Abstract

Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a reflectance confocal microscopy technology that uses a diffraction grating to illuminate different locations on the sample with distinct wavelengths. SECM can obtain line images without any beam scanning devices, which opens up the possibility of high-speed imaging with relatively simple probe optics. This feature makes SECM a promising technology for rapid endoscopic imaging of internal organs, such as the esophagus, at microscopic resolution. SECM imaging of the esophagus has been previously demonstrated at relatively low line rates (5 kHz). In this paper, we demonstrate SECM imaging of large regions of esophageal tissues at a high line imaging rate of 100 kHz. The SECM system comprises a wavelength-swept source with a fast sweep rate (100 kHz), high output power (80 mW), and a detector unit with a large bandwidth (100 MHz). The sensitivity of the 100-kHz SECM system was measured to be 60 dB and the transverse resolution was 1.6 µm. Excised swine and human esophageal tissues were imaged with the 100-kHz SECM system at a rate of 6.6 mm2/sec. Architectural and cellular features of esophageal tissues could be clearly visualized in the SECM images, including papillae, glands, and nuclei. These results demonstrate that large-area SECM imaging of esophageal tissues can be successfully conducted at a high line imaging rate of 100 kHz, which will enable whole-organ SECM imaging in vivo.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (3)

2011 (2)

H. Yoo, D. Kang, A. J. Katz, G. Y. Lauwers, N. S. Nishioka, Y. Yagi, P. Tanpowpong, J. Namati, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Reflectance confocal microscopy for the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis: a pilot study conducted on biopsy specimens,” Gastrointest. Endosc.74(5), 992–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, H. Yoo, P. Jillella, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive volumetric confocal microscopy with adaptive focusing,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1412–1422 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Co-registered spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” J. Microsc.239(2), 87–91 (2010).
[PubMed]

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy with virtual chromoendoscopy for classification of colon polyps,” Gastroenterology138(3), 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Tao and J. A. Izatt, “Spectrally encoded confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Lett.35(4), 574–576 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-Megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express18(14), 14685–14704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “>400 kHz repetition rate wavelength-swept laser and application to high-speed optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Lett.35(17), 2919–2921 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

D. Yelin, C. Boudoux, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Large area confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett.32(9), 1102–1104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Becker, T. Vercauteren, C. H. von Weyhern, C. Prinz, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “High-resolution miniprobe-based confocal microscopy in combination with video mosaicing (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.66(5), 1001–1007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kitabatake, Y. Niwa, R. Miyahara, A. Ohashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Iguchi, Y. Shimoyama, T. Nagasaka, O. Maeda, T. Ando, N. Ohmiya, A. Itoh, Y. Hirooka, and H. Goto, “Confocal endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of gastric cancer in vivo,” Endoscopy38(11), 1110–1114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc.62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Boudoux, S. Yun, W. Oh, W. White, N. Iftimia, M. Shishkov, B. Bouma, and G. Tearney, “Rapid wavelength-swept spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Express13(20), 8214–8221 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

Ando, T.

S. Kitabatake, Y. Niwa, R. Miyahara, A. Ohashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Iguchi, Y. Shimoyama, T. Nagasaka, O. Maeda, T. Ando, N. Ohmiya, A. Itoh, Y. Hirooka, and H. Goto, “Confocal endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of gastric cancer in vivo,” Endoscopy38(11), 1110–1114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, V.

V. Becker, T. Vercauteren, C. H. von Weyhern, C. Prinz, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “High-resolution miniprobe-based confocal microscopy in combination with video mosaicing (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.66(5), 1001–1007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biedermann, B. R.

Boudoux, C.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Co-registered spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” J. Microsc.239(2), 87–91 (2010).
[PubMed]

D. Yelin, C. Boudoux, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Large area confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett.32(9), 1102–1104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Boudoux, S. Yun, W. Oh, W. White, N. Iftimia, M. Shishkov, B. Bouma, and G. Tearney, “Rapid wavelength-swept spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Express13(20), 8214–8221 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

H. Yoo, D. Kang, A. J. Katz, G. Y. Lauwers, N. S. Nishioka, Y. Yagi, P. Tanpowpong, J. Namati, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Reflectance confocal microscopy for the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis: a pilot study conducted on biopsy specimens,” Gastrointest. Endosc.74(5), 992–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, H. Yoo, P. Jillella, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive volumetric confocal microscopy with adaptive focusing,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1412–1422 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Co-registered spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” J. Microsc.239(2), 87–91 (2010).
[PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “>400 kHz repetition rate wavelength-swept laser and application to high-speed optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Lett.35(17), 2919–2921 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, C. Boudoux, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Large area confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett.32(9), 1102–1104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, R. H. Webb, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett.23(15), 1152–1154 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buchner, A. M.

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy with virtual chromoendoscopy for classification of colon polyps,” Gastroenterology138(3), 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crook, J. E.

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy with virtual chromoendoscopy for classification of colon polyps,” Gastroenterology138(3), 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dahlmann, A.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delaney, P. M.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc.62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eigenwillig, C. M.

Galle, P. R.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghabril, M.

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy with virtual chromoendoscopy for classification of colon polyps,” Gastroenterology138(3), 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glazowski, C.

C. Glazowski and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Optimal detection pinhole for lowering speckle noise while maintaining adequate optical sectioning in confocal reflectance microscopes,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 085001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goetz, M.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Golan, L.

Gomez, V.

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy with virtual chromoendoscopy for classification of colon polyps,” Gastroenterology138(3), 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gossner, L.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goto, H.

S. Kitabatake, Y. Niwa, R. Miyahara, A. Ohashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Iguchi, Y. Shimoyama, T. Nagasaka, O. Maeda, T. Ando, N. Ohmiya, A. Itoh, Y. Hirooka, and H. Goto, “Confocal endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of gastric cancer in vivo,” Endoscopy38(11), 1110–1114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasan, M.

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy with virtual chromoendoscopy for classification of colon polyps,” Gastroenterology138(3), 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heckman, M. G.

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy with virtual chromoendoscopy for classification of colon polyps,” Gastroenterology138(3), 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirooka, Y.

S. Kitabatake, Y. Niwa, R. Miyahara, A. Ohashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Iguchi, Y. Shimoyama, T. Nagasaka, O. Maeda, T. Ando, N. Ohmiya, A. Itoh, Y. Hirooka, and H. Goto, “Confocal endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of gastric cancer in vivo,” Endoscopy38(11), 1110–1114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffman, A.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

Iftimia, N.

Iguchi, Y.

S. Kitabatake, Y. Niwa, R. Miyahara, A. Ohashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Iguchi, Y. Shimoyama, T. Nagasaka, O. Maeda, T. Ando, N. Ohmiya, A. Itoh, Y. Hirooka, and H. Goto, “Confocal endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of gastric cancer in vivo,” Endoscopy38(11), 1110–1114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itoh, A.

S. Kitabatake, Y. Niwa, R. Miyahara, A. Ohashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Iguchi, Y. Shimoyama, T. Nagasaka, O. Maeda, T. Ando, N. Ohmiya, A. Itoh, Y. Hirooka, and H. Goto, “Confocal endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of gastric cancer in vivo,” Endoscopy38(11), 1110–1114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Jillella, P.

Jung, M.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, D.

D. Kang, H. Yoo, P. Jillella, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive volumetric confocal microscopy with adaptive focusing,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1412–1422 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoo, D. Kang, A. J. Katz, G. Y. Lauwers, N. S. Nishioka, Y. Yagi, P. Tanpowpong, J. Namati, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Reflectance confocal microscopy for the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis: a pilot study conducted on biopsy specimens,” Gastrointest. Endosc.74(5), 992–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, D. K.

D. K. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Co-registered spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” J. Microsc.239(2), 87–91 (2010).
[PubMed]

Katz, A. J.

H. Yoo, D. Kang, A. J. Katz, G. Y. Lauwers, N. S. Nishioka, Y. Yagi, P. Tanpowpong, J. Namati, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Reflectance confocal microscopy for the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis: a pilot study conducted on biopsy specimens,” Gastrointest. Endosc.74(5), 992–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiesslich, R.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc.62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitabatake, S.

S. Kitabatake, Y. Niwa, R. Miyahara, A. Ohashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Iguchi, Y. Shimoyama, T. Nagasaka, O. Maeda, T. Ando, N. Ohmiya, A. Itoh, Y. Hirooka, and H. Goto, “Confocal endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of gastric cancer in vivo,” Endoscopy38(11), 1110–1114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klein, T.

Krishna, M.

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy with virtual chromoendoscopy for classification of colon polyps,” Gastroenterology138(3), 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lau, A. K. S.

Lauwers, G. Y.

H. Yoo, D. Kang, A. J. Katz, G. Y. Lauwers, N. S. Nishioka, Y. Yagi, P. Tanpowpong, J. Namati, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Reflectance confocal microscopy for the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis: a pilot study conducted on biopsy specimens,” Gastrointest. Endosc.74(5), 992–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Co-registered spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” J. Microsc.239(2), 87–91 (2010).
[PubMed]

Maeda, O.

S. Kitabatake, Y. Niwa, R. Miyahara, A. Ohashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Iguchi, Y. Shimoyama, T. Nagasaka, O. Maeda, T. Ando, N. Ohmiya, A. Itoh, Y. Hirooka, and H. Goto, “Confocal endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of gastric cancer in vivo,” Endoscopy38(11), 1110–1114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuura, T.

S. Kitabatake, Y. Niwa, R. Miyahara, A. Ohashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Iguchi, Y. Shimoyama, T. Nagasaka, O. Maeda, T. Ando, N. Ohmiya, A. Itoh, Y. Hirooka, and H. Goto, “Confocal endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of gastric cancer in vivo,” Endoscopy38(11), 1110–1114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLaren, W. J.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc.62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meining, A.

V. Becker, T. Vercauteren, C. H. von Weyhern, C. Prinz, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “High-resolution miniprobe-based confocal microscopy in combination with video mosaicing (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.66(5), 1001–1007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minai, L.

Mino-Kenudson, M.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Co-registered spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” J. Microsc.239(2), 87–91 (2010).
[PubMed]

Miyahara, R.

S. Kitabatake, Y. Niwa, R. Miyahara, A. Ohashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Iguchi, Y. Shimoyama, T. Nagasaka, O. Maeda, T. Ando, N. Ohmiya, A. Itoh, Y. Hirooka, and H. Goto, “Confocal endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of gastric cancer in vivo,” Endoscopy38(11), 1110–1114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nafe, B.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagasaka, T.

S. Kitabatake, Y. Niwa, R. Miyahara, A. Ohashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Iguchi, Y. Shimoyama, T. Nagasaka, O. Maeda, T. Ando, N. Ohmiya, A. Itoh, Y. Hirooka, and H. Goto, “Confocal endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of gastric cancer in vivo,” Endoscopy38(11), 1110–1114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Namati, J.

H. Yoo, D. Kang, A. J. Katz, G. Y. Lauwers, N. S. Nishioka, Y. Yagi, P. Tanpowpong, J. Namati, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Reflectance confocal microscopy for the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis: a pilot study conducted on biopsy specimens,” Gastrointest. Endosc.74(5), 992–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neurath, M. F.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc.62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishioka, N. S.

H. Yoo, D. Kang, A. J. Katz, G. Y. Lauwers, N. S. Nishioka, Y. Yagi, P. Tanpowpong, J. Namati, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Reflectance confocal microscopy for the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis: a pilot study conducted on biopsy specimens,” Gastrointest. Endosc.74(5), 992–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Co-registered spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” J. Microsc.239(2), 87–91 (2010).
[PubMed]

Niwa, Y.

S. Kitabatake, Y. Niwa, R. Miyahara, A. Ohashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Iguchi, Y. Shimoyama, T. Nagasaka, O. Maeda, T. Ando, N. Ohmiya, A. Itoh, Y. Hirooka, and H. Goto, “Confocal endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of gastric cancer in vivo,” Endoscopy38(11), 1110–1114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, W.

Oh, W. Y.

Ohashi, A.

S. Kitabatake, Y. Niwa, R. Miyahara, A. Ohashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Iguchi, Y. Shimoyama, T. Nagasaka, O. Maeda, T. Ando, N. Ohmiya, A. Itoh, Y. Hirooka, and H. Goto, “Confocal endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of gastric cancer in vivo,” Endoscopy38(11), 1110–1114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohmiya, N.

S. Kitabatake, Y. Niwa, R. Miyahara, A. Ohashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Iguchi, Y. Shimoyama, T. Nagasaka, O. Maeda, T. Ando, N. Ohmiya, A. Itoh, Y. Hirooka, and H. Goto, “Confocal endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of gastric cancer in vivo,” Endoscopy38(11), 1110–1114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polglase, A. L.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc.62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prinz, C.

V. Becker, T. Vercauteren, C. H. von Weyhern, C. Prinz, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “High-resolution miniprobe-based confocal microscopy in combination with video mosaicing (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.66(5), 1001–1007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puricelli, W. P.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Co-registered spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” J. Microsc.239(2), 87–91 (2010).
[PubMed]

Raimondo, M.

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy with virtual chromoendoscopy for classification of colon polyps,” Gastroenterology138(3), 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajadhyaksha, M.

C. Glazowski and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Optimal detection pinhole for lowering speckle noise while maintaining adequate optical sectioning in confocal reflectance microscopes,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 085001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmid, R. M.

V. Becker, T. Vercauteren, C. H. von Weyhern, C. Prinz, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “High-resolution miniprobe-based confocal microscopy in combination with video mosaicing (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.66(5), 1001–1007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shahid, M. W.

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy with virtual chromoendoscopy for classification of colon polyps,” Gastroenterology138(3), 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimoyama, Y.

S. Kitabatake, Y. Niwa, R. Miyahara, A. Ohashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Iguchi, Y. Shimoyama, T. Nagasaka, O. Maeda, T. Ando, N. Ohmiya, A. Itoh, Y. Hirooka, and H. Goto, “Confocal endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of gastric cancer in vivo,” Endoscopy38(11), 1110–1114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

Skinner, S. A.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc.62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stolte, M.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suter, M. J.

D. K. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Co-registered spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” J. Microsc.239(2), 87–91 (2010).
[PubMed]

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanpowpong, P.

H. Yoo, D. Kang, A. J. Katz, G. Y. Lauwers, N. S. Nishioka, Y. Yagi, P. Tanpowpong, J. Namati, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Reflectance confocal microscopy for the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis: a pilot study conducted on biopsy specimens,” Gastrointest. Endosc.74(5), 992–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, Y. K.

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

H. Yoo, D. Kang, A. J. Katz, G. Y. Lauwers, N. S. Nishioka, Y. Yagi, P. Tanpowpong, J. Namati, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Reflectance confocal microscopy for the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis: a pilot study conducted on biopsy specimens,” Gastrointest. Endosc.74(5), 992–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, H. Yoo, P. Jillella, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive volumetric confocal microscopy with adaptive focusing,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1412–1422 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Co-registered spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” J. Microsc.239(2), 87–91 (2010).
[PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “>400 kHz repetition rate wavelength-swept laser and application to high-speed optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Lett.35(17), 2919–2921 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, C. Boudoux, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Large area confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett.32(9), 1102–1104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, R. H. Webb, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett.23(15), 1152–1154 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsia, K. K.

Vakoc, B. J.

Vercauteren, T.

V. Becker, T. Vercauteren, C. H. von Weyhern, C. Prinz, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “High-resolution miniprobe-based confocal microscopy in combination with video mosaicing (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.66(5), 1001–1007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vieth, M.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Weyhern, C. H.

V. Becker, T. Vercauteren, C. H. von Weyhern, C. Prinz, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “High-resolution miniprobe-based confocal microscopy in combination with video mosaicing (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.66(5), 1001–1007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallace, M. B.

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy with virtual chromoendoscopy for classification of colon polyps,” Gastroenterology138(3), 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

White, W.

Wieser, W.

Wolfsen, H. C.

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy with virtual chromoendoscopy for classification of colon polyps,” Gastroenterology138(3), 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, K. K. Y.

Wong, T. T. W.

Woodward, T.

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy with virtual chromoendoscopy for classification of colon polyps,” Gastroenterology138(3), 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yachimski, P. S.

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Co-registered spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” J. Microsc.239(2), 87–91 (2010).
[PubMed]

Yagi, Y.

H. Yoo, D. Kang, A. J. Katz, G. Y. Lauwers, N. S. Nishioka, Y. Yagi, P. Tanpowpong, J. Namati, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Reflectance confocal microscopy for the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis: a pilot study conducted on biopsy specimens,” Gastrointest. Endosc.74(5), 992–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeheskely-Hayon, D.

Yelin, D.

Yoo, H.

H. Yoo, D. Kang, A. J. Katz, G. Y. Lauwers, N. S. Nishioka, Y. Yagi, P. Tanpowpong, J. Namati, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Reflectance confocal microscopy for the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis: a pilot study conducted on biopsy specimens,” Gastrointest. Endosc.74(5), 992–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, H. Yoo, P. Jillella, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive volumetric confocal microscopy with adaptive focusing,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1412–1422 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, S.

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (1)

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Endoscopy (1)

S. Kitabatake, Y. Niwa, R. Miyahara, A. Ohashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Iguchi, Y. Shimoyama, T. Nagasaka, O. Maeda, T. Ando, N. Ohmiya, A. Itoh, Y. Hirooka, and H. Goto, “Confocal endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of gastric cancer in vivo,” Endoscopy38(11), 1110–1114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology (1)

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy with virtual chromoendoscopy for classification of colon polyps,” Gastroenterology138(3), 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (4)

V. Becker, T. Vercauteren, C. H. von Weyhern, C. Prinz, R. M. Schmid, and A. Meining, “High-resolution miniprobe-based confocal microscopy in combination with video mosaicing (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc.66(5), 1001–1007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, H. Yoo, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive imaging of gastroesophageal biopsy samples by spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.71(1), 35–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoo, D. Kang, A. J. Katz, G. Y. Lauwers, N. S. Nishioka, Y. Yagi, P. Tanpowpong, J. Namati, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Reflectance confocal microscopy for the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis: a pilot study conducted on biopsy specimens,” Gastrointest. Endosc.74(5), 992–1000 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, “A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc.62(5), 686–695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

C. Glazowski and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Optimal detection pinhole for lowering speckle noise while maintaining adequate optical sectioning in confocal reflectance microscopes,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 085001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Microsc. (1)

D. K. Kang, M. J. Suter, C. Boudoux, P. S. Yachimski, W. P. Puricelli, N. S. Nishioka, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Co-registered spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system,” J. Microsc.239(2), 87–91 (2010).
[PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (6)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the 100-kHz SECM system. SMF – single-mode fiber; CL – collimation lens; BS – beam splitter; TDG – transmission diffraction grating; TO – telescope optics; OL – objective lens; CS – cover slip; TS – translation stage; MMF – multi-mode fiber; AP – avalanche photodiode; A – post amplifier; DAQ – data acquisition unit; D – data storage unit.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the 100-kHz wavelength-swept source. SOA – semiconductor optical amplifier; CL – collimation lens; BS – beam splitter; DG – diffraction grating; L1 and L2 – Lenses in telescope optics; M – mirror; PM – polygon mirror; PC – polarization controller; FI – fiber isolator; FC50/50 – 50:50 fiber coupler; FDL – fiber delay line; FM – Faraday mirror; BOA – booster optical amplifier; LO – light output.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temporal variation (A) and spectrum (B) of source output.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Lateral resolution measurement. A - SECM image of the USAF resolution target; B – line profiles crossing the three lines at the group 9, element 3; and C – representative LSF curves. In Fig. A, horizontal direction is the spectrally-encoded direction. In Figs B and C, red dotted curves are for SE direction, and black curves are for p-SE direction.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Axial response curve.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SECM image of swine esophagus tissue: A. low-magnification SECM image obtained at the imaging depth of 150 μm; B. magnified view of the dotted box in (A). Arrowheads – papillae; Arrows – nuclei of squamous cells.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

SECM image of human esophagus tissue. A. low-magnification image; B. magnified view of the dotted box B in (A); C. magnified of the dotted box in (B); D. magnified view of the dotted box D in (A). E – epithelium; LP – lamina propria; Arrows – nuclei of columnar cells. Scale bars: A – 2mm; B and D – 300 µm, and C – 50 µm.

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