Abstract

Optical pacing has been demonstrated to be a viable alternative to electrical pacing in embryonic hearts. In this study, the feasibility of optically pacing an adult rabbit heart was explored. Hearts from adult New Zealand White rabbits (n = 9) were excised, cannulated and perfused on a modified Langendorff apparatus. Pulsed laser light (λ = 1851 nm) was directed to either the left or right atrium through a multimode optical fiber. An ECG signal from the left ventricle and a trigger pulse from the laser were recorded simultaneously to determine when capture was achieved. Successful optical pacing was demonstrated by obtaining pacing capture, stopping, then recapturing as well as by varying the pacing frequency. Stimulation thresholds measured at various pulse durations suggested that longer pulses (8 ms) had a lower energy capture threshold. To determine whether optical pacing caused damage, two hearts were perfused with 30 µM of propidium iodide and analyzed histologically. A small number of cells near the stimulation site had compromised cell membranes, which probably limited the time duration over which pacing was maintained. Here, short-term optical pacing (few minutes duration) is demonstrated in the adult rabbit heart for the first time. Future studies will be directed to optimize optical pacing parameters to decrease stimulation thresholds and may enable longer-term pacing.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [PubMed]
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  5. A. Hersch and D. Adam, “Premature cardiac contractions produced efficiently by external high-intensity focused ultrasound,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 37(7), 1101–1110 (2011).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. I. U. Teudt, A. E. Nevel, A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, and C. P. Richter, “Optical stimulation of the facial nerve: a new monitoring technique?” Laryngoscope 117(9), 1641–1647 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, H. K. Young, B. Badofsky, S. M. Rajguru, S. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Behavioral and electrophysiological responses evoked by chronic infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea,” PLoS ONE 8(3), e58189 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, H. K. Young, B. Badofsky, S. M. Rajguru, S. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Behavioral and electrophysiological responses evoked by chronic infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea,” PLoS ONE 8(3), e58189 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

K. Oyama, A. Mizuno, S. A. Shintani, H. Itoh, T. Serizawa, N. Fukuda, M. Suzuki, and S. Ishiwata, “Microscopic heat pulses induce contraction of cardiomyocytes without calcium transients,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 417(1), 607–612 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. S. Albert, J. M. Bec, G. Desmadryl, K. Chekroud, C. Travo, S. Gaboyard, F. Bardin, I. Marc, M. Dumas, G. Lenaers, C. Hamel, A. Muller, and C. Chabbert, “TRPV4 channels mediate the infrared laser-evoked response in sensory neurons,” J. Neurophysiol. 107(12), 3227–3234 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. R. Duke, H. Lu, M. W. Jenkins, H. J. Chiel, and E. D. Jansen, “Spatial and temporal variability in response to hybrid electro-optical stimulation,” J. Neural Eng. 9(3), 036003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C. P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat Commun 3, 736 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. T. Wang, I. R. Efimov, and Y. Cheng, “Electroporation induced by internal defibrillation shock with and without recovery in intact rabbit hearts,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 303(4), H439–H449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

S. Nazarian, R. Hansford, A. Roguin, D. Goldsher, M. M. Zviman, A. C. Lardo, B. S. Caffo, K. D. Frick, M. A. Kraut, I. R. Kamel, H. Calkins, R. D. Berger, D. A. Bluemke, and H. R. Halperin, “A prospective evaluation of a protocol for magnetic resonance imaging of patients with implanted cardiac devices,” Ann. Intern. Med. 155(7), 415–424 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Hersch and D. Adam, “Premature cardiac contractions produced efficiently by external high-intensity focused ultrasound,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 37(7), 1101–1110 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Rajguru, C. P. Richter, A. I. Matic, G. R. Holstein, S. M. Highstein, G. M. Dittami, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Infrared photostimulation of the crista ampullaris,” J. Physiol. 589(6), 1283–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. L. Wilkoff, D. Bello, M. Taborsky, J. Vymazal, E. Kanal, H. Heuer, K. Hecking, W. B. Johnson, W. Young, B. Ramza, N. Akhtar, B. Kuepper, P. Hunold, R. Luechinger, H. Puererfellner, F. Duru, M. J. Gotte, R. Sutton, T. Sommer, and EnRhythm MRI SureScan Pacing System Study Investigators, “Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with a pacemaker system designed for the magnetic resonance environment,” Heart Rhythm 8(1), 65–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Dittami, S. M. Rajguru, R. A. Lasher, R. W. Hitchcock, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Intracellular calcium transients evoked by pulsed infrared radiation in neonatal cardiomyocytes,” J. Physiol. 589(6), 1295–1306 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

A. B. Arrenberg, D. Y. Stainier, H. Baier, and J. Huisken, “Optogenetic control of cardiac function,” Science 330(6006), 971–974 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Bruegmann, D. Malan, M. Hesse, T. Beiert, C. J. Fuegemann, B. K. Fleischmann, and P. Sasse, “Optogenetic control of heart muscle in vitro and in vivo,” Nat. Methods 7(11), 897–900 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

L. F. Heffer and J. B. Fallon, “A novel stimulus artifact removal technique for high-rate electrical stimulation,” J. Neurosci. Methods 170(2), 277–284 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Kim, A. Vasanji, I. R. Efimov, and Y. Cheng, “Spatial distribution and extent of electroporation by strong internal shock in intact structurally normal and chronically infarcted rabbit hearts,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 19(10), 1080–1089 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Laborderie, L. Barandon, S. Ploux, A. Deplagne, B. Mokrani, S. Reuter, F. Le Gal, P. Jais, M. Haissaguerre, J. Clementy, and P. Bordachar, “Management of subacute and delayed right ventricular perforation with a pacing or an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead,” Am. J. Cardiol. 102(10), 1352–1355 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Yavari, Z. O. Khawaja, S. Krishnamoorthy, and E. T. McWilliams, “Perforation of right ventricular free wall by pacemaker lead detected by multidetector computed tomography,” Europace 11(2), 252–254 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. M. Fried, G. A. Lagoda, N. J. Scott, L. M. Su, and A. L. Burnett, “Laser stimulation of the cavernous nerves in the rat prostate, in vivo: optimization of wavelength, pulse energy, and pulse repetition rate,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2008, 2777–2780 (2008).
[PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical mechanisms of transient optical stimulation of peripheral nerve,” Biophys. J. 93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wells, P. Konrad, C. Kao, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Pulsed laser versus electrical energy for peripheral nerve stimulation,” J. Neurosci. Methods 163(2), 326–337 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. U. Teudt, A. E. Nevel, A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, and C. P. Richter, “Optical stimulation of the facial nerve: a new monitoring technique?” Laryngoscope 117(9), 1641–1647 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Hucker, V. Sharma, V. P. Nikolski, and I. R. Efimov, “Atrioventricular conduction with and without AV nodal delay: two pathways to the bundle of His in the rabbit heart,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 293(2), H1122–H1130 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

C. A. Henrikson, C. T. Leng, D. D. Yuh, and J. A. Brinker, “Computed tomography to assess possible cardiac lead perforation,” Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol. 29(5), 509–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

L. Li, V. Nikolski, D. W. Wallick, I. R. Efimov, and Y. Cheng, “Mechanisms of enhanced shock-induced arrhythmogenesis in the rabbit heart with healed myocardial infarction,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 289(3), H1054–H1068 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wells, C. Kao, K. Mariappan, J. Albea, E. D. Jansen, P. Konrad, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Optical stimulation of neural tissue in vivo,” Opt. Lett. 30(5), 504–506 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

H. N. Pak, Y. S. Oh, Y. B. Liu, T. J. Wu, H. S. Karagueuzian, S. F. Lin, and P. S. Chen, “Catheter ablation of ventricular fibrillation in rabbit ventricles treated with beta-blockers,” Circulation 108(25), 3149–3156 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

F. G. Akar, B. J. Roth, and D. S. Rosenbaum, “Optical measurement of cell-to-cell coupling in intact heart using subthreshold electrical stimulation,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 281(2), H533–H542 (2001).
[PubMed]

1992 (1)

B. G. Hook, R. L. Perlman, D. J. Callans, M. S. Hanna, R. B. Kleiman, B. T. Flores, and F. E. Marchlinski, “Acute and chronic cycle length dependent increase in ventricular pacing threshold,” Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol. 15(10), 1437–1444 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

A. Krishan, “Rapid flow cytofluorometric analysis of mammalian cell cycle by propidium iodide staining,” J. Cell Biol. 66(1), 188–193 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adam, D.

A. Hersch and D. Adam, “Premature cardiac contractions produced efficiently by external high-intensity focused ultrasound,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 37(7), 1101–1110 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akar, F. G.

F. G. Akar, B. J. Roth, and D. S. Rosenbaum, “Optical measurement of cell-to-cell coupling in intact heart using subthreshold electrical stimulation,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 281(2), H533–H542 (2001).
[PubMed]

Akhtar, N.

B. L. Wilkoff, D. Bello, M. Taborsky, J. Vymazal, E. Kanal, H. Heuer, K. Hecking, W. B. Johnson, W. Young, B. Ramza, N. Akhtar, B. Kuepper, P. Hunold, R. Luechinger, H. Puererfellner, F. Duru, M. J. Gotte, R. Sutton, T. Sommer, and EnRhythm MRI SureScan Pacing System Study Investigators, “Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with a pacemaker system designed for the magnetic resonance environment,” Heart Rhythm 8(1), 65–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Albea, J.

Albert, E. S.

E. S. Albert, J. M. Bec, G. Desmadryl, K. Chekroud, C. Travo, S. Gaboyard, F. Bardin, I. Marc, M. Dumas, G. Lenaers, C. Hamel, A. Muller, and C. Chabbert, “TRPV4 channels mediate the infrared laser-evoked response in sensory neurons,” J. Neurophysiol. 107(12), 3227–3234 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arrenberg, A. B.

A. B. Arrenberg, D. Y. Stainier, H. Baier, and J. Huisken, “Optogenetic control of cardiac function,” Science 330(6006), 971–974 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Badofsky, B.

A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, H. K. Young, B. Badofsky, S. M. Rajguru, S. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Behavioral and electrophysiological responses evoked by chronic infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea,” PLoS ONE 8(3), e58189 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baier, H.

A. B. Arrenberg, D. Y. Stainier, H. Baier, and J. Huisken, “Optogenetic control of cardiac function,” Science 330(6006), 971–974 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barandon, L.

J. Laborderie, L. Barandon, S. Ploux, A. Deplagne, B. Mokrani, S. Reuter, F. Le Gal, P. Jais, M. Haissaguerre, J. Clementy, and P. Bordachar, “Management of subacute and delayed right ventricular perforation with a pacing or an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead,” Am. J. Cardiol. 102(10), 1352–1355 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bardin, F.

E. S. Albert, J. M. Bec, G. Desmadryl, K. Chekroud, C. Travo, S. Gaboyard, F. Bardin, I. Marc, M. Dumas, G. Lenaers, C. Hamel, A. Muller, and C. Chabbert, “TRPV4 channels mediate the infrared laser-evoked response in sensory neurons,” J. Neurophysiol. 107(12), 3227–3234 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bec, J. M.

E. S. Albert, J. M. Bec, G. Desmadryl, K. Chekroud, C. Travo, S. Gaboyard, F. Bardin, I. Marc, M. Dumas, G. Lenaers, C. Hamel, A. Muller, and C. Chabbert, “TRPV4 channels mediate the infrared laser-evoked response in sensory neurons,” J. Neurophysiol. 107(12), 3227–3234 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beiert, T.

T. Bruegmann, D. Malan, M. Hesse, T. Beiert, C. J. Fuegemann, B. K. Fleischmann, and P. Sasse, “Optogenetic control of heart muscle in vitro and in vivo,” Nat. Methods 7(11), 897–900 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bello, D.

B. L. Wilkoff, D. Bello, M. Taborsky, J. Vymazal, E. Kanal, H. Heuer, K. Hecking, W. B. Johnson, W. Young, B. Ramza, N. Akhtar, B. Kuepper, P. Hunold, R. Luechinger, H. Puererfellner, F. Duru, M. J. Gotte, R. Sutton, T. Sommer, and EnRhythm MRI SureScan Pacing System Study Investigators, “Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with a pacemaker system designed for the magnetic resonance environment,” Heart Rhythm 8(1), 65–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bendett, M.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berger, R. D.

S. Nazarian, R. Hansford, A. Roguin, D. Goldsher, M. M. Zviman, A. C. Lardo, B. S. Caffo, K. D. Frick, M. A. Kraut, I. R. Kamel, H. Calkins, R. D. Berger, D. A. Bluemke, and H. R. Halperin, “A prospective evaluation of a protocol for magnetic resonance imaging of patients with implanted cardiac devices,” Ann. Intern. Med. 155(7), 415–424 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bezanilla, F.

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C. P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat Commun 3, 736 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C. P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat. Commun.3 (2012).

Bluemke, D. A.

S. Nazarian, R. Hansford, A. Roguin, D. Goldsher, M. M. Zviman, A. C. Lardo, B. S. Caffo, K. D. Frick, M. A. Kraut, I. R. Kamel, H. Calkins, R. D. Berger, D. A. Bluemke, and H. R. Halperin, “A prospective evaluation of a protocol for magnetic resonance imaging of patients with implanted cardiac devices,” Ann. Intern. Med. 155(7), 415–424 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bordachar, P.

J. Laborderie, L. Barandon, S. Ploux, A. Deplagne, B. Mokrani, S. Reuter, F. Le Gal, P. Jais, M. Haissaguerre, J. Clementy, and P. Bordachar, “Management of subacute and delayed right ventricular perforation with a pacing or an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead,” Am. J. Cardiol. 102(10), 1352–1355 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brinker, J. A.

C. A. Henrikson, C. T. Leng, D. D. Yuh, and J. A. Brinker, “Computed tomography to assess possible cardiac lead perforation,” Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol. 29(5), 509–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruegmann, T.

T. Bruegmann, D. Malan, M. Hesse, T. Beiert, C. J. Fuegemann, B. K. Fleischmann, and P. Sasse, “Optogenetic control of heart muscle in vitro and in vivo,” Nat. Methods 7(11), 897–900 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burnett, A. L.

N. M. Fried, G. A. Lagoda, N. J. Scott, L. M. Su, and A. L. Burnett, “Laser stimulation of the cavernous nerves in the rat prostate, in vivo: optimization of wavelength, pulse energy, and pulse repetition rate,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2008, 2777–2780 (2008).
[PubMed]

Caffo, B. S.

S. Nazarian, R. Hansford, A. Roguin, D. Goldsher, M. M. Zviman, A. C. Lardo, B. S. Caffo, K. D. Frick, M. A. Kraut, I. R. Kamel, H. Calkins, R. D. Berger, D. A. Bluemke, and H. R. Halperin, “A prospective evaluation of a protocol for magnetic resonance imaging of patients with implanted cardiac devices,” Ann. Intern. Med. 155(7), 415–424 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calkins, H.

S. Nazarian, R. Hansford, A. Roguin, D. Goldsher, M. M. Zviman, A. C. Lardo, B. S. Caffo, K. D. Frick, M. A. Kraut, I. R. Kamel, H. Calkins, R. D. Berger, D. A. Bluemke, and H. R. Halperin, “A prospective evaluation of a protocol for magnetic resonance imaging of patients with implanted cardiac devices,” Ann. Intern. Med. 155(7), 415–424 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Callans, D. J.

B. G. Hook, R. L. Perlman, D. J. Callans, M. S. Hanna, R. B. Kleiman, B. T. Flores, and F. E. Marchlinski, “Acute and chronic cycle length dependent increase in ventricular pacing threshold,” Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol. 15(10), 1437–1444 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chabbert, C.

E. S. Albert, J. M. Bec, G. Desmadryl, K. Chekroud, C. Travo, S. Gaboyard, F. Bardin, I. Marc, M. Dumas, G. Lenaers, C. Hamel, A. Muller, and C. Chabbert, “TRPV4 channels mediate the infrared laser-evoked response in sensory neurons,” J. Neurophysiol. 107(12), 3227–3234 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chekroud, K.

E. S. Albert, J. M. Bec, G. Desmadryl, K. Chekroud, C. Travo, S. Gaboyard, F. Bardin, I. Marc, M. Dumas, G. Lenaers, C. Hamel, A. Muller, and C. Chabbert, “TRPV4 channels mediate the infrared laser-evoked response in sensory neurons,” J. Neurophysiol. 107(12), 3227–3234 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, P. S.

H. N. Pak, Y. S. Oh, Y. B. Liu, T. J. Wu, H. S. Karagueuzian, S. F. Lin, and P. S. Chen, “Catheter ablation of ventricular fibrillation in rabbit ventricles treated with beta-blockers,” Circulation 108(25), 3149–3156 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y.

Y. T. Wang, I. R. Efimov, and Y. Cheng, “Electroporation induced by internal defibrillation shock with and without recovery in intact rabbit hearts,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 303(4), H439–H449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Kim, A. Vasanji, I. R. Efimov, and Y. Cheng, “Spatial distribution and extent of electroporation by strong internal shock in intact structurally normal and chronically infarcted rabbit hearts,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 19(10), 1080–1089 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, V. Nikolski, D. W. Wallick, I. R. Efimov, and Y. Cheng, “Mechanisms of enhanced shock-induced arrhythmogenesis in the rabbit heart with healed myocardial infarction,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 289(3), H1054–H1068 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiel, H. J.

A. R. Duke, H. Lu, M. W. Jenkins, H. J. Chiel, and E. D. Jansen, “Spatial and temporal variability in response to hybrid electro-optical stimulation,” J. Neural Eng. 9(3), 036003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clementy, J.

J. Laborderie, L. Barandon, S. Ploux, A. Deplagne, B. Mokrani, S. Reuter, F. Le Gal, P. Jais, M. Haissaguerre, J. Clementy, and P. Bordachar, “Management of subacute and delayed right ventricular perforation with a pacing or an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead,” Am. J. Cardiol. 102(10), 1352–1355 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deplagne, A.

J. Laborderie, L. Barandon, S. Ploux, A. Deplagne, B. Mokrani, S. Reuter, F. Le Gal, P. Jais, M. Haissaguerre, J. Clementy, and P. Bordachar, “Management of subacute and delayed right ventricular perforation with a pacing or an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead,” Am. J. Cardiol. 102(10), 1352–1355 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Desmadryl, G.

E. S. Albert, J. M. Bec, G. Desmadryl, K. Chekroud, C. Travo, S. Gaboyard, F. Bardin, I. Marc, M. Dumas, G. Lenaers, C. Hamel, A. Muller, and C. Chabbert, “TRPV4 channels mediate the infrared laser-evoked response in sensory neurons,” J. Neurophysiol. 107(12), 3227–3234 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dittami, G. M.

S. M. Rajguru, C. P. Richter, A. I. Matic, G. R. Holstein, S. M. Highstein, G. M. Dittami, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Infrared photostimulation of the crista ampullaris,” J. Physiol. 589(6), 1283–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Dittami, S. M. Rajguru, R. A. Lasher, R. W. Hitchcock, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Intracellular calcium transients evoked by pulsed infrared radiation in neonatal cardiomyocytes,” J. Physiol. 589(6), 1295–1306 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duke, A. R.

A. R. Duke, H. Lu, M. W. Jenkins, H. J. Chiel, and E. D. Jansen, “Spatial and temporal variability in response to hybrid electro-optical stimulation,” J. Neural Eng. 9(3), 036003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dumas, M.

E. S. Albert, J. M. Bec, G. Desmadryl, K. Chekroud, C. Travo, S. Gaboyard, F. Bardin, I. Marc, M. Dumas, G. Lenaers, C. Hamel, A. Muller, and C. Chabbert, “TRPV4 channels mediate the infrared laser-evoked response in sensory neurons,” J. Neurophysiol. 107(12), 3227–3234 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duru, F.

B. L. Wilkoff, D. Bello, M. Taborsky, J. Vymazal, E. Kanal, H. Heuer, K. Hecking, W. B. Johnson, W. Young, B. Ramza, N. Akhtar, B. Kuepper, P. Hunold, R. Luechinger, H. Puererfellner, F. Duru, M. J. Gotte, R. Sutton, T. Sommer, and EnRhythm MRI SureScan Pacing System Study Investigators, “Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with a pacemaker system designed for the magnetic resonance environment,” Heart Rhythm 8(1), 65–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Efimov, I. R.

Y. T. Wang, I. R. Efimov, and Y. Cheng, “Electroporation induced by internal defibrillation shock with and without recovery in intact rabbit hearts,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 303(4), H439–H449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Kim, A. Vasanji, I. R. Efimov, and Y. Cheng, “Spatial distribution and extent of electroporation by strong internal shock in intact structurally normal and chronically infarcted rabbit hearts,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 19(10), 1080–1089 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Hucker, V. Sharma, V. P. Nikolski, and I. R. Efimov, “Atrioventricular conduction with and without AV nodal delay: two pathways to the bundle of His in the rabbit heart,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 293(2), H1122–H1130 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, V. Nikolski, D. W. Wallick, I. R. Efimov, and Y. Cheng, “Mechanisms of enhanced shock-induced arrhythmogenesis in the rabbit heart with healed myocardial infarction,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 289(3), H1054–H1068 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fallon, J. B.

L. F. Heffer and J. B. Fallon, “A novel stimulus artifact removal technique for high-rate electrical stimulation,” J. Neurosci. Methods 170(2), 277–284 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fleischmann, B. K.

T. Bruegmann, D. Malan, M. Hesse, T. Beiert, C. J. Fuegemann, B. K. Fleischmann, and P. Sasse, “Optogenetic control of heart muscle in vitro and in vivo,” Nat. Methods 7(11), 897–900 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flores, B. T.

B. G. Hook, R. L. Perlman, D. J. Callans, M. S. Hanna, R. B. Kleiman, B. T. Flores, and F. E. Marchlinski, “Acute and chronic cycle length dependent increase in ventricular pacing threshold,” Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol. 15(10), 1437–1444 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frick, K. D.

S. Nazarian, R. Hansford, A. Roguin, D. Goldsher, M. M. Zviman, A. C. Lardo, B. S. Caffo, K. D. Frick, M. A. Kraut, I. R. Kamel, H. Calkins, R. D. Berger, D. A. Bluemke, and H. R. Halperin, “A prospective evaluation of a protocol for magnetic resonance imaging of patients with implanted cardiac devices,” Ann. Intern. Med. 155(7), 415–424 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fried, N. M.

N. M. Fried, G. A. Lagoda, N. J. Scott, L. M. Su, and A. L. Burnett, “Laser stimulation of the cavernous nerves in the rat prostate, in vivo: optimization of wavelength, pulse energy, and pulse repetition rate,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2008, 2777–2780 (2008).
[PubMed]

Fuegemann, C. J.

T. Bruegmann, D. Malan, M. Hesse, T. Beiert, C. J. Fuegemann, B. K. Fleischmann, and P. Sasse, “Optogenetic control of heart muscle in vitro and in vivo,” Nat. Methods 7(11), 897–900 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujioka, H.

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fukuda, N.

K. Oyama, A. Mizuno, S. A. Shintani, H. Itoh, T. Serizawa, N. Fukuda, M. Suzuki, and S. Ishiwata, “Microscopic heat pulses induce contraction of cardiomyocytes without calcium transients,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 417(1), 607–612 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaboyard, S.

E. S. Albert, J. M. Bec, G. Desmadryl, K. Chekroud, C. Travo, S. Gaboyard, F. Bardin, I. Marc, M. Dumas, G. Lenaers, C. Hamel, A. Muller, and C. Chabbert, “TRPV4 channels mediate the infrared laser-evoked response in sensory neurons,” J. Neurophysiol. 107(12), 3227–3234 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldsher, D.

S. Nazarian, R. Hansford, A. Roguin, D. Goldsher, M. M. Zviman, A. C. Lardo, B. S. Caffo, K. D. Frick, M. A. Kraut, I. R. Kamel, H. Calkins, R. D. Berger, D. A. Bluemke, and H. R. Halperin, “A prospective evaluation of a protocol for magnetic resonance imaging of patients with implanted cardiac devices,” Ann. Intern. Med. 155(7), 415–424 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gotte, M. J.

B. L. Wilkoff, D. Bello, M. Taborsky, J. Vymazal, E. Kanal, H. Heuer, K. Hecking, W. B. Johnson, W. Young, B. Ramza, N. Akhtar, B. Kuepper, P. Hunold, R. Luechinger, H. Puererfellner, F. Duru, M. J. Gotte, R. Sutton, T. Sommer, and EnRhythm MRI SureScan Pacing System Study Investigators, “Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with a pacemaker system designed for the magnetic resonance environment,” Heart Rhythm 8(1), 65–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, S.

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haissaguerre, M.

J. Laborderie, L. Barandon, S. Ploux, A. Deplagne, B. Mokrani, S. Reuter, F. Le Gal, P. Jais, M. Haissaguerre, J. Clementy, and P. Bordachar, “Management of subacute and delayed right ventricular perforation with a pacing or an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead,” Am. J. Cardiol. 102(10), 1352–1355 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halperin, H. R.

S. Nazarian, R. Hansford, A. Roguin, D. Goldsher, M. M. Zviman, A. C. Lardo, B. S. Caffo, K. D. Frick, M. A. Kraut, I. R. Kamel, H. Calkins, R. D. Berger, D. A. Bluemke, and H. R. Halperin, “A prospective evaluation of a protocol for magnetic resonance imaging of patients with implanted cardiac devices,” Ann. Intern. Med. 155(7), 415–424 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hamel, C.

E. S. Albert, J. M. Bec, G. Desmadryl, K. Chekroud, C. Travo, S. Gaboyard, F. Bardin, I. Marc, M. Dumas, G. Lenaers, C. Hamel, A. Muller, and C. Chabbert, “TRPV4 channels mediate the infrared laser-evoked response in sensory neurons,” J. Neurophysiol. 107(12), 3227–3234 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hanna, M. S.

B. G. Hook, R. L. Perlman, D. J. Callans, M. S. Hanna, R. B. Kleiman, B. T. Flores, and F. E. Marchlinski, “Acute and chronic cycle length dependent increase in ventricular pacing threshold,” Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol. 15(10), 1437–1444 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hansford, R.

S. Nazarian, R. Hansford, A. Roguin, D. Goldsher, M. M. Zviman, A. C. Lardo, B. S. Caffo, K. D. Frick, M. A. Kraut, I. R. Kamel, H. Calkins, R. D. Berger, D. A. Bluemke, and H. R. Halperin, “A prospective evaluation of a protocol for magnetic resonance imaging of patients with implanted cardiac devices,” Ann. Intern. Med. 155(7), 415–424 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hecking, K.

B. L. Wilkoff, D. Bello, M. Taborsky, J. Vymazal, E. Kanal, H. Heuer, K. Hecking, W. B. Johnson, W. Young, B. Ramza, N. Akhtar, B. Kuepper, P. Hunold, R. Luechinger, H. Puererfellner, F. Duru, M. J. Gotte, R. Sutton, T. Sommer, and EnRhythm MRI SureScan Pacing System Study Investigators, “Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with a pacemaker system designed for the magnetic resonance environment,” Heart Rhythm 8(1), 65–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heffer, L. F.

L. F. Heffer and J. B. Fallon, “A novel stimulus artifact removal technique for high-rate electrical stimulation,” J. Neurosci. Methods 170(2), 277–284 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Henrikson, C. A.

C. A. Henrikson, C. T. Leng, D. D. Yuh, and J. A. Brinker, “Computed tomography to assess possible cardiac lead perforation,” Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol. 29(5), 509–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hersch, A.

A. Hersch and D. Adam, “Premature cardiac contractions produced efficiently by external high-intensity focused ultrasound,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 37(7), 1101–1110 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hesse, M.

T. Bruegmann, D. Malan, M. Hesse, T. Beiert, C. J. Fuegemann, B. K. Fleischmann, and P. Sasse, “Optogenetic control of heart muscle in vitro and in vivo,” Nat. Methods 7(11), 897–900 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heuer, H.

B. L. Wilkoff, D. Bello, M. Taborsky, J. Vymazal, E. Kanal, H. Heuer, K. Hecking, W. B. Johnson, W. Young, B. Ramza, N. Akhtar, B. Kuepper, P. Hunold, R. Luechinger, H. Puererfellner, F. Duru, M. J. Gotte, R. Sutton, T. Sommer, and EnRhythm MRI SureScan Pacing System Study Investigators, “Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with a pacemaker system designed for the magnetic resonance environment,” Heart Rhythm 8(1), 65–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Highstein, S. M.

S. M. Rajguru, C. P. Richter, A. I. Matic, G. R. Holstein, S. M. Highstein, G. M. Dittami, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Infrared photostimulation of the crista ampullaris,” J. Physiol. 589(6), 1283–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hitchcock, R. W.

G. M. Dittami, S. M. Rajguru, R. A. Lasher, R. W. Hitchcock, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Intracellular calcium transients evoked by pulsed infrared radiation in neonatal cardiomyocytes,” J. Physiol. 589(6), 1295–1306 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holstein, G. R.

S. M. Rajguru, C. P. Richter, A. I. Matic, G. R. Holstein, S. M. Highstein, G. M. Dittami, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Infrared photostimulation of the crista ampullaris,” J. Physiol. 589(6), 1283–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Homma, K.

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C. P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat Commun 3, 736 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C. P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat. Commun.3 (2012).

Hook, B. G.

B. G. Hook, R. L. Perlman, D. J. Callans, M. S. Hanna, R. B. Kleiman, B. T. Flores, and F. E. Marchlinski, “Acute and chronic cycle length dependent increase in ventricular pacing threshold,” Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol. 15(10), 1437–1444 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hucker, W. J.

W. J. Hucker, V. Sharma, V. P. Nikolski, and I. R. Efimov, “Atrioventricular conduction with and without AV nodal delay: two pathways to the bundle of His in the rabbit heart,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 293(2), H1122–H1130 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huisken, J.

A. B. Arrenberg, D. Y. Stainier, H. Baier, and J. Huisken, “Optogenetic control of cardiac function,” Science 330(6006), 971–974 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hunold, P.

B. L. Wilkoff, D. Bello, M. Taborsky, J. Vymazal, E. Kanal, H. Heuer, K. Hecking, W. B. Johnson, W. Young, B. Ramza, N. Akhtar, B. Kuepper, P. Hunold, R. Luechinger, H. Puererfellner, F. Duru, M. J. Gotte, R. Sutton, T. Sommer, and EnRhythm MRI SureScan Pacing System Study Investigators, “Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with a pacemaker system designed for the magnetic resonance environment,” Heart Rhythm 8(1), 65–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishiwata, S.

K. Oyama, A. Mizuno, S. A. Shintani, H. Itoh, T. Serizawa, N. Fukuda, M. Suzuki, and S. Ishiwata, “Microscopic heat pulses induce contraction of cardiomyocytes without calcium transients,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 417(1), 607–612 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Itoh, H.

K. Oyama, A. Mizuno, S. A. Shintani, H. Itoh, T. Serizawa, N. Fukuda, M. Suzuki, and S. Ishiwata, “Microscopic heat pulses induce contraction of cardiomyocytes without calcium transients,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 417(1), 607–612 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Izzo, A. D.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. U. Teudt, A. E. Nevel, A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, and C. P. Richter, “Optical stimulation of the facial nerve: a new monitoring technique?” Laryngoscope 117(9), 1641–1647 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jais, P.

J. Laborderie, L. Barandon, S. Ploux, A. Deplagne, B. Mokrani, S. Reuter, F. Le Gal, P. Jais, M. Haissaguerre, J. Clementy, and P. Bordachar, “Management of subacute and delayed right ventricular perforation with a pacing or an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead,” Am. J. Cardiol. 102(10), 1352–1355 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jansen, E. D.

A. R. Duke, H. Lu, M. W. Jenkins, H. J. Chiel, and E. D. Jansen, “Spatial and temporal variability in response to hybrid electro-optical stimulation,” J. Neural Eng. 9(3), 036003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical mechanisms of transient optical stimulation of peripheral nerve,” Biophys. J. 93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wells, P. Konrad, C. Kao, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Pulsed laser versus electrical energy for peripheral nerve stimulation,” J. Neurosci. Methods 163(2), 326–337 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wells, C. Kao, K. Mariappan, J. Albea, E. D. Jansen, P. Konrad, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Optical stimulation of neural tissue in vivo,” Opt. Lett. 30(5), 504–506 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jenkins, M. W.

A. R. Duke, H. Lu, M. W. Jenkins, H. J. Chiel, and E. D. Jansen, “Spatial and temporal variability in response to hybrid electro-optical stimulation,” J. Neural Eng. 9(3), 036003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, W. B.

B. L. Wilkoff, D. Bello, M. Taborsky, J. Vymazal, E. Kanal, H. Heuer, K. Hecking, W. B. Johnson, W. Young, B. Ramza, N. Akhtar, B. Kuepper, P. Hunold, R. Luechinger, H. Puererfellner, F. Duru, M. J. Gotte, R. Sutton, T. Sommer, and EnRhythm MRI SureScan Pacing System Study Investigators, “Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with a pacemaker system designed for the magnetic resonance environment,” Heart Rhythm 8(1), 65–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamel, I. R.

S. Nazarian, R. Hansford, A. Roguin, D. Goldsher, M. M. Zviman, A. C. Lardo, B. S. Caffo, K. D. Frick, M. A. Kraut, I. R. Kamel, H. Calkins, R. D. Berger, D. A. Bluemke, and H. R. Halperin, “A prospective evaluation of a protocol for magnetic resonance imaging of patients with implanted cardiac devices,” Ann. Intern. Med. 155(7), 415–424 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kanal, E.

B. L. Wilkoff, D. Bello, M. Taborsky, J. Vymazal, E. Kanal, H. Heuer, K. Hecking, W. B. Johnson, W. Young, B. Ramza, N. Akhtar, B. Kuepper, P. Hunold, R. Luechinger, H. Puererfellner, F. Duru, M. J. Gotte, R. Sutton, T. Sommer, and EnRhythm MRI SureScan Pacing System Study Investigators, “Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with a pacemaker system designed for the magnetic resonance environment,” Heart Rhythm 8(1), 65–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kao, C.

J. Wells, P. Konrad, C. Kao, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Pulsed laser versus electrical energy for peripheral nerve stimulation,” J. Neurosci. Methods 163(2), 326–337 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical mechanisms of transient optical stimulation of peripheral nerve,” Biophys. J. 93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wells, C. Kao, K. Mariappan, J. Albea, E. D. Jansen, P. Konrad, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Optical stimulation of neural tissue in vivo,” Opt. Lett. 30(5), 504–506 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karagueuzian, H. S.

H. N. Pak, Y. S. Oh, Y. B. Liu, T. J. Wu, H. S. Karagueuzian, S. F. Lin, and P. S. Chen, “Catheter ablation of ventricular fibrillation in rabbit ventricles treated with beta-blockers,” Circulation 108(25), 3149–3156 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khawaja, Z. O.

A. Yavari, Z. O. Khawaja, S. Krishnamoorthy, and E. T. McWilliams, “Perforation of right ventricular free wall by pacemaker lead detected by multidetector computed tomography,” Europace 11(2), 252–254 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical mechanisms of transient optical stimulation of peripheral nerve,” Biophys. J. 93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S. C.

S. C. Kim, A. Vasanji, I. R. Efimov, and Y. Cheng, “Spatial distribution and extent of electroporation by strong internal shock in intact structurally normal and chronically infarcted rabbit hearts,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 19(10), 1080–1089 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kleiman, R. B.

B. G. Hook, R. L. Perlman, D. J. Callans, M. S. Hanna, R. B. Kleiman, B. T. Flores, and F. E. Marchlinski, “Acute and chronic cycle length dependent increase in ventricular pacing threshold,” Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol. 15(10), 1437–1444 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Konrad, P.

J. Wells, P. Konrad, C. Kao, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Pulsed laser versus electrical energy for peripheral nerve stimulation,” J. Neurosci. Methods 163(2), 326–337 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical mechanisms of transient optical stimulation of peripheral nerve,” Biophys. J. 93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wells, C. Kao, K. Mariappan, J. Albea, E. D. Jansen, P. Konrad, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Optical stimulation of neural tissue in vivo,” Opt. Lett. 30(5), 504–506 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kraut, M. A.

S. Nazarian, R. Hansford, A. Roguin, D. Goldsher, M. M. Zviman, A. C. Lardo, B. S. Caffo, K. D. Frick, M. A. Kraut, I. R. Kamel, H. Calkins, R. D. Berger, D. A. Bluemke, and H. R. Halperin, “A prospective evaluation of a protocol for magnetic resonance imaging of patients with implanted cardiac devices,” Ann. Intern. Med. 155(7), 415–424 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krishan, A.

A. Krishan, “Rapid flow cytofluorometric analysis of mammalian cell cycle by propidium iodide staining,” J. Cell Biol. 66(1), 188–193 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krishnamoorthy, S.

A. Yavari, Z. O. Khawaja, S. Krishnamoorthy, and E. T. McWilliams, “Perforation of right ventricular free wall by pacemaker lead detected by multidetector computed tomography,” Europace 11(2), 252–254 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuepper, B.

B. L. Wilkoff, D. Bello, M. Taborsky, J. Vymazal, E. Kanal, H. Heuer, K. Hecking, W. B. Johnson, W. Young, B. Ramza, N. Akhtar, B. Kuepper, P. Hunold, R. Luechinger, H. Puererfellner, F. Duru, M. J. Gotte, R. Sutton, T. Sommer, and EnRhythm MRI SureScan Pacing System Study Investigators, “Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with a pacemaker system designed for the magnetic resonance environment,” Heart Rhythm 8(1), 65–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laborderie, J.

J. Laborderie, L. Barandon, S. Ploux, A. Deplagne, B. Mokrani, S. Reuter, F. Le Gal, P. Jais, M. Haissaguerre, J. Clementy, and P. Bordachar, “Management of subacute and delayed right ventricular perforation with a pacing or an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead,” Am. J. Cardiol. 102(10), 1352–1355 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lagoda, G. A.

N. M. Fried, G. A. Lagoda, N. J. Scott, L. M. Su, and A. L. Burnett, “Laser stimulation of the cavernous nerves in the rat prostate, in vivo: optimization of wavelength, pulse energy, and pulse repetition rate,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2008, 2777–2780 (2008).
[PubMed]

Lardo, A. C.

S. Nazarian, R. Hansford, A. Roguin, D. Goldsher, M. M. Zviman, A. C. Lardo, B. S. Caffo, K. D. Frick, M. A. Kraut, I. R. Kamel, H. Calkins, R. D. Berger, D. A. Bluemke, and H. R. Halperin, “A prospective evaluation of a protocol for magnetic resonance imaging of patients with implanted cardiac devices,” Ann. Intern. Med. 155(7), 415–424 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lasher, R. A.

G. M. Dittami, S. M. Rajguru, R. A. Lasher, R. W. Hitchcock, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Intracellular calcium transients evoked by pulsed infrared radiation in neonatal cardiomyocytes,” J. Physiol. 589(6), 1295–1306 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le Gal, F.

J. Laborderie, L. Barandon, S. Ploux, A. Deplagne, B. Mokrani, S. Reuter, F. Le Gal, P. Jais, M. Haissaguerre, J. Clementy, and P. Bordachar, “Management of subacute and delayed right ventricular perforation with a pacing or an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead,” Am. J. Cardiol. 102(10), 1352–1355 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lenaers, G.

E. S. Albert, J. M. Bec, G. Desmadryl, K. Chekroud, C. Travo, S. Gaboyard, F. Bardin, I. Marc, M. Dumas, G. Lenaers, C. Hamel, A. Muller, and C. Chabbert, “TRPV4 channels mediate the infrared laser-evoked response in sensory neurons,” J. Neurophysiol. 107(12), 3227–3234 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leng, C. T.

C. A. Henrikson, C. T. Leng, D. D. Yuh, and J. A. Brinker, “Computed tomography to assess possible cardiac lead perforation,” Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol. 29(5), 509–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L.

L. Li, V. Nikolski, D. W. Wallick, I. R. Efimov, and Y. Cheng, “Mechanisms of enhanced shock-induced arrhythmogenesis in the rabbit heart with healed myocardial infarction,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 289(3), H1054–H1068 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, S. F.

H. N. Pak, Y. S. Oh, Y. B. Liu, T. J. Wu, H. S. Karagueuzian, S. F. Lin, and P. S. Chen, “Catheter ablation of ventricular fibrillation in rabbit ventricles treated with beta-blockers,” Circulation 108(25), 3149–3156 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y. B.

H. N. Pak, Y. S. Oh, Y. B. Liu, T. J. Wu, H. S. Karagueuzian, S. F. Lin, and P. S. Chen, “Catheter ablation of ventricular fibrillation in rabbit ventricles treated with beta-blockers,” Circulation 108(25), 3149–3156 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, H.

A. R. Duke, H. Lu, M. W. Jenkins, H. J. Chiel, and E. D. Jansen, “Spatial and temporal variability in response to hybrid electro-optical stimulation,” J. Neural Eng. 9(3), 036003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luechinger, R.

B. L. Wilkoff, D. Bello, M. Taborsky, J. Vymazal, E. Kanal, H. Heuer, K. Hecking, W. B. Johnson, W. Young, B. Ramza, N. Akhtar, B. Kuepper, P. Hunold, R. Luechinger, H. Puererfellner, F. Duru, M. J. Gotte, R. Sutton, T. Sommer, and EnRhythm MRI SureScan Pacing System Study Investigators, “Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with a pacemaker system designed for the magnetic resonance environment,” Heart Rhythm 8(1), 65–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

J. Wells, P. Konrad, C. Kao, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Pulsed laser versus electrical energy for peripheral nerve stimulation,” J. Neurosci. Methods 163(2), 326–337 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical mechanisms of transient optical stimulation of peripheral nerve,” Biophys. J. 93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wells, C. Kao, K. Mariappan, J. Albea, E. D. Jansen, P. Konrad, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Optical stimulation of neural tissue in vivo,” Opt. Lett. 30(5), 504–506 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malan, D.

T. Bruegmann, D. Malan, M. Hesse, T. Beiert, C. J. Fuegemann, B. K. Fleischmann, and P. Sasse, “Optogenetic control of heart muscle in vitro and in vivo,” Nat. Methods 7(11), 897–900 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marc, I.

E. S. Albert, J. M. Bec, G. Desmadryl, K. Chekroud, C. Travo, S. Gaboyard, F. Bardin, I. Marc, M. Dumas, G. Lenaers, C. Hamel, A. Muller, and C. Chabbert, “TRPV4 channels mediate the infrared laser-evoked response in sensory neurons,” J. Neurophysiol. 107(12), 3227–3234 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marchlinski, F. E.

B. G. Hook, R. L. Perlman, D. J. Callans, M. S. Hanna, R. B. Kleiman, B. T. Flores, and F. E. Marchlinski, “Acute and chronic cycle length dependent increase in ventricular pacing threshold,” Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol. 15(10), 1437–1444 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mariappan, K.

Matic, A. I.

A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, H. K. Young, B. Badofsky, S. M. Rajguru, S. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Behavioral and electrophysiological responses evoked by chronic infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea,” PLoS ONE 8(3), e58189 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Rajguru, C. P. Richter, A. I. Matic, G. R. Holstein, S. M. Highstein, G. M. Dittami, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Infrared photostimulation of the crista ampullaris,” J. Physiol. 589(6), 1283–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McWilliams, E. T.

A. Yavari, Z. O. Khawaja, S. Krishnamoorthy, and E. T. McWilliams, “Perforation of right ventricular free wall by pacemaker lead detected by multidetector computed tomography,” Europace 11(2), 252–254 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milner, T.

J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical mechanisms of transient optical stimulation of peripheral nerve,” Biophys. J. 93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mizuno, A.

K. Oyama, A. Mizuno, S. A. Shintani, H. Itoh, T. Serizawa, N. Fukuda, M. Suzuki, and S. Ishiwata, “Microscopic heat pulses induce contraction of cardiomyocytes without calcium transients,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 417(1), 607–612 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mokrani, B.

J. Laborderie, L. Barandon, S. Ploux, A. Deplagne, B. Mokrani, S. Reuter, F. Le Gal, P. Jais, M. Haissaguerre, J. Clementy, and P. Bordachar, “Management of subacute and delayed right ventricular perforation with a pacing or an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead,” Am. J. Cardiol. 102(10), 1352–1355 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muller, A.

E. S. Albert, J. M. Bec, G. Desmadryl, K. Chekroud, C. Travo, S. Gaboyard, F. Bardin, I. Marc, M. Dumas, G. Lenaers, C. Hamel, A. Muller, and C. Chabbert, “TRPV4 channels mediate the infrared laser-evoked response in sensory neurons,” J. Neurophysiol. 107(12), 3227–3234 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nazarian, S.

S. Nazarian, R. Hansford, A. Roguin, D. Goldsher, M. M. Zviman, A. C. Lardo, B. S. Caffo, K. D. Frick, M. A. Kraut, I. R. Kamel, H. Calkins, R. D. Berger, D. A. Bluemke, and H. R. Halperin, “A prospective evaluation of a protocol for magnetic resonance imaging of patients with implanted cardiac devices,” Ann. Intern. Med. 155(7), 415–424 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nevel, A. E.

I. U. Teudt, A. E. Nevel, A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, and C. P. Richter, “Optical stimulation of the facial nerve: a new monitoring technique?” Laryngoscope 117(9), 1641–1647 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nikolski, V.

L. Li, V. Nikolski, D. W. Wallick, I. R. Efimov, and Y. Cheng, “Mechanisms of enhanced shock-induced arrhythmogenesis in the rabbit heart with healed myocardial infarction,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 289(3), H1054–H1068 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nikolski, V. P.

W. J. Hucker, V. Sharma, V. P. Nikolski, and I. R. Efimov, “Atrioventricular conduction with and without AV nodal delay: two pathways to the bundle of His in the rabbit heart,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 293(2), H1122–H1130 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, Y. S.

H. N. Pak, Y. S. Oh, Y. B. Liu, T. J. Wu, H. S. Karagueuzian, S. F. Lin, and P. S. Chen, “Catheter ablation of ventricular fibrillation in rabbit ventricles treated with beta-blockers,” Circulation 108(25), 3149–3156 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oyama, K.

K. Oyama, A. Mizuno, S. A. Shintani, H. Itoh, T. Serizawa, N. Fukuda, M. Suzuki, and S. Ishiwata, “Microscopic heat pulses induce contraction of cardiomyocytes without calcium transients,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 417(1), 607–612 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pak, H. N.

H. N. Pak, Y. S. Oh, Y. B. Liu, T. J. Wu, H. S. Karagueuzian, S. F. Lin, and P. S. Chen, “Catheter ablation of ventricular fibrillation in rabbit ventricles treated with beta-blockers,” Circulation 108(25), 3149–3156 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perlman, R. L.

B. G. Hook, R. L. Perlman, D. J. Callans, M. S. Hanna, R. B. Kleiman, B. T. Flores, and F. E. Marchlinski, “Acute and chronic cycle length dependent increase in ventricular pacing threshold,” Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol. 15(10), 1437–1444 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ploux, S.

J. Laborderie, L. Barandon, S. Ploux, A. Deplagne, B. Mokrani, S. Reuter, F. Le Gal, P. Jais, M. Haissaguerre, J. Clementy, and P. Bordachar, “Management of subacute and delayed right ventricular perforation with a pacing or an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead,” Am. J. Cardiol. 102(10), 1352–1355 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puererfellner, H.

B. L. Wilkoff, D. Bello, M. Taborsky, J. Vymazal, E. Kanal, H. Heuer, K. Hecking, W. B. Johnson, W. Young, B. Ramza, N. Akhtar, B. Kuepper, P. Hunold, R. Luechinger, H. Puererfellner, F. Duru, M. J. Gotte, R. Sutton, T. Sommer, and EnRhythm MRI SureScan Pacing System Study Investigators, “Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with a pacemaker system designed for the magnetic resonance environment,” Heart Rhythm 8(1), 65–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rabbitt, R. D.

G. M. Dittami, S. M. Rajguru, R. A. Lasher, R. W. Hitchcock, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Intracellular calcium transients evoked by pulsed infrared radiation in neonatal cardiomyocytes,” J. Physiol. 589(6), 1295–1306 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Rajguru, C. P. Richter, A. I. Matic, G. R. Holstein, S. M. Highstein, G. M. Dittami, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Infrared photostimulation of the crista ampullaris,” J. Physiol. 589(6), 1283–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rajguru, S. M.

A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, H. K. Young, B. Badofsky, S. M. Rajguru, S. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Behavioral and electrophysiological responses evoked by chronic infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea,” PLoS ONE 8(3), e58189 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Rajguru, C. P. Richter, A. I. Matic, G. R. Holstein, S. M. Highstein, G. M. Dittami, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Infrared photostimulation of the crista ampullaris,” J. Physiol. 589(6), 1283–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Dittami, S. M. Rajguru, R. A. Lasher, R. W. Hitchcock, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Intracellular calcium transients evoked by pulsed infrared radiation in neonatal cardiomyocytes,” J. Physiol. 589(6), 1295–1306 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ralph, H.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramza, B.

B. L. Wilkoff, D. Bello, M. Taborsky, J. Vymazal, E. Kanal, H. Heuer, K. Hecking, W. B. Johnson, W. Young, B. Ramza, N. Akhtar, B. Kuepper, P. Hunold, R. Luechinger, H. Puererfellner, F. Duru, M. J. Gotte, R. Sutton, T. Sommer, and EnRhythm MRI SureScan Pacing System Study Investigators, “Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with a pacemaker system designed for the magnetic resonance environment,” Heart Rhythm 8(1), 65–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reuter, S.

J. Laborderie, L. Barandon, S. Ploux, A. Deplagne, B. Mokrani, S. Reuter, F. Le Gal, P. Jais, M. Haissaguerre, J. Clementy, and P. Bordachar, “Management of subacute and delayed right ventricular perforation with a pacing or an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead,” Am. J. Cardiol. 102(10), 1352–1355 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richter, C. P.

A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, H. K. Young, B. Badofsky, S. M. Rajguru, S. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Behavioral and electrophysiological responses evoked by chronic infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea,” PLoS ONE 8(3), e58189 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C. P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat Commun 3, 736 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Rajguru, C. P. Richter, A. I. Matic, G. R. Holstein, S. M. Highstein, G. M. Dittami, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Infrared photostimulation of the crista ampullaris,” J. Physiol. 589(6), 1283–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. U. Teudt, A. E. Nevel, A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, and C. P. Richter, “Optical stimulation of the facial nerve: a new monitoring technique?” Laryngoscope 117(9), 1641–1647 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C. P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat. Commun.3 (2012).

Robinson, A. M.

A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, H. K. Young, B. Badofsky, S. M. Rajguru, S. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Behavioral and electrophysiological responses evoked by chronic infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea,” PLoS ONE 8(3), e58189 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roguin, A.

S. Nazarian, R. Hansford, A. Roguin, D. Goldsher, M. M. Zviman, A. C. Lardo, B. S. Caffo, K. D. Frick, M. A. Kraut, I. R. Kamel, H. Calkins, R. D. Berger, D. A. Bluemke, and H. R. Halperin, “A prospective evaluation of a protocol for magnetic resonance imaging of patients with implanted cardiac devices,” Ann. Intern. Med. 155(7), 415–424 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosenbaum, D. S.

F. G. Akar, B. J. Roth, and D. S. Rosenbaum, “Optical measurement of cell-to-cell coupling in intact heart using subthreshold electrical stimulation,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 281(2), H533–H542 (2001).
[PubMed]

Roth, B. J.

F. G. Akar, B. J. Roth, and D. S. Rosenbaum, “Optical measurement of cell-to-cell coupling in intact heart using subthreshold electrical stimulation,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 281(2), H533–H542 (2001).
[PubMed]

Sasse, P.

T. Bruegmann, D. Malan, M. Hesse, T. Beiert, C. J. Fuegemann, B. K. Fleischmann, and P. Sasse, “Optogenetic control of heart muscle in vitro and in vivo,” Nat. Methods 7(11), 897–900 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scott, N. J.

N. M. Fried, G. A. Lagoda, N. J. Scott, L. M. Su, and A. L. Burnett, “Laser stimulation of the cavernous nerves in the rat prostate, in vivo: optimization of wavelength, pulse energy, and pulse repetition rate,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2008, 2777–2780 (2008).
[PubMed]

Serizawa, T.

K. Oyama, A. Mizuno, S. A. Shintani, H. Itoh, T. Serizawa, N. Fukuda, M. Suzuki, and S. Ishiwata, “Microscopic heat pulses induce contraction of cardiomyocytes without calcium transients,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 417(1), 607–612 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shapiro, M. G.

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C. P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat Commun 3, 736 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C. P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat. Commun.3 (2012).

Sharma, V.

W. J. Hucker, V. Sharma, V. P. Nikolski, and I. R. Efimov, “Atrioventricular conduction with and without AV nodal delay: two pathways to the bundle of His in the rabbit heart,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 293(2), H1122–H1130 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shintani, S. A.

K. Oyama, A. Mizuno, S. A. Shintani, H. Itoh, T. Serizawa, N. Fukuda, M. Suzuki, and S. Ishiwata, “Microscopic heat pulses induce contraction of cardiomyocytes without calcium transients,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 417(1), 607–612 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sommer, T.

B. L. Wilkoff, D. Bello, M. Taborsky, J. Vymazal, E. Kanal, H. Heuer, K. Hecking, W. B. Johnson, W. Young, B. Ramza, N. Akhtar, B. Kuepper, P. Hunold, R. Luechinger, H. Puererfellner, F. Duru, M. J. Gotte, R. Sutton, T. Sommer, and EnRhythm MRI SureScan Pacing System Study Investigators, “Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with a pacemaker system designed for the magnetic resonance environment,” Heart Rhythm 8(1), 65–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stainier, D. Y.

A. B. Arrenberg, D. Y. Stainier, H. Baier, and J. Huisken, “Optogenetic control of cardiac function,” Science 330(6006), 971–974 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stock, S.

A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, H. K. Young, B. Badofsky, S. M. Rajguru, S. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Behavioral and electrophysiological responses evoked by chronic infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea,” PLoS ONE 8(3), e58189 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, L. M.

N. M. Fried, G. A. Lagoda, N. J. Scott, L. M. Su, and A. L. Burnett, “Laser stimulation of the cavernous nerves in the rat prostate, in vivo: optimization of wavelength, pulse energy, and pulse repetition rate,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2008, 2777–2780 (2008).
[PubMed]

Sutton, R.

B. L. Wilkoff, D. Bello, M. Taborsky, J. Vymazal, E. Kanal, H. Heuer, K. Hecking, W. B. Johnson, W. Young, B. Ramza, N. Akhtar, B. Kuepper, P. Hunold, R. Luechinger, H. Puererfellner, F. Duru, M. J. Gotte, R. Sutton, T. Sommer, and EnRhythm MRI SureScan Pacing System Study Investigators, “Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with a pacemaker system designed for the magnetic resonance environment,” Heart Rhythm 8(1), 65–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suzuki, M.

K. Oyama, A. Mizuno, S. A. Shintani, H. Itoh, T. Serizawa, N. Fukuda, M. Suzuki, and S. Ishiwata, “Microscopic heat pulses induce contraction of cardiomyocytes without calcium transients,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 417(1), 607–612 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taborsky, M.

B. L. Wilkoff, D. Bello, M. Taborsky, J. Vymazal, E. Kanal, H. Heuer, K. Hecking, W. B. Johnson, W. Young, B. Ramza, N. Akhtar, B. Kuepper, P. Hunold, R. Luechinger, H. Puererfellner, F. Duru, M. J. Gotte, R. Sutton, T. Sommer, and EnRhythm MRI SureScan Pacing System Study Investigators, “Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with a pacemaker system designed for the magnetic resonance environment,” Heart Rhythm 8(1), 65–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teudt, I. U.

I. U. Teudt, A. E. Nevel, A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, and C. P. Richter, “Optical stimulation of the facial nerve: a new monitoring technique?” Laryngoscope 117(9), 1641–1647 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Travo, C.

E. S. Albert, J. M. Bec, G. Desmadryl, K. Chekroud, C. Travo, S. Gaboyard, F. Bardin, I. Marc, M. Dumas, G. Lenaers, C. Hamel, A. Muller, and C. Chabbert, “TRPV4 channels mediate the infrared laser-evoked response in sensory neurons,” J. Neurophysiol. 107(12), 3227–3234 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vasanji, A.

S. C. Kim, A. Vasanji, I. R. Efimov, and Y. Cheng, “Spatial distribution and extent of electroporation by strong internal shock in intact structurally normal and chronically infarcted rabbit hearts,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 19(10), 1080–1089 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villarreal, S.

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C. P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat Commun 3, 736 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C. P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat. Commun.3 (2012).

Vymazal, J.

B. L. Wilkoff, D. Bello, M. Taborsky, J. Vymazal, E. Kanal, H. Heuer, K. Hecking, W. B. Johnson, W. Young, B. Ramza, N. Akhtar, B. Kuepper, P. Hunold, R. Luechinger, H. Puererfellner, F. Duru, M. J. Gotte, R. Sutton, T. Sommer, and EnRhythm MRI SureScan Pacing System Study Investigators, “Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with a pacemaker system designed for the magnetic resonance environment,” Heart Rhythm 8(1), 65–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wallick, D. W.

L. Li, V. Nikolski, D. W. Wallick, I. R. Efimov, and Y. Cheng, “Mechanisms of enhanced shock-induced arrhythmogenesis in the rabbit heart with healed myocardial infarction,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 289(3), H1054–H1068 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walsh, J. T.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. U. Teudt, A. E. Nevel, A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, and C. P. Richter, “Optical stimulation of the facial nerve: a new monitoring technique?” Laryngoscope 117(9), 1641–1647 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y. T.

Y. T. Wang, I. R. Efimov, and Y. Cheng, “Electroporation induced by internal defibrillation shock with and without recovery in intact rabbit hearts,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 303(4), H439–H449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watanabe, M.

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Webb, J.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wells, J.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical mechanisms of transient optical stimulation of peripheral nerve,” Biophys. J. 93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wells, P. Konrad, C. Kao, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Pulsed laser versus electrical energy for peripheral nerve stimulation,” J. Neurosci. Methods 163(2), 326–337 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wells, C. Kao, K. Mariappan, J. Albea, E. D. Jansen, P. Konrad, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Optical stimulation of neural tissue in vivo,” Opt. Lett. 30(5), 504–506 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilkoff, B. L.

B. L. Wilkoff, D. Bello, M. Taborsky, J. Vymazal, E. Kanal, H. Heuer, K. Hecking, W. B. Johnson, W. Young, B. Ramza, N. Akhtar, B. Kuepper, P. Hunold, R. Luechinger, H. Puererfellner, F. Duru, M. J. Gotte, R. Sutton, T. Sommer, and EnRhythm MRI SureScan Pacing System Study Investigators, “Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with a pacemaker system designed for the magnetic resonance environment,” Heart Rhythm 8(1), 65–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, T. J.

H. N. Pak, Y. S. Oh, Y. B. Liu, T. J. Wu, H. S. Karagueuzian, S. F. Lin, and P. S. Chen, “Catheter ablation of ventricular fibrillation in rabbit ventricles treated with beta-blockers,” Circulation 108(25), 3149–3156 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yavari, A.

A. Yavari, Z. O. Khawaja, S. Krishnamoorthy, and E. T. McWilliams, “Perforation of right ventricular free wall by pacemaker lead detected by multidetector computed tomography,” Europace 11(2), 252–254 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Young, H. K.

A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, H. K. Young, B. Badofsky, S. M. Rajguru, S. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Behavioral and electrophysiological responses evoked by chronic infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea,” PLoS ONE 8(3), e58189 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Young, W.

B. L. Wilkoff, D. Bello, M. Taborsky, J. Vymazal, E. Kanal, H. Heuer, K. Hecking, W. B. Johnson, W. Young, B. Ramza, N. Akhtar, B. Kuepper, P. Hunold, R. Luechinger, H. Puererfellner, F. Duru, M. J. Gotte, R. Sutton, T. Sommer, and EnRhythm MRI SureScan Pacing System Study Investigators, “Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with a pacemaker system designed for the magnetic resonance environment,” Heart Rhythm 8(1), 65–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuh, D. D.

C. A. Henrikson, C. T. Leng, D. D. Yuh, and J. A. Brinker, “Computed tomography to assess possible cardiac lead perforation,” Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol. 29(5), 509–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zviman, M. M.

S. Nazarian, R. Hansford, A. Roguin, D. Goldsher, M. M. Zviman, A. C. Lardo, B. S. Caffo, K. D. Frick, M. A. Kraut, I. R. Kamel, H. Calkins, R. D. Berger, D. A. Bluemke, and H. R. Halperin, “A prospective evaluation of a protocol for magnetic resonance imaging of patients with implanted cardiac devices,” Ann. Intern. Med. 155(7), 415–424 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Cardiol. (1)

J. Laborderie, L. Barandon, S. Ploux, A. Deplagne, B. Mokrani, S. Reuter, F. Le Gal, P. Jais, M. Haissaguerre, J. Clementy, and P. Bordachar, “Management of subacute and delayed right ventricular perforation with a pacing or an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead,” Am. J. Cardiol. 102(10), 1352–1355 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (4)

Y. T. Wang, I. R. Efimov, and Y. Cheng, “Electroporation induced by internal defibrillation shock with and without recovery in intact rabbit hearts,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 303(4), H439–H449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. G. Akar, B. J. Roth, and D. S. Rosenbaum, “Optical measurement of cell-to-cell coupling in intact heart using subthreshold electrical stimulation,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 281(2), H533–H542 (2001).
[PubMed]

L. Li, V. Nikolski, D. W. Wallick, I. R. Efimov, and Y. Cheng, “Mechanisms of enhanced shock-induced arrhythmogenesis in the rabbit heart with healed myocardial infarction,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 289(3), H1054–H1068 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Hucker, V. Sharma, V. P. Nikolski, and I. R. Efimov, “Atrioventricular conduction with and without AV nodal delay: two pathways to the bundle of His in the rabbit heart,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 293(2), H1122–H1130 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Intern. Med. (1)

S. Nazarian, R. Hansford, A. Roguin, D. Goldsher, M. M. Zviman, A. C. Lardo, B. S. Caffo, K. D. Frick, M. A. Kraut, I. R. Kamel, H. Calkins, R. D. Berger, D. A. Bluemke, and H. R. Halperin, “A prospective evaluation of a protocol for magnetic resonance imaging of patients with implanted cardiac devices,” Ann. Intern. Med. 155(7), 415–424 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1)

K. Oyama, A. Mizuno, S. A. Shintani, H. Itoh, T. Serizawa, N. Fukuda, M. Suzuki, and S. Ishiwata, “Microscopic heat pulses induce contraction of cardiomyocytes without calcium transients,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 417(1), 607–612 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biophys. J. (2)

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical mechanisms of transient optical stimulation of peripheral nerve,” Biophys. J. 93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Circulation (1)

H. N. Pak, Y. S. Oh, Y. B. Liu, T. J. Wu, H. S. Karagueuzian, S. F. Lin, and P. S. Chen, “Catheter ablation of ventricular fibrillation in rabbit ventricles treated with beta-blockers,” Circulation 108(25), 3149–3156 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. (1)

N. M. Fried, G. A. Lagoda, N. J. Scott, L. M. Su, and A. L. Burnett, “Laser stimulation of the cavernous nerves in the rat prostate, in vivo: optimization of wavelength, pulse energy, and pulse repetition rate,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2008, 2777–2780 (2008).
[PubMed]

Europace (1)

A. Yavari, Z. O. Khawaja, S. Krishnamoorthy, and E. T. McWilliams, “Perforation of right ventricular free wall by pacemaker lead detected by multidetector computed tomography,” Europace 11(2), 252–254 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heart Rhythm (1)

B. L. Wilkoff, D. Bello, M. Taborsky, J. Vymazal, E. Kanal, H. Heuer, K. Hecking, W. B. Johnson, W. Young, B. Ramza, N. Akhtar, B. Kuepper, P. Hunold, R. Luechinger, H. Puererfellner, F. Duru, M. J. Gotte, R. Sutton, T. Sommer, and EnRhythm MRI SureScan Pacing System Study Investigators, “Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with a pacemaker system designed for the magnetic resonance environment,” Heart Rhythm 8(1), 65–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. (1)

S. C. Kim, A. Vasanji, I. R. Efimov, and Y. Cheng, “Spatial distribution and extent of electroporation by strong internal shock in intact structurally normal and chronically infarcted rabbit hearts,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 19(10), 1080–1089 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cell Biol. (1)

A. Krishan, “Rapid flow cytofluorometric analysis of mammalian cell cycle by propidium iodide staining,” J. Cell Biol. 66(1), 188–193 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Neural Eng. (1)

A. R. Duke, H. Lu, M. W. Jenkins, H. J. Chiel, and E. D. Jansen, “Spatial and temporal variability in response to hybrid electro-optical stimulation,” J. Neural Eng. 9(3), 036003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Neurophysiol. (1)

E. S. Albert, J. M. Bec, G. Desmadryl, K. Chekroud, C. Travo, S. Gaboyard, F. Bardin, I. Marc, M. Dumas, G. Lenaers, C. Hamel, A. Muller, and C. Chabbert, “TRPV4 channels mediate the infrared laser-evoked response in sensory neurons,” J. Neurophysiol. 107(12), 3227–3234 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci. Methods (2)

J. Wells, P. Konrad, C. Kao, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Pulsed laser versus electrical energy for peripheral nerve stimulation,” J. Neurosci. Methods 163(2), 326–337 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. F. Heffer and J. B. Fallon, “A novel stimulus artifact removal technique for high-rate electrical stimulation,” J. Neurosci. Methods 170(2), 277–284 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Physiol. (2)

S. M. Rajguru, C. P. Richter, A. I. Matic, G. R. Holstein, S. M. Highstein, G. M. Dittami, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Infrared photostimulation of the crista ampullaris,” J. Physiol. 589(6), 1283–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Dittami, S. M. Rajguru, R. A. Lasher, R. W. Hitchcock, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Intracellular calcium transients evoked by pulsed infrared radiation in neonatal cardiomyocytes,” J. Physiol. 589(6), 1295–1306 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laryngoscope (1)

I. U. Teudt, A. E. Nevel, A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, and C. P. Richter, “Optical stimulation of the facial nerve: a new monitoring technique?” Laryngoscope 117(9), 1641–1647 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat Commun (1)

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C. P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat Commun 3, 736 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

T. Bruegmann, D. Malan, M. Hesse, T. Beiert, C. J. Fuegemann, B. K. Fleischmann, and P. Sasse, “Optogenetic control of heart muscle in vitro and in vivo,” Nat. Methods 7(11), 897–900 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol. (2)

C. A. Henrikson, C. T. Leng, D. D. Yuh, and J. A. Brinker, “Computed tomography to assess possible cardiac lead perforation,” Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol. 29(5), 509–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Hook, R. L. Perlman, D. J. Callans, M. S. Hanna, R. B. Kleiman, B. T. Flores, and F. E. Marchlinski, “Acute and chronic cycle length dependent increase in ventricular pacing threshold,” Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol. 15(10), 1437–1444 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

PLoS ONE (1)

A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, H. K. Young, B. Badofsky, S. M. Rajguru, S. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Behavioral and electrophysiological responses evoked by chronic infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea,” PLoS ONE 8(3), e58189 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

A. B. Arrenberg, D. Y. Stainier, H. Baier, and J. Huisken, “Optogenetic control of cardiac function,” Science 330(6006), 971–974 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ultrasound Med. Biol. (1)

A. Hersch and D. Adam, “Premature cardiac contractions produced efficiently by external high-intensity focused ultrasound,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 37(7), 1101–1110 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C. P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat. Commun.3 (2012).

Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. Hearts of male New Zealand White rabbits weighing 2.9-4 kg were extracted, cannulated, and perfused on a modified Langendorff apparatus. A: Photograph of heart 1. Electrodes (yellow wires) are attached to the left ventricle of the heart. Pulsed laser light (λ = 1.851 μm) was directed toward the epicardial surface of the left or right atrium through a multimode optical fiber. The black arrow indicates the optical fiber. A pad directly behind the heart diminishes swinging motion. B: Diagram of the setup. A computer simultaneously recorded both the trigger pulse from the laser and an ECG signal to determine when capture was achieved.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical pacing of an adult rabbit heart (Media 1). Pacing was captured, stopped, then recaptured to demonstrate 1:1 pacing of the heart. Top left panel: A photograph of heart 1, identical to Fig. 1(a), indicating the position of the optical fiber and electrodes. Top right panel: a video recording of heart 1 beating, while optical pacing is captured, stopped and recaptured. Bottom panel: The blue (lower) trace represents the ECG recording, while the red (upper) trace is the trigger output from the laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Frequency modulation. The heart rate was modulated from 2.5 to 2.76 to 2.5 Hz using OP. When the laser pulse rate was changed, the heart rate quickly tracked the new pacing frequency. The trigger pulse from the laser is shown in red (upper trace) and the ECG recording in blue (lower trace). The laser did not smoothly transition between frequencies and pacing lapsed during these short periods (dotted ovals).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Propidium iodide (PI) staining. To assay for cell membrane disruption caused by OP, the heart was perfused with 30 µM of PI solution. Positive staining indicated permeation Out of the two hearts tested neither showed PI staining at the lowest stimulation threshold (6.3 J/cm2). One out of two hearts at the mid (7.9 J/cm2) and highest thresholds (9.7 J/cm2) exhibited a low level of PI staining. PI staining was found on the epicardial side of the atrium near the position of the optical fiber. The white arrows indicate the stimulation fiber direction. A: Positive control. B: Light staining was evident in one of the hearts when 8 ms pulses containing 7.9 J/cm2 per pulse were directed to the heart for one minute (dashed circle). C: Pulses containing 6.3 J/cm2 under similar conditions resulted in no apparent damage.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Extended pacing. The heart was paced for extended periods (1-5 minutes) in three hearts. The TTL trigger signal from the laser (red) and the ECG recording (blue) show OP at 2.5 Hz for over 90 seconds without skipping a beat. The dotted lines delineate a region that was expanded and shown directly above the traces to clearly visualize the synchronization of the laser pulses and ECG traces. Extended pacing beyond 5 minutes was not be reliably maintained.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experiments performed on each heart

Tables Icon

Table 2 Stimulation threshold (radiant exposure) for various laser pulse durations and rates.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Propidium iodide staining (X indicates positive staining).

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