Moving fixation target (FT2); tracking-off. (d) – (f) moving fixation target (FT2); tracking-on (60 Hz). (g) – (i) static fixation target (FT1); tracking-on (60 Hz). (a), (d), (g) Intensity projections; (b), (e), (h) retardation maps (color scale: 0° – 90°); (c), (f), (i) axis-orientation maps (color scale: −90° – + 90°). Scale bars: 1 mm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Retinal motions and residual motion artifacts for a healthy eye. (a), (b) Moving fixation target (FT2); (c), (d) static fixation target (FT1). (a), (c) Retinal motions detected by LSLO (x and y components); (b), (d) residual motions (x-component) detected by post-processing registration using cross-correlation between OCT B-scan frames.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

PS-OCT retardation images from a healthy eye with moving fixation target (FT2). (a) Single frame B-scan image. (b) Frame averaged image from 50 B-scans. The reference frame of the post-processing registration of the 50 frames is the single frame shown in (a). Color scale: 0° – 70°.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Retardation noise observed in the retinal nerve fiber layer of a healthy eye as a function of the number of averaged frames. (a) Standard deviation of retardation. (b) Evaluation window, red box marked in the retinal nerve fiber layer containing 1000 pixels, is used for the standard deviation calculation.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Images from a patient eye diagnosed with AMD. (a) Infra-red SLO image. (b) Fundus auto-fluorescent SLO image. (c) PS-OCT intensity projection image. (d) PS-OCT RPE depolarizing material thickness map with atrophy segmentation. Color scale of map: 0 – 160 μm; red line shows the boundary of atrophy by the segmentation. (e) Detected retinal motions by the LSLO. (f) PS-OCT intensity, (g) DOPU B-scan images (color scale: 0 – 1). (h) Depolarizing material segmentation classifying into RPE (red pixels) and part of choroid (green pixels) overlaid on the intensity B-scan image. Scale bars: 500 μm.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Images and retinal motions from a patient eye diagnosed with AMD. (a) Infra-red SLO image. (b) – (d) PS-OCT intensity projection images. (e) – (g) PS-OCT depolarizing material thickness maps (color scale of map: 0 – 160 μm). (h) – (j) Detected retinal motions by the LSLO. (b), (e), (h) acquisition with tracking-on. (c), (f), (i) first acquisition with tracking-off. (d), (g), (j) second acquisition with tracking-off. Green, orange, and red arrows indicate positions of microsaccades: vertical locations in the en face images (b) – (g) and time points in the graphs of retinal motions (h) – (j). Yellow circles in (f) and (g) highlight the features which appear to be duplicated. Scale bars: 500 μm.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

PS-OCT B-scan images from the same AMD patient eye as shown in Fig. 10. (a) – (c) Frame averaged images from 50 B-scans. (d) – (f) Frame averaged images from 10 B-scans. (g) – (i) Single frame B-scan images. (a), (d), (g) Intensity; (b), (e), (h) axis-orientation (color scale: −90° – + 90°); (c), (f), (i) retardation (color scale: 0° – 90°).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Residual motions in x-direction detected by M-mode B-scan OCT images recorded with retinal tracking

Metrics